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Sample records for subjected migratory australian

  1. Impossible Subjects: LGBTIQ Experiences in Australian Pentecostal-Charismatic Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. C. Jennings

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the product of in-depth interviews with 20 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Intersex, and Queer (LGBTIQ people who identify, or formerly identified, as members of Pentecostal-Charismatic Christian (PCC churches. Interviewees typically found themselves confronted with a number of choices (not necessarily mutually exclusive: remain closeted, come out but commit to remaining celibate, undergo “SOCE” (Sexual Orientation Conversion Efforts therapy, or leave. Most left their churches, often after agonising attempts to reconcile their faith and their sexuality. Several of the practices adopted by Australian PCC churches exclude LGBTIQ people from full participation in their own congregations, rendering them “impossible subjects.” Australian Pentecostalism’s surprisingly egalitarian history, wherein the spiritually authorised ministry of women was both recognised and celebrated, suggests another, more inclusive way forward in regard to this vexed issue.

  2. Stereotypical hand movements in 144 subjects with Rett syndrome from the population-based Australian database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philippa; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Williams, Simon; Jacoby, Peter; Kaufmann, Walter E; Leonard, Helen

    2010-02-15

    Stereotypic hand movements are a feature of Rett Syndrome but few studies have observed their nature systematically. Video data in familiar settings were obtained on subjects (n = 144) identified from an Australian population-based database. Hand stereotypies were demonstrated by most subjects (94.4%), 15 categories were observed and midline wringing was seen in approximately 60% of subjects. There was a median of two stereotypies per subject but this number decreased with age. Clapping and mouthing of hands were more prevalent in girls younger than 8 years and wringing was more prevalent in women 19 years or older. Clapping was commoner in those with p.R306C and early truncating mutations, and much rarer in those with p.R106W, p.R270X, p.R168X, and p.R255X. Stereotypies tended to be less frequent in those with more severe mutations. Otherwise, there were no clear relationships between our categories of stereotypies and mutation. Approximately a quarter each had predominantly right and left handed stereotypies and for the remaining half, no clear laterality was seen. Results were similar for all cases and when restricted to those with a pathogenic mutation. Hand stereotypies changed with increasing age but limited relationships with MECP2 mutations were identified. (c) 2009 Movement Disorder Society.

  3. Growth and mineral nutrition in seedlings of australian cedar (Toona ciliata subjected to nutrient deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno da Silva Moretti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate nutritional requirements and the effect of nutrient deprivation on the development of seedlings of Australian cedar (Toona ciliata M. Roem var. australis, a greenhouse experiment was conducted. The substrate used was a dystroferric red latosol with low nutrient availability, using 15 treatments and applying the missing element technique. The experiment included two complete treatments (one provided N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Zn with limestone while another provided N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu and Zn without limestone, besides deprivation of each nutrient (-N, -P, -K, -Ca, -Mg, -S, -B, -Cu and -Zn, one treatment with combined deprivation of B, Cu and Zn, one treatment applying limestone only, one treatment applying N, P, K, S, B, Cu and Zn, without limestone, and one absolute control treatment (natural soil. The following characteristics were evaluated: height, diameter, shoot dry matter and root dry matter, and nutrient content in the shoot dry matter after 150 days. Australian cedar plants have high nutritional requirements, and nutrients P, N, S, Ca, K, Mg and Cu, in that order, were found to be limiting factors to plant development. B and Zn deprivation did not affect plant development. Limestone application was essential for the development of Australian cedar plants. Initial deficiency symptoms were found to be the result of S, limestone and N deprivation.

  4. The migratory fascia hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelean, Peter

    2009-10-01

    When treating pelvic obliquity, the author has noticed apparent ridging of soft issue in the gluteal region. In an effort to understand this phenomenon, an informal field study involved searching athletes for common movement patterns that might induce pelvic distortion, including torsion around the vertical axis. The author was curious about consequent fascial involvement and its influence on lower back pain. The author respectfully reports a subjective palpatory observation; a thin palpable fibrous element of superficial fascia presumed to work similarly to a trouser belt. This apparently lies parallel and medially deep to the iliac crest, extending from the lumbosacral junction laterally, passing the antero-superior aspect of the PSIS, then continuing medio-laterally to merge with the upper portion of the inguinal ligament. It is suggested that injury-related displacement of this element, and the adjacent superficial fascia laterally across the iliac crest, resulting from sacrificial damage to crural elements in the inguinal area, could produce fascial strain patterns, contributing to iliolumbar pain symptoms. Displacement, or migration, of fascia in this manner is suggested by the author to result in a fascial fold aligned with the ASIS and PSIS landmarks, where aponeurotic reinforcement may arrest further caudal displacement of fascia. The appearance of the fold varies with the amount of relinquished inguinal tension, the thickness of the folded tissue, and with the extent of fascial migration. For example, a migration across the entire crest may result in a fold that directly bridges about 80% of the ASIS-PSIS axis, flattening out at the ends. The correct relocation of the fascia over appropriately aligned pelvic bones may then result in the disappearance of the fold, which can measure up to 20mm midway. The intention of this paper is to encourage more collaborative efforts between clinicians and scientists to further understand this apparent phenomenon, and

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. The influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective hunger sensations and prospective food intake in overweight and obese Asian and European Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhardi, Leilani; Zhao, Yun; Solah, Vicky; Fyfe, Susan; Soares, Mario J

    2017-11-01

    To examine the influence of ethnicity and glucose tolerance status on subjective sensations and food intake in overweight/obese Asian and European Australians. 18 Asians and 26 Europids were classified as normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) based on serial measures of finger-prick glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjective sensations of hunger and satiety were measured before and every 15min after the OGTT using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Food intake was measured covertly from consumption of a buffet style lunch and from self-maintained 24h food records. All serial measurements were converted into total area under the curve (TAUC) and comparisons adjusted for age, fat and fat-free mass. There was a significant difference interaction between ethnicity (ETH) and glucose tolerance (GTT) for subjective fullness, desire for food and prospective food intake. IGT Asians had significantly greater sensations of fullness, but lesser prospective food and desire to eat, as compared to other groups. However there were no differences in calorie and macronutrient intake at buffet lunch or over 24-h. Interactions between ethnicity and glucose tolerance status in subjective sensations did not transcribe to differences in prospective food intake. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Milner, Allison; Krnjacki, Lauren; Schlichthorst, Marisa; Kavanagh, Anne; Page, Kathryn; Pirkis, Jane

    2016-10-31

    Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men). In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18-55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456). Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay), and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. The majority of participants aged 18-55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %), with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week) and night shift work (23.4 %). Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors) prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose-response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations between psychosocial job quality and subjective wellbeing

  8. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  9. ENERGETICS OF FATTENING AND STARVATION IN THE LONG-DISTANCE MIGRATORY GARDEN WARBLER, SYLVIA BORIN, DURING THE MIGRATORY PHASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KLAASSEN, M; BIEBACH, H

    1994-01-01

    Garden warblers (Sylvia borin) were subjected to starvation trials during their autumnal migratory phase in order to simulate a period of non-stop migration. Before, during and after this treatment the energy expenditure, activity, food intake and body mass of the subjects were monitored.

  10. 77 FR 69596 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC321 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... (AP) for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR...

  11. 76 FR 32224 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migratory Birds by the Armed Forces AGENCY: Fish and... (Authorization Act) provided interim authority to members of the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory... the Armed Forces to incidentally take migratory birds. The Authorization Act also stated that the...

  12. 76 FR 44729 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  13. 77 FR 23093 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2014 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2012-13 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  14. 76 FR 19875 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2013 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest... Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2011-12 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests...

  15. 76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... August 8, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal...

  16. 77 FR 49679 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... August 16, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded... 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...

  17. 75 FR 59041 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11...

  18. 75 FR 52398 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting... No. FWS-R9-MB-2010-0040; [91200-1231-9BPP-L2] RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  19. 77 FR 58657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands... Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal..., Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special late-season migratory bird hunting...

  20. 78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and... 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain...) proposes special migratory bird hunting regulations for certain Tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off...

  1. 77 FR 54451 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded.... SUMMARY: This rule prescribes special early-season migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes...: The Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.), authorizes...

  2. 76 FR 59298 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting... migratory bird hunting regulations for certain tribes on Federal Indian reservations, off-reservation trust.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of July 3, 1918 (40 Stat. 755; 16 U.S.C. 703...

  3. 77 FR 29515 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2012-13... RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting... in an earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for...

  4. 76 FR 54675 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part VI Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the... 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

  5. 75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations and Ceded Lands for the 2010-11 Season...

  6. Cultural traditions across a migratory network shape the genetic structure of southern right whales around Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, E L; Baker, C S; Watson, M; Alderman, R; Bannister, J; Gaggiotti, O E; Gröcke, D R; Patenaude, N; Harcourt, R

    2015-11-09

    Fidelity to migratory destinations is an important driver of connectivity in marine and avian species. Here we assess the role of maternally directed learning of migratory habitats, or migratory culture, on the population structure of the endangered Australian and New Zealand southern right whale. Using DNA profiles, comprising mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes (500 bp), microsatellite genotypes (17 loci) and sex from 128 individually-identified whales, we find significant differentiation among winter calving grounds based on both mtDNA haplotype (FST = 0.048, ΦST = 0.109, p whales from different calving grounds mix in migratory corridors. Furthermore, we find a significant relationship between δ(13)C stable isotope profiles of 66 Australian southern right whales, a proxy for feeding ground location, and both mtDNA haplotypes and kinship inferred from microsatellite-based estimators of relatedness. This indicates migratory culture may influence genetic structure on feeding grounds. This fidelity to migratory destinations is likely to influence population recovery, as long-term estimates of historical abundance derived from estimates of genetic diversity indicate the South Pacific calving grounds remain at <10% of pre-whaling abundance.

  7. Revolutionary non-migratory migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since

  8. Water balance during real and simulated long-distance migratory flight in the Bar-tailed Godwit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landys, MM; Piersma, T; Visser, GH; Jukema, J; Wijker, A

    We examined Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica), a long-distance migratory shorebird, for evidence of dehydration toward the end of their 4,300-km migratory Right from West Africa to the Dutch Wadden Sea. Bar-tailed Godwits are ideal subjects for research on Right range constraints because they

  9. Regulating stem-cell research and human cloning in an Australian context: an exercise in protecting the status of the human subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    Over 12 months prior to the recent United Nations decision to defer a decision about what type of international treaty should be developed in the global stem-cell research and human cloning debate, the Federal Parliament of Australia passed two separate pieces of legislation relating to both these concerns. After a five-year long process of community consultation, media spectacle and parliamentary debate, reproductive cloning has been banned in Australia and only embryos considered to be excess to assisted reproductive technologies in existence on the 5th of April 2002 are currently valid research material. This paper argues that underpinning both pieces of legislation is a profound belief in the disruptive potential of all types of human cloning for the very nature and integrity of human species being. A belief, moreover, that is based on a presumption that it is apparently possible to conceptualise what being human even means for all Australians.

  10. Dynamic conservation for migratory species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark D.; Sullivan, Brian L.; Hallstein, Eric; Matsumoto, Sandra; Kelling, Steve; Merrifield, Matthew; Fink, Daniel; Johnston, Alison; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Bruns, Nicholas E.; Reiter, Matthew E.; Veloz, Sam; Hickey, Catherine; Elliott, Nathan; Martin, Leslie; Fitzpatrick, John W.; Spraycar, Paul; Golet, Gregory H.; McColl, Christopher; Morrison, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    In an era of unprecedented and rapid global change, dynamic conservation strategies that tailor the delivery of habitat to when and where it is most needed can be critical for the persistence of species, especially those with diverse and dispersed habitat requirements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of such a strategy for migratory waterbirds. We analyzed citizen science and satellite data to develop predictive models of bird populations and the availability of wetlands, which we used to determine temporal and spatial gaps in habitat during a vital stage of the annual migration. We then filled those gaps using a reverse auction marketplace to incent qualifying landowners to create temporary wetlands on their properties. This approach is a cost-effective way of adaptively meeting habitat needs for migratory species, optimizes conservation outcomes relative to investment, and can be applied broadly to other conservation challenges. PMID:28845449

  11. Social learning of migratory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas; O'Hara, Robert B.; Converse, Sarah J.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Fagan, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort, we found evidence of long-term social learning, but no effect of genetic relatedness on migratory performance. Social learning from older birds reduced deviations from a straight-line path, with 7 years of experience yielding a 38% improvement in migratory accuracy.

  12. Partial migration: growth varies between resident and migratory fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Izzo, Christopher; Doubleday, Zoë A; Ye, Qifeng

    2015-03-01

    Partial migration occurs in many taxa and ecosystems and may confer survival benefits. Here, we use otolith chemistry data to determine whether fish from a large estuarine system were resident or migratory, and then examine whether contingents display differences in modelled growth based on changes in width of otolith growth increments. Sixty-three per cent of fish were resident based on Ba : Ca of otoliths, with the remainder categorized as migratory, with both contingents distributed across most age/size classes and both sexes, suggesting population-level bet hedging. Migrant fish were in slightly better condition than resident fish based on Fulton's K condition index. Migration type (resident versus migratory) was 56 times more likely to explain variation in growth than a model just incorporating year- and age-related growth trends. While average growth only varied slightly between resident and migratory fish, year-to-year variation was significant. Such dynamism in growth rates likely drives persistence of both life-history types. The complex relationships in growth between contingents suggest that management of species exhibiting partial migration is challenging, especially in a world subject to a changing climate. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 35844 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2013-14 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2013-14 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed...

  14. 78 FR 21199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... April 9, 2013 Part II Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2013-14 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2015 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in...

  15. 75 FR 29917 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX09 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Migratory Bird Rehabilitation AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... on October 27, 2003, to create regulations governing migratory bird rehabilitation in the United...

  16. 76 FR 54051 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  17. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... migratory bird hunting seasons. Early seasons are those that generally open prior to October 1, and include...

  18. 75 FR 32872 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2010-11 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2010-11 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed...

  19. 78 FR 45375 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of...-season hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds. We annually prescribe frameworks, or outer...

  20. 75 FR 3888 - Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 92 RIN 1018-AW67 Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest in Alaska; Harvest Regulations for Migratory Birds in Alaska During the 2010 Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Wildlife Service, are reopening the public comment period on our proposed rule to establish migratory bird...

  1. 78 FR 52337 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  2. 76 FR 58681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  3. 76 FR 69223 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... birds protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. At present, the definition applies only to hybrids...

  4. 77 FR 58443 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  5. 75 FR 27143 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed 2010-11 Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations (Preliminary) With Requests for Indian Tribal Proposals and Requests for 2011 Spring and Summer Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Proposals in Alaska; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  6. 77 FR 49867 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Proposed Rule #0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  7. 75 FR 44855 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX06 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season...

  8. 76 FR 36508 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Supplemental Proposals for Migratory Game Bird Hunting Regulations for the 2011-12 Hunting Season; Notice of Meetings AGENCY... regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2011-12 hunting season. This supplement to the proposed...

  9. 77 FR 53117 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...

  10. 78 FR 52657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0... OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...

  11. 77 FR 42919 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... July 20, 2012 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Notice of Meetings...; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting...

  12. 78 FR 58123 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... September 20, 2013 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Late-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks...

  13. 78 FR 65955 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AZ69 Migratory Bird Permits; Control Order for Introduced Migratory Bird Species in Hawaii AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... alba), two introduced migratory bird species in Hawaii. We also make the supporting draft environmental...

  14. 76 FR 45781 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA573 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Meeting of the Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Advisory Panel AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... meeting. SUMMARY: NMFS will hold a 3-day Atlantic Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Advisory Panel (AP...

  15. 76 FR 65700 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA776 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Advisory Panel for Atlantic Highly Migratory Species Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review Workshops AGENCY... Migratory Species (HMS) Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR) Workshops (this AP is also called the...

  16. Escaping peril: perceived predation risk affects migratory propensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulthén, Kaj; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2015-01-01

    Although migratory plasticity is increasingly documented, the ecological drivers of plasticity are not well understood. Predation risk can influence migratory dynamics, but whether seasonal migrants can adjust their migratory behaviour according to perceived risk is unknown. We used electronic ta...

  17. Comparing subjective well-being and health-related quality of life of Australian drug users in treatment in regional and rural Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; Hyder, Shannon; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Droste, Nicolas; Harris, Jane B

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the self-reported subjective well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of alcohol and other drug users and to examine whether subjective well-being in this sample would be predicted by either HRQOL and/or severity of dependence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 201 Victorian substance users in individual targeted outpatient treatment for a variety of types of substance use. Participants were administered an interview, including the personal well-being index, the SF-8 health survey and the severity of dependence scale, in order to assess subjective well-being, the mental health component of HRQOL and severity of drug dependence respectively. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental health aspects of HRQOL (sr(2)  = 0.03) and by employment (sr(2)  = 0.05), rather than by severity of dependence [F(5, 146) = 5.60, P well-being than do the general population. Subjective well-being was predicted by mental aspects of HRQOL and not by severity of drug dependence or by physical aspects of HRQOL. Treatment which aims to improve substance users' well-being should include mental health interventions and pathways to employment. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  19. Asian Australian Literatures

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Deborah Lea

    2007-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the range of Asian-Australian writers, within the context of changing historical and political conditions, as well as the complexity of defining a single category of literature written by Australians of Asian heritage. Such a category is difficult to define in strictly nationalistic terms as ‘Asian Australian literature’: where Australian literature is the controlling noun and ‘Asian’ functions as an adjective. Some Asian Australian writers are Australian-bo...

  20. An investigation of the relationship between subjective sleep quality, loneliness and mood in an Australian sample: can daily routine explain the links?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simon Squire; Kozak, Nahum; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2012-03-01

    Loneliness and low mood are associated with significant negative health outcomes including poor sleep, but the strength of the evidence underlying these associations varies. There is strong evidence that poor sleep quality and low mood are linked, but only emerging evidence that loneliness and poor sleep are associated. To independently replicate the finding that loneliness and poor subjective sleep quality are associated and to extend past research by investigating lifestyle regularity as a possible mediator of relationships, since lifestyle regularity has been linked to loneliness and poor sleep. Using a cross-sectional design, 97 adults completed standardized measures of loneliness, lifestyle regularity, subjective sleep quality and mood. Loneliness was a significant predictor of sleep quality. Lifestyle regularity was not a predictor of, nor associated with, mood, sleep quality or loneliness. This study provides an important independent replication of the association between poor sleep and loneliness. However, the mechanism underlying this link remains unclear. A theoretically plausible mechanism for this link, lifestyle regularity, does not explain the relationship between loneliness and poor sleep. The nexus between loneliness and poor sleep is unlikely to be broken by altering the social rhythm of patients who present with poor sleep and loneliness.

  1. 50 CFR 20.40 - Gift of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gift of migratory game birds. 20.40... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.40 Gift of migratory game birds. No person may receive, possess, or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift...

  2. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Michael C.; Virginia Andrews-Goff; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Sarah M Laverick; Branch, Trevor A.; Nicholas J. Gales

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...

  3. Modeling and the management of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of migratory bird populations is reviewed in the context of migratory bird management. We focus on dynamic models of waterfowl, since most management-oriented migratory bird models concern waterfowl species. We describe the management context for these modeling efforts, with a focus on large-scale operational data collection programs and on processes by which waterfowl harvest is regulated and waterfowl habitats are protected and managed. Through their impacts on key population parameters such as recruitment and survival rate, these activities can influence population dynamics, thereby providing managers some measure of control over the status of populations. Recent applications of the modeling of waterfowl are described in terms of objectives, mathematical structures, and contributions to management. Finally, we discuss research needs and data limitations in migratory bird modeling, and offer suggestions to increase the value to managers of future modeling efforts.

  4. 78 FR 67183 - Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; Migratory Bird Harvest Information Program and Migratory Bird Surveys AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for... Bird Treaty Act (16 U.S.C. 703-711) and the Fish and Wildlife Act of 1956 (16 U.S.C. 742d) designate...

  5. 78 FR 27927 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We propose to revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in some counties in...

  6. 78 FR 65578 - Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY65 Migratory Bird Permits; Depredation Order for Migratory Birds in California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We revise the regulations that allow control of depredating birds in California. We specify the counties in...

  7. 78 FR 65576 - Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of “Hybrid” Migratory Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX90 Migratory Bird Permits; Definition of ``Hybrid'' Migratory Bird AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), revise the definition of ``hybrid'' as it relates to birds protected under...

  8. Migratory connectivity and population-specific migration routes in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Koks, Ben J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about migratory connectivity, the degree to which individuals from the same breeding site migrate to the same wintering site, is essential to understand processes affecting populations of migrants throughout the annual cycle. Here, we study the migration system of a long-distance migratory

  9. Delineating large-scale migratory connectivity of reed warblers using integrated multistate models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Hahn, S.; Rolland, S.; van der Jeugd, H.; Csörgő, T.; Jiguet, F.; Mokwa, T.; Liechti, F.; Vangeluwe, D.; Korner-Nievergelt, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 27-40 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Acrocephalus scirpaceus * band encounter data * bird migration * loop migration * migratory connectivity * ring recovery data * ring recovery model * species distribution * survival Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.391, year: 2016

  10. Candidate genes for migration do not distinguish migratory and non-migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo Ramos, Juan S; Delmore, Kira E; Liedvogel, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    Migratory traits in birds have been shown to have a strong heritable component and several candidate genes have been suggested to control these migratory traits. To investigate if the genetic makeup of one or a set of these candidate genes can be used to identify a general pattern between migratory and non-migratory birds, we extracted genomic sequence data for 25 hypothesised candidate genes for migration from 70 available genomes across all orders of Aves and characterised sequence divergence between migratory and non-migratory phenotypes. When examining each gene separately across all species, we did not identify any genetic variants in candidate genes that distinguished migrants from non-migrants; any resulting pattern was driven by the phylogenetic signal. This was true for each gene analysed independently, but also for concatenated sequence alignments of all candidate genes combined. We also attempted to distinguish between migrant and non-migrants using structural features at four candidate genes that have previously been reported to show associated with migratory behaviour but did not pick up a signal for migratory phenotype here either. Finally, a screen for dN/dS ratio across all focal candidate genes to probe for putative features of selection did not uncover a pattern, though this might not be expected given the broad phylogenetic scale used here. Our study demonstrates the potential of public genomic data to test for general patterns of migratory gene candidates in a cross-species comparative context, and raise questions on the applicability of candidate gene approaches in a macro-evolutionary context to understand the genetic architecture of migratory behaviour.

  11. 78 FR 3446 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... migratory game birds. We update the migratory game bird hunting regulations, located at 50 CFR part 20..., bag limits, and areas for migratory game bird hunting. To help us in this process, we have...

  12. 78 FR 78377 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... migratory game birds. We update the migratory game bird hunting regulations, located at 50 CFR part 20..., bag limits, and areas for migratory game bird hunting. To help us in this process, we have...

  13. 77 FR 1718 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Service Regulations Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... hunting of migratory game birds. We update the migratory game bird hunting regulations, located at 50 CFR... season lengths, bag limits, and areas for migratory game bird hunting. To help us in this process, we...

  14. 50 CFR 92.22 - Subsistence migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subsistence migratory bird species. 92.22... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Regulations Governing Subsistence Harvest § 92.22 Subsistence migratory bird species. You may harvest birds or gather...

  15. 76 FR 39368 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations... are considering promulgating migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of... safety. We have permitted this activity under special purpose permits since 2007 pursuant to a migratory...

  16. 76 FR 9529 - Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 22 RIN 1018-AX53 Migratory Birds; Draft Eagle Conservation Plan...; Division of Migratory Bird Management; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; 4401 North Fairfax Drive, Mail Stop... Protection Act (BGEPA), the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Endangered Species Act. BGEPA prohibits all...

  17. Regulating the regulators : accountability of Australian regulators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bird, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Accountability of Australian regulators - Australian Securities and Investments Commission - Australian Prudential Regulation Authority - concept of 'accountability' - mechanisms for accountability...

  18. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to wh...

  19. 78 FR 58204 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final... selection. Taking of migratory birds is prohibited unless specifically provided for by annual regulations...

  20. 78 FR 53199 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY87 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  1. 76 FR 54657 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... September 1, 2011 Part V Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX34 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and...

  2. 77 FR 53751 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Early Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds in the Contiguous United States, Alaska...

  3. SOLVENTLESS MIGRATORY-INSERTION REACTIONS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Solventless migratory-insertion reactions of substituted cyclopentadienyl iron complexes. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2009, 23(3). 401. A homemade glass heating device was pre-calibrated with crystals of known melting points. An optical microscope fitted with a JVC Digital Camera was used to monitor the reaction, performed ...

  4. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  5. North American migratory bird management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  6. Ethics Education in Australian Preservice Teacher Programs: A Hidden Imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen J.; Maxwell, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a snapshot of the current approach to ethics education in accredited Australian pre-service teacher programs. Methods included a manual calendar search of ethics related subjects required in teacher programs using a sample of 24 Australian universities and a survey of 26 university representatives. Findings show a paucity of…

  7. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  8. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Stoneham

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative in their portrayal of Indigenous health. A total of 74 percent of the coverage of Australian Indigenous related articles were negative, 15 percent were positive, and 11 percent were neutral. The most common negative subject descriptors related to alcohol, child abuse, petrol sniffing, violence, suicide, deaths in custody, and crime.

  9. Freshwater to seawater transitions in migratory fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph D.; Michael P. Wilkie,

    2012-01-01

    The transition from freshwater to seawater is integral to the life history of many fishes. Diverse migratory fishes express anadromous, catadromous, and amphidromous life histories, while others make incomplete transits between freshwater and seawater. The physiological mechanisms of osmoregulation are widely conserved among phylogenetically diverse species. Diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater develop osmoregulatory mechanisms for different environmental salinities. Freshwater to seawater transition involves hormonally mediated changes in gill ionocytes and the transport proteins associated with hypoosmoregulation, increased seawater ingestion and water absorption in the intestine, and reduced urinary water losses. Fishes attain salinity tolerance through early development, gradual acclimation, or environmentally or developmentally cued adaptations. This chapter describes adaptations in diverse taxa and the effects of salinity on growth. Identifying common strategies in diadromous fishes moving between freshwater and seawater will reveal the ecological and physiological basis for maintaining homeostasis in different salinities, and inform efforts to conserve and manage migratory euryhaline fishes.

  10. Seasonal gene expression in a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rachel A; Paxton, Kristina L; Moore, Frank R; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Thomas B

    2016-11-01

    The annual migration of a bird can involve thousands of kilometres of nonstop flight, requiring accurately timed seasonal changes in physiology and behaviour. Understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling this endogenous programme can provide functional and evolutionary insights into the circannual biological clock and the potential of migratory species to adapt to changing environments. Under naturally timed photoperiod conditions, we maintained captive Swainson's thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) and performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the ventral hypothalamus and optic chiasma to evaluate transcriptome-wide gene expression changes of individuals in migratory condition. We found that 188 genes were differentially expressed in relation to migratory state, 86% of which have not been previously linked to avian migration. Focal hub genes were identified that are candidate variables responsible for the occurrence of migration (e.g. CRABP1). Numerous genes involved in cell adhesion, proliferation and motility were differentially expressed (including RHOJ, PAK1 and TLN1), suggesting that migration-related changes are regulated by seasonal neural plasticity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The function of migratory bird calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichl, Thomas; Andersen, Bent Bach; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    migration and to stimulate migratory restlessness in conspecifics. We wished to test if conspecific flight calls influence the flight direction of a nocturnal migrant, the European Robin (Erithacus rubecula), i.e. if flight calls help migrants keeping course. Wild caught birds showing migratory restlessness...... the experimental bird could be activated successively to simulate a migrating Robin cruising E-W, W-E, S-N or N-S at a chosen height (mostly about 40 m), at 10 m/s and emitting Robin flight calls of 80 dB(A) at 1 m. The simulated flight of a "ding" sound served as a control. During an experiment the bird was first...... allowed to settle and express migratory restlessness for at least 30 minutes. Secondly, the flight simulation axis (e.g. E-W or N-S) with the largest angle relative to the bird's migration course was chosen and "flights" of simulated calling conspecifics or the "ding" sound along this axis continued...

  12. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an account of interwoven and often competing repertoires of cosmopolitanism and nationalism on which Australians draw when encountering diversity. Using interview and focus group data the article first explores how the notion of Australianness grounded in civic virtues such ...

  13. 50 CFR 21.14 - Permit exceptions for captive-bred migratory waterfowl other than mallard ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... storage until the raw carcasses of such birds are finally processed immediately prior to cooking, smoking..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS... such birds or eggs and any progeny or eggs for your use without a permit, subject to the following...

  14. Migratory Trends in the Czech Republic: “Divergence or Convergence” vis-a-vis the Developed World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drbohlav

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse whether the geopolitical and socio-economic integration and “harmonisation” of the Czech Republic with Western Europe is accompanied by a divergence or convergence of the Czech migratory reality vis-a-vis the developed western world. When testing resemblance two kinds of measurements are used: 1 quantitative – (in terms of the numbers of international migrants, and 2 “qualitative” – a in terms of regularities linked with the migration itself and those that tackle mutual relationships among immigration, the socio-economic development of the destination country and subjective attitudes of the majority population towards minority groups: 3 hypotheses are tested in this regard; b in terms of migratory policies and practices. The results clearly show us that convergence rather than divergence is characteristic of the current migratory trends in the Czech Republic as compared to the developed world, mainly Western Europe.

  15. 78 FR 52123 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species Fishery Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... bluefin incidental catch (landings and dead discards) in the pelagic longline fishery, enhance reporting... may submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF... Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) to control bluefin landings and dead...

  16. 78 FR 58233 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian Reservations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (EIS 20130139),'' filed with the... would have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy. Executive Order 13563 reaffirms the... effect on the economy of $100 million or more. However, because this rule establishes hunting seasons, we...

  17. Climate and the complexity of migratory phenology: sexes, migratory distance, and arrival distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmynowski, Dena P.; Root, Terry L.

    2007-05-01

    The intra- and inter-season complexity of bird migration has received limited attention in climatic change research. Our phenological analysis of 22 species collected in Chicago, USA, (1979 2002) evaluates the relationship between multi-scalar climate variables and differences (1) in arrival timing between sexes, (2) in arrival distributions among species, and (3) between spring and fall migration. The early migratory period for earliest arriving species (i.e., short-distance migrants) and earliest arriving individuals of a species (i.e., males) most frequently correlate with climate variables. Compared to long-distance migrant species, four times as many short-distance migrants correlate with spring temperature, while 8 of 11 (73%) of long-distance migrant species’ arrival is correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). While migratory phenology has been correlated with NAO in Europe, we believe that this is the first documentation of a significant association in North America. Geographically proximate conditions apparently influence migratory timing for short-distance migrants while continental-scale climate (e.g., NAO) seemingly influences the phenology of Neotropical migrants. The preponderance of climate correlations is with the early migratory period, not the median of arrival, suggesting that early spring conditions constrain the onset or rate of migration for some species. The seasonal arrival distribution provides considerable information about migratory passage beyond what is apparent from statistical analyses of phenology. A relationship between climate and fall phenology is not detected at this location. Analysis of the within-season complexity of migration, including multiple metrics of arrival, is essential to detect species’ responses to changing climate as well as evaluate the underlying biological mechanisms.

  18. Effects of large-scale gold mining on migratory behavior of a large herbivore

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blum, Marcus E; Stewart, Kelley M; Schroeder, Cody

    2015-01-01

    .... Mineral exploration and other types of development may adversely affect migratory corridors for large herbivores, but little is known about functional effects on migratory behavior and resource selection...

  19. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); J.G.B. Dijk (Jacintha); O. Vuong (Spronken); T.M. Bestebroer (Theo); P. Lexmond (Pascal); M. Klaassen (Marcel); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractMigratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild

  20. Migratory birds reinforce local circulation of avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.H.G.; Van Dijk, J.G.B.; Vuong, O.; Lexmond, P.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Fouchier, R.A.M

    2014-01-01

    Migratory and resident hosts have been hypothesized to fulfil distinct roles in infectious disease dynamics. However, the contribution of resident and migratory hosts to wildlife infectious disease epidemiology, including that of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in wild birds, has

  1. Limitations and mechanisms influencing the migratory performance of soaring birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricia A. Miller; Brooks Robert P.; Michael J. Lanzone; David Brandes; Jeff Cooper; Junior A. Tremblay; Jay Wilhelm; Adam Duerr; Todd E. Katzner

    2016-01-01

    Migration is costly in terms of time, energy and safety. Optimal migration theory suggests that individual migratory birds will choose between these three costs depending on their motivation and available resources. To test hypotheses about use of migratory strategies by large soaring birds, we used GPS telemetry to track 18 adult, 13 sub-adult and 15 juvenile Golden...

  2. The glucagonoma syndrome and necrolytic migratory erythema : A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, André P.; de Haas, Ellen R.M.; van Vloten, Willem A.; Lips, Cees J.M.; Roijers, Janine F.M.; Canninga-van Dijk, Marijke R.

    2004-01-01

    The glucagonoma syndrome is a rare disease in which a typical skin disorder, necrolytic migratory erythema, is often one of the first presenting symptoms. Weight loss and diabetes mellitus are two other prevalent characteristics of this syndrome. Necrolytic migratory erythema belongs to the recently

  3. Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Couverture du livre Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Directeur(s) : Joachim Carolsfield, Brian Harvey, Carmen Ross et Anton Baer. Maison(s) d'édition : World Fisheries Trust, Banque mondiale, ...

  4. Is there a "migratory syndrome" common to all migrant birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Perez-Tris, J; Mouritsen, H; Bauchinger, U; Bairlein, F; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W; JenniEiermann, S

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a "migratory

  5. 75 FR 57413 - Migratory Bird Permits; Possession and Educational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... which the bird is induced to perform tricks or imitate human or other behavior unnatural for the species... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 10, 13, 21, and 22 RIN 1018-AI97 Migratory Bird Permits... authorize the possession and use of migratory birds in educational programs and exhibits. The proposed rule...

  6. 76 FR 67650 - Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... and suggestions on migratory bird permit regulations for a permit to use raptors (birds of prey) in abatement activities. Abatement means the use of trained raptors to flush, scare (haze), or take birds or... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AW75 Migratory Bird Permits; Abatement Regulations...

  7. Corruption in Australian sport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    BRICKNELL, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Corruption and integrity in sport - betting and non-betting related match-fixing - use of inside information for betting - risks of corruption to Australian sport - government and national sporting...

  8. Understanding variation in migratory movements: A mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Heather E; Cornelius, Jamie M; Fudickar, Adam M; Pérez, Jonathan; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2018-01-15

    Spatial and temporal fluctuations in resource availability have led to the evolution of varied migration patterns. In order to appropriately time movements in relation to resources, environmental cues are used to provide proximate information for timing and the endocrine system serves to integrate these external cues and behavioral and physiological responses. Yet, the regulatory mechanisms underlying migratory timing have rarely been compared across a broad range of migratory patterns. First, we offer an updated nomenclature of migration using a mechanistic perspective to clarify terminology describing migratory types in relation to ecology, behavior and endocrinology. We divide migratory patterns into three types: obligate, nomadic, and fugitive. Obligate migration is characterized by regular and directed annual movements between locations, most commonly for breeding and overwintering, where resources are predictable and sufficient. Nomadic migrations occur less predictably than do obligate migrations as animals make use of potentially rich but ephemeral resources that occur unpredictably in space or time. Fugitive migrations move animals away from an area in response to severe disruption of environmental conditions and occur as part of an emergency life history stage. We also consider partially migratory populations, which include a mix of sedentary and migratory individuals; the movement patterns of partial migrants are expected to fall into one of the three types above. For these various forms of migration, we review our understanding of the environmental cues and endocrine mechanisms that underlie the expression of a migratory state. Several common hormonal mechanisms exist across the varied migratory forms, but there are also important areas where further investigations are needed in order to gain broad insight into the origin of movements and the diversity of migratory patterns. We propose that taking a comparative approach across the migratory types that

  9. [Clinical picture of neuroblast migratory disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Dinorin, L

    Disturbances of neuroblast migration are prominent among the numerous causes of symptomatic epilepsy and of abnormal neurological development in children. Although their clinical manifestations are generally nonspecific with considerable overlap of symptoms and signs amongst the various disorders, the clinical picture of migratory disorders is continuously being redefined with greater precision and, in some cases, disorders of migration may be grouped into syndromes that are more easily diagnosed during life, in large part because of major advances in recent years in the technology of neuroimaging and in molecular genetics. It is therefore possible to study these patients in greater detail and over longer periods when detected early in life. I have reviewed the clinical manifestations of some of the defined disorders of neuroblast migration: lissencephaly-pachygyria types I and II, pachygyria, schizencephaly, polymicrogyria, special location heterotopia, for example, periventricular heterotopia and subcortical band heterotopia or 'double cortex' syndrome, the latter closely related to isolated lissencephaly type I.

  10. Understanding the migratory orientation program of birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Holland, Richard A.; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    2010-01-01

    orient during migration. Despite the difficulties associated with following free-flying birds over long distances, a number of possibilities currently exist for tracking the long distance, sometimes even globe-spanning, journeys undertaken by migrating birds. Birds fitted with radio transmitters can......For many years, orientation in migratory birds has primarily been studied in the laboratory. Although a laboratory-based setting enables greater control over environmental cues, the laboratory-based findings must be confirmed in the wild in free-flying birds to be able to fully understand how birds...... behaviors that are otherwise very difficult to study. Here, we focus on the progress in understanding certain components of the migration-orientation system. Comparably exciting results can be expected in the future from tracking free-flying migrants in the wild. Use of orientation cues has been studied...

  11. Migratory Prostitution with Emphasis on Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M&oring;rdh; Genç

    1995-03-01

    In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.

  12. 50 CFR 20.25 - Wanton waste of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wanton waste of migratory game birds. 20... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.25 Wanton waste of migratory game birds. No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this part without...

  13. 76 FR 39367 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX78 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty... take and possession of migratory birds for many purposes. The BGEPA allows bald eagles and golden...

  14. Migratory Homes: Redesigning Group Identity, Prototyping Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traganou, Jilly

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Migratory Homes, two collaborative projects that investigate the notion of home/land and belonging in conditions of displacement. The fundamental question that Migratory Homes asks is “how can the disparate identities that constitute mixed societies collectively and equally participate in the creation of a common ‘home/land’ that would be co-designed, co-produced, and co-owned”? Through iterative engagements with conditions of everyday materiality, and by activating processes of co-design as research, Migratory Homes attempt to prototype conditions for social change.

  15. Vulnerability to stress in migratory contexts: a study with Eastern European immigrants residing in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Vieira Monteiro, Ana Paula Teixeira; Serra, Adriano Vaz

    2011-08-01

    The assessment of individual vulnerability to stress emerges as a predictive factor of a higher risk of developing stress-related disorders. In the last decade, the geography of immigration in Portugal experienced intense transformations in terms of recruitment and patterns of geographic settlement, with an increasing and exponential inflow of new and diversified migratory groups. The immigrant populations coming from Eastern European countries are a recent migratory flow, with linguistic, cultural and socio-demographic specificities which are very different from the general Portuguese population. This makes them a paradigmatic group in potential transcultural studies on mental health issues. The primary aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of vulnerability to stress and determine their impact on the mental health status of Russian-speaking immigrants residing in Portugal. The relationship between vulnerability to stress, sociodemographic variables, mental health status and social support were analyzed, using the SSQ6, GHQ28, 23QVS and a socio-demographic questionnaire. A comparative analysis was carried out, using a control group of 110 Portuguese subjects without previous migratory experiences, matched by sex, age group and academic qualifications. The eastern European immigrants reported high levels of vulnerability to stress assessed by the cut-off point of the 23QVS. Immigrants also reported higher percentage of vulnerability to stress and lower social support levels of social support versus the control group. Several factors inherent to the dynamics of the migratory process were related to the presence of vulnerability to stress. The findings suggest that vulnerability to stress is positively correlated with worse mental health outcomes and negatively correlated with the social support perceived as available--number of supporters and satisfaction with social support.

  16. Australian Courseware in Geographical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidstone, John G.; Gerber, Rod

    Students pursuing Australian studies should be given every possible opportunity to work with materials produced in Australia. There is a substantial and growing list of good curriculum software written within Australia and from an Australian perspective which can add interest and excitement to Australian geography classrooms. Computers can be used…

  17. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  18. Monthly Report (September): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  19. Monthly Report: November 1935: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  20. [Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan & Related Documents : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 'Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Hunt Plan', beginning on page 66 and continuing through the end of the document, is focused on public hunting and the...

  1. Monthly Report (October): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  2. Monthly Report (August): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  3. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge First quarter, fiscal year 1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, public relations, and disease on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge...

  4. Monthly narrative report September 1937 Lacreek Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Lacreek Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September of 1937. The report begins by summarizing the water...

  5. Monthly Report (January): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  6. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Comprehensive Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge...

  7. Narrative report: July, 1937: Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This monthly narrative report for Medicine Lake NWR summarizes weather conditions, water conditions, field crops, grazing, haying, visitors, flood damage, migratory...

  8. [Wildlife Inventory Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Wildlife Inventory Plan for the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, published in 1982, includes the following procedures as outlined in the table of contents on...

  9. Monthly Report (March): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  10. Bear River Migratory Bird National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the...

  11. Sod house news [Malheur Migratory Bird Refuge, July 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is report written by the CCC personnel about the Sod House Camp on Malheur Migratory Bird Refuge. Topics covered include sports, technical services, camp...

  12. World review of highly migratory species and straddling stocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, S. M; Spencer, D

    1994-01-01

    .... The section on highly migratory species covers the species listed in the relevant annex to the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea, such as tunas, billfishes, marlins, oceanic sharks, marine...

  13. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : February, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during February of 1938. Weather conditions, waterfowl, upland game, birds, fur and predator...

  14. Annual report : 1936-'37 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during the 1937 fiscal year. Weather conditions, water levels, wildlife,...

  15. Annual report : 1935-'36 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during the 1936 fiscal year. Weather conditions, water levels, farming,...

  16. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : April, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during April of 1938. Weather conditions, waterfowl, upland game, CCC work, WPA work,...

  17. [Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Narrative report : 1935

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report covers activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during 1935. The road construction, dam construction, food and cover,...

  18. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : March, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during March of 1938. Weather conditions, waterfowl, upland game, fur and predator control,...

  19. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : November 30, 1937

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge during November of 1937. Weather conditions, upland game management, duck rescue, and...

  20. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Monthly Report (April): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  2. Monthly Report (December): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  3. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Narrative report: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1973 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Disease Contingency Plan for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge provides background information on migratory bird disease surveillance; an inventory of Refuge...

  5. Monthly Report (May): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  6. Monthly Report (June): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  7. Monthly Report: April 1936: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  8. Monthly Report (February): Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  9. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  10. The evolutionary ecology of alternative migratory tactics in salmonid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Julian J; Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Thériault, Véronique; Páez, David J

    2013-08-01

    Extensive individual variation in spatial behaviour is a common feature among species that exhibit migratory life cycles. Nowhere is this more evident than in salmonid fishes; individual fish may complete their entire life cycle in freshwater streams, others may migrate variable distances at sea and yet others limit their migrations to larger rivers or lakes before returning to freshwater streams to spawn. This review presents evidence that individual variation in migratory behaviour and physiology in salmonid fishes is controlled by developmental thresholds and that part of the variation in proximal traits activating the development of alternative migratory tactics is genetically based. We summarize evidence that alternative migratory tactics co-exist within populations and that all individuals may potentially adopt any of the alternative phenotypes. Even though intra-specific genetic divergence of migratory tactics is uncommon, it may occur if female competition for oviposition sites results in spawning segregation of alternative phenotypes. Because of their polygenic nature, alternative migratory tactics are considered as threshold traits. Threshold traits have two characteristics: an underlying 'liability' trait that varies in a continuous fashion, and a threshold value which is responsible for the discreetness observed in phenotypic distribution. We review evidence demonstrating that body size is an adequate proxy for the liability trait controlling the decision to migrate, but that the same phenotypic outcome (anadromy or residency) may be reached by different developmental pathways. The evidence suggesting a significant heritable component in the development of alternative migratory tactics is subsequently reviewed, leading us to conclude that alternative migratory tactics have considerable potential to respond to selection and evolve. We review what is known about the proximal physiological mechanisms mediating the translation of the continuous value of the

  11. Applying metapopulation theory to conservation of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.

    2000-01-01

    Metapopulation theory has proven useful for understanding the population structure and dynamics of many species of conservation concern. The metapopulation concept has been applied almost exclusively to nonmigratory species, however, for which subpopulation demographic independence—a requirement for a classically defined metapopulation - is explicitly related to geographic distribution and dispersal probabilities. Defining the degree of demographic independence among subpopulations of migratory animals, and thus the applicability of metapopulation theory as a conceptual framework for understanding population dynamics, is much more difficult. Unlike nonmigratory species, subpopulations of migratory animals cannot be defined as synonymous with geographic areas. Groups of migratory birds that are geographically separate at one part of the annual cycle may occur together at others, but co-occurrence in time and space does not preclude the demographic independence of subpopulations. I suggest that metapopulation theory can be applied to migratory species but that understanding the degree of subpopulation independence may require information about both spatial distribution throughout the annual cycle and behavioral mechanisms that may lead to subpopulation demographic independence. The key for applying metapopulation theory to migratory animals lies in identifying demographically independent subpopulations, even as they move during the annual cycle and potentially co-occur with other subpopulations. Using examples of migratory bird species, I demonstrate that spatial and temporal modes of subpopulation independence can interact with behavioral mechanisms to create demographically independent subpopulations, including cases in which subpopulations are not spatially distinct in some parts of the annual cycle.

  12. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue will focus on Number in the Number and Algebra strand. In this article Derek Hurrell provides a few tried and proven activities to develop place value understanding. These activities are provided for…

  13. Australian Curriculum Linked Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurrell, Derek; O'Neil, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    In providing a continued focus on tasks and activities that help to illustrate key ideas embedded in the new Australian Curriculum, this issue the authors focus, on Geometry in the Measurement and Geometry strand with strong links for an integrated focus on the Statistics and Probability strand. The small unit of work on the sorting and…

  14. Australian coal conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Almost 600 people attended this year's Australian Coal Conference on Queensland's Gold Coast. The article reports on issues raised at the conference which included the effects of globalisation and the difficulties of raising funds faced by the coal industry and environmental issues. A life cycle analysis of coal's emissions compared to other fuels, released at the conference had demonstrated that coal was a legitimate part of the world's future energy mix. Conference speakers included Michael Pinnock, Queensland Mining Council Chief Executive Officer, Dr Louis Wibberley and Rich Gazzard of BHP, Robin Batterham, the Australian Governments Chief Scientist, Mark Vale, Federal Minister for Trade, Tony Armor of EPRI, Daren Fooks, Clayton Utz Lawyers, Ron Knapp, Chief Executive of the World Coal Institute and Andrew Tucker, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission. Highlights of their addresses are given. Winners of the five research awards presented by the Australian Coal Association at the conference are reported. 11 photos.

  15. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; Hutchinson, W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  16. Cryptocotyly in Australian Dicotyledones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clifford, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings exhibit a great diversity in morphology as is well documented (Lubbock, 1892; De Vogel, 1980). As part of an ongoing study on the taxonomic importance of seedling characters and their possible phylogenetic significance the seedlings of about 320 endemic Australian genera of Dicotyledons

  17. Comparison of Navigation-Related Brain Regions in Migratory versus Non-Migratory Noctuid Moths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv de Vries

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain structure and function are tightly correlated across all animals. While these relations are ultimately manifestations of differently wired neurons, many changes in neural circuit architecture lead to larger-scale alterations visible already at the level of brain regions. Locating such differences has served as a beacon for identifying brain areas that are strongly associated with the ecological needs of a species—thus guiding the way towards more detailed investigations of how brains underlie species-specific behaviors. Particularly in relation to sensory requirements, volume-differences in neural tissue between closely related species reflect evolutionary investments that correspond to sensory abilities. Likewise, memory-demands imposed by lifestyle have revealed similar adaptations in regions associated with learning. Whether this is also the case for species that differ in their navigational strategy is currently unknown. While the brain regions associated with navigational control in insects have been identified (central complex (CX, lateral complex (LX and anterior optic tubercles (AOTU, it remains unknown in what way evolutionary investments have been made to accommodate particularly demanding navigational strategies. We have thus generated average-shape atlases of navigation-related brain regions of a migratory and a non-migratory noctuid moth and used volumetric analysis to identify differences. We further compared the results to identical data from Monarch butterflies. Whereas we found differences in the size of the nodular unit of the AOTU, the LX and the protocerebral bridge (PB between the two moths, these did not unambiguously reflect migratory behavior across all three species. We conclude that navigational strategy, at least in the case of long-distance migration in lepidopteran insects, is not easily deductible from overall neuropil anatomy. This suggests that the adaptations needed to ensure successful migratory behavior

  18. Fishing out collective memory of migratory schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giancarlo; Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian R; Marsili, Matteo

    2014-06-06

    Animals form groups for many reasons, but there are costs and benefits associated with group formation. One of the benefits is collective memory. In groups on the move, social interactions play a crucial role in the cohesion and the ability to make consensus decisions. When migrating from spawning to feeding areas, fish schools need to retain a collective memory of the destination site over thousands of kilometres, and changes in group formation or individual preference can produce sudden changes in migration pathways. We propose a modelling framework, based on stochastic adaptive networks, that can reproduce this collective behaviour. We assume that three factors control group formation and school migration behaviour: the intensity of social interaction, the relative number of informed individuals and the strength of preference that informed individuals have for a particular migration area. We treat these factors independently and relate the individuals' preferences to the experience and memory for certain migration sites. We demonstrate that removal of knowledgeable individuals or alteration of individual preference can produce rapid changes in group formation and collective behaviour. For example, intensive fishing targeting the migratory species and also their preferred prey can reduce both terms to a point at which migration to the destination sites is suddenly stopped. The conceptual approaches represented by our modelling framework may therefore be able to explain large-scale changes in fish migration and spatial distribution.

  19. The flight apparatus of migratory and sedentary individuals of a partially migratory songbird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Fudickar

    Full Text Available Variations in the geometry of the external flight apparatus of birds are beneficial for different behaviors. Long-distance flight is less costly with more pointed wings and shorter tails; however these traits decrease maneuverability at low speeds. Selection has led to interspecific differences in these and other flight apparatuses in relation to migration distance. If these principles are general, how are the external flight apparatus within a partially migratory bird species shaped in which individuals either migrate or stay at their breeding grounds? We resolved this question by comparing the wing pointedness and tail length (relative to wing length of migrant and resident European blackbirds (Turdus merula breeding in the same population. We predicted that migrant blackbirds would have more pointed wings and shorter tails than residents. Contrary to our predictions, there were no differences between migrants and residents in either measure. Our results indicate that morphological differences between migrants and residents in this partially migratory population may be constrained.

  20. Telecoupling framework for research on migratory species in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Hulina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Migratory species are an important component of biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services for humans, but many are threatened and endangered. Numerous studies have been conducted on the biology of migratory species, and there is an increased recognition of the major role of human dimensions in conserving migratory species. However, there is a lack of systematic integration of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Because human activities affect migratory species in multiple places, integrating socioeconomic and environmental factors across space is essential, but challenging. The holistic framework of telecoupling (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances has the potential to help meet this challenge because it enables researchers to integrate human and natural interactions across multiple distant places. The use of the telecoupling framework may also lead to new conservation strategies and actions. To demonstrate its potential, we apply the framework to Kirtland’s warblers ('Setophaga kirtlandii' , a conservation-reliant migratory songbird. Results show accomplishments from long-term research and recovery efforts on the warbler in the context of the telecoupling framework. The results also show 24 research gaps even though the species has been relatively well-studied compared to many other species. An important gap is a lack of systematic studies on feedbacks among breeding, wintering, and stopover sites, as well as other “spillover” systems that may affect and be affected by migration (e.g., via tourism, land use, or climate change. The framework integrated scattered information and provided useful insights about new research topics and flow-centered management approaches that encapsulate the full annual cycle of migration. We also illustrate the similarities and differences between Kirtland’s warblers and several other migratory species, indicating the applicability of the telecoupling framework to

  1. Stopover ecology of a migratory ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Hall; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    1. Birds that migrate long distances use stopover sites to optimize fuel loads and complete migration as quickly as possible. Stopover use has been predicted to facilitate a time-minimization strategy in land migrants as well, but empirical tests have been lacking, and alternative migration strategies have not been considered. 2. We used fine-scale movement data to evaluate the ecological role of stopovers in migratory mule deer Odocoileus hemionus— a land migrant whose fitness is strongly influenced by energy intake rather than migration speed. 3. Although deer could easily complete migrations (range 18–144 km) in several days, they took an average of 3 weeks and spent 95% of that time in a series of stopover sites that had higher forage quality than movement corridors. Forage quality of stopovers increased with elevation and distance from winter range. Mule deer use of stopovers corresponded with a narrow phenological range, such that deer occupied stopovers 44 days prior to peak green-up, when forage quality was presumed to be highest. Mule deer used one stopover for every 5∙3 and 6∙7 km travelled during spring and autumn migrations, respectively, and used the same stopovers in consecutive years. 4. Study findings indicate that stopovers play a key role in the migration strategy of mule deer by allowing individuals to migrate in concert with plant phenology and maximize energy intake rather than speed. Our results suggest that stopover use may be more common among non-avian taxa than previously thought and, although the underlying migration strategies of temperate ungulates and birds are quite different, stopover use is important to both. 5. Exploring the role of stopovers in land migrants broadens the scope of stopover ecology and recognizes that the applied and theoretical benefits of stopover ecology need not be limited to avian taxa.

  2. Secondary Geography and the Australian Curriculum--Directions in School Implementation: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casinader, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    At first glance, the introduction of a national curriculum for Australian schools suggested a new era of revival for school geography. Since the late 1980s, the development and introduction of more integrated conceptions of curriculum design and implementation has seen the decline of Geography as a distinct subject in Australian schools, with…

  3. A Case for Cautious Optimism? Active Citizenship and the Australian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew; Bentley, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    In late 2013 a new curriculum for Civics and Citizenship education was published by the Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority for use in Australian schools. In line with previous curricular initiatives concerning education for citizenship in Australia a key rationale behind the new subject is the education of "active…

  4. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  5. Setting conservation priorities for migratory networks under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal-Adams, Kiran L; Klaassen, Marcel; Nicol, Sam; Possingham, Hugh P; Chadès, Iadine; Fuller, Richard A

    2017-06-01

    Conserving migratory species requires protecting connected habitat along the pathways they travel. Despite recent improvements in tracking animal movements, migratory connectivity remains poorly resolved at a population level for the vast majority of species, thus conservation prioritization is hampered. To address this data limitation, we developed a novel approach to spatial prioritization based on a model of potential connectivity derived from empirical data on species abundance and distance traveled between sites during migration. We applied the approach to migratory shorebirds of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Conservation strategies that prioritized sites based on connectivity and abundance metrics together maintained larger populations of birds than strategies that prioritized sites based only on abundance metrics. The conservation value of a site therefore depended on both its capacity to support migratory animals and its position within the migratory pathway; the loss of crucial sites led to partial or total population collapse. We suggest that conservation approaches that prioritize sites supporting large populations of migrants should, where possible, also include data on the spatial arrangement of sites. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Double, Michael C; Andrews-Goff, Virginia; Jenner, K Curt S; Jenner, Micheline-Nicole; Laverick, Sarah M; Branch, Trevor A; Gales, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km) at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day). Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km) until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape) after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km). Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  7. Migratory movements of pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda between Australia and Indonesia as revealed by satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Double

    Full Text Available In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales were tracked from between 8 and 308 days covering an average distance of 3,009±892 km (mean ± se; range: 832 km-14,101 km at a rate of 21.94±0.74 km per day (0.09 km-455.80 km/day. Whales were tagged during March and April and ultimately migrated northwards post tag deployment with the exception of a single animal which remained in the vicinity of the Perth Canyon/Naturaliste Plateau for its eight day tracking period. The tagged whales travelled relatively near to the Australian coastline (100.0±1.7 km until reaching a prominent peninsula in the north-west of the state of Western Australia (North West Cape after which they travelled offshore (238.0±13.9 km. Whales reached the northern terminus of their migration and potential breeding grounds in Indonesian waters by June. One satellite tag relayed intermittent information to describe aspects of the southern migration from Indonesia with the animal departing around September to arrive in the subtropical frontal zone, south of western Australia in December. Throughout their migratory range, these whales are exposed to impacts associated with industry, fishing and vessel traffic. These movements therefore provide a valuable tool to industry when assessing potential interactions with pygmy blue whales and should be considered by conservation managers and regulators when mitigating impacts of development. This is particularly relevant for this species as it continues to recover from past exploitation.

  8. Winter Latitudinal Population Age-Structure of a Migratory Seagull (Larus fuscus Differs between Its Two Major Migratory Flyways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. M. Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration is energy-demanding and is expected to greatly affect the distribution of individuals over the species range and condition the choice of migratory routes. We investigated the wintering distributions and migratory flyways use of geographically contiguous populations of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus and difference in population winter age structure between migratory flyways. Recoveries of metal ringed pulli from Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were used. The results showed that contiguous populations can have distinct wintering distribution patterns and migratory flyways. More importantly, we found that depending on the place of origin, the population winter distribution may or may not show a latitudinal cline in the age structure. The population migrating via the eastern Atlantic flyway (western flyway showed a winter age-related latitudinal cline, with adults staying at more northern latitudes than immatures. In contrast, no such pattern was found in the population migrating along the Mediterranean/Black sea flyway (eastern flyway. Interestingly, immatures within the eastern population showed a more dispersed pattern of migratory bearings. Overall, our results enhance the importance of the migration flyway in shaping the age structure of populations in the winter quarters and how it may influence the effect of other factors like sexual maturation.

  9. MODELLING OF THE ENERGY COSTS, FLIGHT SPEED, AND MIGRATORY DISTANCES OF THE MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsyura M. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the preliminary analysis carried out by Flight software for White Stork and Pelican that migrate within the Mediterranean-Black Sea Migratory Route were presented. Obtained results practically coincide with experimental results and data of radar observations. Optimum speed allows the birds to fly with a higher grade soaring and shorter distance between the thermal flows. Time to find the next effective thermals (thermal flux is reduced by increasing the speed, which in turn reduces the average rise in thermal flows, increases the risk not to find appropriate thermal. Soaring birds reduce wingspan and wing area by bending the joints of the extremities at high speeds. This reduces profile resistance and increases the inductive reactance. Profile resistance increases and the inductive reactance decreases with increasing of bird speed. Under ideal conditions the birds try to find a position of wingspan, which reduces the difference between the values of profile and inductive resistance.

  10. Annual Hunting Program : Migratory Waterfowl : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : 1992-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1992-93 Annual Migratory Waterfowl Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for migratory waterfowl hunting on Parker River National Wildlife...

  11. Annual Hunting Program : Migratory Waterfowl : Parker River National Wildlife Refuge : 1985-86

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This 1985-86 Annual Migratory Waterfowl Hunting Program outlines the reasons and regulations for migratory waterfowl hunting on Parker River National Wildlife...

  12. EGF-induced expansion of migratory cells in the rostral migratory stream.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olle R Lindberg

    Full Text Available The presence of neural stem cells in the adult brain is currently widely accepted and efforts are made to harness the regenerative potential of these cells. The dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation, and the subventricular zone (SVZ of the anterior lateral ventricles, are considered the main loci of adult neurogenesis. The rostral migratory stream (RMS is the structure funneling SVZ progenitor cells through the forebrain to their final destination in the olfactory bulb. Moreover, extensive proliferation occurs in the RMS. Some evidence suggest the presence of stem cells in the RMS, but these cells are few and possibly of limited differentiation potential. We have recently demonstrated the specific expression of the cytoskeleton linker protein radixin in neuroblasts in the RMS and in oligodendrocyte progenitors throughout the brain. These cell populations are greatly altered after intracerebroventricular infusion of epidermal growth factor (EGF. In the current study we investigate the effect of EGF infusion on the rat RMS. We describe a specific increase of radixin(+/Olig2(+ cells in the RMS. Negative for NG2 and CNPase, these radixin(+/Olig2(+ cells are distinct from typical oligodendrocyte progenitors. The expanded Olig2(+ population responds rapidly to EGF and proliferates after only 24 hours along the entire RMS, suggesting local activation by EGF throughout the RMS rather than migration from the SVZ. In addition, the radixin(+/Olig2(+ progenitors assemble in chains in vivo and migrate in chains in explant cultures, suggesting that they possess migratory properties within the RMS. In summary, these results provide insight into the adaptive capacity of the RMS and point to an additional stem cell source for future brain repair strategies.

  13. Do Australian immunoglobulin products meet international measles antibody titer standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-03-04

    The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titer of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2). Measles titres in Australian IM and IV immunoglobulins ranged from 51 to 76 IU/mL and 6 to 24 IU/mL respectively, as measured by PRNT calibrated to the WHO 3 rd international standard. ELISA titres were variable but higher than PRNT titres in all tested samples. Measles antibody titres in Australian immunoglobulin products meet consensus-prescribed international thresholds. Development of a convenient, standardized, readily accessible assay for determination of measles titres in immunoglobulin products would be useful for future studies and facilitate international comparisons.

  14. Counterintuitive roles of experience and weather on migratory performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Adrian I.; Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Belthoff, James R; Katzner, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Migration allows animals to live in resource-rich but seasonally variable environments. Because of the costs of migration, there is selective pressure to capitalize on variation in weather to optimize migratory performance. To test the degree to which migratory performance (defined as speed of migration) of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) was determined by age- and season-specific responses to variation in weather, we analyzed 1,863 daily tracks (n = 83 migrant eagles) and 8,047 hourly tracks (n = 83) based on 15 min GPS telemetry data from Golden Eagles and 277 hourly tracks based on 30 s data (n = 37). Spring migrant eagles traveled 139.75 ± 82.19 km day−1 (mean ± SE; n = 57) and 25.59 ± 11.75 km hr−1 (n = 55). Autumn migrant eagles traveled 99.14 ± 59.98 km day−1 (n = 26) and 22.18 ± 9.18 km hr−1 (n = 28). Weather during migration varied by season and by age class. During spring, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by downward solar radiation and that older birds benefited less from flow assistance (tailwinds). During autumn, best-supported daily and hourly models of 15 min data suggested that migratory performance was influenced most strongly by south–north winds and by flow assistance, again less strongly for older birds. In contrast, models for hourly performance based on data collected at 30 s intervals were not well described by a single model, likely reflecting eagles' rapid responses to the many weather conditions they experienced. Although daily speed of travel was similar for all age classes, younger birds traveled at faster hourly speeds than did adults. Our analyses uncovered strong, sometimes counterintuitive, relationships among weather, experience, and migratory flight, and they illustrate the significance of factors other than age in determining migratory performance.

  15. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tommy Tsan-Yuk; Ip, Hon S.; Ghedin, Elodie; Wentworth, David E.; Halpin, Rebecca A.; Stockwell, Timothy B.; Spiro, David J.; Dusek, Robert J.; Bortner, James B.; Hoskins, Jenny; Bales, Bradley D.; Yparraguirre, Dan R.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway.

  16. Migratory flyway and geographical distance are barriers to the gene flow of influenza virus among North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, T. T. -Y.; Ip, H. S.; Ghedin, E.; Wentworth, D. E.; Halpin, R. A.; Stockwell, T. B.; Spiro, D. J.; Dusek, R. J.; Bortner, J. B.; Hoskins, J.; Bales, B. D.; Yparraguirre, D. R.; Holmes, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of migratory birds in the ecology and evolution of avian influenza virus (AIV), there is a lack of information on the patterns of AIV spread at the intra-continental scale. We applied a variety of statistical phylogeographic techniques to a plethora of viral genome sequence data to determine the strength, pattern and determinants of gene flow in AIV sampled from wild birds in North America. These analyses revealed a clear isolation-by-distance of AIV among sampling localities. In addition, we show that phylogeographic models incorporating information on the avian flyway of sampling proved a better fit to the observed sequence data than those specifying homogeneous or random rates of gene flow among localities. In sum, these data strongly suggest that the intra-continental spread of AIV by migratory birds is subject to major ecological barriers, including spatial distance and avian flyway. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise

    2015-01-01

      This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary...

  18. 50 CFR 92.6 - Use and possession of migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use and possession of migratory birds. 92... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA General Provisions § 92.6 Use and possession of migratory birds. You may not sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer...

  19. 76 FR 5820 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...; Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Advisory Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... Migratory Bird Conservation Commission (Commission). This meeting is open to the public. The Advisory Group for the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Act (NMBCA) grants program (Advisory Group) will also...

  20. 76 FR 29665 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Raptor Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AT60 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the... on June 22, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird... birds. Our authority is based on the Migratory Bird Treaty Act (MBTA) (16 U.S.C. 703 et seq.), which...

  1. 77 FR 39983 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Fluoropolymeric Shot Coatings as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY66 Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties...

  2. 76 FR 56659 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South... INFORMATION: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, cero, cobia... for the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP...

  3. 76 FR 16547 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South...: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, cero, cobia, little... Plan for the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP). The...

  4. 75 FR 75153 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Rusty Blackbird and Tamaulipas (Mexican) Crow From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AV66 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Rusty... effective on January 3, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George T. Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, 4401 North...

  5. 77 FR 52623 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South... INFORMATION: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, and cobia) is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of...

  6. 77 FR 15284 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South... the coastal migratory pelagic fishery for king mackerel in the Florida east coast subzone. This...: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king mackerel, Spanish mackerel, and cobia) is managed...

  7. 76 FR 65662 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources in the Gulf of Mexico and... proposes regulations to implement Amendment 18 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Coastal Migratory... would remove species from the FMP; modify the framework procedures; establish two migratory groups for...

  8. 76 FR 62309 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South...- 5305, or e-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The fishery for coastal migratory... Mexico (Gulf) only, bluefish) is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Coastal Migratory...

  9. Delineating large-scale migratory connectivity of reed warblers using integrated multistate models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procházka, Petr; Hahn, Steffen; Rolland, Simon; van der Jeugd, Henk; Csörgő, Tibor; Jiguet, Frédéric; Mokwa, Tomasz; Liechti, Felix; Vangeluwe, Didier; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi

    2017-01-01

    Aim Assessing the extent of large-scale migratory connectivity is crucial for understanding the evolution of migratory systems and effective species conservation. It has been, however, difficult to elucidate the annual whereabouts of migratory populations of small animals across the annual cycle.

  10. Mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, N J; Kaye, R M; Hood, S; Shrivastava, P; Khursandi, D C S

    2013-09-01

    This survey was designed to evaluate the factors affecting mental health and welfare in Australian anaesthetists and to investigate current sources of support. An electronic survey was sent to 500 randomly selected Fellows and trainees of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists. Questions were related to: anxiety, stress, depression, substance misuse, self-medication, suicide, reporting illness, and help-seeking. Current psychological wellbeing was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). A total of 191 completed surveys were received (a response rate of 38%): 26% had attended their general practitioner for mental health issues, of whom half had been diagnosed with a mental illness; 7% of all respondents were currently prescribed medication for this; 25% had previously self-prescribed psychoactive medication; 17% admitted to using alcohol to deal with stress, anxiety or depression; and 8% responded that mental illness had at some point impaired clinical care. Sixteen percent of all respondents reported previous suicidal ideation. Despite a low response rate, and the possibility of responder bias, the mental health of Australian anaesthetists would appear to be subject to common and persistent risk factors, many of which are well described in previous studies. We identify general practitioners as particularly valuable in targeting initiatives for improvements in mental health and welfare. The significant prevalence of suicidal ideation and reluctance to approach senior colleagues with concerns about mental health or welfare issues are specific causes for concern and suggest that further investigation, education and a potential review of support networks is required.

  11. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. Trial

  12. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCoombe Scott

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. Presentation of hypothesis This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. Testing the hypothesis The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. Implications of the hypothesis tested Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological

  13. Farming fit? Dispelling the Australian agrarian myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumby, Susan; Chandrasekara, Ananda; McCoombe, Scott; Kremer, Peter; Lewandowski, Paul

    2011-03-30

    Rural Australians face a higher mental health and lifestyle disease burden (obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) than their urban counterparts. Our ongoing research reveals that the Australian farming community has even poorer physical and mental health outcomes than rural averages. In particular, farm men and women have high rates of overweightness, obesity, abdominal adiposity, high blood pressure and psychological distress when compared against Australian averages. Within our farming cohort we observed a significant association between psychological distress and obesity, abdominal adiposity and body fat percentage in the farming population. This paper presents a hypothesis based on preliminary data obtained from an ongoing study that could potentially explain the complex correlation between obesity, psychological distress and physical activity among a farming population. We posit that spasmodic physical activity, changing farm practices and climate variability induce prolonged stress in farmers. This increases systemic cortisol that, in turn, promotes abdominal adiposity and weight gain. The hypothesis will be tested by anthropometric, biochemical and psychological analysis matched against systemic cortisol levels and the physical activity of the subjects. IMPLICATIONS OF THE HYPOTHESIS TESTED: Previous studies indicate that farming populations have elevated rates of psychological distress and high rates of suicide. Australian farmers have recently experienced challenging climatic conditions including prolonged drought, floods and cyclones. Through our interactions and through the media it is not uncommon for farmers to describe the effect of this long-term stress with feelings of 'defeat'. By gaining a greater understanding of the role cortisol and physical activity have on mental and physical health we may positively impact the current rates of psychological distress in farmers. ACTRN12610000827033.

  14. Geographical Inquiry in Australian Schools: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the occurrence of geographical inquiry in the Australian curriculum since Geography became a high school subject in 1911. In this historical overview, I reflect upon my own experiences of undertaking geographical inquiry during the 1970s and 1980s. Primary school geographical inquiry experiences can be virtually non-existent…

  15. The Academic Achievement of Elite Athletes at Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakis, Steve; Evans, John Robert; Warwick, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    While sport and student-athletes have featured in the Australian education system since compulsory schooling, there has been no analysis to date of the link between academic achievement and elite student-athletes. However, this is in stark contrast to the United States of America (US), where student-athletes have been the subject of sustained…

  16. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Students and Courses, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of 2009 data relating to students, courses, qualifications, training providers and funding in Australia's publicly funded vocational education and training (VET) system. The Australian VET system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions…

  17. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: Students & Courses. 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides a summary of 2013 data relating to students, courses, qualifications, training providers and funding in Australia's publicly funded vocational education and training (VET) system. The Australian VET system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions…

  18. The Language of Instruction of Immigrant Children: An Australian Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    1978-01-01

    Australian education was strictly monolingual until 1970 when the implementation of the Commonwealth Child Migrant Education Program provided special English instruction for immigrant students. Immigrants' languages are now offered as school subjects, but the growing awareness of multiculturalism has not affected English as the language of school…

  19. Monitoring Diffuse Impacts: Australian Tourism Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken; Buckley

    2000-04-01

    / The scientific quality of monitoring for diffuse environmental impacts has rarely been quantified. This paper presents an analysis of all formal environmental monitoring programs for Australian tourism developments over a 15-year period from 1980 to 1995. The tourism sector provides a good test bed for this study because tourism developments are (1) often adjacent to or even within conservation reserves and other relatively undisturbed natural environments, and (2) often clustered, with resulting cumulative impacts that require detection at an early stage. Here we analyze the precision and reliability with which monitoring programs as actually implemented can detect diffuse environmental impacts against natural variation. Of 175 Australian tourism developments subject to EIA from 1980 to 1993 inclusive, only 13 were subject to formal monitoring. Only 44 individual parameters, in total, were monitored for all these developments together. No baseline monitoring was conducted for nine of the 44 parameters. For the remaining 35, only one was monitored for a full year. Before, after, control, impact, paired sampling (BACIP) monitoring designs were used for 24 of the 44 parameters, and power analysis in 10. The scientific quality of monitoring was significantly better for developments subject to control by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA). The key factor appears to be the way in which GBRMPA uses external referees and manages external consultants. The GBRMPA model merits wider adoption.

  20. Population ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation of neotropical migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    1991-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation's Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program and the USDA Forest Service's role in the program. Recent analyses of data on forest-dwelling species, many of which are neotropical migrants, show population declines in many North American areas. The literature review summarizes...

  1. Understanding the stopover of migratory birds: a scale dependent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R. Moore; Mark S. Woodrey; Jeffrey J. Buler; Stefan Woltmann; Ted R. Simons

    2005-01-01

    The development of comprehensive conservation strategies and management plans for migratory birds depends on understanding migrant-habitat relations throughout the annual cycle, including the time when migrants stopover en route. Yet, the complexity of migration makes the assessment of habitat requirements and development of a comprehensive...

  2. Prevalence of Brucella Antibodies in Migratory Fulani Cattle Herds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brucellosis is a major cause of economic losses such as abortion, infertility, low conception rate and low survival rate of neonates in the livestock industry and zoonoses of great public health significance. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies in migratory Fulani cattle in Kaduna State was determined using the Milk Ring ...

  3. Leadership, collective motion and the evolution of migratory strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Migration is a hallmark life history strategy of a diverse range of organisms, and also ubiquitous in ontogenic processes including normal embryonic development as well as tumor progression. In such scenarios, individual organisms/cells typically respond to long range (and often noisy) environmental cues. In addition, individuals may interact socially with one another leading to emergent group-level navigational abilities. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of taxis, there is a lack of theoretical and quantitative understanding of how individuals trade-off information obtained through their own migratory ability and that via social interactions. Here, we discuss results and insights from a recent computational model developed to investigate the evolution of leadership and collective motion in migratory populations. It is shown that, for a broad range of parameter values, only a small proportion of the population gather directional information while the majority employ social cues alone. More generally, ecological conditions for the evolution of resident, solitary and collective migratory strategies are obtained. We discuss how consideration of both proximate and ultimate factors within the same framework may provide insights into preserving migratory patterns that are in grave danger due to anthropogenic pressures. PMID:21980562

  4. 78 FR 68757 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... regarding the alternatives considered and a brief summary of the recent management history. Those details... available from Cliff Hutt and Karyl Brewster-Geisz, Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Management Division... and Management Act (MSA) and the Atlantic Tunas Conservation Act (ATCA). Under the MSA, management...

  5. Timing is crucial for consequences of migratory connectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, Silke; Lisovski, Simeon; Hahn, Steffen

    Migratory connectivity can have important consequences for individuals, populations and communities. We argue that most consequences not only depend on which sites are used but importantly also on when these are used and suggest that the timing of migration is characterised by synchrony, phenology,

  6. Management and conservation of migratory landbirds overwintering in the neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Petit; James F. Lynch; Richard L. Hutto; John G. Blake; Robert B. Waide

    1993-01-01

    Loss of tropical broadleaved forests and concurrent population declines of long-distance migratory birds in temperate breeding areas have been closely linked in both scientific and popular literature; however, little evidence of a causal association currently exists. We review the current land use situation in the neotropics, the projected outcome of deforestation...

  7. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Although the international spread of the disease is still poorly understood, scientists are increasingly convinced that at least some migratory waterfowl carry the H5N1 ...

  8. Ecosystem services from transborder migratory species: Implications for conservation governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Chester, Charles C.; Semmens, Darius J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Rodriguez-McGoffin, M. Sofia; Merideth, Robert; Diffendorfer, Jay E.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the conservation challenges of volant migratory transborder species and conservation governance primarily in North America. Many migratory species provide ecosystem service benefits to society. For example, insectivorous bats prey on crop pests and reduce the need for pesticides; birds and insects pollinate food plants; and birds afford recreational opportunities to hunters and birdwatchers. Migration is driven by the seasonal availability of resources; as resources in one area become seasonally scarce, individuals move to locations where resources have become seasonally abundant. The separation of the annual lifecycle means that species management and governance is often fractured across international borders. Because migratory species depend on habitat in different locations, their ability to provide ecosystem services in one area depends on the spatial subsidies, or support, provided by habitat and ecological processes in other areas. This creates telecouplings, or interconnections across geographic space, of areas such that impacts to the habitat of a migratory species in one location will affect the benefits enjoyed by people in other locations. Information about telecoupling and spatial subsidies can be used to craft new governance arrangements such as Payment for Ecosystem Services programs that target specific stakeholder groups and locations. We illustrate these challenges and opportunities with three North American case studies: the Duck Stamp Program, Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), and monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus).

  9. Experimental temperature manipulations alter songbird autumnal nocturnal migratory restlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berchtold Adrienne

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Migrating birds may respond to a variety of environmental cues in order to time migration. During the migration season nocturnally migrating songbirds may migrate or stop-over at their current location, and when migrating they may vary the rate or distance of migration on any given night. It has long been known that a variety of weather-related factors including wind speed and direction, and temperature, are correlated with migration in free-living birds, however these variables are often correlated with each other. In this study we experimentally manipulated temperature to determine if it would directly modulate nocturnal migratory restlessness in songbirds. We experimentally manipulated temperature between 4, 14, and 24°C and monitored nocturnal migratory restlessness during autumn in white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis. White-throated sparrows are relatively shortdistance migrants with a prolonged autumnal migration, and we thus predicted they might be sensitive to weatherrelated cues when deciding whether to migrate or stopover. At warm temperatures (24°C none of the birds exhibited migratory restlessness. The probability of exhibiting migratory restlessness, and the intensity of this restlessness (number of infra-red beam breaks increased at cooler (14°C, 4°C temperatures. These data support the hypothesis that one of the many factors that birds use when making behavioural decisions during migration is temperature, and that birds can respond to temperature directly independently of other weather-related cues.

  10. 75 FR 9314 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Purple Swamphens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... gallinules without a permit on rice-producing property in Louisiana according to the terms of a separate... Migratory Bird Treaty Act, or the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act, that person must immediately report... threatened or endangered species or any bird species protected by the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act or...

  11. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  12. 77 FR 70551 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Part 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...; Atlantic Shark Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... shark stock assessments that were completed from 2009 to 2012. The assessments for Atlantic blacknose...

  13. Shared wilderness, shared responsibility, shared vision: Protecting migratory wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Meeks; Jimmy Fox; Nancy Roeper

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness plays a vital role in global and landscape-level conservation of wildlife. Millions of migratory birds and mammals rely on wilderness lands and waters during critical parts of their life. As large, ecologically intact landscapes, wilderness areas also play a vital role in addressing global climate change by increasing carbon sequestration, reducing...

  14. Leadership, collective motion and the evolution of migratory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Vishwesha; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-05-01

    Migration is a hallmark life history strategy of a diverse range of organisms, and also ubiquitous in ontogenic processes including normal embryonic development as well as tumor progression. In such scenarios, individual organisms/cells typically respond to long range (and often noisy) environmental cues. In addition, individuals may interact socially with one another leading to emergent group-level navigational abilities. Although much progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms of taxis, there is a lack of theoretical and quantitative understanding of how individuals trade-off information obtained through their own migratory ability and that via social interactions. Here, we discuss results and insights from a recent computational model developed to investigate the evolution of leadership and collective motion in migratory populations. It is shown that, for a broad range of parameter values, only a small proportion of the population gather directional information while the majority employ social cues alone. More generally, ecological conditions for the evolution of resident, solitary and collective migratory strategies are obtained. We discuss how consideration of both proximate and ultimate factors within the same framework may provide insights into preserving migratory patterns that are in grave danger due to anthropogenic pressures.

  15. Avian Influenza in Migratory Birds : Regional Surveillance and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow APAIR to establish a multi-country surveillance network to detect, characterize and report avian influenza infections in migratory birds. The project is expected to improve early warning on the spread of avian influenza in the region, and provide a better understanding of the role of wild bird species in ...

  16. 75 FR 58993 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Late Seasons and Bag and Possession Limits for Certain Migratory Game Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Statement: Issuance of Annual Regulations Permitting the Sport Hunting of Migratory Birds (FSES 88- 14...) Whether the rule will have an annual effect of $100 million or more on the economy or adversely affect an... Enforcement Fairness Act. For the reasons outlined above, this rule has an annual effect on the economy of...

  17. Environmentalism in the crosshairs: Perspectives on migratory bird hunting and poaching conflicts in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Barca

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Migratory bird hunting has a long tradition in the Mediterranean, but remains a highly controversial issue. Here we examine the Mediterranean migratory bird hunting controversies through the case of Italy. We interviewed key informants and carried out participant observation on both legal and illegal migratory bird hunting and migratory bird protection, in four key migratory bird hunting sites in Italy. In many cases, both migratory bird hunters and bird protection activists consider themselves as the stewards of nature. Environmentalists accuse hunters of illegal practices, while hunters believe anti-poaching activists aim to threaten the existence of hunting itself. Yet surprisingly, the legality of specific hunting practices emerges as peripheral to the concerns of both groups. The lack of dialogue and increasingly polarized positions on both sides make it difficult to assure compliance with EU and national migratory bird hunting laws, and hinders finding shared solutions that consider differing values in a rapidly changing society.

  18. 78 FR 27930 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Yellow-Billed Magpie and Other Revisions to Depredation Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AY60 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Yellow-Billed... primary responsibility for managing migratory birds. This delegation is authorized by the Migratory Bird...). Regulations pertaining to migratory bird permits are ] at 50 CFR 21; subpart D of part 21 contains regulations...

  19. Subjective wellbeing among adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES—Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes-truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L.; Pouwer, F.; Speight, Jane; Cummins, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent to which

  20. Full annual cycle climate change vulnerability assessment for migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Leah A.; Cohen, Emily B.; Scarpignato, Amy L.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Marra, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a serious challenge faced by all plant and animal species. Climate change vulnerability assessments (CCVAs) are one method to assess risk and are increasingly used as a tool to inform management plans. Migratory animals move across regions and continents during their annual cycles where they are exposed to diverse climatic conditions. Climate change during any period and in any region of the annual cycle could influence survival, reproduction, or the cues used to optimize timing of migration. Therefore, CCVAs for migratory animals best estimate risk when they include climate exposure during the entire annual cycle. We developed a CCVA incorporating the full annual cycle and applied this method to 46 species of migratory birds breeding in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes (UMGL) region of the United States. Our methodology included background risk, climate change exposure × climate sensitivity, adaptive capacity to climate change, and indirect effects of climate change. We compiled information about migratory connectivity between breeding and stationary non-breeding areas using literature searches and U.S. Geological Survey banding and re-encounter data. Climate change exposure (temperature and moisture) was assessed using UMGL breeding season climate and winter climate from non-breeding regions for each species. Where possible, we focused on non-breeding regions known to be linked through migratory connectivity. We ranked 10 species as highly vulnerable to climate change and two as having low vulnerability. The remaining 34 species were ranked as moderately vulnerable. In general, including non-breeding data provided more robust results that were highly individualistic by species. Two species were found to be highly vulnerable throughout their annual cycle. Projected drying will have the greatest effect during the non-breeding season for species overwintering in Mexico and the Caribbean. Projected temperature increases will have the greatest

  1. Liminality, the Australian State and Asian Nurse Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Willis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades the flow of Asians to Australia through legitimate immigration programs has accelerated. This is particularly the case for Asian nurses coming from countries that were once subjected to European colonisation. The difficulties encountered by nurses from Asian countries mirror those of earlier waves of migrants. These include navigating the language and differences in cultural mores, values, and beliefs, along with the loneliness that may come from leaving strong family ties at home. While racism has been evident for all earlier waves of migrants, Asians face an additional hurdle linked to the uneasy relationship Australians and the Australian state has with Asia. Australia is geographically in Asia, but culturally Anglo and European.  The impact this might have on the working relationships of Asian and Australian born registered nurses is significant given the nature of their work in caring for the sick and elderly. This liminal relationship between the Australian state and Asians provides a theoretical insight into the particular difficulties experienced by Asian nurses and the integration programs that might assist them and their Australian colleagues to develop cohesive working relationships.

  2. Shape up or ship out: migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Ben B; Hulthén, Kaj; Brönmark, Christer; Nilsson, P Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brodersen, Jakob

    2015-09-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon, with powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences. Morphological adaptations to reduce the energetic costs associated with migratory transport are commonly documented for migratory species. However, few studies have investigated whether variation in body morphology can be explained by variation in migratory strategy within a species. 2. We address this question in roach Rutilus rutilus, a partially migratory freshwater fish that migrates from lakes into streams during winter. We both compare body shape between populations that differ in migratory opportunity (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated with migrating into streams with higher flow conditions than the lakes the residents occupy all year round. 3. We find evidence both across and within populations to support our prediction, with individuals from open lakes and migrants from the partially migratory population having a more slender, shallow-bodied morphology than fish from closed lakes and all-year residents. 4. Our data suggest that a shallow body morphology is beneficial to migratory individuals and our study is one of the first to link migratory strategy and intraspecific variation in body shape. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  3. Winter temperatures limit population growth rate of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Bradley K; Wheelwright, Nathaniel T; Newman, Amy E; Schaub, Michael; Norris, D Ryan

    2017-03-20

    Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics. Above-average temperatures at the wintering grounds lead to higher population growth, primarily through their strong positive effects on survival. However, population growth is regulated over the long term by strong negative effects of breeding density on both fecundity and adult male survival. Such knowledge of how year-round factors influence population growth, and the demographic mechanisms through which they act, will vastly improve our ability to predict species responses to environmental change and develop effective conservation strategies for migratory animals.

  4. Governing Australian Academics: An analysis of governance and subjectivity in Australian universities

    OpenAIRE

    Cannizzo, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how academic work is governed in universities in the twenty-first century. It identifies the factors shaping academic governance in public universities. Recent research suggests that academics operating in such settings confront values tensions emerging from the restructuring of higher education within global knowledge economies. A managerial ethos is becoming ever more present, stemming from the uptake of both neoliberal higher ed...

  5. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C; Roeleke, Manuel; Marggraf, Lara; Pētersons, Gunārs; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius' bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way.

  6. Necrolytic Migratory Erythema as the First Manifestation of Glucagonoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Afsharfard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrolytic migratory erythma (NME as a rare skin disorder that can affected Perineum, distal extremities, lower abdomen and face are the most commonly affected sites.It can be as a part of Glucagonoma syndrome that is defined as an association of glucagonoma with NME, hyperglucagonemia, glucose intolerance, anemia and weight loss. Here, Authors describe a woman admitted to the dermatology ward with NME which was later found to be associated with glucagonoma and multiple hepatic lesions.

  7. Reti migratorie e investimenti diretti esteri italiani: una prospettiva cliometrica

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Marina; Pistoresi Barbara; Rinaldi Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Un recente filone della letteratura economica sottolinea il ruolo delle reti migratorie nel consentire il superamento delle barriere informali che ostacolano lo sviluppo del commercio e degli investimenti internazionali. Questo saggio presenta un modello econometrico (OLS-IV) che considera l'impatto dell'emigrazione italiana all'estero e dell'immigrazione straniera in Italia sulla capacità del paese di generare e attrarre investimenti internazionali. Il principale risultato è che solo gli emi...

  8. Migratory bats respond to artificial green light with positive phototaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeleke, Manuel; Marggraf, Lara; Pētersons, Gunārs; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night is spreading worldwide at unprecedented rates, exposing strictly nocturnal animals such as bats to a novel anthropogenic stressor. Previous studies about the effect of artificial light on bats focused almost exclusively on non-migratory species, yet migratory animals such as birds are known to be largely affected by light pollution. Thus, we conducted a field experiment to evaluate if bat migration is affected by artificial light at night. In late summer, we presented artificial green light of 520 nm wavelength to bats that were migrating south along the shoreline of the Baltic Sea. Using a light on-off treatment, we observed that the activity of Pipistrellus nathusii and P. pygmaeus, the two most abundant migratory species at our site, increased by more than 50% in the light-on compared to the light-off treatment. We observed an increased number of feeding buzzes during the light-on compared to the light-off treatment for P. nathusii. However, feeding activity was low in general and did not increase disproportionately during the light-on treatment in relation to the overall echolocation call activity of bats. Further, P. nathusii were attracted towards the green light at a distance of about 23 m, which is way beyond the echolocation detection range for insects of Nathusius’ bats. We therefore infer that migratory bats were not attracted to artificial green light because of high insect densities, but instead by positive phototaxis. We conclude that artificial light at night may potentially impact bat migration in a yet unrecognized way. PMID:28562607

  9. The modelling of migratory flows into the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyoter Ivanovich Ogorodnikov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the values of management of migratory processes for labor market stabilizing for the purpose of definition of categories of the population necessary for the country/region and a number of manpower are shown. Also, measures of economic incentives of migratory inflow (outflow of the population in the necessary scales and directions for an increase in a contribution of external migrations in the demographic and labor capacity of the country, and the changing of the direction of internal migration flows according to the socioeconomic and national interests of Russia and its regions are presented. Mathematical and economic-mathematical modelling in the management of labor migration are considered as a component of the mechanism of region's labor market stabilization. In this regard, the system of indicators allowing most adequately to estimate a migratory situation and its influence on the formation of labor potential and development of regional labor market is analyzed. The assessment is given to the existing methods of the migration modeling used for the management of the labor migration processes, forecasting, planning, and optimum distribution of manpower. As the analysis result, the most acceptable methods of the migration forecasting, which can be used in justification of the measures directed to the achievement of balanced supply and demand of labor and, respectively, ensuring sustained economic growth and transition to an innovative way of economic development, are defined

  10. The migratory bird treaty and a century of waterfowl conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Batt, Bruce D. J.; Blohm, Robert J.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Perry, Matthew; Ringelman, James K.; Sedinger, James S.; Serie, Jerome R.; Sharp, David E.; Trauger, David L.; Williams, Christopher K.

    2018-01-01

    In the final decades of the nineteenth century, concern was building about the status of migratory bird populations in North America. In this literature review, we describe how that concern led to a landmark conservation agreement in 1916, between the United States and Great Britain (on behalf of Canada) to conserve migratory birds shared by Canada and the United States. Drawing on published literature and our personal experience, we describe how subsequent enabling acts in both countries gave rise to efforts to better estimate population sizes and distributions, assess harvest rates and demographic impacts, design and fund landscape-level habitat conservation initiatives, and organize necessary political and regulatory processes. Executing these steps required large-scale thinking, unprecedented regional and international cooperation, ingenuity, and a commitment to scientific rigor and adaptive management. We applaud the conservation efforts begun 100 years ago with the Migratory Bird Treaty Convention. The agreement helped build the field of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twentieth century but only partially prepares us for the ecological and social challenges ahead. 

  11. The Contested Place of Religion in the Australian Civics and Citizenship Curriculum: Exploring the Secular in a Multi-Faith Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    In the absence of a dedicated subject for teaching general religious education, the inclusion of Civics and Citizenship education as a new subject within the first Federal Australian Curriculum provides an important opportunity for teaching the religious within Australian schools. The curriculum for Civics and Citizenship requires students to…

  12. The avian hippocampus and the hypothetical maps used by navigating migratory birds (with some reflection on compasses and migratory restlessness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingman, Verner P; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2017-07-01

    The homology between the avian hippocampal formation (HF) and mammalian hippocampus nurtures the expectation that HF plays a fundamental role in navigation by migratory birds. Indeed, HF of migratory birds displays anatomical properties that differ from non-migratory species. Using a hypothetical framework of multiple maps of differing spatial resolution and range, homing pigeon data suggest that HF is important for navigating by landscape features near familiar breeding, over-wintering, and stop-over sites. By contrast, HF would be unimportant for an olfactory navigational map, which could be operational over unfamiliar space farther away from a goal location, nor is there any evidence for HF involvement in the sun or geomagnetic compass. The most intriguing question that remains open is what role HF may play in navigation when a migrant is thousands kms away from a familiar area, where homing pigeon data are uninformative and a geomagnetic map may be operational. Beyond navigation, successful migration depends on seasonal timing and often becoming nocturnally active. There is little evidence that HF plays a role in the timing of circannual and circadian cycles. Rather, circadian pacemakers including the pineal gland may control circadian timing of nocturnal restlessness and photoperiodic seasonal pacemakers likely control circannual expression.

  13. Composition of the Migratory Mass During Development of the Olfactory Nerve

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alexandra M.; Treloar, Helen B.; Greer, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    The embryonic development of the olfactory nerve includes the differentiation of cells within the olfactory placode, migration of cells into the mesenchyme from the placode, and extension of axons by the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). The coalition of both placode-derived migratory cells and OSN axons within the mesenchyme is collectively termed the “migratory mass.” Here we address the sequence and coordination of the events that give rise to the migratory mass. Using neuronal and develop...

  14. EVOLUTION OF CONCEPTION OF INTEGRAL BIRDS AREAL: ANALYSIS OF MIGRATORY FLYWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepelova I. A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on distribution and abundance of Ukraine migratory birds have nonsystematic character. Up to now there is no integrated evaluation of migratory bird populations’ status. The available information is of regional importance or it covers limited time period. Therefore, it is obvious to unite all the relevant information in order to establish monitoring program and work out the methodic on migratory birds abundance estimation concerning the Black-Mediterranean Sea Flyway.

  15. Are Australian medical students being taught to teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy C; Liu, Michael; Dannaway, Jasan; Schoo, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The current global trend of growth in medical training is increasing the demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors. If well trained and supported, junior doctors and medical students represent an important teaching resource. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence available on whether Australian medical students are equipped with teaching skills. This study aimed to gain insight into the type and amount of teaching-skills training and peer-to-peer teaching present in Australian medical schools. A survey of Australian medical schools was conducted between May and December 2014. An online 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 19 Australian medical schools. The response rate to the questionnaire was 100 per cent. Eleven Australian medical schools reported offering a teaching-skills programme, of which five were described as compulsory formal programmes. Eight schools did not offer such a programme, citing time restraints and other subjects taking higher priority. Formal peer-to-peer teaching opportunities were described by 17 schools, with 13 offering this electively. Two schools reported that they did not offer such opportunities because of time restraints, the belief that the quality of expert teaching is superior and because of a lack of staffing. The demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors is increasing CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing number of medical students and subsequently junior doctors in Australia, a minority of Australian medical schools report including a formal, compulsory teaching-skills programme. These results may imply a lost opportunity to use the positive effects of teaching-skills programmes, and are in line with studies from other countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  16. Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit study of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Elizabeth; Emder, Phillip; Monagle, Paul; Mowat, David; Petterson, Toni; Russell, Susan; Sachdev, Rani; Stone, Christine; Ziegler, David S

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and types of haemoglobinopathies in Australian children and their distribution among ethnic groups, and to collect information on timing of diagnosis of haemoglobinopathies in Australia. Between January 2004 and March 2006, the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit asked paediatricians to report all children under 15 years of age with a newly diagnosed haemoglobinopathy. A questionnaire requesting further information was forwarded to those clinicians. Carrier states such as thalassaemia minor were excluded. Eighty-four notifications of haemoglobinopathy were received by the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit, with 59 confirmed cases giving a national incidence of 0.74 per 100,000 children < 15 years of age per annum. Of 59 cases, 42 (71%) were Australian born. Twenty-nine (35.6%) children had sickle cell disease, 17 (28.8%) had Hb H disease, six (10.2%) had beta-thalassaemia major and 15 (25.4%) had compound heterozygous conditions. One child died from sickle cell disease. Of Australian born children, at least 10 mothers (23.8%) and 11 fathers (26.2%) were unaware of their carrier status pre-partum (information unavailable for 13 mothers and 17 fathers). Only 11 parents (18.6%) had risks of haemoglobinopathy discussed with them antenatally and only three cases (5.1%) were diagnosed antenatally. We found that a small but significant number of children with haemoglobinopathies are being born in Australia despite existing programmes of testing at-risk groups and neonatal screening. Haemoglobinopathies were also diagnosed in recent immigrants. Greater awareness of these conditions and enhancements of screening and detection programmes may be needed as the genetic diversity of the Australian population continues to develop. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  17. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. Insulin resistance syndrome in Australian aboriginal people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, K G; Best, J D; McDermott, R; Green, E A; Piers, L S; O'Dea, K

    1997-01-01

    1. Like many indigenous populations, Australian Aboriginal people have developed high rates of obesity, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and cardiovascular and renal disease following the transition from a traditional to an 'urbanized' lifestyle. These conditions tend to cluster as part of the insulin resistance syndrome. 2. The prevalence of overweight people and obesity in Australian Aboriginal populations ranges from 0% in communities with a traditionally orientated lifestyle to well over 50% in the worst affected communities. There is a predominantly central pattern of fat deposition in both men and women, which is associated with greater insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk than is peripheral fat deposition. 3. Data from four previously published, population-based surveys in Aboriginal communities were combined to give a cohort of 1079 subjects of 15 years and older. Several conditions of the insulin resistance syndrome had a strong, positive association with increasing body mass index (BMI): NIDDM (both cross-sectionally and longitudinally), hypertension, dyslipidaemia and albuminuria. Remaining lean (BMI physical activity and improve dietary quality are likely to be the major means by which conditions associated with insulin resistance can be prevented in Aboriginal populations.

  20. The bona fide fiduciary loyalty of Australian company directors

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Rosemary Helen

    2017-01-01

    Spearheaded by the High Court’s decision in Breen v Williams, the last two decades have seen an apparent narrowing of Australian fiduciary theory. Focus has been placed on the requirement that fiduciary duties be proscriptive, with primary emphasis on the duties to avoid unauthorised conflicts and profits. A prevalent interpretation is in fact that these are now the only two accepted fiduciary duties. However, company directors have traditionally been subject to other fiduciary duties – prin...

  1. Key Features of Intertidal Food Webs That Support Migratory Shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Béat, Blanche; Dupuy, Christine; Bocher, Pierrick; Chalumeau, Julien; De Crignis, Margot; Fontaine, Camille; Guizien, Katell; Lavaud, Johann; Lefebvre, Sébastien; Montanié, Hélène; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Orvain, Francis; Pascal, Pierre-Yves; Quaintenne, Gwenaël; Radenac, Gilles; Richard, Pierre; Robin, Frédéric; Vézina, Alain F.; Niquil, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The migratory shorebirds of the East Atlantic flyway land in huge numbers during a migratory stopover or wintering on the French Atlantic coast. The Brouage bare mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, NE Atlantic) is one of the major stopover sites in France. The particular structure and function of a food web affects the efficiency of carbon transfer. The structure and functioning of the Brouage food web is crucial for the conservation of species landing within this area because it provides sufficient food, which allows shorebirds to reach the north of Europe where they nest. The aim of this study was to describe and understand which food web characteristics support nutritional needs of birds. Two food-web models were constructed, based on in situ measurements that were made in February 2008 (the presence of birds) and July 2008 (absence of birds). To complete the models, allometric relationships and additional data from the literature were used. The missing flow values of the food web models were estimated by Monte Carlo Markov Chain – Linear Inverse Modelling. The flow solutions obtained were used to calculate the ecological network analysis indices, which estimate the emergent properties of the functioning of a food-web. The total activities of the Brouage ecosystem in February and July are significantly different. The specialisation of the trophic links within the ecosystem does not appear to differ between the two models. In spite of a large export of carbon from the primary producer and detritus in winter, the higher recycling leads to a similar retention of carbon for the two seasons. It can be concluded that in February, the higher activity of the ecosystem coupled with a higher cycling and a mean internal organization, ensure the sufficient feeding of the migratory shorebirds. PMID:24204666

  2. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  3. Migratory White Stork (Ciconia ciconia): A Potential Vector of the OXA-48-Producing Escherichia coli ST38 Clone in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Amira; Loucif, Lotfi; Ayachi, Ammar; Guehaz, Karima; Bendjama, Esma; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2017-10-12

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae is of great concern to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in white stork (Ciconia ciconia) migratory bird stools, and to investigate their molecular support on β-lactamase production. In March 2015, 32 fecal samples of white stork were collected in the Commune of El Madher Wilaya de Batna, in eastern Algeria. Samples were subjected to selective isolation of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Representative colonies were screened phenotypically for carbapenemase production. Carbapenemase-producing isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) coproduction. β-Lactamase determinants were searched for by PCR and sequencing. Three carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli were obtained. Only one strain was positive for ESBL production. The OXA-48-type carbapenemase-encoding gene was detected in all isolates. Screening for other β-lactamase-encoding genes showed that all isolates coexpress the bla TEM gene, whereas one of them additionally harbored the bla CTX-M-15 ESBL gene. Multilocus sequence typing results showed that two strains belonged to the sequence type 38. This work demonstrated for the first time that the migratory white stork can play an important role in the dissemination of OXA-48-producing E. coli as a potential reservoir and vector.

  4. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: VET Program Completion Rates, 2011-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Australian vocational education and training (VET) system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions and enterprises (including to apprentices and trainees). The system provides training for students of all ages and backgrounds. Students may study individual subjects or…

  5. Clock gene polymorphism, migratory behaviour and geographic distribution: a comparative study of trans-Saharan migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Gaia; Cecere, Jacopo G; Caprioli, Manuela; Gatti, Emanuele; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Podofillini, Stefano; Possenti, Cristina D; Ambrosini, Roberto; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Rubolini, Diego

    2016-12-01

    Migratory behaviour is controlled by endogenous circannual rhythms that are synchronized by external cues, such as photoperiod. Investigations on the genetic basis of circannual rhythmicity in vertebrates have highlighted that variation at candidate 'circadian clock' genes may play a major role in regulating photoperiodic responses and timing of life cycle events, such as reproduction and migration. In this comparative study of 23 trans-Saharan migratory bird species, we investigated the relationships between species-level genetic variation at two candidate genes, Clock and Adcyap1, and species' traits related to migration and geographic distribution, including timing of spring migration across the Mediterranean Sea, migration distance and breeding latitude. Consistently with previous evidence showing latitudinal clines in 'circadian clock' genotype frequencies, Clock allele size increased with breeding latitude across species. However, early- and late-migrating species had similar Clock allele size. Species migrating over longer distances, showing delayed spring migration and smaller phenotypic variance in spring migration timing, had significantly reduced Clock (but not Adcyap1) gene diversity. Phylogenetic confirmatory path analysis suggested that migration date and distance were the most important variables directly affecting Clock gene diversity. Hence, our study supports the hypothesis that Clock allele size increases poleward as a consequence of adaptation to the photoperiodic regime of the breeding areas. Moreover, we show that long-distance migration is associated with lower Clock diversity, coherently with strong stabilizing selection acting on timing of life cycle events in long-distance migratory species, likely resulting from the time constraints imposed by late spring migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  7. Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joanne; Bryce, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    A study of Australian nurses on their use of information technology in the workplace was undertaken by the Australian Nursing Federation (ANF) in 2007. This study of over 4000 nurses highlighted that nurses recognise benefits to adopting more information technology in the workplace although there are significant barriers to their use. It also identified gross deficits in the capacity of the nursing workforce to engage in the digital processing of information. Following the release of the study last year, the ANF commenced work on a number of key recommendations from the report in order to overcome identified barriers and provide opportunities for nurses to better utilise information technology and information management systems. One of these recommendations was to seek research funding to develop national information technology and information management competency standards for nurses. This project has now received Federal Government funding to undertake this development. This project is being developed in collaboration with the ANF and the Queensland University of Technology. This paper will discuss the methodology, development and publication of the Australian Nursing Informatics Competency Standards Project which is currently underway and due for completion in May 2009. The Australian Nursing Informatics Competencies will be presented at the conference.

  8. Australian Naturalism and Its Critics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, Park Sun

    1997-01-01

    Details the ongoing debate between Australian naturalists and their critics since the publication of C.W. Evers and G. Lakomski's seminal book "Knowing Educational Administration." Examines critics' views in several categories: the coherence concept, coherentism criteria, the naturalistic fallacy, and questions concerning foundations and…

  9. Big Ideas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Within weeks of taking office, Australia's new Labor government commissioned two major reviews--one of Australia's innovation system and one of Australian higher education. Taken together, these reviews will have major implications for the future of research and teaching in Australia for decades to come. This paper discusses the main…

  10. Australian Queer Science Fiction Fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Stephen Craig

    2017-10-23

    Science fiction (sf) does more than provide a fleeting moment of entertainment; it has many personal and social functions. In addition to offering audiences "romantic escapism" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6), sf also enables the "postulation of an alternative reality from which to contemplate this one" (Gerrold, 1996, pp. 5-6); as such, it is especially important "for groups which have had limited stakes in the status quo" (Jenkins, 1995, p. 242). To date, no research has been undertaken on the relationship between Australian queers and sf fandom. This article reports the findings of an online survey and explores the psycho-social features of Australian queer sf fans and why they like the genre. While the characteristics of this sample mirror those of Australian queers generally, they also have slightly higher rates of mental illness and are far more likely to state they have "no religion." Furthermore, while enjoying the "sciency" (P10, bisexual woman) aspects of sf, Australian queers also like the "poignant metaphors for our own civilization" (P45, asexual man).

  11. Techniques of Australian forest planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Forestry Council

    1978-01-01

    Computer modeling has been extensively adopted for Australian forest planning over the last ten years. It has been confined almost entirely to the plantations of fast-growing species for which adequate inventory, growth, and experimental data are available. Stand simulation models have replaced conventional yield tables and enabled a wide range of alternative...

  12. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  13. Genes predict long distance migration and large body size in a migratory fish, Pacific lamprey

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Jon E.; Caudill, Christopher C; Keefer, Matthew L.; McIlraith, Brian J; Moser, Mary L; Narum, Shawn R

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of genetic mechanisms underpinning migratory behavior could help predict how changes in genetic diversity may affect future spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory species. This ability would benefit conservation of one such declining species, anadromous Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus). Nonphilopatric migration of adult Pacific lamprey has homogenized population-level neutral variation but has maintained adaptive variation that differentiates groups based on geography...

  14. Shape up or ship out: Migratory behaviour predicts morphology across spatial scale in a freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brönmark, C.

    2015-01-01

    (open vs. closed lakes), and between individuals from a single population that vary in migratory propensity (migrants and residents from a partially migratory population). Following hydrodynamic theory, we posit that migrants should have a more shallow body depth, to reduce the costs associated...

  15. 75 FR 12169 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South... Spanish mackerel components of the coastal migratory pelagic fishery operating in the exclusive economic... the required fields, if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to electronic...

  16. 76 FR 60444 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources in the Gulf of Mexico and...) have submitted Amendment 18 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources... comments (enter N/A in the required field if you wish to remain anonymous). You may submit attachments to...

  17. Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Frick; E.F. Baerwald; J.F. Pollock; R.M.R. Barclay; J.A. Szymanski; Ted Weller; A.L. Russell; Susan Loeb; R.A. Medellin; L.P. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Large numbers of migratory bats are killed every year at wind energy facilities. However, population-level impacts are unknown as we lack basic demographic information about these species. We investigated whether fatalities at wind turbines could impact population viability of migratory bats, focusing on the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus),...

  18. 78 FR 65953 - Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations Concerning Certain Depredation Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX92 Migratory Bird Permits; Removal of Regulations.... SUMMARY: We propose to remove regulations that set forth certain depredation orders for migratory birds... these regulations apparently are unused, we propose to remove them. Control of depredating birds could...

  19. 77 FR 34931 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AX97 Migratory Bird Hunting; Meeting Regarding Regulations for the 2012-13 Hunting Season AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... earlier document to establish annual hunting regulations for certain migratory game birds for the 2012-13...

  20. Is There a “Migratory Syndrome” Common to All Migrant Birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Mouritsen, Henrik; Bauchinger, Ulf; Bairlein, Franz

    2005-01-01

    Bird migration has been assumed, mostly implicitly, to represent a distinct class of animal behavior, with deep and strong homologies in the various phenotypic expressions of migratory behavior between different taxa. Here the evidence for the existence of what could be called a “migratory

  1. 75 FR 56555 - Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ..., raptors (birds of prey) listed in 50 CFR 10.13 unless the activities are allowed under Federal regulations... Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Birds; Take of Migrant Peregrine Falcons for Use in Falconry AGENCY... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. George Allen, Division of Migratory Bird Management, U.S. Fish and...

  2. 78 FR 40317 - Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ... 635 Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a; Final Rule #0;#0... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 5a AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... rebuilding of sandbar sharks; end overfishing and rebuild scalloped hammerhead and Atlantic blacknose sharks...

  3. Role of migratory birds in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Eroglu, Cafer; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Hokelek, Murat; Acici, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Hava

    2014-08-01

    We investigated migratory birds' role in spreading Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) through attached ticks. We detected CCHFV RNA in ticks on migratory birds in Turkey. Two isolates showed similarity with CCHFV genotype 4, suggesting a role for ticks in CCHFV epidemics in Turkey and spread of CCHFV by birds.

  4. 50 CFR 92.10 - Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... arrangements for the meeting rooms and associated logistics related to Co-management Council meetings; (2... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management... Structure § 92.10 Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council. (a) Establishment. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  5. Seasonal survival estimation for a long-distance migratory bird and the influence of winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. Rockwell; Joseph M. Wunderle; T. Scott Sillett; Carol I. Bocetti; David N. Ewert; Dave Currie; Jennifer D. White; Peter P. Marra

    2017-01-01

    Conservation of migratory animals requires information about seasonal survival rates. Identifying factors that limit populations, and the portions of the annual cycle in which they occur, are critical for recognizing and reducing potential threats. However, such data are lacking for virtually all migratory taxa. We investigated patterns and environmental correlates of...

  6. Consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites: a theoretical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, T.P.; Houston, A.L.; Ens, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    We use a dynamic optimization model to assess the consequences of habitat loss at migratory stopover sites. We emphasize costs birds face during stopover (e.g. costs of gaining energy), the timing of site use and the behavioural rules birds might use to implement migratory strategies. Behavioural

  7. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A.; Tombre, Ingunn M.; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-01-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  8. Implementation of the first adaptive management plan for a European migratory waterbird population: The case of the Svalbard pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Williams, James Henty; Johnson, Fred A; Tombre, Ingunn M; Dereliev, Sergey; Kuijken, Eckhart

    2017-03-01

    An International Species Management Plan for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose was adopted under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds in 2012, the first case of adaptive management of a migratory waterbird population in Europe. An international working group (including statutory agencies, NGO representatives and experts) agreed on objectives and actions to maintain the population in favourable conservation status, while accounting for biodiversity, economic and recreational interests. Agreements include setting a population target to reduce agricultural conflicts and avoid tundra degradation, and using hunting in some range states to maintain stable population size. As part of the adaptive management procedures, adjustment to harvest is made annually subject to population status. This has required streamlining of monitoring and assessment activities. Three years after implementation, indicators suggest the attainment of management results. Dialogue, consensus-building and engagement among stakeholders represent the major process achievements.

  9. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmacharya, Dibesh; Manandhar, Sulochana; Sharma, Ajay; Bhatta, Tarka; Adhikari, Pratikshya; Sherchan, Adarsh Man; Shrestha, Bishwo; Bista, Manisha; Rajbhandari, Rajesh; Oberoi, Mohinder; Bisht, Khadak; Hero, Jean-Marc; Dissanayake, Ravi; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Hughes, Jane; Debnath, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  10. Fixed and flexible: coexistence of obligate and facultative migratory strategies in a freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an important event in many animal life histories, but the degree to which individual animals participate in seasonal migrations often varies within populations. The powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences of such partial migration are now well documented, but the underlying...... influence, dictating individual consistency in migratory patterns. Unfortunately, field tests of individual consistency compared to the importance of individual condition on migratory propensity are rare. Here we analyse 6 years of field data on roach migration, gathered by tagging almost 3000 individual...... fish and monitoring their seasonal migrations over extended periods of time. Our aims were to provide a field test of the role of condition in wild fish for migratory decisions, and also to assess individual consistency in migratory tendency. Our analyses reveal that (1) migratory strategy, in terms...

  11. Surveillance of Influenza A Virus and Its Subtypes in Migratory Wild Birds of Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibesh Karmacharya

    Full Text Available Nepal boarders India and China and all three countries lie within the Central Asian Flyway for migratory birds. Novel influenza A H7N9 caused human fatalities in China in 2013. Subclinical infections of influenza A H7N9 in birds and the potential for virus dispersal by migratory birds prompted this study to assess avian H7N9 viral intrusion into Nepal. Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory birds was implemented in early 2014 with assistance from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Of 1811 environmental fecal samples collected from seven wetland migratory bird roosting areas, influenza A H9N2 was found in one sample from a ruddy shelduck in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve located in southern Nepal. Avian H7N9 and other highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were not detected. This study provides baseline data on the status of avian influenza virus in migratory bird populations in Nepal.

  12. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  13. 50 CFR 20.109 - Extended seasons, limits, and hours for taking migratory game birds by falconry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... taking migratory game birds by falconry. 20.109 Section 20.109 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING... taking migratory game birds by falconry. This section provides annual regulations by which falconers may...

  14. 50 CFR 92.12 - Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. 92.12 Section 92.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED... MIGRATORY BIRD SUBSISTENCE HARVEST IN ALASKA Program Structure § 92.12 Relationship to the process for developing national hunting regulations for migratory game birds. (a) Flyway councils. (1) Proposed annual...

  15. Management of New England northern hardwoods, spruce-fir, and eastern white pine for neotropical migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    1993-01-01

    Habitat management for neotropical migratory birds must be based upon land capability, vegetation, successional patterns, response to treatments, landscape diversity, and speciedhabitat relationships. Neotropical migratory birds use diverse arrays of aquatic, early successional, and forest habitats. Management of neotropical migratory birds involves enhancement of...

  16. 78 FR 14060 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Revision of Language for Approval of Nontoxic Shot for Use in Waterfowl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 20 RIN 1018-AY59 Migratory Bird Hunting; Revision of Language for...: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties between the United States and Great Britain for Canada (1916 and 1996 as amended...

  17. 78 FR 58248 - Coastal Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; 2013-2014...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC868 Coastal Migratory [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The fishery for coastal migratory pelagic fish (king... Migratory Pelagic Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP). The FMP was prepared by the Gulf...

  18. Fixed and Flexible: Coexistence of Obligate and Facultative Migratory Strategies in a Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Jakob; Chapman, Ben B.; Nilsson, P. Anders; Skov, Christian; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Migration is an important event in many animal life histories, but the degree to which individual animals participate in seasonal migrations often varies within populations. The powerful ecological and evolutionary consequences of such partial migration are now well documented, but the underlying mechanisms are still heavily debated. One potential mechanism of partial migration is between-individual variation in body condition, where animals in poor condition cannot pay the costs of migration and hence adopt a resident strategy. However, underlying intrinsic traits may overrule such environmental influence, dictating individual consistency in migratory patterns. Unfortunately, field tests of individual consistency compared to the importance of individual condition on migratory propensity are rare. Here we analyse 6 years of field data on roach migration, gathered by tagging almost 3000 individual fish and monitoring their seasonal migrations over extended periods of time. Our aims were to provide a field test of the role of condition in wild fish for migratory decisions, and also to assess individual consistency in migratory tendency. Our analyses reveal that (1) migratory strategy, in terms of migration/residency, is highly consistent within individuals over time and (2) there is a positive relationship between condition and the probability of migration, but only in individuals that adopt a migratory strategy at some point during their lives. However, life-long residents do not differ in condition to migrants, hence body condition is only a good predictor of migratory tendency in fish with migratory phenotypes and not a more general determinant of migratory tendency for the population. As resident individuals can achieve very high body condition and still remain resident, we suggest that our data provides some of the first field evidence to show that both facultative and obligate strategies can co-exist within populations of migratory animals. PMID:24594698

  19. “The tie that binds”: commerce, migration, and the Australian Scottish delegation of 1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Vincent Wilkie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By examining the commercial and migratory connections forged between Australia and Scotland between the wars, this article extends discussions of the relationship between the Empire and the Scottish diaspora in Australia. Foreign trade and investment was central to Scotland’s role in the British Empire, and Scottish commercial activities in Australia had their own unique contexts and outcomes. The Australian Scottish Delegation of 1928 offers a distinct example of the commercial links forged between Australia and Scotland in the context of the Empire, and presents insights into the way in which Scottish émigrés imagined their role in the imperial project. Additionally, the linkage of economic development and migration during the interwar period took on a distinctive Scottish flavour with the delegation, and the selection of migrants for emigration offers insights into the ways in which delegates defined and understood the Scottish diaspora in Australia.

  20. The problems of the providing the regions with health care infrastructure in conditions of increase of migratory mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Borisovna Bedrina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of the article is a question of the providing the newcomers to regions of the Russian Federation with healthcare infrastructure facilities. The purpose of the research is an assessment of level of this providing. On the basis of calculation of the integrated indicators of the development of health care infrastructure and the providing the population with healthcare infrastructure facilities the grouping of regions is carried out. By means of the two-dimensional analysis, we made a comparison of regions on indicators of arrival of the population and the above-named settlement indicators. The analysis of dynamics of the number change of healthcare infrastructure facilities during its reforming from 2005 to 2011 is performed. As a result of the research, the following conclusion is drawn: the level of investment into the regions as well as in its health care infrastructure do influence on the intensity of migratory flows, however, distribution of investments into health care facilities in regions does not take in to account the directions of migratory flows and poorly considers the population size of territories. This article may be interesting to the experts dealing with issues of development of regions.

  1. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role a...

  2. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  3. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here, we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a nonsignificant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Lateralization of magnetic compass orientation in a migratory bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Traudt, Joachim; Güntürkün, Onur; Prior, Helmut; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2002-10-01

    Lateralization of brain functions, once believed to be a human characteristic, has now been found to be widespread among vertebrates. In birds, asymmetries of visual functions are well studied, with each hemisphere being specialized for different tasks. Here we report lateralized functions of the birds' visual system associated with magnetoperception, resulting in an extreme asymmetry of sensing the direction of the magnetic field. We found that captive migrants tested in cages with the magnetic field as the only available orientation cue were well oriented in their appropriate migratory direction when using their right eye only, but failed to show a significant directional preference when using their left eye. This implies that magnetoreception for compass orientation, assumed to take place in the eyes alongside the visual processes, is strongly lateralized, with a marked dominance of the right eye/left brain hemisphere.

  5. [New international migrations and migratory models in South European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, E; Pugliese, E

    1996-01-01

    Trends in international migration in the Mediterranean European countries over the course of the 1980s are reviewed. "Particular attention is paid to the different factors that explain the arrival of these migratory fluxes during a period of economic recession and in areas where there is a co-presence of immigration, emigration and unemployment. The involvement of southern European countries as target countries for immigration is not seen as a simple consequence of the [restrictive policies] practiced in the Seventies by European countries with traditional immigration; the push towards these countries as well as the pull to the same are also considered, particularly the acceleration of the internationalization process of the labor markets, the characteristics of the labor markets, and processes of segmentation and tertiarization." (EXCERPT)

  6. Antennae: the strongest magnetic part of the migratory ant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajnberg, Eliane; Cernicchiaro, Geraldo; Esquivel, Darci Motta de Souza

    2004-08-01

    Pachycondyla marginata (P.m.), a migratory and termitophageous ant, hunting only the termite species Neocapritermes opacus, migrates significantly oriented 13 degrees with respect to the magnetic North-South axis. Results of hysteresis curves at room temperature of four Pachycondyla marginata heads, thorax, pairs of antennae and abdomens, oriented parallel to the magnetic field, indicate that the antennae give the strongest saturation magnetization, suggesting this sensory organ as being also a magnetic sensory organ. The total saturation magnetization in a whole P.m. is composed by 42 +/- 3%, 24 +/- 3%, 19 +/- 3% and 15 +/- 3% of antennae, head, thorax and abdomen contributions, respectively. The abdomen hysteresis curve presents a wasp-waisted loop with Hcr/Hc of 4.75, characteristic of mixed magnetic systems.

  7. Contemporary Australian writers and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Maver

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It is amazing to see just how much travel writing, writing which does not exclusively belong to the travel sub-genre of "creative non-fiction", and also how many non-Australian locales, with emphasis on European and Asian ones, there are in the recent contemporary Australian writing since the 1960s. This perhaps speaks about a certain preoccupation or downright trait in the Australian national character. Perhaps, it is a reflection of a particular condition of being "down under", itself derived from "a tradition of colonialism and post-colonialism; from geographical location, both a deterrent and a spur; from post-Romantic literary tradition, coinciding with the early years of white settlement; and from the universal lure of ideas of travel, never more flourishing than at the present" (Hergenhan, Petersson xiii. Tourism is an increasingly global phenomenon to some extent shaping the physical reality as well as the spiritual world of the people involved in it. Within this globalization process, with the prospect of "cyber" travel, there is, however, always an individual "national" experience of the country of destination that a literary traveller puts into words, an experience which is typical and conditioned by specific socio-political and cultural circumstances.

  8. Nursing students' perspectives of the health and healthcare issues of Australian Indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Leanne; Ramjan, Lucie; McDonald, Glenda; Koch, Jane; Baird, David; Salamonson, Yenna

    2015-03-01

    Indigenous people are the most disadvantaged population within Australia with living conditions comparable to developing countries. The Bachelor of Nursing programme at the University of Western Sydney has embedded Indigenous health into the undergraduate teaching programme, with an expectation that students develop an awareness of Indigenous health and healthcare issues. To gain insight into students' perceptions of Indigenous people and whether the course learning and teaching strategies implemented improved students' learning outcomes and attitude towards Indigenous people and Indigenous health in Australia. A mixed methods prospective survey design was chosen. Students enrolled in the Indigenous health subject in 2013 were invited to complete pre- and post-subject surveys that contained closed- and open-ended questions. Students' socio-demographic data was collected at baseline, but the 'Attitude Toward Indigenous Australians' (ATIA) scale, and the 3-item Knowledge, Interest and Confidence to nursing Australian Indigenous peoples scale were administered at both pre- and post-subject surveys. 502 students completed the baseline survey and 249 students completed the follow-up survey. There was a statistically significant attitudinal change towards Indigenous Australians, measured by the ATIA scale, and participants' knowledge, intent to work with Indigenous Australians and confidence in caring for them increased significantly at follow-up. Based on the participants' responses to open-ended questions, four key themes emerged: a) understanding Indigenous history, culture and healthcare; b) development of cultural competence; c) enhanced respect for Indigenous Australians' culture and traditional practices; and d) enhanced awareness of the inherent disadvantages for Indigenous Australians in education and healthcare. There were no statistically significant socio-demographic group differences among those who commented on key themes. Addressing health inequalities for

  9. Migratory corridors of adult female Kemp’s ridley turtles in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J.; Hart, Kristen M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rubio, Cynthia; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Pena, Jaime; Gamez, Daniel Gomez; Gonzales Diaz Miron, Raul de Jesus; Burchfield, Patrick M.; Martinez, Hector J.; Ortiz, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    For many marine species, locations of migratory pathways are not well defined. We used satellite telemetry and switching state-space modeling (SSM) to define the migratory corridor used by Kemp's ridley turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico. The turtles were tagged after nesting at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, USA from 1997 to 2014 (PAIS; n = 80); Rancho Nuevo, Tamaulipas, Mexico from 2010 to 2011 (RN; n = 14); Tecolutla, Veracruz, Mexico from 2012 to 2013 (VC; n = 13); and Gulf Shores, Alabama, USA during 2012 (GS; n = 1). The migratory corridor lies in nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters in the USA and Mexico with mean water depth of 26 m and a mean distance of 20 km from the nearest mainland coast. Migration from the nesting beach is a short phenomenon that occurs from late-May through August, with a peak in June. There was spatial similarity of post-nesting migratory pathways for different turtles over a 16 year period. Thus, our results indicate that these nearshore Gulf waters represent a critical migratory habitat for this species. However, there is a gap in our understanding of the migratory pathways used by this and other species to return from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Therefore, our results highlight the need for tracking reproductive individuals from foraging grounds to nesting beaches. Continued tracking of adult females from PAIS, RN, and VC nesting beaches will allow further study of environmental and bathymetric components of migratory habitat and threats occurring within our defined corridor. Furthermore, the existence of this migratory corridor in nearshore waters of both the USA and Mexico demonstrates that international cooperation is necessary to protect essential migratory habitat for this imperiled species.

  10. Serotonin enhances solitariness in phase transition of the migratory locust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiao eGuo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral plasticity of locusts is a striking trait presented during the reversible phase transition between solitary and gregarious individuals. However, the results of serotonin as a neurotransmitter from the migratory locust Locusta migratoria in phase transition showed an alternative profile compared to the results from the desert locust Schistoserca gregaria. In this study, we investigated the roles of serotonin in the brain during the phase change of the migratory locust. During the isolation of gregarious nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain increased significantly, whereas serotonin receptors (i.e. 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT7 we identified here showed invariable expression patterns. Pharmacological intervention showed that serotonin injection in the brain of gregarious nymphs did not induced the behavior change toward solitariness, but injection of this chemical in isolated gregarious nymphs accelerated the behavioral change from gregarious to solitary phase. During the crowding of solitary nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain remained unchanged, whereas 5-HT2 increased after 1 h of crowding and maintained stable expression level thereafter. Activation of serotonin-5-HT2 signaling with a pharmaceutical agonist inhibited the gregariousness of solitary nymphs in crowding treatment. These results indicate that the fluctuations of serotonin content and 5-HT2 expression are results of locust phase change. Overall, this study demonstrates that serotonin enhances the solitariness of the gregarious locusts. Serotonin may regulate the withdrawal-like behavioral pattern displayed during locust phase change and this mechanism is conserved in different locust species.

  11. Migratory connectivity of american woodcock using band return data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joseph D.; Krementz, David G.

    2017-01-01

    American woodcock (Scolopax minor) are managed as a Central and an Eastern population in the United States and Canada based on band return data showing little crossover between populations or management regions. The observed proportion of crossover between management regions, however, depends on the criteria used to subset the band return data. We analyzed the amount of crossover between management regions using only band return records that represent complete migrations between the breeding and wintering grounds by using only band return records in which the capture took place during the breeding season and the band recovery took place during the wintering season or vice versa (n = 224). Additionally, we applied spatial statistics and a clustering algorithm to investigate woodcock migratory connectivity using this subset of migratory woodcock band return records. Using raw counts, 17.9% of records showed crossover between management regions, a higher proportion than the migrate to destinations within the Central Region, whereas woodcock from the breeding grounds in the Eastern Region migrate to destinations across the entire wintering range and mix with individuals from the Central Region. Using the division coefficient, we estimated that 54% of woodcock from the breeding grounds of the Eastern Region migrate to the Central Region wintering grounds. Our result that many woodcock from separate regions of the breeding grounds mix on the wintering grounds has implications for the 2-region basis for woodcock management. Elucidating finer scale movement patterns among regions provides a basis for reassessing the need for separate management regions to ensure optimal conservation and management of the species.

  12. Tracking climate impacts on the migratory monarch butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Ries, Leslie; Reeves, Rick; Regetz, James; Oberhauser, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate on migratory species is complicated by the fact that these species travel through several climates that may be changing in diverse ways throughout their complete migratory cycle. Most studies are not designed to tease out the direct and indirect effects of climate at various stages along the migration route. We assess the impacts of spring and summer climate conditions on breeding monarch butterflies, a species that completes its annual migration cycle over several generations. No single, broad-scale climate metric can explain summer breeding phenology or the substantial year-to-year fluctuations observed in population abundances. As such, we built a Poisson regression model to help explain annual arrival times and abundances in the Midwestern United States. We incorporated the climate conditions experienced both during a spring migration/breeding phase in Texas as well as during subsequent arrival and breeding during the main recruitment period in Ohio. Using data from a state-wide butterfly monitoring network in Ohio, our results suggest that climate acts in conflicting ways during the spring and summer seasons. High spring precipitation in Texas is associated with the largest annual population growth in Ohio and the earliest arrival to the summer breeding ground, as are intermediate spring temperatures in Texas. On the other hand, the timing of monarch arrivals to the summer breeding grounds is not affected by climate conditions within Ohio. Once in Ohio for summer breeding, precipitation has minimal impacts on overall abundances, whereas warmer summer temperatures are generally associated with the highest expected abundances, yet this effect is mitigated by the average seasonal temperature of each location in that the warmest sites receive no benefit of above average summer temperatures. Our results highlight the complex relationship between climate and performance for a migrating species and suggest that attempts to

  13. Mean Atmospheric Conditions - Australian Tropical Operating Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    analysis method used to define the current ARDU mean ,opi:al atmosphere; b. liaise with appropriate agencies ’eg DRCS, Bureau of Meteorology to assess...encountered in the Austr-alian region . .3 Current Australian _’,teorological Data. 23.1 The Bureau of Meteorology is the prime Australian agen-j -on:e...tropical atmosphere has not been determined, the atmosphere is consistent with current Bureau of Meteorology records which form the basis of Reference E

  14. Advancing migratory bird conservation and management by using radar: An interagency collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Janet M.; Barrow, Wylie C.; Sojda, Richard S.; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Manville, Albert; Green, Michael T.; Krueper, David J.; Johnston, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Migratory birds face many changes to the landscapes they traverse and the habitats they use. Wind turbines and communications towers, which pose hazards to birds and bats in flight, are being erected or proposed across the United States and offshore. Human activities can also destroy or threaten habitats critical to birds during migratory passage, and climate change appears to be altering migratory patterns. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and other agencies are under increasing pressure to identify and evaluate movement patterns and habitats used during migration and other times.

  15. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsons, Melissa; Morley, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index - a consistent spatial assessment of the current state of disaster resilience across Australia - produces the Disaster Resilience Report - Index will...

  16. [Study of migratory grief in immigrant patients seen in primary care clinics. Presentation of a migratory grief evaluation questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Revilla, Luis; de los Ríos Álvarez, Ana M; Luna del Castillo, Juan de Dios; Gómez García, Mercedes; Valverde Morillas, Carmen; López Torres, Ginesa

    2011-09-01

    To validate a questionnaire designed to show the existence of migratory grief (MG) and its dimensions in the immigrant population, and to study its relationship with certain sociodemographic variables. A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicentre study. Consultations in Primary Health Care. The study included 290 Primary Health Care immigrant patients over 18-years old. There were 12 rejections due to, lack of time, absence of a translator, and lack of understanding. An MG questionnaire with 17 questions was employed, carrying out a factor analysis with final extraction of 4 factors explaining 52.1% of overall variance. Sociodemographic variables were collected: gender, age, marital status, nationality, social network, time in Spain, legal and work situation and communication difficulties. Multivariate analysis was performed using the sociodemographic variables. Four factors were found (fear, homesickness, concern and loss of identity), showing that non-communality was grief in immigrant population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. The implementation of an automated tracking algorithm for the track detection of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Elena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; Keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Migratory cyclones and anticyclones mainly account for the short-term weather variations in extra-tropical regions. By contrast to cyclones that have drawn major scientific attention due to their direct link to active weather and precipitation, climatological studies on anticyclones are limited, even though they also are associated with extreme weather phenomena and play an important role in global and regional climate. This is especially true for the Mediterranean, a region particularly vulnerable to climate change, and the little research which has been done is essentially confined to the manual analysis of synoptic charts. For the construction of a comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclonic systems in the Mediterranean using an objective methodology, the Melbourne University automatic tracking algorithm is applied, based to the ERA-Interim reanalysis mean sea level pressure database. The algorithm's reliability in accurately capturing the weather patterns and synoptic climatology of the transient activity has been widely proven. This algorithm has been extensively applied for cyclone studies worldwide and it has been also successfully applied for the Mediterranean, though its use for anticyclone tracking is limited to the Southern Hemisphere. In this study the performance of the tracking algorithm under different data resolutions and different choices of parameter settings in the scheme is examined. Our focus is on the appropriate modification of the algorithm in order to efficiently capture the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean, a closed basin with complex topography. We show that the number of the detected anticyclonic centers and the resulting tracks largely depend upon the data resolution and the search radius. We also find that different scale anticyclones and secondary centers that lie within larger anticyclone structures can be adequately represented; this is important, since the extensions of major

  18. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  19. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. Migratory beekeeping practices contribute insignificantly to transgenic pollen flow among fields of alfalfa produced for seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of genetically engineered crops in agriculture has raised concerns over pollinator-mediated gene flow between transgenic and conventional agricultural varieties. This study evaluated whether contracted migratory beekeeping practices influence transgenic pollen flow among spatially iso...

  3. Narrative report: Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge: July 1974 - June 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1975 fiscal year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Quarterly Narrative Report for August, September and October 1938: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Data Mining Approaches for Habitats and Stopovers Discovery of Migratory Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on using data mining technology to efficiently and accurately discover habitats and stopovers of migratory birds. The three methods we used are as follows: 1. a density-based clustering method, detecting stopovers of birds during their migration through density-based clustering of location points; 2. A location histories parser method, detecting areas that have been overstayed by migratory birds during a set time period by setting time and distance thresholds; and 3. A time-parameterized line segment clustering method, clustering directed line segments to analyze shared segments of migratory pathways of different migratory birds and discover the habitats and stopovers of these birds. Finally, we analyzed the migration data of the bar-headed goose in the Qinghai Lake Area through the three above methods and verified the effectiveness of the three methods and, by comparison, identified the scope and context of the use of these three methods respectively.

  6. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  7. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Quarterly narrative report: February - March - April 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1939. The report begins by...

  8. Activity and migratory flights of individual free-flying songbirds throughout the annual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäckman, Johan; Andersson, Arne; Alerstam, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    the sampling events. Activity levels were stored on an hourly basis throughout the annual cycle, allowing periods of resting/sleep, continuous flight and intermediate activity (foraging, breeding) to be distinguished. Measurements from a light sensor were stored from preprogrammed key stationary periods during...... > 66 (max. 73) nocturnal migratory flights (29 flights in autumn and > 37, max. 44, in spring) adding up to a total of > 434 (max. 495) flight hours. Migratory flights lasted on average 6.6 h with maximum 15.9 h. These flights were aggregated into eight travel episodes (periods of 4-11 nights when......, indicating that the bird was mostly sleeping between these long migratory flights. Annual activity and flight data for free-living songbirds will open up many new research possibilities. Main topics that can be addressed are e.g. migratory flight performance (total flight investment, numbers...

  9. Trends in Aquatic Vegetation Growth on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge 1978 - 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In a five year study, during the summers of 1978-1982, aquatic vegetation was been monitored in the management units on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge for trends...

  10. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for May - July 1939 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  11. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  12. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  13. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Aerial Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: December 3, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aerial waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for management units on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Lake...

  15. Integrated Pest Management Plan : Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : November 14, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This integrated pest management (IPM) plan addresses the control and/or elimination of pest plants, fish, and insects at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, Brigham...

  16. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  17. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : November 1, 1939 to January 31, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from November, 1939 through January, 1940. The report begins by...

  18. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly report : February, March and April, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge from February to April of 1939. Weather conditions, wildlife, and water levels are...

  19. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly narrative report : February 1, 1940 to April 30, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1940. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly report : August 1, 1939 to October 31, 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1939. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Monthly report : May, June, July, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes activities on Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge from May through July of 1938. Weather conditions are discussed as well as wildlife-...

  2. Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge : Quarterly report : August, September, October, 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1938. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Quarterly Narrative Report for August, September and October 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  4. Quarterly Narrative Report for February, March and April 1939: Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  5. Ground Survey for Wintering, Migratory Waterfowl on Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge: November 14, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The ground waterfowl surveys document the number of wintering, migratory waterfowl by species for each management unit on the Pungo Unit of Pocosin Lakes National...

  6. The greenscape shapes surfing of resource waves in a large migratory herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikens, Ellen O.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Merkle, Jerod A.; Dwinnell, Samantha P.H.; Fralick, Gary L.; Monteith, Kevin L.

    2017-01-01

    The Green Wave Hypothesis posits that herbivore migration manifests in response to waves of spring green-up (i.e. green-wave surfing). Nonetheless, empirical support for the Green Wave Hypothesis is mixed, and a framework for understanding variation in surfing is lacking. In a population of migratory mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), 31% surfed plant phenology in spring as well as a theoretically perfect surfer, and 98% surfed better than random. Green-wave surfing varied among individuals and was unrelated to age or energetic state. Instead, the greenscape, which we define as the order, rate and duration of green-up along migratory routes, was the primary factor influencing surfing. Our results indicate that migratory routes are more than a link between seasonal ranges, and they provide an important, but often overlooked, foraging habitat. In addition, the spatiotemporal configuration of forage resources that propagate along migratory routes shape animal movement and presumably, energy gains during migration.

  7. Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge: Quarterly narrative report: February - March - April 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Medicine Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from February through April of 1940. The report begins by...

  8. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : For period September, October, November, December, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge : Narrative report : January 1 - December 31, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  10. Progress Report of the Development of the Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge to June 1, 1936

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge (now known as the J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge) is located just south of the Canadian border in North Dakota....

  11. [Quarterly Biological narrative report for November 1939 - January 1940 on the Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report for Waubay Migratory Waterfowl Refuge covers the biological conditions of the refuge. Weather, vegetation, waterfowl, raptors, upland game birds,...

  12. Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge Second quarter, fiscal year 1933 [1932

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report summarizes wildlife, grazing, protection, improvements, developments, public relations, and disease on Crescent Lake Migratory Bird Refuge...

  13. Provider's and user's perspective about immunization coverage among migratory and non-migratory population in slums and construction sites of Chandigarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Vijaylakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Strengthening routine immunization is a corner stone for countries to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) which aims to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds and MDG 5 improving maternal health compared to 1990 estimates by 2015. The poor urban newborns are more vulnerable to many health and nutrition problems compared to the non-poor urban counterparts. Therefore there is a need to strengthen health system to cater the needs of urban poor. Standardized WHO30*7 cluster sampling for slums and convenience sampling for construction sites. In depth interviews were conducted for user's as well as provider's perspective about immunization coverage. Two hundred ten children and 210 mothers were enrolled in slums and 100 were sampled from construction sites. The slum workers are considered as non-migratory groups whereas construction site workers are considered as migratory population. Among children, 23 % were fully immunized, 73 % were partially immunized and 3 % were unimmunized in non-migratory population whereas 3 % were fully immunized, 91 % were partially immunized and 6 % were unimmunized in migratory population. Among mothers, 43 and 39 % were fully immunized, 13 and 15 % partially immunized and 43 and 46 % were unimmunized in non-migratory and migratory population, respectively. The various reasons attributed for low coverage are (a) dissatisfaction of the users with the service delivery and procedural delays (bureaucracy), (b) lack of faith in health workers, (c) insistence upon ID/vaccination card/aadhar card by the health worker before vaccinating child and (d) ignorance of the need of immunization by the people and migration of the population.

  14. Migratory Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome of the Hips: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Migratory bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES of the hip is a rare entity. We report the case of a 41-year old male with migratory BMES of the hip with eight months interval period between onset of the pain and consultation. This patient was successfully treated non-surgically. It is important to always inform the patient with unilateral BMES of the hip regarding the possibility of future involvement of the contralateral hip.

  15. Modeling the distribution of migratory bird stopovers to inform landscape-scale siting of wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Pocewicz

    Full Text Available Conservation of migratory birds requires understanding the distribution of and potential threats to their migratory habitats. However, although migratory birds are protected under international treaties, few maps have been available to represent migration at a landscape scale useful to target conservation efforts or inform the siting of wind energy developments that may affect migratory birds. To fill this gap, we developed models that predict where four groups of birds concentrate or stopover during their migration through the state of Wyoming, USA: raptors, wetland, riparian and sparse grassland birds. The models were based on existing literature and expert knowledge concerning bird migration behavior and ecology and validated using expert ratings and known occurrences. There was significant agreement between migratory occurrence data and migration models for all groups except raptors, and all models ranked well with experts. We measured the overlap between the migration concentration models and a predictive model of wind energy development to assess the potential exposure of migratory birds to wind development and illustrate the utility of migratory concentration models for landscape-scale planning. Wind development potential is high across 15% of Wyoming, and 73% of this high potential area intersects important migration concentration areas. From 5.2% to 18.8% of each group's important migration areas was represented within this high wind potential area, with the highest exposures for sparse grassland birds and the lowest for riparian birds. Our approach could be replicated elsewhere to fill critical data gaps and better inform conservation priorities and landscape-scale planning for migratory birds.

  16. Rapid 'evolution' of migratory behaviour in the introduced house finch of eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Able, K. P.; Belthoff, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) of eastern North America was introduced onto Long Island, New York, around 1940. The source is presumed to be southern California, where ca. 80% of individuals are completely sedentary. The eastern population has become migratory: by the early 1960s, 36% of eastern house finches were performing migratory movements (more than 80 km from their banding site) and that proportion has fluctuated between 28% and 54% in succeeding years. The movements of birds b...

  17. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  18. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  19. Competitive engineering in Junior Australian Football: Perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competitive engineering in Junior Australian Football: Perceptions and experiences of parents, children and coaches of 9-a-side football in an under-8 ... of game engagement, (b) the game as an educative context, and (c) an appropriate developmental step before the introduction of players to 18-a-side Australian Football.

  20. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  1. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/aifsc/ · What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  2. Australian International Food Security Research Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...

  3. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  4. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  5. Accounting for the ecosystem services of migratory species: Quantifying migration support and spatial subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, Darius J.; Diffendorfer, James E.; López-Hoffman, Laura; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2011-01-01

    Migratory species support ecosystem process and function in multiple areas, establishing ecological linkages between their different habitats. As they travel, migratory species also provide ecosystem services to people in many different locations. Previous research suggests there may be spatial mismatches between locations where humans use services and the ecosystems that produce them. This occurs with migratory species, between the areas that most support the species' population viability – and hence their long-term ability to provide services – and the locations where species provide the most ecosystem services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for estimating how much a particular location supports the provision of ecosystem services in other locations, and for estimating the extent to which local benefits are dependent upon other locations. We also describe a method for estimating the net payment, or subsidy, owed by or to a location that balances benefits received and support provided by locations throughout the migratory range of multiple species. The ability to quantify these spatial subsidies could provide a foundation for the establishment of markets that incentivize cross-jurisdictional cooperative management of migratory species. It could also provide a mechanism for resolving conflicts over the sustainable and equitable allocation of exploited migratory species.

  6. Wind Turbines as Landscape Impediments to the Migratory Connectivity of Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Unprecedented numbers of migratory bats are found dead beneath industrial-scale wind turbines during late summer and autumn in both North America and Europe. Prior to the wide-scale deployment of wind turbines, fatal collisions of migratory bats with anthropogenic structures were rarely reported and likely occurred very infrequently. There are no other well-documented threats to populations of migratory tree bats that cause mortality of similar magnitude to that observed at wind turbines. Just three migratory species comprise the vast majority of bat kills at turbines in North America and there are indications that turbines may actually attract migrating individuals toward their blades. Although fatality of certain migratory species is consistent in occurrence across large geographic regions, fatality rates differ across sites for reasons mostly unknown. Cumulative fatality for turbines in North America might already range into the hundreds of thousands of bats per year. Research into the causes of bat fatalities at wind turbines can ascertain the scale of the problem and help identify solutions. None of the migratory bats known to be most affected by wind turbines are protected by conservation laws, nor is there a legal mandate driving research into the problem or implementation of potential solutions.

  7. Predicting effects of environmental change on a migratory herbivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, R A; Wood, K A; Gilkerson, Whelan; Elkinton, E; Black, J. M.; Ward, David H.; Petrie, M.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in climate, food abundance and disturbance from humans threaten the ability of species to successfully use stopover sites and migrate between non-breeding and breeding areas. To devise successful conservation strategies for migratory species we need to be able to predict how such changes will affect both individuals and populations. Such predictions should ideally be process-based, focusing on the mechanisms through which changes alter individual physiological state and behavior. In this study we use a process-based model to evaluate how Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) foraging on common eelgrass (Zostera marina) at a stopover site (Humboldt Bay, USA), may be affected by changes in sea level, food abundance and disturbance. The model is individual-based, with empirically based parameters, and incorporates the immigration of birds into the site, tidal changes in availability of eelgrass, seasonal and depth-related changes in eelgrass biomass, foraging behavior and energetics of the birds, and their mass-dependent decisions to emigrate. The model is validated by comparing predictions to observations across a range of system properties including the time birds spent foraging, probability of birds emigrating, mean stopover duration, peak bird numbers, rates of mass gain and distribution of birds within the site: all 11 predictions were within 35% of the observed value, and 8 within 20%. The model predicted that the eelgrass within the site could potentially support up to five times as many birds as currently use the site. Future predictions indicated that the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were relatively insensitive to sea level rise over the next 100 years, primarily because eelgrass habitat could redistribute shoreward into intertidal mudflats within the site to compensate for higher sea levels. In contrast, the rate of mass gain and mean stopover duration were sensitive to changes in total eelgrass biomass and the percentage of time

  8. Views on luck and winning, self-control, and gaming service expectations of culturally and linguistically diverse Australian poker machine gamblers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ohtsuka, Keis

    2013-01-01

    ... (20 Chinese, 15 Vietnamese and 14 Greek Australians) were interviewed regarding their views on the concept of luck and winning, self control, subjective meanings of gambling and gaming venue service expectations...

  9. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} (Samarium-153 EDTMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, N.R.; Whitwell, J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Australian Radioisotopes

    1997-10-01

    Quadramet{sup T} (Samarium-153 EDTMP) has been shown overseas to be potentially useful in the palliation of painful osteoblastic skeletal metastases and has been approved this year for general marketing in the USA. Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) has licensed this product from the Australian patent holders, Dow Chemical. Within the facilities of ARI, a hot cell has been dedicated to this product and fitted out to manufacture it weekly on a cycle related to the operating cycle of the Australian reactor HIFAR. Due to neutron flux limitations of HIFAR, the local formulation has an elemental Samarium content up to 200{mu}g/mL whereas the overseas formulation has a level of 20-46{mu}g/mL. All other specifications of the two products are essentially the same. In 1995 and 1996 a small clinical trial with 19 patients was held which demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic behaviour was also essentially the same by measuring blood clearance rates and skeletal uptake dynamics. Soft tissue uptake was also qualitatively determined. The ARI version is now the subject of an application for general marketing within Australia. Some useful characteristics of this agent are: almost complete excretion or fixation in the skeleton within 6 hours, rapid onset of clinical effect, applicability in most cases where an abnormal diagnostic bone scan correlates with painful sites, dosage can be tailored to individual patient uptake due to easy dose measurement and retreatment is quite possible. The use of this class of agents in pain palliation continues to increase. Australian manufacture of Quadramet{sup TM} provides a further option in the management of these difficult cases

  10. How Academics in Undergraduate Business Programs at an Australian University View Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heidt, Tania; Lamberton, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    This article explores conceptualisations of sustainability and perceptions of its importance in curriculum held by business subject and program leaders. Results are reported from an empirical study of the first-year Bachelor of Business program at an Australian university. Research data was collected in 16 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with…

  11. Re-Reading Representations of Indigenality in Australian Children's Literature: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Gearing, Brooke

    2006-01-01

    Australian children's literature has a history of excluding Indigenous child readers and positioning non-Indigenous readers as the subject. Rather than portray such literature, particularly before the 1950s, as simply racist or stereotypical, I argue that it is important for teachers, of all students, to help readers understand how nationalist or…

  12. Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Australian Mining Towns: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonts, Matthew; Plummer, Paul; Lawrie, Misty

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the links between resource dependence and socio-economic wellbeing has long been a subject of interest amongst social scientists in North America. By contrast, relatively few Australian studies exist on this topic. This is despite the significant role of resource industries in shaping Australia's economic and social geography. Where…

  13. Teachers' Attitudes to Including Indigenous Knowledges in the Australian Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Renee

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction of the Australian National Curriculum containing the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures" Cross-Curriculum Priority (CCP) and "Intercultural Understanding" General Capability, there has been a renewed push to embed Indigenous content into secondary school subjects. This paper…

  14. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  15. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  16. Recurrent and migratory reflex sympathetic dystrophy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, H C; Nelson, V S

    2000-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a syndrome characterized by superficial pain and tenderness associated with swelling, vasomotor instability, and dystrophic changes of the skin. In children, it is rarely reported and is felt to have a more benign and self-limited course. This case illustrates that, in children, reflex sympathetic dystrophy can occur without any previous history of trauma, and may be recurrent and migratory. A review of the literature is included. An 11-year-old girl, with no history of trauma, presented in 1992 with spontaneous onset of right leg pain. She was diagnosed with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, and she was treated unsuccessfully with oral medications. Her symptoms then resolved in 2 weeks after receiving epidural anaesthesia and aggressive physical therapy. Over the next 5 years, she presented to the paediatric rehabilitation clinic three times with recurrent RSD in her bilateral arms. The first two times were refractory to conservative management and resolved with four stellate ganglion blocks. The third recurrence persisted with three stellate ganglion blocks and resolved with gabapentin.

  17. Cardiac filariosis in migratory Mute swans (Cygnus olor in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Manno

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarconema eurycerca is a common parasitic disease of North America swans and geese. The infection has been correlated with severe heart lesions, often resulting in cardiac failure and death of the animals. Heartworms infections have been previously reported in European swans, and specifically in the United Kingdom and Nederland. Both the countries are characterized by a cold temperate weather, similar to the one that can be found in swan wintering areas of U.S.A. and Canada. The first record of cardiac filariasis associated with Sarconema eurycerca infection in four swans in Italy. Twelve mute swans were examined during avian influenza surveillance activities on migratory birds. Birds were collected in the year 2006, in wintering areas of Eastern Sicily (Italy. Four of the twelve swans showed necrotic-haemorrhagic myocarditis with intra-lesional nematodes. Morphological characteristics identified the parasite as a filarial nematode. Birds lungs samples were used for parasites DNA extraction. The latter was used as template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and sequencing of part of the 12S rDNA gene. Comparison of genomic DNA extracted from a reference S. eurycerca isolate confirmed parasite identity and provided the first sequence resources for this species of value to future diagnostic and epidemiological studies.

  18. Regional Migratory Osteoporosis of the Hip and Talus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Shahverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH is a relatively rare disorder characterized by the loss of bone tissue in the proximal femur. Hip joint is the most common location of the disease, although it may also involve the knee, ankle or foot bones. Self-limited nature of the disease is characteristic with complete relief of symptoms occurring after 6 - 12 months. Case Presentation Authors report a case with transient osteoporosis of the hip and a clear migratory pattern of osteoporosis from the hip to talus bone in the ipsilateral foot. Spontaneous resolution of symptoms occurred in the patient and he was asymptomatic in the last follow-up. Conclusions It is important to consider TOH in the differential diagnosis of middle-aged males and young females with hip pain. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute foot and ankle pain. The importance of recognizing this condition lies in its self-limiting nature, with spontaneous resolution in less than a year in the majority of cases. Consequently, invasive investigations may often be avoided in these patients.

  19. Cyanide and migratory birds at gold mines in Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C J; Hallock, R J; Hill, E F

    1994-03-01

    : Since the mid-1980s, cyanide in heap leach solutions and mill tailings ponds at gold mines in Nevada has killed a large but incompletely documented number of wildlife (>9,500 individuals, primarily migratory birds). This field investigation documents the availability of cyanide at a variety of 'typical' Nevada gold mines during 1990 and 1991, describes wildlife reactions to cyanide solutions, and discusses procedures for eliminating wildlife loss from cyanide poisoning. Substantial progress has been made to reduce wildlife loss. About half of the mill tailings ponds (some up to 150 ha) in Nevada have been chemically treated to reduce cyanide concentrations (the number needing treatment is uncertain) and many of the smaller heap leach solution ponds and channels are now covered with netting to exclude birds and most mammals. The discovery of a cyanide gradient in mill tailings ponds (concentration usually 2-3 times higher at the inflow point than at reclaim point) provides new insight into wildlife responses (mortality) observed in different portions of the ponds. Finding dead birds on the tops of ore heaps and associated with solution puddling is a new problem, but management procedures for eliminating this source of mortality are available. A safe threshold concentration of cyanide to eliminate wildlife loss could not be determined from the field data and initial laboratory studies. New analytical methods may be required to assess further the wildlife hazard of cyanide in mining solutions.

  20. Microglia and neurons in the hippocampus of migratory sandpipers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla and the spotted sandpiper Actitis macularia are long- and short-distance migrants, respectively. C. pusilla breeds in the sub-arctic and mid-arctic tundra of Canada and Alaska and winters on the north and east coasts of South America. A. macularia breeds in a broad distribution across most of North America from the treeline to the southern United States. It winters in the southern United States, and Central and South America. The autumn migration route of C. pusilla includes a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean, whereas autumn route of A. macularia is largely over land. Because of this difference in their migratory paths and the visuo-spatial recognition tasks involved, we hypothesized that hippocampal volume and neuronal and glial numbers would differ between these two species. A. macularia did not differ from C. pusilla in the total number of hippocampal neurons, but the species had a larger hippocampal formation and more hippocampal microglia. It remains to be investigated whether these differences indicate interspecies differences or neural specializations associated with different strategies of orientation and navigation.

  1. Analytic solution of an oscillatory migratory α2 stellar dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Analytic solutions of the mean-field induction equation predict a nonoscillatory dynamo for homogeneous helical turbulence or constant α effect in unbounded or periodic domains. Oscillatory dynamos are generally thought impossible for constant α. Aims: We present an analytic solution for a one-dimensional bounded domain resulting in oscillatory solutions for constant α, but different (Dirichlet and von Neumann or perfect conductor and vacuum) boundary conditions on the two boundaries. Methods: We solve a second order complex equation and superimpose two independent solutions to obey both boundary conditions. Results: The solution has time-independent energy density. On one end where the function value vanishes, the second derivative is finite, which would not be correctly reproduced with sine-like expansion functions where a node coincides with an inflection point. The field always migrates away from the perfect conductor boundary toward the vacuum boundary, independently of the sign of α. Conclusions: The obtained solution may serve as a benchmark for numerical dynamo experiments and as a pedagogical illustration that oscillatory migratory dynamos are possible with constant α.

  2. The Likelihood of Completing a Government-Funded VET Program, 2010-14. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Australian vocational education and training (VET) system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions and enterprises (including to apprentices and trainees). The system provides training for students of all ages and backgrounds. Students may study individual subjects or…

  3. Wave transport in the South Australian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, John A. T.; James, Charles

    2018-02-01

    The specification of the dynamics of the air-sea boundary layer is of fundamental importance to oceanography. There is a voluminous literature on the subject, however a strong link between the velocity profile due to waves and that due to turbulent processes in the wave boundary layer does not appear to have been established. Here we specify the velocity profile due to the wave field using the Toba spectrum, and the velocity profile due to turbulence at the sea surface by the net effect of slip and wave breaking in which slip is the dominant process. Under this specification, the inertial coupling of the two fluids for a constant viscosity Ekman layer yields two independent estimates for the frictional parameter (which is a function of the 10 m drag coefficient and the peak wave period) of the coupled system, one of which is due to the surface Ekman current and the other to the peak wave period. We show that the median values of these two estimates, evaluated from a ROMS simulation over the period 2011-2012 at a station on the Southern Shelf in the South Australian Basin, are similar in strong support of the air-sea boundary layer model. On integrating over the planetary boundary layer we obtain the Ekman transport (w*2/f) and the wave transport due to a truncated Toba spectrum (w*zB/κ) where w* is the friction velocity in water, f is the Coriolis parameter, κ is von Karman's constant and zB = g T2/8 π2 is the depth of wave influence in which g is the acceleration of gravity and T is the peak wave period. A comparison of daily estimates shows that the wave transports from the truncated Toba spectrum and from the SWAN spectral model are highly correlated (r = 0.82) and that on average the Toba estimates are about 86% of the SWAN estimates due to the omission of low frequency tails of the spectra, although for wave transports less than about 0.5 m2 s-1 the estimates are almost equal. In the South Australian Basin the Toba wave transport is on average about 42% of

  4. Individual differences in migratory behavior shape population genetic structure and microhabitat choice in sympatric blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolshausen, Gregor; Segelbacher, Gernot; Hermes, Claudia; Hobson, Keith A; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-10-01

    In migratory birds, traits such as orientation and distance are known to have a strong genetic background, and they often exhibit considerable within-population variation. How this variation relates to evolutionary responses to ongoing selection is unknown because the underlying mechanisms that translate environmental changes into population genetic changes are unclear. We show that within-population genetic structure in southern German blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is related to individual differences in migratory behavior. Our 3-year study revealed a positive correlation between individual migratory origins, denoted via isotope (δ (2)H) values, and genetic distances. Genetic diversity and admixture differed not only across a recently established migratory polymorphism with NW- and SW-migrating birds but also across δ (2)H clusters within the same migratory route. Our results suggest assortment based on individual migratory origins which would facilitate evolutionary responses. We scrutinized arrival times and microhabitat choice as potential mechanisms mediating between individual variation in migratory behavior and assortment. We found significant support that microhabitat choice, rather than timing of arrival, is associated with individual variation in migratory origins. Moreover, examining genetic diversity across the migratory divide, we found migrants following the NW route to be genetically more distinct from each other compared with migrants following the traditional SW route. Our study suggests that migratory behavior shapes population genetic structure in blackcaps not only across the migratory divide but also on an individual level independent of the divide. Thus, within-population variation in migratory behavior might play an important role in translating environmental change into genetic change.

  5. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R9-MB-2012-0028; FF09M21200-123-FXMB1231099BPP0L2] RIN 1018-AY61 Migratory Bird Hunting... INFORMATION CONTACT: George Allen, at 703-358-1825. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (Act) (16 U.S.C. 703-712 and 16 U.S.C. 742 a-j) implements migratory bird treaties...

  6. (Re)form with Substance? Restructuring and governance in the Australian health system 2004/05

    OpenAIRE

    Rix, Mark; Owen, Alan; Eagar, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The Australian health system has been the subject of multiple reviews and reorganisations over the last twenty years or more. The year 2004–2005 was no different. This paper reviews the reforms, (re)structures and governance arrangements in place at both the national and state/territory levels in the last year. At the national level some progress has been made in 2004/05 through the Australian Health Ministers' Council and there is now a national health reform agenda, albeit not a comprehensi...

  7. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  8. Genesis of Australian immigrant policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Ljubica R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is typical country of immigration. Therefore, process of adaptation is great issue in Australian society. When the immigrant arrives and stays in a new community, attention will be concentrated upon three aspects of change and their determinants. The first of these aspects concerns what happens to him during the initial period of readjustment and resettlement. When successful this period concludes with the immigrant experiencing a general state of satisfaction with his new life. Given that he feels more satisfied than dissatisfied the foundation exists for the growth of a new sense of attachment or belonging to his adopted community. Where this new sense of attachment develops, if it does, the immigrant may be described as having reached the identification level of assimilation. When major changes in attitudes, beliefs and behaviors have actually occurred then the new group member may be described as having reached the acculturation level of assimilation.

  9. Population and Australian development assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R

    1992-07-01

    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  10. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  11. A STUDY ON GOAL ORIENTATION BETWEEN INDIAN AND AUSTRALIAN WOMEN CRICKET PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Navaneethan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nicholl’s motivation conceptual framework pertaining to achievement goals was used to study the relationship between two implicit goal orientation and achievement cognitions and beliefs about the competitive team sport experience. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in goal orientation between Indian and Australian women cricketers. The sample was consisted of 35 Indian women cricketers and 35 Australian women cricketers, age 16 to 24 years (M=20.35. Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire(TEOSQ was administered to these subjects. The results showed that significant differences in both task orientation and ego orientation between the two country players. From these results it appears that the Australian players were more task oriented than the Indian players.

  12. An experimental assessment of vehicle disturbance effects on migratory shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Nathan M.; Simons, T.R.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic is one of several forms of disturbance thought to affect shorebirds at migration stopover sites. Attempts to measure disturbance effects on shorebird habitat use and behavior at stopover sites are difficult because ORV disturbance is frequently confounded with habitat and environmental factors. We used a before-after-control-impact experimental design to isolate effects of vehicle disturbance from shorebird responses to environmental and habitat factors. We manipulated disturbance levels within beach closures along South Core Banks, North Carolina, USA, and measured changes in shorebird abundance and location, as well as the activity of one focal species, the sanderling (Calidris alba), within paired control and impact plots. We applied a discrete treatment level of one flee-response-inducing event every 10 minutes on impact plots. We found that disturbance reduced total shorebird and black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) abundance and reduced relative use of microhabitat zones above the swash zone (wet sand and dry sand) by sanderlings, black-bellied plovers, willets (Tringa semipalmata), and total shorebirds. Sanderlings and total shorebirds increased use of the swash zone in response to vehicle disturbance. Disturbance reduced use of study plots by sanderlings for resting and increased sanderling activity, but we did not detect an effect of vehicle disturbance on sanderling foraging activity. We provide the first estimates of how a discrete level of disturbance affects shorebird distributions among ocean beach microhabitats. Our findings provide a standard to which managers can compare frequency and intensity of disturbance events at other shorebird stopover and roosting sites and indicate that limiting disturbance will contribute to use of a site by migratory shorebirds. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  13. Mapping migratory bird prevalence using remote sensing data fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Swatantran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Improved maps of species distributions are important for effective management of wildlife under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Recent advances in lidar and radar remote sensing have shown considerable potential for mapping forest structure and habitat characteristics across landscapes. However, their relative efficacies and integrated use in habitat mapping remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the use of lidar, radar and multispectral remote sensing data in predicting multi-year bird detections or prevalence for 8 migratory songbird species in the unfragmented temperate deciduous forests of New Hampshire, USA. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A set of 104 predictor variables describing vegetation vertical structure and variability from lidar, phenology from multispectral data and backscatter properties from radar data were derived. We tested the accuracies of these variables in predicting prevalence using Random Forests regression models. All data sets showed more than 30% predictive power with radar models having the lowest and multi-sensor synergy ("fusion" models having highest accuracies. Fusion explained between 54% and 75% variance in prevalence for all the birds considered. Stem density from discrete return lidar and phenology from multispectral data were among the best predictors. Further analysis revealed different relationships between the remote sensing metrics and bird prevalence. Spatial maps of prevalence were consistent with known habitat preferences for the bird species. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results highlight the potential of integrating multiple remote sensing data sets using machine-learning methods to improve habitat mapping. Multi-dimensional habitat structure maps such as those generated from this study can significantly advance forest management and ecological research by facilitating fine-scale studies at both stand and landscape level.

  14. Mapping migratory bird prevalence using remote sensing data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swatantran, Anu; Dubayah, Ralph; Goetz, Scott; Hofton, Michelle; Betts, Matthew G; Sun, Mindy; Simard, Marc; Holmes, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Improved maps of species distributions are important for effective management of wildlife under increasing anthropogenic pressures. Recent advances in lidar and radar remote sensing have shown considerable potential for mapping forest structure and habitat characteristics across landscapes. However, their relative efficacies and integrated use in habitat mapping remain largely unexplored. We evaluated the use of lidar, radar and multispectral remote sensing data in predicting multi-year bird detections or prevalence for 8 migratory songbird species in the unfragmented temperate deciduous forests of New Hampshire, USA. A set of 104 predictor variables describing vegetation vertical structure and variability from lidar, phenology from multispectral data and backscatter properties from radar data were derived. We tested the accuracies of these variables in predicting prevalence using Random Forests regression models. All data sets showed more than 30% predictive power with radar models having the lowest and multi-sensor synergy ("fusion") models having highest accuracies. Fusion explained between 54% and 75% variance in prevalence for all the birds considered. Stem density from discrete return lidar and phenology from multispectral data were among the best predictors. Further analysis revealed different relationships between the remote sensing metrics and bird prevalence. Spatial maps of prevalence were consistent with known habitat preferences for the bird species. Our results highlight the potential of integrating multiple remote sensing data sets using machine-learning methods to improve habitat mapping. Multi-dimensional habitat structure maps such as those generated from this study can significantly advance forest management and ecological research by facilitating fine-scale studies at both stand and landscape level.

  15. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  16. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  17. Migratory sleeplessness in the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels C Rattenborg

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Twice a year, normally diurnal songbirds engage in long-distance nocturnal migrations between their wintering and breeding grounds. If and how songbirds sleep during these periods of increased activity has remained a mystery. We used a combination of electrophysiological recording and neurobehavioral testing to characterize seasonal changes in sleep and cognition in captive white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii across nonmigratory and migratory seasons. Compared to sparrows in a nonmigratory state, migratory sparrows spent approximately two-thirds less time sleeping. Despite reducing sleep during migration, accuracy and responding on a repeated-acquisition task remained at a high level in sparrows in a migratory state. This resistance to sleep loss during the prolonged migratory season is in direct contrast to the decline in accuracy and responding observed following as little as one night of experimenter-induced sleep restriction in the same birds during the nonmigratory season. Our results suggest that despite being adversely affected by sleep loss during the nonmigratory season, songbirds exhibit an unprecedented capacity to reduce sleep during migration for long periods of time without associated deficits in cognitive function. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate migratory sleeplessness may provide insights into the etiology of changes in sleep and behavior in seasonal mood disorders, as well as into the functions of sleep itself.

  18. Body condition explains migratory performance of a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Niles, Lawrence J; Dey, Amanda; Aubry, Yves; Friis, Christian; Koch, Stephanie; Anderson, Alexandra M; Smith, Paul A

    2017-11-15

    Body condition (i.e. relative mass after correcting for structural size) affects the behaviour of migrating birds, but how body condition affects migratory performance, timing and fitness is still largely unknown. Here, we studied the effects of relative body condition on individual departure decisions, wind selectivity, flight speed and timing of migration for a long-distance migratory shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus rufa. By using automated VHF telemetry on a continental scale, we studied knots' migratory movements with unprecedented temporal resolution over a 3-year period. Knots with a higher relative body condition left the staging site later than birds in lower condition, yet still arrived earlier to their Arctic breeding grounds compared to knots in lower relative body condition. They accomplished this by selecting more favourable winds at departure, thereby flying faster and making shorter stops en route Individuals with a higher relative body condition in spring migrated south up to a month later than individuals in lower condition, suggesting that individuals in better condition were more likely to have bred successfully. Moreover, individuals with a lower relative body condition in spring had a lower probability of being detected in autumn, suggestive of increased mortality. The pressure to arrive early to the breeding grounds is considered to be an important constraint of migratory behaviour and this study highlights the important influence of body condition on migratory decisions, performance and potentially fitness of migrant birds. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelfi, Kym J; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia

    2015-12-22

    Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women's beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to determine the extent to which these factors predict intention to exercise within a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework. Pregnant women (22 ± 2 weeks of gestation) living in China (n = 240) and Australia (n = 215) completed a questionnaire designed to assess a) maternal beliefs regarding the importance of exercise in relation to other health behaviours, b) attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions toward exercise, and c) current levels of physical activity. One-way analyses of variance were used to compare the demographics, maternal beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, intentions to exercise, and current physical activity levels between the Chinese and Australian samples. Structural equation modelling was used to determine which factors predicted intention to exercise in the two samples. Australian women reported higher levels of current exercise and intentions to exercise in the next four weeks of pregnancy compared with Chinese women. These observations were associated with higher instrumental attitudes, ratings of subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise in the Australian women. Instrumental attitudes and perceived behavioural control predicted intention to exercise in the Australian women, while perceived behavioural control was the only predictor of intentions to exercise in the Chinese sample. Beliefs, attitudes, barriers and intentions towards exercise during pregnancy differ

  20. Oculomotor cognitive control abnormalities in Australian rules football players with a history of concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Meaghan; Mutimer, Steven; Wright, David K; Tsang, Adrian; Costello, Daniel; Gardner, Andrew; Stanwell, Peter; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Sun, Mujun; Brady, Rhys D; McDonald, Stuart John; Webster, Kyria Maree; Johnstone, Maddison; Fielding, Joanne; Semple, Bridgette; Agoston, Denes V; White, Owen B; Frayne, Richard; O'Brien, Terence John; Shultz, Sandy Richard

    2017-12-11

    This study used oculomotor, cognitive, and multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures to assess for neurological abnormalities in current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules footballers (i.e., Australia's most participated collision sport) with a history of sports-related concussion (SRC). Participants were 15 male amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC greater than 6 months previously, and 15 sex-, age- and education-matched athlete control subjects that had no history of neurotrauma or participation in collision sports. Participants completed a clinical interview, neuropsychological measures and oculomotor measures of cognitive control. MRI investigation involved structural imaging, as well as diffusion tensor imaging and resting state functional MRI sequences. Despite no group differences on conventional neuropsychological tests and multimodal MRI measures, Australian rules football players with a history of SRC performed significantly worse on an oculomotor switch task: a measure of cognitive control that interleaves the response of looking towards a target (i.e., a prosaccade) with the response of looking away from a target (i.e., an antisaccade). Specifically, Australian footballers performed significantly shorter latency prosaccades and found changing from an antisaccade trial to a prosaccade trial (switch cost) significantly more difficult than control subjects. Poorer switch cost was related to poorer performance on a number of neuropsychological measures of inhibitory control. Further, when comparing performance on the cognitively more demanding switch task with performance on simpler, antisaccade/prosaccades tasks which require a single response, Australian footballers demonstrated a susceptibility to increased cognitive load, compared to the control group who were unaffected. These initial results suggest that current asymptomatic amateur Australian rules football players with a history of SRC may have persisting

  1. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of retroelements in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retroelements can successfully colonize eukaryotic genome through RNA-mediated transposition, and are considered to be some of the major mediators of genome size. The migratory locust Locusta migratoria is an insect with a large genome size, and its genome is probably subject to the proliferation of retroelements. An analysis of deep-sequencing transcriptome data will elucidate the structure, diversity and expression characteristics of retroelements. RESULTS: We performed a de novo assembly from deep sequencing RNA-seq data and identified 105 retroelements in the locust transcriptome. Phylogenetic analysis of reverse transcriptase sequences revealed 1 copia, 1 BEL, 8 gypsy and 23 non-long terminal repeat (LTR retroelements in the locust transcriptome. A novel approach was developed to identify full-length LTR retroelements. A total of 5 full-length LTR retroelements and 2 full-length non-LTR retroelements that contained complete structures for retrotransposition were identified. Structural analysis indicated that all these retroelements may have been activated or deprived of retrotransposition activities very recently. Expression profiling analysis revealed that the retroelements exhibited a unique expression pattern at the egg stage and showed differential expression profiles between the solitarious and gregarious phases at the fifth instar and adult stage. CONCLUSION: We hereby present the first de novo transcriptome analysis of retroelements in a species whose genome is not available. This work contributes to a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of retroelements in the locust transcriptome. More importantly, the results reveal that non-LTR retroelements are abundant and diverse in the locust transcriptome.

  2. Australian Vocational Education: Learning from Past Mistakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, John

    1992-01-01

    Competing pressures on Australian educational managers include pressure to implement competency-based training, to manage using the industrial model, and to husband resources, conflicting with traditional educational goals, government policies, and demands for accountability. (SK)

  3. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

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    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  4. Metaphyseal osteopathy in three Australian Kelpie siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwell, C M; Brain, P H; Dunn, A L

    2014-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy (MO) was diagnosed in three Australian Kelpie puppies that were presented for veterinary assessment of lameness. The three puppies were siblings. Each was from a different litter by the same breeding pair. The puppy in case one was seen by the authors, and the puppies in cases two and three were patients at other veterinary hospitals. However, the medical records and radiographs were examined and reviewed for this report. Radiographic investigation of the lameness revealed pathognomonic appearance of MO affecting the metaphyseal region of the long bones in all three puppies. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology in one patient. MO is considered a disease of large and giant-breed dogs, being rarely reported in non-large-breed dogs, and has not been reported in the Australian Kelpie, which is considered a medium-breed dog. This case series suggests a previously unreported breed predisposition to MO in the Australian Kelpie. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    OpenAIRE

    Jared Denman

    2009-01-01

    The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintai...

  6. Changing Structure and Location of Australian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Longmire, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Australian agriculture has undergone considerable change in structure and location. However, the broad rate of structural change in Australian agriculture is found to be not significantly different from that of other OECD countries. A major reduction in small farms has occurred and the number of medium and large farms has grown discernibly. Adjustment has been especially strong in cropping, dairying and the intensive sectors. The possible emergence of a farm adjustment problem in Australia's ...

  7. Importance of mentoring in Australian radiology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Mentoring is widely accepted as a fundamental component of a number of professions; however, mentoring is underutilized, and its practice is poorly instituted in most Australian radiology training programmes. This article highlights the benefits of mentoring within the radiology training context. Potential barriers to successful mentoring are elucidated, and future pathways for improved implementation and application of mentor programmes with radiology training programmes are presented. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  8. Altering the threshold of an excitable signal transduction network changes cell migratory modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuchuan; Bhattacharya, Sayak; Edwards, Marc; Cai, Huaqing; Inoue, Takanari; Iglesias, Pablo A; Devreotes, Peter N

    2017-04-01

    The diverse migratory modes displayed by different cell types are generally believed to be idiosyncratic. Here we show that the migratory behaviour of Dictyostelium was switched from amoeboid to keratocyte-like and oscillatory modes by synthetically decreasing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate levels or increasing Ras/Rap-related activities. The perturbations at these key nodes of an excitable signal transduction network initiated a causal chain of events: the threshold for network activation was lowered, the speed and range of propagating waves of signal transduction activity increased, actin-driven cellular protrusions expanded and, consequently, the cell migratory mode transitions ensued. Conversely, innately keratocyte-like and oscillatory cells were promptly converted to amoeboid by inhibition of Ras effectors with restoration of directed migration. We use computational analysis to explain how thresholds control cell migration and discuss the architecture of the signal transduction network that gives rise to excitability.

  9. Migratory and resident blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus differ in their reaction to a novel object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anna L. K.; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan

    2010-11-01

    Individuals differ consistently in their behavioural reactions towards novel objects and new situations. Reaction to novelty is one part of a suit of individually consistent behaviours called coping strategies or personalities and is often summarised as bold or shy behaviour. Coping strategies could be particularly important for migrating birds exposed to novel environments on their journeys. We compared the average approach latencies to a novel object among migrants and residents in partially migratory blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus. In this test, we found migrating blue tits to have shorter approach latencies than had resident ones. Behavioural reactions to novelty can affect the readiness to migrate and short approach latency may have an adaptive value during migration. Individual behaviour towards novelty might be incorporated among the factors associated with migratory or resident behaviour in a partially migratory population.

  10. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from migratory water fowls in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdaus Mohd. Altaf Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 fecal samples were collected to characterize the Escherichia coli isolates from the migratory waterfowls (whistling Swan harbored in the Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh in the year of 2008 and 2009. Out of 135 fecal samples, 100 samples were distinguished as positive for isolates of Escherichia coli following cultural, biochemical and motility test. Amongst the recovered isolates only 38% were found upbeat to enterotoxin production propensity on mice inoculation test. Finally, out of 38 % enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC positive isolates no any isolates found to be positive for the aptitude of heat stable (ST toxin yield. So, the presence of ETEC in migratory waterfowls indicating the possibilities of them to act as vector and reservoir of E. coli to spread further infection to animals and humans. This work indicates the first time ETEC characterization from the migratory birds of Bangladesh.

  11. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from migratory water fowls in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdaus MohdAltaf Hossain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 135 fecal samples were collected to characterize the Escherichia coli isolates from the migratory waterfowls (whistling Swan harbored in the Hakaluki Haor of Bangladesh in the year of 2008 and 2009. Out of 135 fecal samples, 100 samples were distinguished as positive for isolates of Escherichia coli following cultural, biochemical and motility test. Amongst the recovered isolates only 38% were found upbeat to enterotoxin production propensity on mice inoculation test. Finally, out of 38 % enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC positive isolates no any isolates found to be positive for the aptitude of heat stable (ST toxin yield. So, the presence of ETEC in migratory waterfowls indicating the possibilities of them to act as vector and reservoir of E. coli to spread further infection to animals and humans. This work indicates the first time ETEC characterization from the migratory birds of Bangladesh.

  12. Predictive ethoinformatics reveals the complex migratory behaviour of a pelagic seabird, the Manx Shearwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Robin; Dean, Ben; Kirk, Holly; Leonard, Kerry; Phillips, Richard A; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim

    2013-07-06

    Understanding the behaviour of animals in the wild is fundamental to conservation efforts. Advances in bio-logging technologies have offered insights into the behaviour of animals during foraging, migration and social interaction. However, broader application of these systems has been limited by device mass, cost and longevity. Here, we use information from multiple logger types to predict individual behaviour in a highly pelagic, migratory seabird, the Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). Using behavioural states resolved from GPS tracking of foraging during the breeding season, we demonstrate that individual behaviours can be accurately predicted during multi-year migrations from low cost, lightweight, salt-water immersion devices. This reveals a complex pattern of migratory stopovers: some involving high proportions of foraging, and others of rest behaviour. We use this technique to examine three consecutive years of global migrations, revealing the prominence of foraging behaviour during migration and the importance of highly productive waters during migratory stopover.

  13. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  14. Publishing and Australian literature : crisis, decline or transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  15. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  16. Postglacial northward expansion and genetic differentiation between migratory and sedentary populations of the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpica, Andreia; Ornelas, Juan Francisco

    2014-02-01

    Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multiperspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events and constructed species distribution models to predict where migratory and sedentary populations resided during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Last Interglacial (LIG) events. Our results are consistent with a recent northward population expansion driven by migration from southern sedentary populations. Phylogeographical analyses and population genetics methods revealed that migratory populations in the USA and sedentary populations in Mexico of the platycercus subspecies form one admixed population, and that sedentary populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala (guatemalae) undertook independent evolutionary trajectories. Species distribution modelling revealed that the species is a niche tracker and that the climate conditions associated with modern obligate migrants in the USA were not present during the LIG, which provides indirect evidence for recent migratory behaviour in broad-tailed hummingbirds on the temporal scale of glacial cycles. The finding that platycercus hummingbirds form one genetic population and that suitable habitat for migratory populations was observed in eastern Mexico during the LIG also suggests that the conservation of overwintering sites is crucial for obligate migratory populations currently facing climate change effects. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. 50 CFR 21.42 - Authority to issue depredating orders to permit the killing of migratory game birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... permit the killing of migratory game birds. 21.42 Section 21.42 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH..., PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.42 Authority to issue depredating orders to...

  18. 34 CFR 200.85 - Responsibilities of SEAs and operating agencies for improving services to migratory children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... improving services to migratory children. 200.85 Section 200.85 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Migrant Education Program § 200.85 Responsibilities of SEAs and operating agencies for improving services to migratory children. While the specific...

  19. Australian Author Marion Halligan - Word Artist

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    Robyn Greaves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Australian author Marion Halligan admits that her life has been 'centred in domesticity' and this is where she draws on much of the material for her fiction. This could also be a reason why her work has been critically overlooked. Halligan is adept at capturing details of life in the domestic realm and weaving poignant, thought-provoking stories about experiences all of us can recognise in our own lives. It does not take the discerning reader long to discover the deeper considerations in her writing. According to Halligan, 'the world is a cruel and dark and difficult place and it is words that light the small candle flames that keep the dark at bay'[1]. Words and writing are essential to Halligan's life. In an essay titled 'Why I Write', she says: 'I write in order to put the world into words. I've always done that in my head. I can't perceive anything without trying to find words for it'[2]. Halligan's writing is an evocative exploration of the human condition. For Halligan, 'it is artists showing you what they see that educates the heart, in novels, in paintings, in photographs'.[3] The following essay examines three of Halligan's novels which feature an artist protagonist who is struggling to come to terms with the experience of loss, grief and bereavement. Lovers' Knots (1992, The Golden Dress (1998 and The Fog Garden (2001 are rich evocations of lives which are 'a walk with love and death ... The same subjects as the Greeks, and Shakespeare. [The] characters aren't kings and queens, aren't noble and grand, but their passions are as real'[4].

  20. Thoracic hyperkyphosis: a survey of Australian physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perriman, Diana M; Scarvell, Jennifer M; Hughes, Andrew R; Lueck, Christian J; Dear, Keith B G; Smith, Paul N

    2012-09-01

    Age-related thoracic hyperkyphosis can lead to poor health outcomes including pain and dysfunction. Physiotherapists are fundamentally involved in the assessment and treatment of this problem but there is no published data that details assessment and treatment strategies or the attitudes of practitioners with respect to hyperkyphosis. The purpose of the study is to ascertain current physiotherapy practice for, and attitudes to, the assessment and treatment of thoracic hyperkyphosis in Australia. A stratified random sample (N = 468) of Australian physiotherapists in all states and territories working in hospitals, outpatient clinics and community clinics were sent an anonymous cross-sectional postal survey. The survey had six sections identifying clinical profile, prevalence, measurement strategy, treatment frequency, treatment strategy and evidence source. A response rate of 47% with anonymity preserved was achieved. The majority of respondents had a musculoskeletal practice profile (75%). Seventy-eight per cent encountered hyperkyphosis at least weekly, and three treatment sessions were most commonly given (35%). Visual inspection was almost universally used to assess the degree of hyperkyphosis (98%), and for 64% it was their only measurement tool. Postural re-education was the most common treatment strategy (90%) but the range of treatments reported was diverse. The primary source of evidence used by the majority of respondents was their undergraduate education, and there was concern expressed that physiotherapists lack good evidence upon which to make therapeutic decisions about hyperkyphosis. Thoracic hyperkyphosis is commonly encountered by physiotherapists. Measurement of treatment efficacy is highly subjective, and the treatment modalities employed are diverse. Many physiotherapists based their management of hyperkyphosis on their undergraduate education alone. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  2. Depression literacy among Australians of Chinese-speaking background in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poon Ada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. Methods Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette describing an individual with depression and then asked questions to assess their understanding of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods. A comparative approach was used to compare the findings with those of a previous study of the mental health literacy of Australian and Japanese adults. Results Compared to the Australian and Japanese samples, a much lower percentage of Chinese-speaking Australians (14% could correctly identify major depression described in the vignette, and a higher percentage believed that counseling professionals could be helpful. Higher percentages of those who believed that close family members could be helpful were found in the Chinese-speaking Australian and Japanese samples, and these two groups also expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness or harmfulness of certain medications compared to the Australian sample. Higher percentages of respondents in both the Chinese-speaking Australian and the Australian sample considered "lifestyle changes" to be helpful compared to the Japanese sample. In the Chinese-speaking sample, 30%, 17.4%, 33% and 27% of the respondents rated "traditional Chinese medicine doctors," "Chinese herbal medications," "taking Chinese nutritional foods/supplements" and "qiqong" as helpful. Many perceived "changing fungshui" and "traditional Chinese worship" to be harmful. Regarding the perception of causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial perspectives

  3. Species Richness and Diversity of Resident and Migratory Landbirds in Remnant Forest Patches and Residential Areas in the Florida Keys, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Main, Martin B.; Christman, Mary C.; Karim, Annisa; Hostetler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of migratory birds necessitates protecting suitable stopover habitat along migratory routes as well as destination habitats, especially near large geographic barriers such as the Gulf of Mexico. The Florida Keys (Keys) are an important stopover and breeding destination for migratory landbirds. We documented 47 migratory and 21 resident landbird species via point counts during March–May 2004 and 2005. As a group, species richness, species diversity, and the effective number of spe...

  4. Estimating the per-capita contribution of habitats and pathways in a migratory network: A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Runge, Michael C.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Fryxell, John; Norris, D. Ryan; Sample, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Every year, migratory species undertake seasonal movements along different pathways between discrete regions and habitats. The ability to assess the relative demographic contributions of these different habitats and pathways to the species’ overall population dynamics is critical for understanding the ecology of migratory species, and also has practical applications for management and conservation. Metrics for assessing habitat contributions have been well-developed for metapopulations, but an equivalent metric is not currently available for migratory populations. Here, we develop a framework for estimating the demographic contributions of the discrete habitats and pathways used by migratory species throughout the annual cycle by estimating the per capita contribution of cohorts using these locations. Our framework accounts for seasonal movements between multiple breeding and non-breeding habitats and for both resident and migratory cohorts. We illustrate our framework using a hypothetical migratory network of four habitats, which allows us to better understand how variations in habitat quality affect per capita contributions. Results indicate that per capita contributions for any habitat or pathway are dependent on habitat-specific survival probabilities in all other areas used as part of the migratory circuit, and that contribution metrics are spatially linked (e.g. reduced survival in one habitat also decreases the contribution metric for other habitats). Our framework expands existing theory on the dynamics of spatiotemporally structured populations by developing a generalized approach to estimate the habitat- and pathway-specific contributions of species migrating between multiple breeding and multiple non-breeding habitats for a range of life histories or migratory strategies. Most importantly, it provides a means of prioritizing conservation efforts towards those migratory pathways and habitats that are most critical for the population viability of

  5. Auxiliary Women Workers in the Legal Sector: Traversing Subjectivities and "Self" to Learn through Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian Maria

    2012-01-01

    This study is about female auxiliary workers in the Australian legal sector. The purpose is to explore the impact of subjectivities on women workers and how they negotiate their positionality to participate in meaningful work and learning. The study is grounded in theories of identity and socio-cultural perspectives of subjectivity, agentic action…

  6. Towards sustainable management of huntable migratory waterbirds in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jesper; Guillemain, Matthieu; Nagy, Szabolcs; Defos du Rau, Pierre; Mondain-Monval, Jean-Yves; Griffin, Cy; Williams, James Henty; Bunnefeld, Nils; Czajkowski, Alexandre; Hearn, Richard; Grauer, Andreas; Alhainen, Mikko; Middleton, Angus; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Birds Directive and the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement provide an adequate legal framework for sustainable management of migratory waterbird populations. The main shortcoming of both instruments is that it leaves harvest decisions of a shared resource to individual Member States and Contracting Parties without providing a shared information base and mechanism to assess the impact of harvest and coordinate actions in relation to mutually agreed objectives. A recent update of the conservation status of waterbirds in the EU shows that almost half of the populations of species listed on Annex II of the Birds Directive have a declining short-term trend and over half of them are listed in Columns A and B of AEWA. This implies that their hunting could either only continue under the framework of an adaptive harvest management plan or their hunting should be regulated with the view of restoring them in favourable conservation status. We argue that a structured approach to decision-making (such as adaptive management) is needed, supported with adequate organisational structures at flyway scale. We review the experience with such an approach in North America and assess the applicability of a similar approach in the European context. We show there is no technical reason why adaptive harvest management could be not applied in the EU or even AEWA context. We demonstrate that an informed approach to setting allowable harvests does not require detailed demographic information. Essential to the process, however, are estimates of either the observed growth rate from a monitoring program or the growth rate expected under ideal conditions. In addition, periodic estimates of population size are needed, as well as either empirical information or reasonable assumptions about the form of density dependence. We show that such information exists for many populations, but improvements are needed to improve geographic coverage, reliability and timely data availability. We

  7. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  8. Sedentary behaviours among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; Dobbins, Timothy; Booth, Michael L; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Okely, Anthony D

    2006-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and distribution (by demographic characteristics and body mass index [BMI] category) of sedentary behaviour among Australian adolescents aged 11-15 years. Cross-sectional representative population survey of school students (n = 2,750) in New South Wales, conducted in 2004. Students' self-reported time spent during a usual week in five categories of sedentary behaviour (small screen recreation [SSR], education, cultural, social and non-active travel). Height and weight were measured. Grade 6, 8 and 10 students spent approximately 34 hours, 41 hours and 45 hours/week of their discretionary time, respectively, engaged in sedentary behaviour. Urban students and students from Asian-speaking backgrounds spent significantly more time sedentary than students from rural areas or other cultural backgrounds. SSR accounted for 60% and 54% of sedentary behaviour among primary and high school students, respectively. Overweight and obese students spent more time in SSR than healthy weight students. Out-of-school hours educational activities accounted for approximately 20% of sedentary behaviour and increased with age. Girls spent twice the time in social activities compared with boys. Time spent in cultural activities declined with age. Sedentary behaviours among young people differ according to sex, age and cultural background. At least half of all time spent in sedentary behaviours was spent engaged in SSR. BMI was significantly associated with sedentary behaviour among some children, but not consistently across age groups. A clear understanding of young people's patterns of sedentary behaviour is required to develop effective and sustainable intervention programs to promote healthy living.

  9. Migratory behavior and differential resource allocation between wing and tail feathers in a passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pérez-Tris, J.; Tellería, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and energetic constraints associated with migration may compromise plumage quality and, ultimately, flight ability in migratory birds. As a consequence, migrants may invest more resources in parts of the plumage that are essential for long, sustained flight (such as the primary wing

  10. Estimating migratory game-bird productivity by integrating age ratio and banding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Link, W.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Richkus, K.D.; Boomer, G. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Context: Reproduction is a critical component of fitness, and understanding factors that influence temporal and spatial dynamics in reproductive output is important for effective management and conservation. Although several indices of reproductive output for wide-ranging species, such as migratory birds, exist, there has been no theoretical justification for their estimators or associated measures of variance.

  11. Migratory connectivity in Arctic geese : spring stopovers are the weak links in meeting targets for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, R. H.; Eichhorn, G.; Flagstad, A.; van der Graaf, A. J.; Litvin, K. E.; Stahl, J.

    2007-01-01

    Linking spring migratory itineraries of individual Arctic-breeding geese to their eventual breeding success has provided evidence that accumulation of body stores (protein, fat) at stop-over sites is crucial. We show that this is because geese nesting in the Arctic depend at least in part on these

  12. Host-pathogen interactions on the move: migratory waterfowl and avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens may impose substantial costs on their hosts, yet, simultaneously, pathogen populations are influenced by the condition and behaviour of these hosts. Migratory hosts and their pathogens are particularly fascinating as migrants connect disparate habitats; are exposed to a greater diversity

  13. Neotropical migratory landbird species and their habitats of special concern within the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; David N. Pashley; Ronald E. F. Escano

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Management Working Group for Partners in Flight initiated a prioritization scheme in April 1991 to help guide regional and local conservation efforts for Neotropical migratory landbirds. Preliminary breeding season priorities have been established in each of 24 physiographic areas for species and habitats, with some non-breeding season priorities set as...

  14. Identification of novel pro-migratory, cancer-associated genes using quantitative, microscopy-based screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suha Naffar-Abu-Amara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration is a highly complex process, regulated by multiple genes, signaling pathways and external stimuli. To discover genes or pharmacological agents that can modulate the migratory activity of cells, screening strategies that enable the monitoring of diverse migratory parameters in a large number of samples are necessary.In the present study, we describe the development of a quantitative, high-throughput cell migration assay, based on a modified phagokinetic tracks (PKT procedure, and apply it for identifying novel pro-migratory genes in a cancer-related gene library. In brief, cells are seeded on fibronectin-coated 96-well plates, covered with a monolayer of carboxylated latex beads. Motile cells clear the beads, located along their migratory paths, forming tracks that are visualized using an automated, transmitted-light screening microscope. The tracks are then segmented and characterized by multi-parametric, morphometric analysis, resolving a variety of morphological and kinetic features.In this screen we identified 4 novel genes derived from breast carcinoma related cDNA library, whose over-expression induces major alteration in the migration of the stationary MCF7 cells. This approach can serve for high throughput screening for novel ways to modulate cellular migration in pathological states such as tumor metastasis and invasion.

  15. 77 FR 38772 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BA75 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: On June 28, 2011...

  16. 77 FR 44592 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BA75 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic... Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshops. SUMMARY: On June 28, 2011...

  17. 76 FR 72382 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting System Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... 72382-72383] [FR Doc No: 2011-30268] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-XA823 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Electronic Dealer Reporting... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: On June 28, 2011, NMFS published a...

  18. MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS AS A SOURCE OF PUBLIC EXPOSURE FROM THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines assessments of the impact of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on exposure of the Russian Federation population related to the seasonal migration of game birds. Intake of artificial radionuclides with meat of migratory game birds is shown to be one of the major pathways for the population exposure in the Far Eastern region of the country.

  19. Women in migratory movements in the northern border of México-USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carmen Monreal-Gimeno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This present paper focus on female action on migratory phenomenon in Mexico collecting data from the research work “Undocumented emigrant Women: Stories of transgression, resistance, submission and adaptation as travel strategies. A social educative prospective.” Carried out by Pablo de Olavide University with the co-operation of Northern Border College of Mexico. We wondered about which conditions influence in the increase of migratory movements in Mexico, which routes do women use and how they plan them. Also about which migratory webs they use to move around. On the other hand we analyze the profile of these migrant women in the Mexican context, motivations to leave, the difficulties they find, the possible risks as well as the importance on the family income. 26 migrant women were interviewed in Tamaulipas-north of Mexico and also professional people working with them. From the results obtained we stand out how their condition of being women with a low educational level, scarce economics resources and with no social support make them vulnerable in front of the human traffic nets mainly Centro American women going to the U.S.A. We have also included the most used routes as we consider it is important to go on seeing women in the migratory process where they are the weakest part in this process.

  20. Partners in Flight: past, present, and future: prospects for neotropical migratory bird conservation in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. S. Wendt

    1993-01-01

    The plan for conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds - Partners in Flight - appeals to many Canadians. The birds themselves are loved for their beauty, their song, their mysterious migration, and their faithful return each spring. They are valued as members of healthy ecosystems, especially when they gorge themselves on caterpillars. Canadians recognize that the...

  1. 75 FR 3395 - Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 21 and 22 RIN 1018-AW44 Migratory Bird Permits; Changes in the Regulations Governing Falconry Correction In rule document 2010-12 beginning on page 927 in the issue of...

  2. Longitudinal data reveal ontogenetic changes in the wing morphology of a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De la Hera, I.; Pulido, F.; Visser, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In migratory bird species, juveniles normally have shorter and more rounded wings than adults. The causes of this age-specific difference in wing morphology, however, are largely unknown. Here, we used longitudinal data collected over 3 years from a Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca population to

  3. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory Bird... Hotel, 100 Elgin Street, Ottawa, ON K1P 5K8, Canada. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cyndi Perry... final funding approval by, the Commission. Project proposal due dates, application instructions, and...

  4. Population consequences of winter habitat loss in a migratory shorebird. I. Estimating model parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOSSCUSTARD, JD; CLARKE, RT; BRIGGS, KB; Ens, B.J.; EXO, KM; SMIT, C; BEINTEMA, AJ; CALDOW, RWG; CATT, DC; CLARK, NA; DURELL, SEALD; HARRIS, MP; HULSCHER, JB; MEININGER, PL; PICOZZI, N; PRYSJONES, R; SAFRIEL, UN; WEST, AD

    1. In order to construct a model to predict the effect of winter habitat loss on the migratory population of the European subspecies of the oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus ostralegus, data on the reproductive and mortality rates collected throughout Europe over the last 60 years are reviewed.

  5. 77 FR 4274 - Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 21 RIN 1018-AX82 Migratory Bird Permits; Double-Crested Cormorant Management in the United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Request for comments...

  6. Prevalence of West Nile virus in migratory birds during spring and fall migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; McLean, R.G.; Kramer, L.D.; Ubico, S.R.; Dupuis, A.P.; Ebel, G.D.; Guptill, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the role of migratory birds in the dissemination of West Nile virus (WNV), we measured the prevalence of infectious WNV and specific WNV neutralizing antibodies in birds, principally Passeriformes, during spring and fall migrations in the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways from 2001-2003. Blood samples were obtained from 13,403 birds, representing 133 species. Specific WNV neutralizing antibody was detected in 254 resident and migratory birds, representing 39 species, and was most commonly detected in northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) (9.8%, N = 762) and gray catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) (3.2%,N = 3188). West Nile virus viremias were detected in 19 birds, including 8 gray catbirds, and only during the fall migratory period. These results provide additional evidence that migratory birds may have been a principal agent for the spread of WNV in North America and provide data on the occurrence of WNV in a variety of bird species. Copyright ?? 2009 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Apparent survival of the salamander Salamandra salamandra is low because of high migratory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the demographic processes underlying population dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Populations decline if losses from the population (i.e., mortality and emigration exceed gains (i.e., recruitment and immigration. Amphibians are thought to exhibit little movement even though local populations often fluctuate dramatically and are likely to go exinct if there is no rescue effect through immigration from nearby populations. Terrestrial salamanders are generally portrayed as amphibians with low migratory activity. Our study uses demographic analysis as a key to unravel whether emigration or mortality is the main cause of "losses" from the population. In particular, we use the analysis to challenge the common belief that terrestrial salamanders show low migratory activity. Results The mark-recapture analysis of adult salamanders showed that monthly survival was high (> 90% without a seasonal pattern. These estimates, however, translate into rather low rates of local annual survival of only ~40% and suggest that emigration was important. The estimated probability of emigration was 49%. Conclusion Our analysis shows that terrestrial salamanders exhibit more migratory activity than commonly thought. This may be due either because the spatial extent of salamander populations is underestimated or because there is a substantial exchange of individuals between populations. Our current results are in line with several other studies that suggest high migratory activity in amphibians. In particular, many amphibian populations may be characterized by high proportions of transients and/or floaters.

  8. Apparent survival of the salamander Salamandra salamandra is low because of high migratory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Schaub, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian

    2007-09-06

    Understanding the demographic processes underlying population dynamics is a central theme in ecology. Populations decline if losses from the population (i.e., mortality and emigration) exceed gains (i.e., recruitment and immigration). Amphibians are thought to exhibit little movement even though local populations often fluctuate dramatically and are likely to go exinct if there is no rescue effect through immigration from nearby populations. Terrestrial salamanders are generally portrayed as amphibians with low migratory activity. Our study uses demographic analysis as a key to unravel whether emigration or mortality is the main cause of "losses" from the population. In particular, we use the analysis to challenge the common belief that terrestrial salamanders show low migratory activity. The mark-recapture analysis of adult salamanders showed that monthly survival was high (> 90%) without a seasonal pattern. These estimates, however, translate into rather low rates of local annual survival of only ~40% and suggest that emigration was important. The estimated probability of emigration was 49%. Our analysis shows that terrestrial salamanders exhibit more migratory activity than commonly thought. This may be due either because the spatial extent of salamander populations is underestimated or because there is a substantial exchange of individuals between populations. Our current results are in line with several other studies that suggest high migratory activity in amphibians. In particular, many amphibian populations may be characterized by high proportions of transients and/or floaters.

  9. Transnational Migratory Labor and Filipino Fathers: How Families Are Affected When Men Work Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Scott E.; Martin, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Transnational migratory labor remains a primary method many Filipinos use in an effort to gain financial security for their families. Based on data collected from an urban Southern Visayan province during the summer of 2007, this study examined a sample of 116 OFW (Overseas Filipino Workers) families and a sample of 99 traditional two-parent…

  10. Do migratory birds need a nap after a long non-stop flight?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwilch, R; Piersma, T; Holmgren, NMA; Jenni, L

    2002-01-01

    After a prolonged period of sleep deprivation, the urge to sleep overrules all other activities. Despite this well-known fact, the occurrence of sleep after naturally occurring sleep deprivation during long non-stop migratory flight in birds has hardly been investigated. The aim of this

  11. Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C; Bouwhuis, S; Lessells, CM; Visser, ME

    2006-01-01

    Phenological responses to climate change differ across trophic levels(1-3), which may lead to birds failing to breed at the time of maximal food abundance. Here we investigate the population consequences of such mistiming in the migratory pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca(4). In a comparison of

  12. Rapid adaptive adjustment of parental care coincident with altered migratory behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, R.M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Bilt, van de A.; Faber, M.; Wieren, van S.E.; Prins, H.H.T.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The optimal duration of parental care is shaped by the trade-off between investment in current and expected future reproductive success. A change in migratory behaviour is expected to affect the optimal duration of parental care, because migration and non-migration differ in expectations of future

  13. Genomic divergence between the migratory and stationary ecotypes of Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Bård O; Klingan, Kevin; Emblem, Åse; Jørgensen, Tor E; Jueterbock, Alexander; Furmanek, Tomasz; Hoarau, Galice; Johansen, Steinar D; Nordeide, Jarle T; Moum, Truls

    2013-10-01

    Atlantic cod displays a range of phenotypic and genotypic variations, which includes the differentiation into coastal stationary and offshore migratory types of cod that co-occur in several parts of its distribution range and are often sympatric on the spawning grounds. Differentiation of these ecotypes may involve both historical separation and adaptation to ecologically distinct environments, the genetic basis of which is now beginning to be unravelled. Genomic analyses based on recent sequencing advances are able to document genomic divergence in more detail and may facilitate the exploration of causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. We examined genomic divergence between the stationary and migratory types of cod in the Northeast Atlantic, using next-generation sequencing of pooled DNA from each of two population samples. Sequence data was mapped to the published cod genome sequence, arranged in more than 6000 scaffolds (611 Mb). We identified 25 divergent scaffolds (26 Mb) with a higher than average gene density, against a backdrop of overall moderate genomic differentiation. Previous findings of localized genomic divergence in three linkage groups were confirmed, including a large (15 Mb) genomic region, which seems to be uniquely involved in the divergence of migratory and stationary cod. The results of the pooled sequencing approach support and extend recent findings based on single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and suggest a high degree of reproductive isolation between stationary and migratory cod in the North-east Atlantic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet on the chemical composition of migratory locusts (Locusta migratoria L.). Fresh and dry weight and the contents of dry matter, ash, lipid, protein, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, Cu, Fe, Zn, retinol, lutein, zeaxanthine, cryptoxanthin, carotenes,

  15. The influence of migratory background and parental education on health care utilisation of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkötter, Nicole; van Dongen, Martien C J M; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Simon, Klaus; Dagnelie, Pieter C

    2012-10-01

    School-entry screening data from North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany from 2007 were used to investigate child health care utilisation. We focussed on the influence of migratory background and parental education on children's (1) participation in regularly scheduled early recognition examinations, (2) immunisation uptake and (3) referrals due to a school-entry screen-detected complaint. The study sample consisted of 52,171 children out of 17 NRW districts. Bivariable, stratified and multivariable analyses were performed to identify relevant associations between social determinants and health care utilisation outcome parameters. Multivariable logistic regression showed that children belonging to families with a migratory background or low parental education were more likely to have an incomplete documentation of early recognition examinations and to be referred due to a new diagnosis. Children with migratory background were more likely to be sufficiently immunised than children with parents of German ethnicity. For all studied health care utilisation outcomes, kindergarten visit had a supportive effect. In general, the results of our regional study were in line with the results from national population-based studies. Additionally, a larger likelihood of referrals due to school-screen-detected deficits in children with migratory background or low parental education was detected.

  16. 75 FR 57240 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2011 Commercial Fishing Season and Adaptive Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ..., the Atlantic shark annual quotas apply to all areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and... shifts in migratory patterns due to colder or warmer water) in order to provide more equitable fishing... sharks, non-blacknose SCS, blue sharks, porbeagle sharks, and pelagic sharks (other than porbeagle or...

  17. 76 FR 65673 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... several Atlantic shark stocks and announced NMFS' intent to amend the 2006 Consolidated Highly Migratory Species (HMS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) via the rulemaking process to rebuild these shark stocks and...

  18. 75 FR 50715 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service.... This change ensures that the process is preserved for adjusting annual shark quotas based on over- and..., among other things, pelagic shark quotas and annual quota adjustments. The instructions, however...

  19. 76 FR 72383 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... Administration 50 CFR Part 635 RIN 0648-BA17 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Atlantic Shark Management...) and fishery management plan (FMP) amendment that would consider catch shares for the Atlantic shark... design elements for potential catch shares programs in the Atlantic shark fisheries. Additionally, NMFS...

  20. 76 FR 23794 - Stock Status Determination for Atlantic Highly Migratory Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Scalloped Hammerhead Shark AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... an Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) scalloped hammerhead shark, and the stock is overfished... sharks in U.S. waters. Based on this paper, in 2005, the population was estimated to be at 45 percent of...

  1. Ecological Specialization to Fluctuating Resources Prevents Long-Distance Migratory Raptors from Becoming Sedentary on Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoso, Laura; López-López, Pascual; Grande, Juan Manuel; Mellone, Ugo; Limiñana, Rubén; Urios, Vicente; Ferrer, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora’s falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora’s falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. Conclusions/Significance New data reveal that Eleonora’s falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change. PMID:23626704

  2. A Palaearctic migratory raptor species tracks shifting prey availability within its wintering range in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trierweiler, Christiane; Mullie, Wim C.; Drent, Rudi H.; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Komdeur, Jan; Bairlein, Franz; Harouna, Abdoulaye; de Bakker, Marinus; Koks, Ben J.

    Mid-winter movements of up to several hundreds of kilometres are typical for many migratory bird species wintering in Africa. Unpredictable temporary food concentrations are thought to result in random movements of such birds, whereas resightings and recoveries of marked birds suggest some degree of

  3. Ecological specialization to fluctuating resources prevents long-distance migratory raptors from becoming sedentary on islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gangoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adaptive transition between behavioral strategies, such as the shift from migratoriness to sedentariness, remains an outstanding question in evolutionary ecology. Density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding has been proposed as a feasible mechanism through which long-lived migratory birds with deferred sexual maturity should become sedentary to persist on islands. Although this pattern seems to hold for most raptors and herons, a few exceptions have been identified. One of these exceptions is the Eleonora's falcon, a long-distance migratory bird, which shows one of the most peculiar adaptations in the timing of reproduction and food requirements among raptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we compiled data concerning demography, banding recoveries and satellite tracking of Eleonora's falcons to discuss likely explanations for the exceptional behavior of this insular long-distance migratory species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: New data reveal that Eleonora's falcons do return to the natal colonies in their first year and young birds are able to breed. However, in contrast to previous hypothesis, the highly specialized strategy of this and other ecologically similar species, as well as the virtual lack of food during winter at breeding areas prevent them from becoming sedentary on islands. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying the process of sedentarization remain poorly understood, the evidence provided reveal the existence of important trade-offs associated with ecological specialization that may become particularly relevant in the present context of global change.

  4. Serengeti wildebeest migratory patterns modeled from rainfall and new vegetation growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Randall B.; Thirgood, Simon J.; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.

    We used evolutionary programming to model innate migratory pathways of wildebeest in the Serengeti Mara Ecosystem, Tanzania and Kenya. Wildebeest annually move from the southern short-grass plains of the Serengeti to the northern woodlands of the Mara. We used satellite images to create 12 average

  5. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over

  6. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, S. (Shenglai); D. Kleijn (David); Müskens, G.J.D.M. (Gerard J. D. M.); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Glazov, P.M. (Petr M.); Si, Y. (Yali); Prins, H.H.T. (Herbert H. T.); De Boer, W.F. (Willem Frederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus

  7. Structural variations and their adaptive significances in the bones of some migratory and resident birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namram Sushindrajit Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated variations in the shape and size of some bones and their adaptive significances in both sexes of the migratory yellow breasted bunting (Emberiza aureola Pallas, 1773 and resident house sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 and tree sparrow (Passer montanus Linnaeus, 1758. Measurements of the large bones like skull, beak, orbit, sternum, coracoid, scapula, femur, tibiotarsus, humerus and metatarsus were recorded to find out variations in their measurements. The skull, cranial and sternum indices were also calculated. An attempt was also made to correlate the structural differences of these bones between migratory and nonmigratory species and also between sexes with their adaptive significances. Principal component analysis indicated 84.79% of the total variance. Discriminant function analysis shows distinct separation in the bone lengths between the resident and migratory birds while there was little overlap between the sexes. The proportion of original grouped cases correctly classified was found to be 95.0%. Migratory bunting showed significantly longer sternum, tibiotarsus, femur and humerus beside a higher sternum when compared to those of resident sparrows. On the other hand, beak width, sternum width and indices of cranium and sternum, were more in resident sparrows. Thus, our studied birds seem to possess species specific adaptations by modifying their bones to fit their modes of living and conditions for better endurance and performance.

  8. Ecological factors associated with the breeding and migratory phenology of high-latitude breeding western sandpipers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehaus, A.C.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental conditions influence the breeding and migratory patterns of many avian species and may have particularly dramatic effects on longdistance migrants that breed at northern latitudes. Environment, however, is only one of the ecological variables affecting avian phenology, and recent work

  9. An assessment of the current and potential future natural and anthropogenic issues facing migratory shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, W.J.; Alves, J.A.; Chang, C.H.; Davidson, D.C.; Finlayson, C.M.; Gill, J.A.; Gill, R.E.; González, P.M.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Kleijn, D.; Spray, C.J.; Szekely, T.; Thompson, D.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    We review the conservation issues facing migratory shorebird populations that breed in temperate regions and use wetlands in the non-breeding season. Shorebirds are excellent model organisms for understanding ecological, behavioural and evolutionary processes and are often used as indicators of

  10. Testing the role of sensory systems in the migratory heading of a songbird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, R.A.; Thorup, K.; Gagliardo, A.; Bisson, I.A.; Knecht, E.; Mizrahi, D.; Wikelski, M.

    2009-01-01

    The identification of the sensory cues and mechanisms by which migratory birds are able to reach the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year has eluded biologists despite more than 50 years of intensive study. While a number of environmental cues have been proposed to play a role in the

  11. Food availability affects circadian clock-controlled activity and Zugunruhe in the night migratory male blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jyoti; Rastogi, Ashutosh; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the functional linkage between food availability and activity behavior in the Palaearctic Indian night migratory blackheaded bunting (Emberiza melanocephala) subjected to artificial light-dark (LD) cycles. Two experiments were performed on photosensitive birds. In the first one, birds were exposed to short days (LD 10/14; Experiment 1A), long days (LD 13/11; Experiment 1B), or increasing daylengths (8 to 13 h light/d; Experiment 1C) and presented with food either for the whole or a restricted duration of the light period. In Experiments 1A and 1B, illumination of the light and dark periods or of the dark period, alone, was changed to assess the influence of the light environment on direct and circadian responses to food cycles. In the second experiment, birds were exposed to LD 12/12 or LD 8/16 with food availability overlapping with the light (light and food presence in phase) or dark period (light and food presence in antiphase). Also, birds were subjected to constant dim light (LL(dim)) to examine the phase of the activity rhythms under synchronizing influence of the food cycles. Similarly, the presentation of food ad libitum (free food; FF) during an experiment examined the effects of the food-restriction regimes on activity rhythms. A continuous measurement of the activity-rest pattern was done to examine both the circadian and direct effects of the food and LD cycles. Measurement of activity at night enabled assessment of the migratory phenotype, premigratory restlessness, or Zugunruhe. The results show that (i) light masked the food effects if they were present together; (ii) birds had a higher anticipatory activity and food intake during restricted feeding conditions; and (iii) food at night alone reduced both the duration and amount of Zugunruhe as compared to food during the day alone. This suggests that food affects both the daily activity and seasonal Zugunruhe, and food cycles act as a synchronizer of circadian rhythms in the

  12. Future-Proofing Nursing Education: An Australian Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ralph, Nicholas; Birks, Melanie; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ...) framework to identify significant current and future priorities in Australian healthcare. Following the PESTEL analysis, we conduct a review of the curriculum content of current Australian undergraduate pre-registration nursing curricula...

  13. H5N1 surveillance in migratory birds in Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Arthur C; Barbara, Katie A; Indrawan, Mochamad; Ibrahim, Ima N; Petrus, Wicaksana B; Wijaya, Susan; Farzeli, Arik; Antonjaya, Ungke; Sin, Lim W; Hidayatullah, N; Kristanto, Ige; Tampubolon, A M; Purnama, S; Supriatna, Adam; Burgess, Timothy H; Williams, Maya; Putnam, Shannon D; Tobias, Steve; Blair, Patrick J

    2009-12-01

    We sought to elucidate the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 in an enzoonotic area. Resident, captive, and migratory birds were sampled at five sites in Java, Indonesia. Mist nets were used to trap birds. Birds were identified to species. RNA was extracted from swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) conducted for the HA and M genes of H5N1. Antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutination inhibition test. Between October 2006 and September 2007, a total of 4,067 captive, resident, and migratory birds comprising 98 species in 23 genera were sampled. The most commonly collected birds were the common sandpiper (6% of total), striated heron (3%), and the domestic chicken (14%). The overall prevalence of H5N1 antibodies was 5.3%. A significantly higher percentage of captive birds (16.1%) showed antibody evidence of H5N1 exposure when compared to migratory or resident birds. The greatest number of seropositive birds in each category were Muschovy duck (captive), striated heron (resident), and the Pacific golden plover (migratory). Seven apparently well captive birds yielded molecular evidence of H5N1 infection. Following amplification, the HA, NA, and M genes were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA gene showed that the isolates were 97% similar to EU124153.1 A/chicken/West Java/Garut May 2006, an isolate obtained in a similar region of West Java. While no known markers of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance were found within the NA gene, M segment analysis revealed the V27A mutation known to confer resistance to adamantanes. Our results demonstrate moderate serologic evidence of H5N1 infection in captive birds, sampled in five sites in Java, Indonesia, but only occasional infection in resident and migratory birds. These data imply that in an enzoonotic region of Indonesia the role of migratory birds in transmission of H5N1 is limited.

  14. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2017-10-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  15. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  16. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  17. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fading imperial glory, for sheer antiquity. Some looked for their own ancestors and family but most were satisfied to have their school lessons and imaginative reading validated by being there. The response they had to British history was an intensely emotional one: this article argues that it was a result not of imperial sentiment but of a desire for a deep and meaningful past.

  18. Nation, Identity, and Subjectivity in Globalizing Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasue Arimitsu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, particularly after the Cold War ended, national borderlines have been redrawn many times in the areas of the Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and a wide range of Asia, and people started crossing national borderlines to immigrate to other countries. As a result, the definition of a modern nation with one ethnicity, one language, and one culture collapsed. Under the policy of multiculturalism, Australia accepts immigrants from all over the world, and Australian literature at present is characterized as being ethnically, culturally, and linguistically hybrid. In this paper I look at Australian writers such as Brian Castro and Nam Le and compare them with other writers who are considered post-colonial writers, such as Salman Rushdie, V.S. Naipaul and Kazuo Ishiguro. I focus on how these writers attempt to present their identities along with their subjectivities. I also compare them with a Japanese writer, Haruki Murakami, whose literary works are widely read throughout the world, crossing cultural, ethnic, and language barriers, even though he writes in Japanese and has a mono-cultural background. I investigate the reason why Murakami’s works are accepted by many contemporary readers worldwide. I finally explore the meaning of national identity and subjectivity in the globalizing world, and clarify the transformation of modern literature.

  19. Migratory and adhesive properties of Xenopus laevis primordial germ cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksandr Dzementsei

    2013-11-01

    The directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs to the site of gonad formation is an advantageous model system to study cell motility. The embryonic development of PGCs has been investigated in different animal species, including mice, zebrafish, Xenopus and Drosophila. In this study we focus on the physical properties of Xenopus laevis PGCs during their transition from the passive to the active migratory state. Pre-migratory PGCs from Xenopus laevis embryos at developmental stages 17–19 to be compared with migratory PGCs from stages 28–30 were isolated and characterized in respect to motility and adhesive properties. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we observed a decline in adhesiveness of PGCs upon reaching the migratory state, as defined by decreased attachment to extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, and a reduced adhesion to somatic endodermal cells. Data obtained from qPCR analysis with isolated PGCs reveal that down-regulation of E-cadherin might contribute to this weakening of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, using an in vitro migration assay, we found that movement of X. laevis PGCs can also occur independently of specific interactions with their neighboring cells. The reduction of cellular adhesion during PGC development is accompanied by enhanced cellular motility, as reflected in increased formation of bleb-like protrusions and inferred from electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS as well as time-lapse image analysis. Temporal alterations in cell shape, including contraction and expansion of the cellular body, reveal a higher degree of cellular dynamics for the migratory PGCs in vitro.

  20. Migratory and adhesive properties of Xenopus laevis primordial germ cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzementsei, Aliaksandr; Schneider, David; Janshoff, Andreas; Pieler, Tomas

    2013-12-15

    The directional migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to the site of gonad formation is an advantageous model system to study cell motility. The embryonic development of PGCs has been investigated in different animal species, including mice, zebrafish, Xenopus and Drosophila. In this study we focus on the physical properties of Xenopus laevis PGCs during their transition from the passive to the active migratory state. Pre-migratory PGCs from Xenopus laevis embryos at developmental stages 17-19 to be compared with migratory PGCs from stages 28-30 were isolated and characterized in respect to motility and adhesive properties. Using single-cell force spectroscopy, we observed a decline in adhesiveness of PGCs upon reaching the migratory state, as defined by decreased attachment to extracellular matrix components like fibronectin, and a reduced adhesion to somatic endodermal cells. Data obtained from qPCR analysis with isolated PGCs reveal that down-regulation of E-cadherin might contribute to this weakening of cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, however, using an in vitro migration assay, we found that movement of X. laevis PGCs can also occur independently of specific interactions with their neighboring cells. The reduction of cellular adhesion during PGC development is accompanied by enhanced cellular motility, as reflected in increased formation of bleb-like protrusions and inferred from electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) as well as time-lapse image analysis. Temporal alterations in cell shape, including contraction and expansion of the cellular body, reveal a higher degree of cellular dynamics for the migratory PGCs in vitro.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds from Chongming Island, Yangtze estuary, China: insight into migratory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junxia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhou, Peng; Xu, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Sum-PBDEs concentrations in shorebirds and Anatidae ducks muscles from Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve ranged from 21-324 to 14-159ngg(-1) lw, respectively. PBDEs were detected in muscles of all the studied species. Compared with flyways around the world, migratory waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian flyway exhibited lower PBDEs burdens than those reported on Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway in Europe and Pacific, Atlantic, Mississippi flyway in North America. Residential Eurasian tree sparrow samples indicated few PBDE products were used in Chongming Island developed in the idea of world famous eco-island. There was no significant difference in PBDEs concentrations between shorebirds and ducks. However, PBDEs composition varied between them. BDE 209 (29-44%) contributed to sum-PBDEs more than BDE 47 (17-19%) in muscles of ducks, while BDE 47 was the predominant congener in shorebirds contributing 32-48%. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes and stomach content analysis indicated shorebirds and ducks had the same dietary composition, but showed different preference to bivalves, gastropods and crustaceans for shorebirds and aquatic plant material for ducks. Migratory species had inherent migratory routes and thus had exposure to PBDEs during their stay in breeding grounds, stopover sites and wintering grounds with high use of different commercial PBDE mixtures. Higher percentage of BDE 209 in ducks than shorebirds suggested that breeding ranges and wintering grounds of ducks comprise wetlands in inland and coastal China and Korea where decaBDEs pollution was serious in Asian-Pacific region. Our findings reveal the influence of migratory behavior on PBDEs distribution in migratory waterbirds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution study on migratory bird (Scolopacidae: Numenius) in Surabaya, Indonesia: Estimating the effect of habitat and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmawati, Iska; Indah Trisnawati D., T.; Kurnia, Ory; Hamdani, Albi; Fahmi, Mahsun; Fahmi, Mirza

    2017-06-01

    Migratory Birds are responding to recent climate change in variety of ways. Distribution study of migratory birds will help to understand climate change effect in ecosystem area. Its supported by natural resources all around Indonesia. One of this place is Surabaya city specially Wonorejo area. Wonorejo is one of the Important Bird Area (IBA), specifically for bird conserved by Indonesian law and migratory birds. This research aims to know that distribution study on migratory bird enhances the knowledge of climate change effect. The distribution study use mapping method and the environment variables study analyzed by multivariate analysis. The description about how to analize the climate change effect in this area will be described by map and ilustration model. The result show that migratory bird (Scolopacidae) use different area of preference habitat in Wonorejo during migratory season on 2010-2016. In particular, the details of population and scale is likely to characterize global change biodiversity of migratory birds research need to improve in future.

  3. Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, K W S

    2008-01-01

    Encephalization of Australian marsupials was analyzed using the endocranial volume (ECV) of 52 species of Dasyuromorphia and Notoryctemorphia, 14 species of Peramelemorphia and 116 species of Diprotodontia from Australia and New Guinea and compared with 16 species of Ameridelphian marsupials and 3 species of native and recently introduced Australian eutherian carnivores (dingo, feral cat and feral fox). Linear regression analysis of the relationship between ECV and body weight for marsupials revealed that allometric parameters for these groups are different from those previously derived for samples of (mainly eutherian) mammals, with higher slopes for Dasyuromorphia and Diprotodontia and lower slopes for Ameridelphians and Peramelemorphia. Absolute ECV for small Australian and New Guinea marsupial carnivores (Antechinus and Sminthopsis) were found to be comparable to eutherians of similar body weight, but large marsupial carnivores such as the Tasmanian devil and thylacine had substantially smaller ECVs than eutherian carnivores of similar body weight. Similarly, members of some superfamilies within Diprotodontia (Burramyoidea, Petauroidea, Tarsipedoidea) had ECVs comparable to prosimians, whereas bandicoots, bilbies and many macropods were found to be poorly encephalized. When both encephalization quotient (EQ) and residuals from regression analysis were used to compare relative ECV of extinct/threatened species with common species there were no significant differences for any of the orders of Australian marsupials, suggesting that encephalization is not a major factor in the current extinction crisis for Australian marsupials. Similarly there were no consistent differences in relative ECV between marsupials from New Guinea and associated islands compared to Australia or between arid and non-arid Australian regions for any of the marsupial orders. The results indicate that marsupials are not uniformly poorly encephalized and that small marsupial carnivores and

  4. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  5. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  6. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...... be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research relations....

  7. Retrospective study of concussive convulsions in elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers: phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    McCrory, P. R.; Bladin, P F; Berkovic, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the ictal phenomenology, aetiology, and outcome of convulsions occurring within seconds of impact in violent collision sport. DESIGN: Retrospective identification of convulsions associated with concussive brain injury from case records from medical officers of football clubs over a 15 year period. SUBJECTS: Elite Australian rules and rugby league footballers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuroimaging studies, electroencephalography, neuropsychological test data, and statistics ...

  8. High Possibility Classrooms as a Pedagogical Framework for Technology Integration in Classrooms: An Inquiry in Two Australian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how well teachers integrate digital technology in learning is the subject of considerable debate in education. High Possibility Classrooms (HPC) is a pedagogical framework drawn from research on exemplary teachers' knowledge of technology integration in Australian school classrooms. The framework is being used to support teachers who…

  9. A Futures Orientation in the Australian Curriculum: Current Levels of Teacher Interest, Activity and Support in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Mark; Bruce, Neville

    2014-01-01

    The soon to be implemented Australian Curriculum aims to integrate a futures orientation across subject areas. Guidelines and support for this specific initiative are being finalized. Only a little is known about the current teaching of a futures orientation or of secondary teacher interest, understanding and support for this important but…

  10. Dogma before Diversity: The Contradictory Rhetoric of Controversy and Diversity in the Politicisation of Australian Queer-Affirming Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Barrie; Smith, Stephen J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses contradictory imperatives in contemporary Australian pedagogy--the notions of "controversy" and "diversity" as they relate the subjects of genders and sexualities. It is a common view that both gender and sexuality are important organising features of identity, society and politics. Consistent effort is…

  11. Australian and U.S. news media portrayal of sharks and their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muter, Bret A; Gore, Meredith L; Gledhill, Katie S; Lamont, Christopher; Huveneers, Charlie

    2013-02-01

    Investigation of the social framing of human-shark interactions may provide useful strategies for integrating social, biological, and ecological knowledge into national and international policy discussions about shark conservation. One way to investigate social opinion and forces related to sharks and their conservation is through the media's coverage of sharks. We conducted a content analysis of 300 shark-related articles published in 20 major Australian and U.S. newspapers from 2000 to 2010. Shark attacks were the emphasis of over half the articles analyzed, and shark conservation was the primary topic of 11% of articles. Significantly more Australian articles than U.S. articles treated shark attacks (χ(2) = 3.862; Australian 58% vs. U.S. 47%) and shark conservation issues (χ(2) = 6.856; Australian 15% vs. U.S. 11%) as the primary article topic and used politicians as the primary risk messenger (i.e., primary person or authority sourced in the article) (χ(2) = 7.493; Australian 8% vs. U.S. 1%). However, significantly more U.S. articles than Australian articles discussed sharks as entertainment (e.g., subjects in movies, books, and television; χ(2) = 15.130; U.S. 6% vs. Australian 1%) and used scientists as the primary risk messenger (χ(2) = 5.333; U.S. 25% vs. Australian 15%). Despite evidence that many shark species are at risk of extinction, we found that most media coverage emphasized the risks sharks pose to people. To the extent that media reflects social opinion, our results highlight problems for shark conservation. We suggest that conservation professionals purposefully and frequently engage with the media to highlight the rarity of shark attacks, discuss preventative measures water users can take to reduce their vulnerability to shark encounters, and discuss conservation issues related to local and threatened species of sharks. When integrated with biological and ecological data, social-science data may help generate a more comprehensive perspective

  12. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  13. The Climatology of Australian Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ross M.; Forgan, Bruce W.; Campbell, Susan K.

    2017-04-01

    Airborne particles or aerosols have long been recognised for their major contribution to uncertainty in climate change. In addition, aerosol amounts must be known for accurate atmospheric correction of remotely sensed images, and are required to accurately gauge the available solar resource. However, despite great advances in surface networks and satellite retrievals over recent years, long-term continental-scale aerosol data sets are lacking. Here we present an aerosol assessment over Australia based on combined sun photometer measurements from the Bureau of Meteorology Radiation Network and CSIRO/AeroSpan. The measurements are continental in coverage, comprising 22 stations, and generally decadal in timescale, totalling 207 station-years. Monthly climatologies are given at all stations. Spectral decomposition shows that the time series can be represented as a weighted sum of sinusoids with periods of 12, 6 and 4 months, corresponding to the annual cycle and its second and third harmonics. Their relative amplitudes and phase relationships lead to sawtooth-like waveforms sharply rising to an austral spring peak, with a slower decline often including a secondary peak during the summer. The amplitude and phase of these periodic components show significant regional change across the continent. Fits based on this harmonic analysis are used to separate the periodic and episodic components of the aerosol time series. An exploratory classification of the aerosol types is undertaken based on (a) the relative periodic amplitudes of the Ångström exponent and aerosol optical depth, (b) the relative amplitudes of the 6- and 4-month harmonic components of the aerosol optical depth, and (c) the ratio of episodic to periodic variation in aerosol optical depth. It is shown that Australian aerosol can be broadly grouped into three classes: tropical, arid and temperate. Statistically significant decadal trends are found at 4 of the 22 stations. Despite the apparently small

  14. Nutritional status of haemodialysis patients: comparison of Australian cohorts of Aboriginal and European descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Alwyn; Carroll, Robert; Gallagher, Meghan; Meade, Anthony

    2013-12-01

    It is not known whether nutritional status differs between Australian Aboriginal and non Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of Australian Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal haemodialysis subjects at satellite dialysis centres. Seventy-six (25 Aboriginal, 51 non-Aboriginal) prevalent haemodialysis patients were enrolled in a 3-month cross-sectional study. Each month anthropometric and biochemical measurements were collected. Nutritional status (diet history, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength) was assessed by a dietitian. PG-SGA detected mild to moderate malnutrition in 35% of Aboriginal patients and 25% of non-Aboriginal patients. The overall physical rating on the PG-SGA was significantly higher in Aboriginal patients, indicating the presence of a greater deficit in muscle mass in this population. Inter-dialytic weight gain was significantly greater in Aboriginal subjects (median [range] 3.0 [2.1-5.7] vs 2.5 [-0.3-5.0] kg, P1.6 and median normalized protein catabolic rate 1.5). Difficulties were encountered in obtaining dietary information from Aboriginal subjects using the diet history method. Subjects had acceptable parameters of dialysis adequacy; however, 35% had evidence of malnutrition. Further research should focus on establishing a knowledge base for the nutritional management for Aboriginal dialysis subjects, and the development of a validated individual dietary assessment method for use in this population group. © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  15. Correlates of preclinical cardiovascular disease in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaw A Andrew

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high frequency of premature death from cardiovascular disease in indigenous Australians is often attributed to the high prevalence of risk factors, especially type II diabetes mellitus (DM. We evaluated the relationship of ethnicity to atherosclerotic burden, as evidenced by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, independent of risk factor status. Methods We studied 227 subjects (147 men; 50 ± 13 y: 119 indigenous subjects with (IDM, n = 54, and without DM (InDM, n = 65, 108 Caucasian subjects with (CDM, n = 52, and without DM (CnDM, n = 56. IMT was measured according to standard methods and compared with clinical data and cardiovascular risk factors. Results In subjects both with and without DM, IMT was significantly greater in indigenous subjects. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP between any of the groups, and subjects with DM showed no difference in plasma HbA1c. Cardiovascular risk factors were significantly more prevalent in indigenous subjects. Nonetheless, ethnicity (β = -0.34; p Conclusion Ethnicity appears to be an independent correlate of preclinical cardiovascular disease, even after correction for the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in indigenous Australians. Standard approaches to control currently known risk factors are vital to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease, but in themselves may be insufficient to fully address the high prevalence in this population.

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Turbulence on the Behavior of Migratory Fish, 2002 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed.

    2002-03-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural hydraulic phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish (Coutant 1998) or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress, such turbulence, can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This report discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated

  17. Predicting Australian adults' sun-safe behaviour: examining the role of personal and social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C; Young, Ross McD; Hawkes, Anna L; Leske, Stuart; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-05-01

    To address the scarcity of comprehensive, theory-based research in the Australian context, this study, using a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, investigated the role of personal and social norms to identify the key predictors of adult Australians' sun-safe intentions and behaviour. The study used a prospective design with two waves of data collection, 1 week apart. Participants were 816 adults (48.2% men) aged between 18 and 88 years recruited from urban, regional, and rural areas of Australia. At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire assessing the standard TPB predictors (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control [PBC]), past behaviour, behavioural intention, and additional measures of group norm for the referent groups of friends and family, image norm, personal norm, personal choice/responsibility, and Australian identity. Seventy-one per cent of the participants (n = 577) reported on their sun-safe behaviour in the subsequent week. Via path modelling, past behaviour, attitude, group norm (friends), personal norm, and personal choice/responsibility emerged as independent predictors of intentions which, in turn, predicted sun-safe behaviour prospectively. Past behaviour, but not PBC, had direct effects on sun-safe behaviour. The model explained 61.6% and 43.9% of the variance in intention and behaviour, respectively. This study provides support for the use of a comprehensive theoretical decision-making model to explain Australian adults' sun-safe intentions and behaviours and identifies viable targets for health-promoting messages in this high-risk context. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Identifying determinants of sun-safe behaviour is vital in high-risk cancer areas like Australia. For young Australians, friendship group norm is a key influence of intentions and behaviour. Little is known about drivers of sun safety, especially norms, among Australian adults in general. What does this

  18. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lucinda K.; Edwards, Suzanne; Grieger, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies assessing dietary intake and its relationship to metabolic phenotype are emerging, but limited. The aims of the study are to identify dietary patterns in Australian adults, and to determine whether these dietary patterns are associated with metabolic phenotype and obesity. Cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Australian Health Survey was analysed. Subjects included adults aged 45 years and over (n = 2415). Metabolic phenotype was determined according to criteria used to define metabolic syndrome (0–2 abnormalities vs. 3–7 abnormalities), and additionally categorized for obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 vs. BMI patterns were derived using factor analysis. Multivariable models were used to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and metabolic phenotype, with adjustment for age, sex, smoking status, socio-economic indexes for areas, physical activity and daily energy intake. Twenty percent of the population was metabolically unhealthy and obese. In the fully adjusted model, for every one standard deviation increase in the Healthy dietary pattern, the odds of having a more metabolically healthy profile increased by 16% (odds ratio (OR) 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.29). Poor metabolic profile and obesity are prevalent in Australian adults and a healthier dietary pattern plays a role in a metabolic and BMI phenotypes. Nutritional strategies addressing metabolic syndrome criteria and targeting obesity are recommended in order to improve metabolic phenotype and potential disease burden. PMID:26251918

  19. Embryonic diapause in the Australian plague locust relative to parental experience of cumulative photophase decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward D; Woodman, James D

    2014-11-01

    The Australian plague locust Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker) exhibits facultative embryonic diapause during autumn. To approximate natural photoperiod changes during late summer and autumn, locust nymphs were reared under different total declines in laboratory photophase (-0.5, -0.75, -1.0, -1.25, -1.5, -1.75, -2 h each lowered in 15 min steps) in a 24 h photoperiod to quantify any effect on the subsequent production of diapause eggs. Induction of diapause eggs was significantly affected by accumulated photoperiod decline experienced by the parental generation throughout all development stages from mid-instar nymph to fledgling adult. The incidence of embryonic diapause ranged from nil at -0.5 h to 86.6% diapause at -2 h. Continued declines in photoperiod for post-teneral locusts (transitioned from -1h until fledging to -1.75 h) produced a further increase in the proportion of diapause eggs. The results were unaffected by time spent at any given photoperiod, despite a previously indicated maximal inductive photoperiod of 13.5h being used as the mid-point of all treatments. Implications for the seasonal timing processes of photoperiodism in C. terminifera, which has a high migratory capacity and a latitudinal cline in the timing of diapause egg production across a broad geographic range, are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bullying in the Australian ICT workplace: the views of Australian ICT professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Yeslam Al-Saggaf; Arnela Ceric

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine bullying in the workplace from the perspective of Australian Information Communication Technology (ICT) professionals. The data collection for this project included conducting a quantitative survey with 2,315 participants and 43 qualitative interviews with members of Australian Computer Society (ACS). We found that 630 ICT professionals, or 27.23% of all survey respondents, identified workplace bullying as an ethical problem. The majority of survey responde...

  1. The Quality Movement in Australian University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Vicki; Exon, F. C. A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the reorganization of the national higher education system by the Australian government focuses on a questionnaire distributed to university librarians that examined quality assurance processes and management. Topics include quality indicators and libraries; methodologies, including Total Quality Management; allocation of quality…

  2. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  3. Study of Australian Multi-Campus Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Johnston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether Australian multi-campus universities are distinctive in terms of their student profile by field of education (FOE), funding and expenditure profiles, and learning and teaching outcomes, and identifies the implications for higher education policy and funding. Both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used to…

  4. Japanese wives in Japanese-Australian intermarriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Denman

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The diasporic experiences of Japanese partners married to Australians and living in Australia are largely unexamined. This article is based on a study, conducted for an honours thesis, which invited four Japanese wives living in South East Queensland to describe, together with their Australian husbands, their family’s interactions with Japan, its language and culture, and the local Japanese community. It was recognised that the extensive social networks these wives had established and maintained with local Japanese women from other Japanese-Australian intermarriage families were an important part of their migrant experience. This article will firstly review the literature on contemporary Japanese- Australian intermarriage in Australia and Japanese lifestyle migration to Australia. It will then describe and examine the involvement and motivations of the four wives in their social networks. Entry into motherhood was found to be the impetus for developing and participating in informal, autonomous networks. Additionally, regular visits to Japan were focused on engagement with existing family and friendship networks. The contemporary experience of intermarriage for these women is decidedly transnational and fundamentally different from that of the war brides, or sensō hanayome.

  5. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  6. Profiling nursing resources in Australian emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphet, Julia; Kent, Bridie; Plummer, Virginia; Considine, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Emergency nurses have a key role in managing the large numbers of patients that attend Australian emergency departments (EDs) annually, and require adequate educational preparation to deliver safe and quality patient care. This paper provides a detailed profile of nursing resources in Australian EDs, including ED locations, annual patient attendances, nurse staffing including level of education, and educational resources. Data were collected via online surveys of emergency Nurse Unit Managers and Nurse Educators and the MyHospitals website. Data were analysed by hospital peer group and state or territory. Comparisons were made using the Kruskal-Wallis Test and Spearman Rank Order Correlation. In 2011-2012, there were a median of 36,274 patient attendances to each of the 118 EDs sampled (IQR 28,279-46,288). Most of the nurses working in EDs were Registered Nurses (95.2%). Organisations provided educational resources including Clinical Nurse Educators (80.6%), learning packages (86%) and facilitation of postgraduate study (98%), but resources, both human and educational varied substantially between states and territories. One-third of emergency nurses held a relevant postgraduate qualification (30%). There are important variations in the emergency nursing resources available between Australian states and territories. The high percentage of RNs in Australian EDs is a positive finding, however strategies to increase the percentage of nurses with relevant postgraduate qualifications are required. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  8. opportunities and constraints in australian environmental education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent International Development Program- Education Australia document calling for proposals for projects establishing links between South African and Australian educational institutions speaks of the need to address the issue of ..... historical, social and cultural contexts. Add to this. 'environmental diversity' the kind of ' ...

  9. The Australians--A "Fair Go" People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Herschel

    1984-01-01

    Australians are known for their egalitarian spirit, manifested by a dislike of social pretension and affectation. A brief history of the country from the time of its establishment in 1788 as a dumping ground for Britain's unwanted criminals to the present is presented. (RM)

  10. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  11. Australian Geography and the Corporate Management Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Criticizes the intrusion into Australian higher education of the corporate management model. Considers the implications of this mechanization for geography instruction. Notes centralizing tendencies and merger policies with the corresponding market imperatives of efficiency and accountability. Argues that this produces employable manpower but does…

  12. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  13. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  14. Australian Space Situational Awareness Capability Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, B.; Bessell, T.; Rutten, M.; Cheung, B.

    Australia is increasing its contribution to the global space situational awareness (SSA) problem by committing to acquire and operate SSA sensors. Over the last year, a series of collaborative SSA experiments have been undertaken to demonstrate the capabilities of Australian sensors. These experiments aimed to demonstrate how existing Australian sensors could perform in a surveillance of space role, prove passive radar’s capability to observe low earth orbit (LEO) satellites and perform SSA handoffs to optical sensors. The trials established a data sharing and communications protocol that bridged defence, academia, and industry partners. Geographically dispersed optical assets, including the Falcon telescope in Canberra, Raven telescopes in Exmouth (Western Australia) and Defence Science and Technology (DST) Telescopes in Adelaide (South Australia) collected on LEO satellites and established cueing protocols. The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) located in Western Australia, demonstrated the capability of passive radar as an SSA asset after successfully observing LEO satellites based on reflected terrestrial radio signals. The combination of radar and optical SSA assets allows for the exploitation of each sensors unique advantages and locations across the Australian continent. This paper outlines the capabilities and diversity of Australian optical and radar sensors as demonstrated by field trials in 2016 and 2017. It suggests future potential for harnessing novel radar and optical integration techniques to supplement high-value assets such as the Space Surveillance Telescope as part of the Space Surveillance Network.

  15. Management options for Australian Blackwood ( Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Australian Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) was actively introduced into the indigenous forests of the southern Cape until about 1930. On the perception that this exotic species constituted a threat to the indigenous forest, a policy of eradication was followed. This perception that Blackwood is capable of progressively ...

  16. Permanently peripheral? Opportunities and constraints in Australian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent International Development Program- Education Australia document calling for proposals for projects establishing links between South African and Australian educational institutions speaks of the need to address the issue of education for social reconstruction. Improvement of the capabilities of higher educational ...

  17. Religious Identity and Plurality amongst Australian Catholics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, the Catholic Education Offices in the State of Victoria, Australia, have collaborated on a large research project with the Catholic University in Leuven that focuses on Catholic Identity. This is an interesting situation when there are, indeed, multiple Catholic identities evident in Australian society. This article ...

  18. Australian Education Journals: Quantitative and Qualitative Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Genoni, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that applied citation-based measurements to Australian education journals. Citations data were drawn from two sources, Web of Science and Scopus, and these data were used to calculate each journal's impact factor, "h"-index, and diffusion factor. The rankings resulting from these analyses were compared with…

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  20. Multiculturalism in Education: An Australian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotiadis, Kostas

    1995-01-01

    Describes multiculturalism in Australian education as an approach that affirms, values, and promotes social, educational, and economic benefits derived from a productive use of Australia's rich cultural and linguistic diversity. Multiculturalism in Australia can be understood as a demographic description of society, as a social philosophy, and as…