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Sample records for subject-predicate gender agreement

  1. The Role of Morpho-Phonological Factors in Subject-Predicate Gender Agreement in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dank, Maya; Deutsch, Avital

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of overt phonological realisation of morphological marking on the implementation of subject-predicate agreement in language production. This study was conducted in Hebrew, and focused on subject-predicate gender agreement for inanimate nouns. In Hebrew, singular masculine forms are usually morphologically…

  2. Symmetric and Asymmetric Patterns of Attraction Errors in Producing Subject-Predicate Agreement in Hebrew: An Issue of Morphological Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2011-01-01

    A common characteristic of subject-predicate agreement errors (usually termed attraction errors) in complex noun phrases is an asymmetrical pattern of error distribution, depending on the inflectional state of the nouns comprising the complex noun phrase. That is, attraction is most likely to occur when the head noun is the morphologically…

  3. On the subject-predicate relation and subject agreement in SiSwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also argues that subject agreement is a purely syntactic phenomenon that takes place in a spec-head relationship. It proposes that subject agreement is triggered by verbs, and that multiple subject agreement within a clause occurs when auxiliary verbs iterate. The theoretical consequences of the analysis ...

  4. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use.

  5. The Chinese and Kazakh Languages Comparative Study: Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhalyk Abdurakyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.

  6. A Pronominal View of Gender Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audring, J.

    2013-01-01

    In modern linguistic theory, grammatical genders are seen as agreement classes. Agreement is the primary evidence for how many genders a language has and which nouns belong to which gender. Yet, agreement behaviour is not always straightforward: languages show inconsistencies, mismatches and

  7. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  8. Gender and Agreement Processing in Children with Developmental Language Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether Russian-speaking children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are sensitive to gender agreement when performing a gender decision task. In Experiment 1, the presence of overt gender agreement between verbs and/or adjectival modifiers and postverbal subject nouns memory was varied. In Experiment 2, agreement…

  9. Gender agreement with animate nouns in French

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihsane, T.; Sleeman, P.

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical gender and semantic gender do not always go hand in hand. In French such mismatches can be observed outside the strict DP. To account for such phenomena and for gender more generally, we propose that gender is expressed in two positions within DP, on N as an uninterpretable feature

  10. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers’ gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eHanulíková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker’s gender, i.e. the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker’s gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbours were upset because I *stoleMASC plums’ elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker’s gender, a disagreement between a formally-marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM *stoleMASC plums resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally-marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex.

  11. Gender Agreement Attraction in Russian: Production and Comprehension Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slioussar, Natalia; Malko, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example "The key to the cabinets are rusty") have been the object of many studies in the last 20 years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance, and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages). Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g.,"The key to the cabinets…"), but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g., "The keys to the cabinet…"). Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart. We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension) studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects). Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement attraction in

  12. Gender agreement attraction in Russian: production and comprehension evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Slioussar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example The key to the cabinets are rusty have been the object of many studies in the last twenty years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages. Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g. The key to the cabinets…, but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g. The keys to the cabinet…. Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart.We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects. Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement

  13. Gender Agreement Attraction in Russian: Production and Comprehension Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slioussar, Natalia; Malko, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Agreement attraction errors (such as the number error in the example “The key to the cabinets are rusty”) have been the object of many studies in the last 20 years. So far, almost all production experiments and all comprehension experiments looked at binary features (primarily at number in Germanic, Romance, and some other languages, in several cases at gender in Romance languages). Among other things, it was noted that both in production and in comprehension, attraction effects are much stronger for some feature combinations than for the others: they can be observed in the sentences with singular heads and plural dependent nouns (e.g.,“The key to the cabinets…”), but not in the sentences with plural heads and singular dependent nouns (e.g., “The keys to the cabinet…”). Almost all proposed explanations of this asymmetry appeal to feature markedness, but existing findings do not allow teasing different approaches to markedness apart. We report the results of four experiments (one on production and three on comprehension) studying subject-verb gender agreement in Russian, a language with three genders. Firstly, we found attraction effects both in production and in comprehension, but, unlike in the case of number agreement, they were not parallel (in production, feminine gender triggered strongest effects, while neuter triggered weakest effects, while in comprehension, masculine triggered weakest effects). Secondly, in the comprehension experiments attraction was observed for all dependent noun genders, but only for a subset of head noun genders. This goes against the traditional assumption that the features of the dependent noun are crucial for attraction, showing the features of the head are more important. We demonstrate that this approach can be extended to previous findings on attraction and that there exists other evidence for it. In total, these findings let us reconsider the question which properties of features are crucial for agreement

  14. Gender Agreement: a psycholinguistic and aphasia case study.

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    Francesca Franzon

    2014-04-01

    Results match with theories (Alexiadou 2004; Franzon et al. 2013 that propose two types of gender: a non-interpretable one, set by the lexicon and thus inherent on the noun (as in colpo – colpa; and a variable one (as in cavallo-cavalla, interpretable at a semantic level, assigned in syntax on the basis of the referential context. This latter condition seems to require less processing costs, even if less common; when the morpheme lacks semantic interpretability processing costs are higher. Completion on adjectives is faster because such an operation consists in copying into the higher DP positions the morphosyntactic values of Gender that have already been processed in the noun; conversely, when the noun has to be completed, it has to undergo further processing before rising to the DP to check the agreement in a proper position.

  15. Agreement and markedness in the ascription of gender to novel animate nouns by children acquiring Portuguese

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    Letícia M. Sicuro Corrêa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of agreement in the ascription of gender to animate nouns by children acquiring Portuguese. An elicited production task was used in which children were requested to refer to novel objects named by pseudo masculine/feminine nouns. It aimed at verifying the extent to which an agreeing element (the determiner, the noun-ending or a correlation between the gender of the determiner and the noun-ending would guide the ascription of a pseudo-noun to a masculine/feminine gender class. This study extends an earlier one, in which 2-4 year olds acquiring Brazilian Portuguese were shown to rely more on agreement than on correlational patterns, when ascribing gender to pseudo inanimate nouns (Corrêa & Name, 2003. 80 2-4 year olds acquiring Brazilian and European Portuguese were tested. The results suggest that reliance on agreement prevails, though children are sensitive to correlational patterns and the production of feminine DPs (determiner phrases is particularly hard. It is argued that children rely on an algorithmic procedure for gender identification and that gender markedness in nouns with an optional gender feature increases the demands of DP production.

  16. Gender differences in patient-provider symptom agreement in reporting respiratory complaints on a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaris, Gay J; Tape, Thomas G; Smith, Lynette M; Nickol, Devin R; Wigton, Robert S

    2008-06-01

    Men and women communicate differently, but it is unclear whether this influences health care outcomes. Because women patients frequently choose women health care providers, we examined whether this preference was affected by communication styles. We focused on communication of disease-specific symptoms, hypothesizing that symptom agreement between women patients and women health care providers would be greater than between other patient-provider gender combinations. Patients attending outpatient clinics were recruited as part of a study of respiratory illness at 7 university-affiliated sites during 3 consecutive influenza seasons (2000-2003). Individuals aged > or = 19 years were offered enrollment if they sought care for cold or flu symptoms at a participating study site. Patients were eligible to participate in the study if they reported any 1 of 6 symptoms: cough, runny nose, fever (subjective), muscle aches, sore throat, and/or exhaustion. Using separate questionnaires, patients and their health care providers recorded the patients' respiratory symptoms (as present or absent). Patients recorded their symptoms before visiting their health care provider, and providers recorded patient symptoms after the visit. Symptom agreement was compared using general estimating equations across all gender combinations. A total of 327 patients (220 women, 107 men) and 84 health care providers (37 women, 47 men) participated in the study. Overall symptom agreement for all patient-provider gender combinations was 81.9% (95% CI, 79.6%-84.2%). For each symptom, the observed agreement significantly exceeded the agreement expected by chance alone (P difference in symptom agreement for most symptoms between the male-male and female-female patient-provider combinations. Based on these findings, symptom agreement alone does not explain why women patients select women health care providers.

  17. Cross-Cultural Agreement in Facial Attractiveness Preferences: The Role of Ethnicity and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Vinet; Greeff, Jaco M.; Stephen, Ian D.; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work showed high agreement in facial attractiveness preferences within and across cultures. The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces. Results showed significant agreement between White Scottish and Black South African observers' attractiveness judgements, providing further evidence of strong cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences. Second, we tested whether cross-cultural agreement is influenced by the ethnicity and/or the gender of the target group. White Scottish and Black South African observers showed significantly higher agreement for Scottish than for African faces, presumably because both groups are familiar with White European facial features, but the Scottish group are less familiar with Black African facial features. Further work investigating this discordance in cross-cultural attractiveness preferences for African faces show that Black South African observers rely more heavily on colour cues when judging African female faces for attractiveness, while White Scottish observers rely more heavily on shape cues. Results also show higher cross-cultural agreement for female, compared to male faces, albeit not significantly higher. The findings shed new light on the factors that influence cross-cultural agreement in attractiveness preferences. PMID:24988325

  18. Agreement and markedness in the ascription of gender to novel animate nouns by children acquiring Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Letícia M. Sicuro; Augusto, Marina R. A.; Castro, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of agreement in the ascription of gender to animate nouns by children acquiring Portuguese. An elicited production task was used in which children were requested to refer to novel objects named by pseudo masculine/feminine nouns. It aimed at verifying the extent to which an agreeing element (the determiner), the noun-ending or a correlation between the gender of the determiner and the noun-ending would guide the ascription of a pseudo-noun to a masculine/feminin...

  19. The Processing of Gender Agreement in L1 and L2 Spanish: Evidence from Reaction Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, Irma

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the processing of Spanish gender agreement during an online comprehension task. The linguistic variables examined are the noun class (semantic or non-semantic) and gender (masculine or feminine) of the head and attractor nouns, head noun morphology (overt or non-overt), and noun class and gender congruencies (matched…

  20. Gender Agreement in Online Versus Classroom Students of First-Semester Spanish

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    Collazos Ana María Díaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to compare the learning outcomes of beginning online students (n=14 of Spanish with classroom students engaged in a hybrid or blended course (n=19. All students were native speakers of English. Some studies show that online students perform better than classroom students, while other studies show no significant differences. All previous studies use general measurements of proficiency or scoring instead of examining particular differences within specific linguistic elements. This paper focuses on gender agreement and gathers acquisitionist research on the matter to weight the factors that affect its learning in online and classroom students. We extracted 2777 tokens from writing tasks and performed multivariate analysis using Rbrul (Johnson to test gender accuracy against delivery mode and linguistic factors such as animacy, morphological endings and gender assignment of the noun, as well as the grammatical category of the agreeing word. Results suggest that the delivery mode does not play a role in the overall performance of online versus classroom students. However, classroom students perform better with animate nouns, while online students do so in a non-significant manner. Physical presence of people may favor the learning of gender agreement with animate referents.

  1. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    ... (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process...

  2. Gender agreement in interface contexts in the oral production of heritage speakers of Spanish in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, B.; Hulk, A.; Sleeman, P.; Irizarri van Suchtelen, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of Spanish heritage speakers’ oral production of gender agreement outside the DP as an innovative source of support for the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace & Filiaci 2006). We demonstrate that, besides commonly known factors such as the gender, animacy and

  3. Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement

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    Simona Mačiukaité

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

  4. Processing of Gender and Number Agreement in Russian as a Second Language: The Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia; Gor, Kira

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the processing of Russian gender and number agreement by native (n = 36) and nonnative (n = 36) participants using a visual lexical decision task with priming. The design included a baseline condition that helped dissociate the underlying components of priming (facilitation and inhibition). The results showed no differences…

  5. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  6. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  7. Gender agreement violations modulate beta oscillatory dynamics during sentence comprehension: A comparison of second language learners and native speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ashley Glen; Lemhӧfer, Kristin; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Schriefers, Herbert

    2016-08-01

    For native speakers, many studies suggest a link between oscillatory neural activity in the beta frequency range and syntactic processing. For late second language (L2) learners on the other hand, the extent to which the neural architecture supporting syntactic processing is similar to or different from that of native speakers is still unclear. In a series of four experiments, we used electroencephalography to investigate the link between beta oscillatory activity and the processing of grammatical gender agreement in Dutch determiner-noun pairs, for Dutch native speakers, and for German L2 learners of Dutch. In Experiment 1 we show that for native speakers, grammatical gender agreement violations are yet another among many syntactic factors that modulate beta oscillatory activity during sentence comprehension. Beta power is higher for grammatically acceptable target words than for those that mismatch in grammatical gender with their preceding determiner. In Experiment 2 we observed no such beta modulations for L2 learners, irrespective of whether trials were sorted according to objective or subjective syntactic correctness. Experiment 3 ruled out that the absence of a beta effect for the L2 learners in Experiment 2 was due to repetition of the target nouns in objectively correct and incorrect determiner-noun pairs. Finally, Experiment 4 showed that when L2 learners are required to explicitly focus on grammatical information, they show modulations of beta oscillatory activity, comparable to those of native speakers, but only when trials are sorted according to participants' idiosyncratic lexical representations of the grammatical gender of target nouns. Together, these findings suggest that beta power in L2 learners is sensitive to violations of grammatical gender agreement, but only when the importance of grammatical information is highlighted, and only when participants' subjective lexical representations are taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Gender and Number Agreement in the Oral Production of Arabic Heritage Speakers

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    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Chakrani, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Heritage language acquisition has been characterized by various asymmetries, including the differential acquisition rates of various linguistic areas and the unbalanced acquisition of different categories within a single area. This paper examines Arabic heritage speakers' knowledge of subject-verb agreement versus noun-adjective agreement with the…

  9. Self-other agreement of personality judgments in job interviews: exploring the effects of trait, gender, age and social desirability.

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    Nederström, Mikael; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2014-10-01

    The article investigated agreement between self-reports and stranger ratings of personality. A sample of 139 real-life job applicants was interviewed by expert psychologists upon entrance to the assessment center. The applicants provided self-descriptions on 15 personality factors, and the psychologists rated the same traits of each target based on their impressions in the interview. The results demonstrated that professional judges can reach a substantial self-other agreement (SOA) on several traits even when the targets are strangers, and that the trait being judged, the target's gender, age and social desirability have an effect on the level of agreement. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cross-cultural agreement in facial attractiveness preferences: the role of ethnicity and gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coetzee, Vinet; Greeff, Jaco M; Stephen, Ian D; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    .... The aims of the current study were twofold. First, we tested cross-cultural agreement in the attractiveness judgements of White Scottish and Black South African students for own- and other-ethnicity faces...

  11. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  12. Acquisition of Spanish Gender Agreement in Two Learning Contexts: Study Abroad and at Home

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    Isabelli-Garcia, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the acquisition rate for gender acquisition in Spanish and to show whether individual variability and language contact may affect this rate. The participants were intermediate second language Spanish (first language English) learners in the study abroad and at-home contexts over a 4-month period. The…

  13. The processing of number and gender agreement in Spanish: an event-related potential investigation of the effects of structural distance.

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    Alemán Bañón, José; Fiorentino, Robert; Gabriele, Alison

    2012-05-25

    Previous research suggests that the processing of agreement is affected by the distance between the agreeing elements. However, the unique contribution of structural distance (number of intervening syntactic phrases) to the processing of agreement remains an open question, since previous investigations do not tease apart structural and linear distance (number of intervening words). We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the extent to which structural distance impacts the processing of Spanish number and gender agreement. Violations were realized both within the phrase and across the phrase. Across both levels of structural distance, linear distance was kept constant, as was the syntactic category of the agreeing elements. Number and gender agreement violations elicited a robust P600 between 400 and 900 ms, a component associated with morphosyntactic processing. No amplitude differences were observed between number and gender violations, suggesting that the two features are processed similarly at the brain level. Within-phrase agreement yielded more positive waveforms than across-phrase agreement, both for agreement violations and for grammatical sentences (no agreement by distance interaction). These effects can be interpreted as evidence that structural distance impacts the establishment of agreement overall, consistent with sentence processing models which predict that hierarchical structure impacts the processing of syntactic dependencies. However, due to the lack of an agreement by distance interaction, the possibility cannot be ruled out that these effects are driven by differences in syntactic predictability between the within-phrase and across-phrase configurations, notably the fact that the syntactic category of the critical word was more predictable in the within-phrase conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as “king” or “engineer”) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more “feminine” or “expressive” self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less “expressive” participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent. PMID:26779046

  15. Teacher-Student Agreement on "Bullies and Kids They Pick On" in Elementary School Classrooms: Gender and Grade Differences

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    Ahn, Hai-Jeong; Rodkin, Philip C.; Gest, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article examined teacher-student agreement on the measure: "bullies and kids they pick on" in 38 (15 first, 12 third, and 11 fifth grade) elementary school classrooms. Overall agreement between teachers and students was low, 7.9%. The frequency of bully-victim dyads reported by teachers and victim prominence were positive…

  16. The impact of ethnicity and gender on agreement of severe allergy history between inpatient and outpatient electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart K

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the rate of allergy documentation during inpatient admissions and determine if discrepancies exist between ethnicities and English proficiency, genders, and by medication classes.Methods: Patients at an outpatient clinic with severe medication allergies documented in their electronic medical record were identified. Inpatient hospital admissions following the date this allergy was documented were reviewed and the presence or absence of this documentation in the inpatient electronic medical record was noted. An overall rate of successful documentation of allergies was calculated by dividing the number of admissions where the allergy was entered into by the total number of admissions where the opportunity to enter the allergy existed. Each patients ethnicity, gender, and the class of medication to which they were allergic to, was also recorded to determine if difference exist within each demographic. Results: Overall, allergy information was successfully entered in 84.6% of 246 hospital admissions. This rate was significantly lower (37.5% among patients whose ethnicity groups, on average, have lower rates of English fluency. There was no significant difference between genders. Allergies to cephalosporins were less likely to be entered (44.4%.Conclusion: Patients who are not proficient in speaking English may be at an increased risk of experiencing an adverse drug reaction as their severe allergies are less likely to be documented during a hospital admission.

  17. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia F Beek

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC. This study aimed to: 1 collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2 see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3 compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4 determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%, 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%, and 336 (53.5% from the United Kingdom (UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG (n = 522, 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9% was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4% thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%. Furthermore, most participants (76.1% did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall or as a Z-code (the majority response

  18. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; De Cuypere, Griet; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC). This study aimed to: 1) collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2) see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3) compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4) determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the United Kingdom (UK). Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9%) was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4%) thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%). Furthermore, most participants (76.1%) did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall) or as a Z-code (the majority response

  19. EU-Mercosur Trade Agreement: Potential Impacts on Rural Livelihoods and Gender (with Focus on Bio-fuels Feedstock Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonith Hinojosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The trade-sustainable impact assessment of the European Union-Mercosur trade agreement found that the economic impact of the trade liberalisation scenario could be positive in the agricultural sectors of Mercosur countries. However, it also found that the social and environmental impacts would be mixed and potentially detrimental. This paper addresses the likely effects on the livelihoods of vulnerable rural populations. It argues that the potential impacts can be analysed within a diversified livelihood strategies framework, which is expanded to include institutional and policy factors. It concludes that the negative expected impact responds to the highly uneven access to capital assets. On the other hand, the effects are not generalised to all Mercosur countries, nor to all regions in each of the member countries. Enhancing or mitigating measures refer to the importance of sequencing and regulation to improve disadvantaged groups‘ abilities to participate in trade-led agricultural intensification or industrialisation processes.

  20. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  1. Predicative Adjective Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2001-01-01

    German is a complicated language. Any speaker of e.g. French or Danish who has ever tried to learn German would agree to this. Coming from languages with only two genders and with no case outside the pronoun system, German, with three genders and with four cases throughout the nominal system, seems...... unjustifiably complicated, as if it had been specially designed to torment poor students. However, there is one area where German agreement morphology could not possibly be simpler, and where German is much easier for non-native speakers than e.g. French or Danish: predicative adjectives. Both gender and number...

  2. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  3. [An Investigation of Factors Associated with Emotional Exhaustion among Hospital Nurses: Adherence to "Maternal Affection" and Agreement with Stereotypical Gender Roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Rei; Nomura, Kyoko; Hiraike, Haruko; Murakami, Aya; Tanabe, Ayumi; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko

    2018-01-01

    To investigate factors including adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles associated with emotional exhaustion among hospital nurses. In 2014, among 2,690 workers recruited for this study, 891 participated with written informed consent. Of these, we investigated 464 hospital nurses. Adherence to maternal affection and emotional exhaustion were measured using valid and reliable scales developed by Egami (2005, 12 items) and Kubo (1992, 5 items), respectively. Stereotypical gender role was measured by asking "how much do you agree with the idea that women should stay home and men should work?". Workfamily conflict was measured in terms of the discrepancy in priority in life (i.e., a work or a private life) between the participant's ideal and the real world. The majority of our participants were women (86%), aged 39 or younger (80%), and single (70%). About one-quarter had workfamily conflict (26%) and agreed with the stereotypical gender role (28%). The mean scores of emotional exhaustion and adherence to maternal affection were 17.2 (out of 25) and 30.8 (out of 48), respectively. A stepwise multivariable model showed that being a woman (p=0.028), being young (p=0.022), being single (p=0.007), and having workfamily conflict (pexhaustion after adjusting for household income. Adherence to maternal affection and stereotypical gender role were not significantly associated with emotional exhaustion. This study demonstrated that adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles were not associated with psychological burnout. Special attention should be paid to hospital nurses who are women, young, or single, or who have workfamily conflict.

  4. Climate Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lance A. Davis

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday September 3, 2016, on the eve of the G20 Summit in Hangzhou, China, the US, following earlier negotiations with China, agreed to join the Paris Agreement on climate change reached in December 2015 [1,2...

  5. Agreement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ossowski, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    More and more transactions, whether in business or related to leisure activities, are mediated automatically by computers and computer networks, and this trend is having a significant impact on the conception and design of new computer applications. The next generation of these applications will be based on software agents to which increasingly complex tasks can be delegated, and which interact with each other in sophisticated ways so as to forge agreements in the interest of their human users. The wide variety of technologies supporting this vision is the subject of this volume. It summarises

  6. Collective agreements as a tool for achieving gender equality in the workplace. Case study: the chemical industry in Tarragona / Los convenios colectivos como herramienta para alcanzar la igualdad de género en el trabajo. Estudio de caso: la industria química en Tarragona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Pontón Merino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality and collective bargaining are the key elements of the analysis presented in this paper. Collective agreements and collective bargaining are some of the tools to achieve the goal of equality between women and men at work. The incorporation of equality issues in bargaining debate is something relatively new, which is crucial to reach real labor equality. In Spain, since 2007, the collective agreements that include clauses on equality have grown exponentially. Nevertheless, the incorporation of contents on equality between women and men in collective agreements is slow and limited. Changes in legislation and the contents incorporated in the agreements do not stop being functional measures for a system based on the sexual division of labor that is not sufficiently criticized. In this paper we analyze the existing collective agreements of the Asociación Empresarial Química de Tarragona, in south Catalonia, that demonstrate these affirmations.

  7. Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Agreement Workflow Tool (AWT) is a role-based Intranet application used for processing SSA's Reimbursable Agreements according to SSA's standards. AWT provides...

  8. Gender on definite pronouns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Giurgea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some issues related to the interpretation of gender on definite pronouns. Gender in definite pronouns (i.e. personal and demonstrative pronouns may either reflect the gender of the noun of the antecedent (grammatical gender or a property of the referent (natural gender. We can note, across languages, that natural gender may override grammatical gender for persons but not for inanimates. I explain this by assuming that neuter natural gender means lack of descriptive content, the inanimate interpretation arising from an implicature, and that a general principle requires pronouns to bear a descriptive specification whenever possible (this specification can be represented either by nominal anaphora or by the descriptive content of natural gender. It follows that neuter natural gender is only used for entities which do not fall under a nominal concept (propositional objects, denoted by clauses, and uncategorized perceptual objects. In languages with the two-fold opposition masculine/feminine, special pronouns lacking grammatical gender (the so-called call ‘neuter pronouns’ are used for entities which do not fall under a nominal concept. Romanian patterns with these languages, which supports the idea that Romanian does not have a three-gender system, but a two-gender one. Having established that in Romanian the category of Gender does not have more than two values, I discuss several possible analyses of the so-called ‘neuter’ nouns in this language, concluding that genders must be distinguished from nominal agreement classes, as proposed by Corbett (1991. Romanian can be described as having two genders and three nominal classes. A minimalist formalization of this distinction is put forth, which is based on Ritter’s (1993 proposal that Gender is generated on Num in Romance languages.

  9. MEDIATION AGREEMENTS LEGAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ponomarev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the legal model of mediation agreements in Russian and international legislation. The authors consider the main provisions of the mediation agreements in civil matters, in particular, is defined by such features of the legal model as the requirements for this type of agreements. In addition, the article discusses the problematic issues of implementation of mediation agreements.

  10. Learning (Not) to Predict: Grammatical Gender Processing in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, this article investigates the predictive processing of gender agreement in adult second language (L2) acquisition. We test (1) whether instruction on lexical gender can lead to target predictive agreement processing and (2) how variability in lexical gender representations moderates L2 gender agreement processing. In a…

  11. Shareholders' agreements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    ’ agreements”) cannot bind the company within the sense of company law under the new state of law, and voting rights agreements, agreements on right of pre-emption etc. will therefore only apply at the level of contract law between the parties to the agreement. This article for European Business Law Review...... analyses the consequences of this. Rights and duties in the owners’ agreements must now be reiterated to the greatest possible extent in the company’s articles of association so that the precepts become binding on the company and its management. Whether the parties to the owners’ agreement can be required...... (on the basis of unwritten principles of loyalty under contract law) to vote for such a repetition of the central provisions of the owners’ agreement in the articles of association is then analysed....

  12. The Helsinki Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel: Journal of the Australian Federation of Modern Language Teachers' Associations, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A reprint of sections of the Helsinki agreement dealing with foreign languages and civilization, and cooperation and exchanges in the field of education. The agreement supports wider knowledge of foreign languages and promotes exchanges, cooperation, lexicography, and specialized programs in adult education. (AMH)

  13. An agreement with Romania

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    On 25 March, Ambassador Anda Philip, PermanentÊrepresentative of Romania to the United Nations office in Geneva and Roger Cashmore, CERN Director for research signed a cooperation agreement between Romania and CERN.

  14. Watershed Management Partnership Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    On November 19, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers signed the Watershed Management Partnership Agreement to promote watershed health, economic sustainability and community vitality through effective manageme

  15. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  16. International Fisheries Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...

  17. Agreement and the structure of relative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boban Arsenijević

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an account of asymmetries in agreement patterns that obtain in restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses headed by hybrid agreement nouns 'd(jeca '‘children’, 'braća '‘brothers’, and 'gospoda '‘gentry’ in Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian (BCS. We note that relative clauses headed by hybrid nouns display different possibilities of agreement morphology on the relative pronoun 'koji/a/e '‘which’, depending, on the one hand, on whether the relative clause is restrictive or non-restrictive and on the other, on the case of the relative pronoun. We argue that the observed differences are the result of a conspiracy of the following factors: (i hybrid number-agreement nouns introduce a null plural pronoun unspecified for gender (Postal 1966; den Dikken 2001; Torrego and Laga 2015, (ii all plural case forms of the relative pronoun except for nominative and accusative show full gender syncretism (Alsina and Arsenijević 2012b, and (iii non-restrictive relative clauses involve a null definite pronoun and attach to the head noun higher than the restrictive relative clauses (Postal 1994; de Vries 2002; 2006. We maintain that the facts discussed in the paper argue against analyses which derive the differences between restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses from their LF representations, rather than from their overt syntax.

  18. KONSEP GENDER DALAM ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiliarni Rusli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Islam consider the concept of equality and justice. Islam teachings interpret of equality as something that is proportionally fair, put something in the its place, not as numerous or equally. The equality principles of gender in the Qur’an explained that women and men are equally as slaves, caliph on earth, recieved a preliminary agreement with God, Adam and Hawa are actively infolved in the cosmic drama and same potential achievement.Keywords : Gender and IslamCopyright © 2011 by Kafa`ah All right reservedDOI : 10.15548/jk.v1i2.75

  19. The Sicomines Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna

    The Sicomines multibillion minerals-for-infrastructure deal was struck in 2007 between the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and China. The paper investigates the drivers behind the original conception of the agreement, outlines the structure of the contract, analyses the dynamics at play during...... of the global political economy have shifted, and that China’s position as a foreign policy actor is now consolidated. Continuity, since the 2009 amendment of the agreement, which came about partly as a result of China’s ambitions to take up an active role in the International Monetary Fund (IMF...

  20. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001527.htm Gender dysphoria To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to be considered gender dysphoria. How the gender conflict occurs is different ...

  1. Latent Structure Agreement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    general approach of Lazarsfeld and Henry [2]. More recently, we have used an EM algorithm 130] related to that described by Goodman [3] and Dawid and...inverting the information matrix [2]. Identifiability Lazarsfeld and Henry [2], Goodman [3], and others discuss identifiability of latent class models...and Irwig [43]. The fixed panel agreement model corresponds closely to traditional latent class analysis applications as described by Lazarsfeld and

  2. Agreement in Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofti, Ahmad R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates agreement as a number marking mechanism in Persian. The mechanism differs from number marking on nominals in that with an inanimate plural subject, the SG verbal ending signals a collective conceptualization of the experience where the members of the group are considered together as a single unit. The PL ending, on the other hand, signals a distributive conceptualization where the entities are individuated; hence, they are considered to be dispersed over space, or distinct in sort or time. Autonomy - whether the entity is conceived of as governing the course of events or not - seems to underlie the choice between SG and PL.

  3. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  4. Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen Blakemore, Judith E.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    This new text offers a unique developmental focus on gender. Gender development is examined from infancy through adolescence, integrating biological, socialization, and cognitive perspectives. The book's current empirical focus is complemented by a lively and readable style that includes anecdotes about children's everyday experiences. The book's…

  5. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  6. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  7. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families......Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  8. A case for global enforceable prenuptial agreements | Ifemeje ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ever since 1929, the English Courts have outrightly rejected the recognition and enforcement of pre-nuptial agreements, primarily on grounds of “Public Policy”. Most African countries have equally stigmatized them as un-cultural. With the passage of time however, the unpredictability, uncertainty and gender discrimination ...

  9. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  10. Gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sean R; Russell, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is the distress or discomfort that may occur when a person's biological sex and gender identity do not align. The true prevalence of gender dysphoria is unknown in Australia because of varying definitions, different cultural norms and paucity of data. Individuals who identify as transgender are vulnerable, and have higher rates of discrimination, depression and suicidality, compared with the general population. The aim of this article is to familiarise general practitioners (GPs) with the principles of transgender care so they may provide a safe and supportive environment for patients presenting with concerns. It is important to have a basic understanding of how to conduct an initial consultation of gender dysphoria even if it is an uncommon presentation in general practice. Management should be individualised and may involve a combination of social work, education, counselling, hormone therapy and surgery.

  11. 76 FR 34992 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 012093-001. Title: CSAV/K-Line Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties... geographic scope of the Agreement and changes the Agreement's name. Agreement No.: 201211. Title: Marine...

  12. 76 FR 40911 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 012093-001. Title: CSAV/K-Line Space Charter and Sailing Agreement. Parties... geographic scope of the Agreement and changes the Agreement's name. Agreement No.: 201211. Title: Marine...

  13. Environmental agreements and self commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The report aims to contribute to the responsible and more widespread use of environmental agreements and environmental commitment in the electricity supply industry. The first chapters discuss the application of environmental agreements and legal issues, traditional instruments for controlling environmental protection and the standard content of environmental agreements. These follow examples of existing agreements and commitments within the electricity supply industry, namely: the covenant on control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission in the Netherlands; covenant on control of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions in Belgium; the protocol on insertion of power systems into the environment in France; agreements on energy conservation in the Netherlands; an environmental preservation agreement in Japan; and a report by VDEW on the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions in the electricity supply industry. 6 apps.

  14. Examining agreement between clinicians when assessing sick children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wagai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Case management guidelines use a limited set of clinical features to guide assessment and treatment for common childhood diseases in poor countries. Using video records of clinical signs we assessed agreement among experts and assessed whether Kenyan health workers could identify signs defined by expert consensus. METHODOLOGY: 104 videos representing 11 clinical sign categories were presented to experts using a web questionnaire. Proportionate agreement and agreement beyond chance were calculated using kappa and the AC1 statistic. 31 videos were selected and presented to local health workers, 20 for which experts had demonstrated clear agreement and 11 for which experts could not demonstrate agreement. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experts reached very high level of chance adjusted agreement for some videos while for a few videos no agreement beyond chance was found. Where experts agreed Kenyan hospital staff of all cadres recognised signs with high mean sensitivity and specificity (sensitivity: 0.897-0.975, specificity: 0.813-0.894; years of experience, gender and hospital had no influence on mean sensitivity or specificity. Local health workers did not agree on videos where experts had low or no agreement. Results of different agreement statistics for multiple observers, the AC1 and Fleiss' kappa, differ across the range of proportionate agreement. CONCLUSION: Videos provide a useful means to test agreement amongst geographically diverse groups of health workers. Kenyan health workers are in agreement with experts where clinical signs are clear-cut supporting the potential value of assessment and management guidelines. However, clinical signs are not always clear-cut. Video recordings offer one means to help standardise interpretation of clinical signs.

  15. Labor Agreement Information System (LAIRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Labor Agreement Information Retrieval System (LAIRS) is a database containing historical information on labor-management relations in the Federal Government. It...

  16. Experience and grammatical agreement: statistical learning shapes number agreement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Todd R; Thornton, Robert; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2010-02-01

    A robust result in research on the production of grammatical agreement is that speakers are more likely to produce an erroneous verb with phrases such as the key to the cabinets, with a singular noun followed by a plural one, than with phrases such as the keys to the cabinet, where a plural noun is followed by a singular. These asymmetries are thought to reflect core language production processes. Previous accounts have attributed error patterns to a syntactic number feature present on plurals but not singulars. An alternative approach is presented in which a process similar to structural priming contributes to the error asymmetry via speakers' past experiences with related agreement constructions. A corpus analysis and two agreement production studies test this account. The results suggest that agreement production is shaped by statistical learning from past language experience. Implications for accounts of agreement are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  18. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities........ Since then emancipation has been encouraged through public policy, symbolized more recently by the establishment of a Ministry for Equal Opportunities in 1999 and the passing of the Act of Equal Opportunities in 2002. However, although these initiatives have led to a situation of formal gender equality...

  19. Addressee Identity and Morphosyntactic Processing in Basque Allocutive Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Max; Mancini, Simona; Caffarra, Sendy

    2017-01-01

    Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee. We manipulated the gender of the allocutive verb and the congruence of addressee gender in conversations between two interlocutors. Items with person agreement manipulations were included as a control comparison. Basque speakers familiar with hika completed speeded acceptability judgments and unspeeded, offline naturalness ratings for each conversation. Results showed a main effect of addressee identity congruence for naturalness ratings, but there was no main effect for addressee identity congruence for reaction times or accuracy in the acceptability judgment. Interactions and correlations with biographical data showed that the effect of congruence was modulated by the gender of the allocutive verb and that hika proficiency was related to participants' performance for the acceptability judgment. These results show an interaction between morphosyntactic and pragmatic information and are the first experimental data of allocutive processing. In comparison, clear effects were seen for the person agreement condition, indicating that person disagreement is more disruptive to processing than addressee identity incongruence. This study has implications for investigation of the role of extralinguistic information in morphosyntactic processing, and suggests that not all such information plays an equal role.

  20. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  1. Gender Equity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Today's p. Given: achieving Gen is a MUST. Want to discuss. 1) What is the status gender balance in Sc. 2) What the academ. 3)How to set goals a ?to go. Of course in the Ind. What can we do tog resentation nder Equity in Science s in India of the cience? mcians are doing. as to where we want dian Context. gether?

  2. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape ...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  3. Notes on Agreement in Itelmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Bobaljik

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Agreement in Itelmen is represented by means of both prefixes and suffixes. While the prefixes reference subjects (of both transitive and intransitive verbs, the suffixal agreement morphemes on a given verb may reference the subject, the object, or an oblique argument, or some combination of these. We propose that the proper characterization of the factors that determine which arguments control suffixal agreement involves a division of labour between morphology and a notion of discourse prominence/salience. In essence, we propose that the suffixal agreement morpheme is an object agreement marker, but the features of the subject are reflected in this position when the object lacks the relevant features (for example, we treat third person as the lack of a person feature, or is absent altogether (thus, intransitive verbs agree twice with their subjects. When a verb occurs with an oblique as well as a direct object, discourse salience will determine which of these non-subject arguments will control object agreement. In addition to providing a description of a complex range of facts from Itelmen, the paper sheds light on the nature of “multiple exponence” and the role of “competition” among affixes for a particular position in the verbal agreement system.

  4. Understanding Gender and Domestic Violence from a Sample of Married Women in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Kerley, Kent R.; Sirisunyaluck, Bangon

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread agreement among gender and family violence investigators that gender and socioeconomic inequalities play key roles in domestic violence against women (DVAW). By integrating the concepts of gender traditionalism and decision-making power into a variety of resource-based theories, this study develops a gender perspective to…

  5. Contact-induced change or dialectal relic in heritage American-Danish? The use of the indefinite article in copula clauses with person-identifying subject predicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård, Jan

    2017-01-01

    that there is a tendency for Danish immigrants in North America born in Denmark to use the Danish pattern and for descendants of immigrants to use the English pattern but also that the pressure from English has different outcomes related to the individual speaker’s inclination for using the English vs. the Danish pattern....

  6. Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA) documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — OIG negotiates corporate integrity agreements (CIA) with health care providers and other entities as part of the settlement of Federal health care program...

  7. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Labfor research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  8. Beta-Testing Agreement | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-Testing Agreements are appropriate forlimited term evaluation and applications development of new software, technology, or equipment platforms by the Frederick National Labin collaboration with an external commercial partner. It may

  9. Diminutivization supports gender acquisition in Russian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Vera; Brooks, Patricia J; Mironova, Natalija; Fedorova, Olga

    2003-05-01

    Gender agreement elicitation was used with Russian children to examine how diminutives common in Russian child-directed speech affect gender learning. Forty-six children (2;9-4;8) were shown pictures of familiar and of novel animals and asked to describe them after hearing their names, which all contained regular morphophonological cues to masculine or feminine gender. Half were presented as simplex (e.g. jozh 'porcupine') and half as diminutive forms (e.g. jozhik 'porcupine-DIM'). Children produced fewer agreement errors for diminutive than for simplex nouns, indicating that the regularizing features of diminutives enhance gender categorization. The study demonstrates how features of child-directed speech can facilitate language learning.

  10. Pendidikan Gender Berbasis Sastra

    OpenAIRE

    Trianton, Teguh

    2009-01-01

    Recently, gender mainstreaming became most actual issue. One of its domains is on education. Practically, gender offered as important aspect on educational curriculum. From this point, emerge gender education discourse, namely an internalization process of gender equality issues through formal education. There are three important points on gender mainstreaming issue; first, gender education, two, gender issue on literary works, and three gender educations based on literary works.

  11. The General Unenforceability of Collective Agreements under Nigerian Labour Jurisprudence: The Paradox of Agreement without Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Iwunze

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the status of collective agreements under Nigerian labour law, examining the extent of their enforceability under the extant laws. It considers the emerging trends in some more advanced jurisdictions of the world in that regard and comparatively portrays the anachronisms of the Nigerian law on the point. It takes the position that the current legal climate as regards the legal status of collective agreements under Nigerian law is potentially disruptive of industrial peace...

  12. Gender monstrosity

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Deadgirl (2008) is based around a group of male teens discovering and claiming ownership of a bound female zombie, using her as a sex slave. This narrative premise raises numerous tensions that are particularly amplified by using a zombie as the film’s central victim. The Deadgirl is sexually passive yet monstrous, reifying the horrors associated with the female body in patriarchal discourses. She is objectified on the basis of her gender, and this has led many reviewers to dismiss the film a...

  13. Bayesian inference for agreement measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Ignacio; de Castro, Mário

    2016-08-25

    The agreement of different measurement methods is an important issue in several disciplines like, for example, Medicine, Metrology, and Engineering. In this article, some agreement measures, common in the literature, were analyzed from a Bayesian point of view. Posterior inferences for such agreement measures were obtained based on well-known Bayesian inference procedures for the bivariate normal distribution. As a consequence, a general, simple, and effective method is presented, which does not require Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods and can be applied considering a great variety of prior distributions. Illustratively, the method was exemplified using five objective priors for the bivariate normal distribution. A tool for assessing the adequacy of the model is discussed. Results from a simulation study and an application to a real dataset are also reported.

  14. Framework agreements in public procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrecka, Marta; Telles, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Dr. Marta Andrecka, Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of Law at the University of Aarhus, where she is currently working on a project called "Dealing with legal loopholes and uncertainties within EU public procurement law regarding framework agreements" sponsored by the Carlsberg...... Foundation. Before taking up her present position she carried out her doctoral research in Denmark and Australia and worked at law offices in both Poland and the UK. The topic for today’s talk is framework agreements, a relatively popular way of undertaking public procurement...

  15. TRAILING GENDER STEREOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Sekhar P M; J. Parameswari

    2017-01-01

    A gender stereotype is a kind of over generalization about characteristics, attributes and differences on the basis of gender. Gender stereotypes construct certain gender roles. A gender role is a behavior learned by a person as desirable, acceptable appropriate, to their gender, determined by the prevailing cultural norms. In society, the gender role continues through generation. There are certain factors which help to transmit these roles. This conceptual paper will try to explain the role ...

  16. 78 FR 35270 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... would add the Bahamas to the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 011223-049. Title.... Synopsis: The amendment deletes Siberia Russia from the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 012210. Title: Siem Car Carrier Pacific AS/Eukor Car Carriers Inc. Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Siem...

  17. Measuring Agreement in Participatory Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Janna R.; Van Holt, Tracy; Johnson, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a way to measure agreement in participatory mapping. We asked subject matter experts (SMEs) to draw where Sudanese ethnic groups were located on a map. We then used an eigenanalysis approach to determine whether SMEs agreed on the location of ethnic groups. We used minimum residual factor analysis to assess the extent of…

  18. Between voluntary agreement and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Hedegaard, Liselotte; Reisch, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary agreements and self-imposed standards are broadly applied to restrict the influence food advertising exerts on children’s food choices – yet their effects are unknown. The current project will therefore investigate whether and, if yes, how the Danish Code for Responsible Food Marketing...

  19. Challenges in translating commercial agreements

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANOVA V.V.; KISELEVA L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the incongruity of stylistic organization of an agreement as one of the types of legal discourse in English and Russian. The comparative analysis of certain stylistic differences (lexical, grammatical, and syntactical) and the tips for translation suggested in this concise work are aimed at better understanding and interpreting the legal document of the given format.

  20. Addressee Identity and Morphosyntactic Processing in Basque Allocutive Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Wolpert

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about interlocutor identity is pragmatic in nature and has traditionally been distinguished from explicitly coded linguistic information, including mophosyntax. Study of speaker identity in language processing has questioned this distinction, but addressee identity has been less considered. We used Basque to explore how addressee identity is processed during morphosyntactic analysis. In the familiar register hika, Basque has obligatory allocutive agreement, where verbal morphology represents the gender of a non-argument addressee. We manipulated the gender of the allocutive verb and the congruence of addressee gender in conversations between two interlocutors. Items with person agreement manipulations were included as a control comparison. Basque speakers familiar with hika completed speeded acceptability judgments and unspeeded, offline naturalness ratings for each conversation. Results showed a main effect of addressee identity congruence for naturalness ratings, but there was no main effect for addressee identity congruence for reaction times or accuracy in the acceptability judgment. Interactions and correlations with biographical data showed that the effect of congruence was modulated by the gender of the allocutive verb and that hika proficiency was related to participants' performance for the acceptability judgment. These results show an interaction between morphosyntactic and pragmatic information and are the first experimental data of allocutive processing. In comparison, clear effects were seen for the person agreement condition, indicating that person disagreement is more disruptive to processing than addressee identity incongruence. This study has implications for investigation of the role of extralinguistic information in morphosyntactic processing, and suggests that not all such information plays an equal role.

  1. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful such trai......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...... such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated...

  2. 77 FR 40881 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... . Agreement No.: 012178. ] Title: GWF/Crowley Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Great White Fleet Liner..., Esquire, 211 Central Park W. New York, NY 10024. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes Great Fleet Liner...

  3. 76 FR 14395 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    .... Agreement No.: 200955-002. Title: Howland Hook/Global Terminal Agreement. Parties: Global Terminal... deletes Howland Hook Leasing as a party to the agreement, updates the names of the remaining parties, and...

  4. 76 FR 20668 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... amendment deletes Hanjin Shipping as a party to the Agreement. Agreement No.: 012105-001. Title: SCM Lines Transportes/CCNI Agreement. Parties: Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A. and SCM Lines...

  5. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  6. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  7. On gender dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Dhejne, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Gender identity refers to an innate and deeply felt psychological identification as a female, male, or some other non-binary gender. Gender identity may be congruent or incongruent with the sex assigned at birth. Gender dysphoria refers to the discomfort or distress that gender incongruence may cause. If the distress is clinically significant, the individual may need gender-affirming treatment. The literature is sparse with respect to the etiology, prevalence, and long-term outcomes. The over...

  8. Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

  9. Parent-teacher agreement on children's problems in 21 societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie A; Bochicchio, Lauren; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Dobrean, Anca; Erol, Nese; Fombonne, Eric; Fonseca, Antonio; Frigerio, Alessandra; Fung, Daniel S S; Lambert, Michael C; Leung, Patrick W L; Liu, Xianchen; Marković, Ivica; Markovic, Jasminka; Minaei, Asghar; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Roussos, Alexandra; Rudan, Vlasta; Simsek, Zeynep; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Woo, Bernardine; Weiss, Bahr; Weisz, John; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    Parent-teacher cross-informant agreement, although usually modest, may provide important clinical information. Using data for 27,962 children from 21 societies, we asked the following: (a) Do parents report more problems than teachers, and does this vary by society, age, gender, or type of problem? (b) Does parent-teacher agreement vary across different problem scales or across societies? (c) How well do parents and teachers in different societies agree on problem item ratings? (d) How much do parent-teacher dyads in different societies vary in within-dyad agreement on problem items? (e) How well do parents and teachers in 21 societies agree on whether the child's problem level exceeds a deviance threshold? We used five methods to test agreement for Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF) ratings. CBCL scores were higher than TRF scores on most scales, but the informant differences varied in magnitude across the societies studied. Cross-informant correlations for problem scale scores varied moderately across societies studied and were significantly higher for Externalizing than Internalizing problems. Parents and teachers tended to rate the same items as low, medium, or high, but within-dyad item agreement varied widely in every society studied. In all societies studied, both parental noncorroboration of teacher-reported deviance and teacher noncorroboration of parent-reported deviance were common. Our findings underscore the importance of obtaining information from parents and teachers when evaluating and treating children, highlight the need to use multiple methods of quantifying cross-informant agreement, and provide comprehensive baselines for patterns of parent-teacher agreement across 21 societies.

  10. 78 FR 30302 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... 10024. Synopsis: The amendment deletes Peru from the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 011885-003. Title: CMA CGM/MSC Reciprocal Space Charter, Sailing and Cooperative Working Agreement... Indonesia from the geographic scope of the agreement. By Order of the Federal Maritime Commission. Dated...

  11. 78 FR 8533 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 011842-001. Title: Crowley/Dole Space Charter... . Agreement No.: 011790-002. Title: Dole Ocean Cargo Express/King Ocean Services Limited Space Charter... amendment would expand the geographic scope of the agreement to include all of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf...

  12. 78 FR 13341 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ..., DC 20006. Synopsis: The amendment would add the Cayman Islands to the geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 012129. Title: EUKOR/``K'' Line Space Charter Agreement. Parties: EUKOR Car... geographic scope of the agreement and updates the address of Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. By Order of the...

  13. 75 FR 8719 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 012089. Title: MOL/Swiss Shipping Space Charter Agreement... authorizes Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. to charter space to Swiss Shipping for vehicles on Ro-Ro vessels in the...: Seaboard/Seafreight Space Charter Agreement. ] Parties: Seaboard Marine Ltd. and Seafreight Line, Ltd...

  14. 77 FR 28880 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... geographic scope of the agreement. Agreement No.: 012170. Title: Crowley/SC Line Space Charter and Sailing... . Agreement No.: 012028-001. Title: WWL/Hoegh Middle East Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Hoegh Autoliners... authorizes SC Line to charter space to Crowley in the trade between the U.S. Atlantic Coast and ports in...

  15. 78 FR 5440 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... agreement in Australia. Agreement No.: 201219. Title: The Los Angeles and Long Beach Port Infrastructure and Environmental Programs Cooperative Working Agreement. Parties: City of Los Angeles and City of Long Beach....: 011275-035. Title: Australia and New Zealand-United States Discussion Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moller...

  16. 75 FR 24702 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... ( http://www.fmc.gov ) or by contacting the Office of Agreements at (202) 523-5793 or [email protected]fmc... Stevedores, Inc.; The Port of Philadelphia & Camden; and South Jersey Port Corporation. Filing Party: Francis... agreement updates and replaces the parties' previous agreement under FMC Agreement No. 008425. By Order of...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4345 - Guaranty agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-Sharing Agreements § 614.4345 Guaranty agreements. Guaranty agreements under which a percentage of the risk associated with specific loans is assumed may be entered into by or among System banks and... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guaranty agreements. 614.4345 Section 614.4345...

  18. Interrater agreement of anal cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Teresa M; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-02-01

    The majority of anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer occurs through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. The authors analyzed the interobserver reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were collected in the anal dysplasia clinic before the performance of high-resolution anoscopy on all patients. Papanicolaou-stained LBC slides were evaluated by 2 cytopathologists, each of whom was blinded to the clinical outcome and the other pathologist's results, using the revised Bethesda terminology. Overall agreement between the 2 observers was 66% (kappa, 0.54; linear-weighted kappa, 0.69). Using dichotomizing cytology results (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASC-US] or worse vs less than ASC-US), the agreement increased to 86% (kappa, 0.69). An increasing likelihood of testing positive for markers associated with HPV-related transformation, p16/Ki-67, and HPV oncogene messenger RNA was observed, with increasing severity of cytology results noted both for individual cytologists and for consensus cytology interpretation (P value for trend [p(trend)] < .0001 for all). Moderate to good agreement was observed between 2 cytopathologists evaluating anal cytology samples collected from HIV-positive MSM. A higher severity of anal cytology was associated with biomarkers of anal precancerous lesions. Anal cytology may be used for anal cancer screening in high-risk populations, and biomarkers of HPV-related transformation can serve as quality control for anal cytology. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  19. Gender Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Oluwole Ayodele

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Badagry is the first community to receive the Christian religion in Nigeria. For this, every good reason exists to suppose that its coming into early contact with the missionaries should have caused the Ogu people to acquire a healthier understanding of fair play in the context of widowhood practices. Regrettably, they seem to respond more slowly to change in their attitudes to widows. Thus, despite the overwhelming presence of Christian relics in the ancient town of Badagry, traditional customs such as wife inheritance and widowhood rites have continued to appear significantly associated with violence against which women are not well-protected. “Gender Victimization: A Study of Widowhood Practices” among Ogu People of Lagos is the focus of this study. Quantitative and qualitative methods were adopted for the study. Thus, five in-depth interviews and three focus group discussion instruments were used to collect primary data, which were used to complement quantitative data. Although quantitative data were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses, qualitative data were cleaned, reorganized into themes and analyzed. The study found that much as the Ogu people of Lagos acknowledge the position of the scriptures on society’s non-criminal relation with widows, they still believe that their culture comfortably drives the greater proportion of their widow-friendly interactions. This study suggests that the adoption of cultural best practices in handling women and their peculiar issues will tone down violence in customary widowhood practices and enable women who lost their husbands in circumstances beyond their controls access community-based support.

  20. Who Uses Free Trade Agreements?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Hiratsuka, Daisuke; Shiino, Kohei; Sukegawa, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    It is noted that utilization of ASEAN Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) is low by international standards. In order to clarify the reasons for such low utilization, this paper investigates what kinds of Japanese affiliates in ASEAN are more likely to use FTAs in their exporting, by employing unique affiliate-level data. Our findings are as follows. First, the larger the affiliate is, or the more diversified the origins of its procurements, the more likely it is to utilize an FTA scheme in its expo...

  1. Gender Discrimination in Educational Personnel: A Case Study of Gweru Urban District Secondary Schools, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matope, Nogget

    2012-01-01

    Gender discrimination in educational institutions persists, despite the vigorous pursuit of policies and programmes to reduce the varying degrees of gender inequity in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe is a signatory to international agreements and conventions which promote gender equity with a thrust towards increased access to education for girls and females.…

  2. Children proxies' quality-of-life agreement depended on the country using the European KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robitail, S.; Siméoni, M.C.; Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Bruil, J.; Auquier, P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to assess the level of agreement and the magnitude of discrepancies between children and their parents, and whether these levels of agreement/discrepancy depend on the country of living, the domains of quality of life assessed, the age and gender of the

  3. Gender and Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender and Behaviour is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to articles, that reflect psychological and behavioural aspects of gender in general. Gender and Behaviour welcomes scholarly manuscripts from authors all over the world on a wide array of subjects concerning psychological and behavioural aspects of gender ...

  4. Gender and CEO Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Tang; Yan Wang

    2014-01-01

    The gender pay gap issues have long been debated. Prior research has shown significant or insignificant relations between gender differences on pay gap. This paper focuses on studying the relation of CEO gender on CEO compensation. We examine whether gender is related to both base salary and total compensation of CEOs. Further, by controlling for firm-fixed effect, we are able to come close to better understand the relation between gender and CEO compensation. In essence, firm-fixed effect an...

  5. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  6. The gender approach in community AIDS projects in Mozambique: agreement and disagreement between government and civil society Abordagem de gênero em projetos comunitários de combate à AIDS em Moçambique: convergências e desencontros entre governo e sociedade civil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilza Vieira Villela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some areas where government and civil society converge and clash in their gender approaches in community HIV/AIDS projects in Mozambique, based on an evaluative study conducted in 2006 encompassing 160 of the 1,124 NGO projects undertaken with the support of the country's national AIDS council, known as the Conselho Nacional de Combate ao SIDA (CNCS. An analysis of projects and official documents shows that, for the CNCS, the term "gender" represents a way of underscoring the epidemic's impact on women. In community projects, the gender approach often times finds expression in initiatives to mitigate the economic impact of the epidemic on widows. Initiatives aimed at men and at the population as a whole generally pay little attention to power relations between men and women or their affect on the epidemic. This suggests that any endeavor to transfer Western analytical techniques or forms of intervention for coping with the HIV/AIDS epidemic to other regions of the world demands painstaking efforts to translate these and adapt them to local cultural standards.Este artigo discute algumas convergências e desencontros entre governo e sociedade civil na abordagem de gênero de projetos comunitários de enfrentamento do HIV/AIDS em Moçambique. Baseia-se em material de pesquisa avaliativa realizada no país em 2006, incluindo 160 dos 1.124 projetos de organizações não governamentais desenvolvidos com apoio do Conselho Nacional de Combate ao SIDA (CNCS. A análise dos projetos e de documentos oficiais mostra que para o CNCS o termo gênero aparece destacando a dinâmica de epidemia em relação às mulheres. Nos projetos comunitários a abordagem de gênero muitas vezes será traduzida em ações de mitigação dos impactos econômicos da epidemia sobre viúvas. Atividades voltadas para a população masculina e para a população em geral pouco abordam as relações de poder entre homens e mulheres e suas conseq

  7. Gender stereotypes, ascribed gender and social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, A C

    1977-12-01

    This study studied the effects of gender labeling on the descriptions made by naive observers (43 males and 104 females) of filmed presentations of five individuals. For several of the five individuals the chromosomal and anatomic gender was discrepant with the apparent gender assumed from dress or physical appearance. The observers were informed after the first rating of the biological gender of the five persons and were asked to repeat their descriptions. Merely changing the label, i.e., male/female, significantly altered the descriptions. The label appeared to invoke the observers' stereotypic model of male/female qualities and overrode "objective" assessment.

  8. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Lindholm, Lars; Ng, Nawi; Ohman, Ann

    2011-08-26

    Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements

  9. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  10. 77 FR 71192 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ....: 012190. Title: HSDG-GWF Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Hamburg Sud and Great White Fleet Liner..., DC 20006-4007. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes Hamburg Sud to charter space to Great White Fleet...

  11. 76 FR 74060 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... No.: 012147. Title: GWF/AGRIEX Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. and... 10024. Synopsis: The agreement authorizes Great White Fleet to charter space to Agriculture Investment...

  12. 77 FR 16838 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Sailing Agreement. Parties: Dole Ocean Cargo Express, Inc. and Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. Filing Party... name of Great White Fleet (US) Ltd. to Great White Fleet Liner Services Ltd. Agreement No.: 011961-011...

  13. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Maritime Administration Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement AGENCY: Maritime Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA). SUMMARY: The Maritime Administration (MARAD... sustainment of U.S. military forces. This is to be accomplished through cooperation among the maritime...

  14. 78 FR 26779 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...). Agreement No.: 012206. Title: Industria Armamento Meridionale S.P.A./K-Line Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Industria Armamento Meridionale S.P.A. (``Inarme'') and Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. Filing Party: John P...

  15. Two routes to grammatical gender: evidence from Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, T H; Frost, R

    2001-11-01

    Access to grammatical gender in Hebrew was examined using gender decisions and grammaticality judgments. In gender decisions, and in rejecting agreement violations, the role of gender-marking regularity was robust; irregular feminine nouns were classified more slowly and produced more errors than did regular masculine nouns. These same exception nouns, however, produced radically different results when they appeared as part of a grammatical phrase. In this context, irregular nouns were processed as quickly and accurately as were regular nouns. These findings are interpreted within a model containing two routes to grammatical gender: one that involves an abstract gender node, and another that is form-based and is assumed to play a greater role in recovery from agreement errors. We also argue that there are cross-linguistic variations in the availability and speed of the form-based route to gender. Finally, we caution that under some circumstances grammatical gender may also be retrieved through a variety of heuristics that do not necessarily reflect the normal mechanisms of access to gender.

  16. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  17. 77 FR 60433 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Express, Inc. and Great White Fleet Liner Services Ltd. Filing Party: Wade S. Hooker, Esq., 211 Central... principal office of Great White Fleet and Crowley Latin American Services. Agreement No.: 012055-002. Title... of the parties. Agreement No.: 012178-001. Title: GWF/Crowley Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Great...

  18. 75 FR 69079 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... duration of the Agreement through 2015, clarifies the geographic scope and the amount of space to be... to the Agreement. Agreement No.: 012109. Title: CSAV/Hoegh Autoliners Mexico/USA Space Charter... authorizes CSAV to charter space from Hoegh Autoliners in the trade from ports in Mexico to the U.S. Atlantic...

  19. 75 FR 19402 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ....gov . Agreement No.: 011983-001. Title: CSAV/WWL Caribbean Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Compania... the geographic scope to include Korea, modifies the slots the parties may transfer to each other... adds China and Taiwan to the geographic scope of the agreement, changes the number of slots that may be...

  20. 75 FR 14159 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    .... Agreement No.: 012085-001. Title: 2007 Crane Purchase, Relocation and Modification Agreement Between Matson..., Inc. Filing Party: Matthew Thomas, Esq.; Reed Smith LLP; 301 K Street, NW. Suite 1100-East Tower... agree on matters related to use of cranes by third parties. Agreement No.: 012093. Title: CSAV/K-Line...

  1. Effects of negative content on the processing of gender information: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Folgueiras, Uxía; Santaniello, Gerardo; López-Bachiller, Cristina; Sebastián, Manuel; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Pozo, Miguel A

    2014-12-01

    Previous research on emotion in language has mainly concerned the impact of emotional information on several aspects of lexico-semantic analyses of single words. However, affective influences on morphosyntactic processing are less understood. In the present study, we focused on the impact of negative valence in the processing of gender agreement relations. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read three-word phrases and performed a syntactic judgment task. Negative and neutral adjectives could agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. At an electrophysiological level, the amplitude of a left anterior negativity (LAN) to gender agreement mismatches decreased in negative words, relative to neutral words. The behavioral data suggested that LAN amplitudes might be indexing the processing costs associated with the detection of gender agreement errors, since the detection of gender mismatches resulted in faster and more accurate responses than did the detection of correct gender agreement relations. According to this view, it seems that negative content facilitated the processes implicated in the early detection of gender agreement mismatches. However, gender agreement violations in negative words triggered processes involved in the reanalysis and repair of the syntactic structure, as reflected in larger P600 amplitudes to incorrect than to correct phrases, irrespective of their emotional valence.

  2. Agreement between parent and teacher reports on behavioral problems among chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shiying; Liu, Xianchen; Roosa, Mark W

    2004-12-01

    Research has consistently shown low to moderate correlations between parent and teacher reports on children's behavioral problems in Western samples. Little is known about the agreement between parent and teacher reports on behavioral problems among Chinese children. The authors examined the agreement on behavioral and emotional problems in a community sample of 2836 Chinese children aged 6 to 11 years from Mainland China. Children's behavioral problems were assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Teacher Report Form (TRF). Consistent with most previous studies in Western samples, our results indicated that parent-teacher agreement was low to moderate for attention, externalizing, and internalizing problems. Parent-teacher agreement was higher for attention and externalizing problems than for internalizing problems and decreased with increased behavioral problems. Child's gender, age, and academic performance and father's age were correlated with parent-teacher agreement on ratings of behavioral problems.

  3. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  4. Cambodia: Country Gender Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents a profile of gender equity in Cambodia. Recognizing significant achievements in reducing gender gaps, it also notes significant challenges in a country where traditional norms and low levels of education and literacy still limit girls’ and women’s options. Cambodia ranks 91st out of 109 countries, according to the Gender Empowerment Measure. The publication offers an institutional assessment of the laws, policies, and the national machinery for gender equity and wome...

  5. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  6. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  7. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  8. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  9. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  10. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  11. Designing Gendered Toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.; Bos, M.W.; Oude Geerdink, J.

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed the gender scripts of the toys of three Dutch companies. We found differences between them in the extent to which their games were gender specific or gender stereotypical. We explored potential reasons for these differences in the markets (educational or retail trade) these

  12. The Morpheme Gender Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Fanny; Seigneuric, Alix; Spinelli, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments we explored the mental representation of morphologically complex words in French. Subjects were asked to perform a gender decision task on morphologically complex words that were of the same gender as their base or not. We found that gender decisions were made more slowly for morphologically complex words made from a base with…

  13. The Embryology of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    More than 50 years after the appearance of the term "gender" in the clinical setting, we have yet to uncover the mechanisms and factors that lead to gender identity formation. Based on human embryology principles, the scientific reasoning with regard to the sexual differentiation of the body is erroneously applied to gender identity formation. The…

  14. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  15. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  16. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  17. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  18. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  19. Same-gender stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathé, M T; Mullen, P E; Purcell, R

    2000-01-01

    Although stalkers most commonly target victims of the opposite gender, the results of larger and less selective studies suggest that same-gender stalking occurs with greater frequency than formerly thought. This study reviews the exiguous literature on same-gender stalking and presents the findings from a clinical study of 29 same-gender stalking cases that were referred to a forensic psychiatry center. The demographic characteristics, behavior, motivations, and psychopathology of same-gender stalkers are compared with a sample of 134 opposite-gender stalkers. The two groups were similar in many respects, with some discrepancies evident in the prior relationship between victim and stalker, harassment methods, and stalking motives. The impact of same-gender stalking on its victims is examined, and the implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Processing of grammatical gender in a three-gender system: experimental evidence from Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhutina, T; Kurgansky, A; Polinsky, M; Bates, E

    1999-11-01

    Four experiments investigated the effect of grammatical gender on lexical access in Russian. Adjective-noun pairs were presented auditorily, using a cued-shadowing technique in which subjects must repeat the second word (the target noun), following adjectives that are either concordant or discordant with the noun's gender. Experiment 1 demonstrates gender priming with unambiguous adjectives and phonologically transparent masculine or feminine nouns. Experiment 2 examines priming for transparent nouns against a neutral baseline (possible only for feminines and neuters), revealing that priming is due primarily to inhibition from discordant gender. Experiment 3 demonstrates gender priming with phonologically opaque masculine and feminine nouns. Experiment 4 returns to transparent masculine and feminine nouns with a different kind of baseline, using three versions of a single word root (prost--simple, in the feminine adjectival form prostaja, masculine adjectival form prostoj, and the adverbial form prosto), and shows that gender can also facilitate lexical access, at least for feminine nouns. We conclude that Russian listeners can exploit gender agreement cues "on-line," helping them to predict the identity of an upcoming word.

  1. Why Certain Trade Agreements Are Approved as Congressional-Executive Agreements Rather Than as Treaties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    Congressional Research Service Summary U.S. trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), World Trade Organization...these negotiations. A federal appeals court held in 2001 that the issue of whether the NAFTA should have been approved as a treaty was a...Agreement ( NAFTA ), the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, and the multilateral trade agreements that a country must accept as a condition of WTO

  2. Analyzing rater agreement manifest variable methods

    CERN Document Server

    von Eye, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Agreement among raters is of great importance in many domains. For example, in medicine, diagnoses are often provided by more than one doctor to make sure the proposed treatment is optimal. In criminal trials, sentencing depends, among other things, on the complete agreement among the jurors. In observational studies, researchers increase reliability by examining discrepant ratings. This book is intended to help researchers statistically examine rater agreement by reviewing four different approaches to the technique.The first approach introduces readers to calculating coefficients that allow one to summarize agreements in a single score. The second approach involves estimating log-linear models that allow one to test specific hypotheses about the structure of a cross-classification of two or more raters'' judgments. The third approach explores cross-classifications or raters'' agreement for indicators of agreement or disagreement, and for indicators of such characteristics as trends. The fourth approach compa...

  3. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  4. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Their Parents Office-Based Care for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth (AAP Policy Statement) Gender Spectrum Family Acceptance Project (familyproject.sfsu.edu) Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and ...

  5. Agreement between raters and groups of raters

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbelle, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Agreement between raters on a categorical scale is not only a subject of scientific research but also a problem frequently encountered in practice. Whenever a new scale is developed to assess individuals or items in a certain context, inter-rater agreement is a prerequisite for the scale to be actually implemented in routine use. Cohen's kappa coeffcient is a landmark in the developments of rater agreement theory. This coeffcient, which operated a radical change in previously proposed indexes...

  6. Infographics as a tool for business agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Rendón, Nora; Morales Zaragoza, Nora; Hernández Azpeitia, José

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The paper analyzes infographics as a problem solving tool acting as a medium for establishing dialog in the business context. Business needs agreements, usually made in a written-form in a document called “brief”. The infographic work can be considered a form of visual agreement for the participants. We present two case studies that consider the use of particular elements and cognitive processes involved in this visual agreement strongly connected to synthesis in dialog, m...

  7. Social work with families at social risk promoting gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivoriene J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the research whose aim is to find out the attitudes of social workers toward gender equality. The qualitative research was carried out in 2014 in order to find out social workers' attitudes to gender equality in families and families at social risk, as well as obstacles and possibilities for implementation of gender equality in families at social risk. Eight social workers working with families at social risk were interviewed using semi-structured interview and content analysis for research data analysis. The research data reveals that gender equality in the family can be reached by mutual agreement, when the division of duties and responsibilities is in accordance with needs and abilities of family members. Good family relations are emphasized as a prerequisite for gender equality. Families at social risk with unbalanced social functioning and relationships are affected by stereotyped thinking about gender roles. As informants point out, this makes gender equality impossible in families at social risk. Social workers reveal that they do not directly relate the gender dimension with social work practice, and as a result it becomes problematic to promote gender equality in families at social risk. The main obstacles for implementation of gender equality are clients' resistance to change, too much responsibilities put on women-mother by social workers and other institutions that deal with social risk families, lack of information on gender equality and tools for promoting gender equality in the family. However, the informants provide solutions for promotion of gender equality in micro, mezzo and macro practice that correspond to the guidelines presented in the documents and strategies on gender equality at national and EU level.

  8. Timor-Leste Gender Country Gender Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, Timor-Leste has made substantial progress in state building and strengthening the economy, governance, and infrastructure. Gender equality has been a fundamental principle in these e orts and remains key to achieving sustainable development into the future. This assessment examines gender issues across the di erent socioeconomic sectors of Timor-Leste, such as health, education, work, and political participation. It brings together existing research and data for a compre...

  9. 78 FR 23251 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Service Agreement and Hanjin Shipping. Filing Party: Paul M. Keane, Esq.; Cichanowicz, Callan, Keane... Company Limited. ] Filing Party: Paul M. Keane, Esq.; Cichanowicz, Callan, Keane, Vengrow & Textor, LLP...

  10. 78 FR 21364 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... removes Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd from the agreement. Agreement No.: 012199. Title: NYK/Hanjin... Co., Ltd.; and Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd. Filing Party: Jacob K. Lee; NYK Line (North America... as one Party); Hapag-Lloyd AG; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd.; Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.; Nippon...

  11. 76 FR 63618 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Shipping Co., Ltd.; Hapag-Lloyd AG; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd.; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd...-001. Title: HMM/Hanjin Reciprocal Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd... Transpacific Vessel Sharing Agreement. Parties: Hapag-Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co...

  12. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  13. 76 FR 61704 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... requested expedited review. Agreement No.: 012135. Title: EUKOR Car Carriers, Inc./FOML Space Charter... Chartering & Logistics GmbH & Co. KG; Beluga Chartering GmbH; Chipolbrok; Clipper Project Ltd.; Hyndai... Agreement authorizes EUKOR to charter space to FOML in the trade from the port of Tacoma, WA to Vladivostok...

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 4 - Service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and equitable and in accordance with the basic principles or intent of this agreement. Art. 8... provisions are governed by State civil service commissions or comparable government agencies. The contractor... or expiration of this agreement shall neither affect nor relieve any liability or obligation that may...

  15. 40 CFR 2.215 - Confidentiality agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality agreements. 2.215 Section 2.215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.215 Confidentiality agreements. (a) No EPA officer, employee...

  16. 75 FR 20849 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Abaco Shipping Company Limited. Filing Parties: Neal M. Mayer, Esq.; Hoppel, Mayer & Coleman; 1050... Latin America Services, LLC.; Dole Ocean Cargo Express; Great White Fleet; King Ocean Services Limited... geographic scope of the Agreement. Agreement No.: 011830-008. Title: Indamex Cross Space Charter, Sailing and...

  17. 77 FR 21774 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Company Limited; Crowley Maritime Corporation; Evergreen Line Joint Service Agreement; Hamburg-S d; Hapag... Coast--East Coast South America Service Space Charter Agreement. Parties: Mediterranean Shipping Company... Overseas Container Line, Ltd.; Pacific International Lines (Pte) Ltd.; United Arab Shipping Company (S.A.G...

  18. 78 FR 25443 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ..., Ltd.; Seafreight Line, Ltd.; Tropical Shipping and Construction Company Limited; and Zim Integrated.... Agreement No.: 012172-001. Title: Maersk Line/MSC Caribbean Space Charter Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S trading under the name Maersk Line and Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. Filing Party: Wayne...

  19. Multiple object agreement morphemes in Setswana: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setswana is an agglutinative language where prefixes and suffixes are extensively used in the formation of words. Words such as verbs, pronouns, adjectives and so on, which have a grammatical relationship with nouns in sentences, demonstrate agreement with such nouns by means of agreement morphemes. In certain ...

  20. 49 CFR 212.105 - Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreements. 212.105 Section 212.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.105 Agreements. (a) Scope. The...

  1. 78 FR 51757 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Services (GEPS) 3 negotiated service agreement (Agreement).\\1\\ The Postal Service seeks inclusion of the... statement, and supporting financial workpapers. Id., Attachment 4 at 3. The Postal Service filed redacted versions of the financial workpapers publically. In the Notice, the Postal Service asserts that the...

  2. 77 FR 33459 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ...: The amendment would add Morocco to the geographic scope of the agreement, adjust the amount of space... authorizes Hyundai to charter space to MOL and APL in the relevant trade and to authorize the parties to enter into cooperative arrangements with respect to the chartering of such space. Agreement No.: 012174...

  3. Tense and Agreement in German Agrammatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, Michaela; Clahsen, Harald

    2004-01-01

    This study presents results from sentence-completion and grammaticality-judgment tasks with 7 German-speaking agrammatic aphasics and 7 age-matched control subjects examining tense and subject-verb agreement marking. For both experimental tasks, we found that the aphasics achieved high correctness scores for agreement, while tense marking was…

  4. 7 CFR 1424.5 - Agreement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agreement process. 1424.5 Section 1424.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.5 Agreement process. (a) To...

  5. Distributivity and Agreement mismatches in Serbian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a truth value judgment study done on two types of numerals in the Serbian numerical system and corresponding verbal agreement mismatch that is characteristic for the numerals in question. Recent work on agreement and distributivity suggests that singular verbal marking promotes

  6. Can altruism stabilise international climate agreements?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.; Weikard, H.P.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2012-01-01

    We study the impact of altruism on the stability of international climate agreements. We consider the standard two-stage game for the analysis of international environmental agreements where countries announce their participation at the first stage and abatement levels are chosen at the second

  7. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  8. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nonproliferation and Arms Control Analysis Dept.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  9. Comparing collective bargaining agreements for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to fill several knowledge gaps regarding the contents of collective agreements, using a new online database. The authors analyse 249 collective agreements from 11 countries - Benin, Brazil, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Peru, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo,

  10. Computer Users Do Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Leach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “digital gender divide” has encouraged studies attempting to demonstrate the co-production of gender and information technology. Vivian Lagesen has criticized many of these attempts for failing to provide fully symmetrical accounts. Here we describe and analyze beliefs and practices concerning computers, gender, and technology evinced by managers in a network of public sites (Community Access Centers created to provide community access to digital technology in the Canadian province of New Brunswick. From those results, we argue, among other conclusions, that distinguishing more carefully between the gendered uses of new technologies and the gendered forms of attraction associated with them produces a more fully realized and more perfectly symmetric understanding of how gender and communications technologies are co-produced. We show that the concepts of actor-network theory facilitate that analysis, and so interpret the study as supporting and extending Lagesen’s program.

  11. Patterns of gender development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains-sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development.

  12. Patterns of Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive theory of gender development must describe and explain long-term developmental patterning and changes and how gender is experienced in the short term. This review considers multiple views on gender patterning, illustrated with contemporary research. First, because developmental research involves understanding normative patterns of change with age, several theoretically important topics illustrate gender development: how children come to recognize gender distinctions and understand stereotypes, and the emergence of prejudice and sexism. Second, developmental researchers study the stability of individual differences over time, which elucidates developmental processes. We review stability in two domains—sex segregation and activities/interests. Finally, a new approach advances understanding of developmental patterns, based on dynamic systems theory. Dynamic systems theory is a metatheoretical framework for studying stability and change, which developed from the study of complex and nonlinear systems in physics and mathematics. Some major features and examples show how dynamic approaches have been and could be applied in studying gender development. PMID:19575615

  13. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  14. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    the basis for this chapter is set in Kenya, where family relations and gender roles is presently undergoing changes. The data was gathered in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, an area, which is predominantly rural, but also home to the city Eldoret and its surrounding peri-urban areas. The situation for women...... phones be understood in relation to, and inform us about changing gender relations in contemporary Kenya? The chapter demonstrates that on the one hand, distinctive gendered usage of mobile phones is present - practices that are direct consequences of prevailing gender roles. On the other hand...... in many relationships and marriages. The phenomenon of mpango wa kando and how women relate and deal with it, is interesting from a gender point of view, as it highlights the tension between traditional and modern culture and is therefore an interesting departure to discuss whether and how gender roles...

  15. Bayesian methods for measures of agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Broemeling, Lyle D

    2009-01-01

    Using WinBUGS to implement Bayesian inferences of estimation and testing hypotheses, Bayesian Methods for Measures of Agreement presents useful methods for the design and analysis of agreement studies. It focuses on agreement among the various players in the diagnostic process.The author employs a Bayesian approach to provide statistical inferences based on various models of intra- and interrater agreement. He presents many examples that illustrate the Bayesian mode of reasoning and explains elements of a Bayesian application, including prior information, experimental information, the likelihood function, posterior distribution, and predictive distribution. The appendices provide the necessary theoretical foundation to understand Bayesian methods as well as introduce the fundamentals of programming and executing the WinBUGS software.Taking a Bayesian approach to inference, this hands-on book explores numerous measures of agreement, including the Kappa coefficient, the G coefficient, and intraclass correlation...

  16. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects of various types of leadership, and argues for the acceptance of a diversity of non gender linked leadership styles. The topic of gender differences in leadership style has been of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, management, and sociology, especially in recent years, as women have begun to assume more leader...

  17. Gender, identity, culture

    OpenAIRE

    Poláková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation work Gender, identity, culture presents an analysis of a picture of a man and a woman in the contemporary Czech society. The fundamental research theme is a transformation of gender identity under influence of cultural changes which have be in progress since the end of 19th century. In the theoretical part of the work, a research of biological and cultural factors that influence the creation of our gender identity is mapped. More emphasis is put on modern technologies and med...

  18. Gender, Poverty and Demography

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Gupta, Monica Da; Casabonne, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written on gender inequality and how it affects fertility and mortality outcomes as well as economic outcomes. What is not well understood is the role of gender inequality, embedded in the behavior of the family, the market, and society, in mediating the impact of demographic processes on economic outcomes. This article reviews the empirical evidence on the possible economic impacts of gender inequalities that work by exacerbating demographic stresses associated with different d...

  19. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  20. Leadership and gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela; David Zuluaga

    2015-01-01

    ...).The methodology of this study uses the literature review technique to nourish theoretical and empirical acknowledgment, in areas such as organizational behaviour, educational leadership and gender studies...

  1. Gender related issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hacer Özel Doğan; Birgül Piyal

    2017-01-01

    .... Gender stereotypes created by society do not simply differentiate between men and women, but importantly affect access tosocial resources, use of opportunities, distribution of resources and responsibilities...

  2. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  4. Do Trade Agreements Stimulate International Trade Differently? Evidence from 296 Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Tristan; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Rose (2004) found that the assumed positive impact of the WTO on international trade was questionable. This finding has been scrutinized and modified in subsequent research, using different datasets, econometric methods and separating the WTO from other forms of trade agreements. A key characteristic of this literature is the rather simplistic way in which trade agreements are treated whereby all trade agreements are lumped together. Trade agreements come, however, in many...

  5. 48 CFR 25.403 - World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... lease-purchase contract (including lease-to-ownership, or lease-with-option-to purchase) is covered by... WTO GPA or an FTA. (c) Purchase restriction. (1) Under the Trade Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 2512), in... Government Procurement Agreement and Free Trade Agreements. 25.403 Section 25.403 Federal Acquisition...

  6. Long-distance consonant agreement and subsequentiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Luo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Johnson (1972 and Kaplan & Kay (1994 showed that phonological processes belong to the computational class of regular relations. This paper provides a computational analysis of long-distance consonant agreement and shows that it belongs to a more restricted computational class called subsequential. This paper further argues that subsequentiality is a desirable computational characterization of long-distance consonant agreement for the following reasons. First, it is sufficiently expressive. Second, it is restrictive as it accounts for the absence of pathological patterns like Majority Rules and Sour Grapes from the typology (Heinz & Lai 2013, standing in contrast to Agreement by Correspondence analysis in Optimality Theory (Rose & Walker 2004; Hansson 2007.

  7. Strategic Timing in R&D Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Marini; Maria Luisa Petit; Roberta Sestini

    2012-01-01

    We present a model of endogenous formation of R&D agreements among firms in which also the timing of R&D investments is made endogenous. The purpose is to bridge two usually separate streams of literature, the endogenous formation of R&D alliances and the endogenous timing literature. This allows to consider the formation of R&D agreements over time. It is shown that, when both R&D spillovers and investment costs are sufficiently low, firms may find difficult to maintain a stable agreement du...

  8. Arbitration Agreements and Your Malpractice Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James R.

    1976-01-01

    With new legislation and favorable case law developments, many providers of health care services are turning to binding arbitration agreements as a partial solution to the medical malpractice crisis. Existing data indicate tremendous advantages can be gained from the use of such agreements, if they are carefully drawn to comply with new law, tailored to the particular situation in which they will be used and coupled with appropriate procedures to secure the intended benefits. Arbitration is not a substitute for insurance, but if a provider has taken the calculated risk of forgoing insurance he should not be without a carefully drawn binding arbitration agreement. PMID:969512

  9. Client/consultant model services agreement

    CERN Document Server

    International Federation of Consulting Engineers

    2006-01-01

    The terms of the Client Consultant Model Services agreement (The White Book) have been prepared by the Fédération Internationale des Ingénieurs-Conseils (FIDIC) and are recommended for general use for the purposes of pre-investment and feasibility studies, designs and administration of construction and project management, where proposals for such services are invited on an international basis. They are equally adaptable for domestic agreements. - See more at: http://fidic.org/books/clientconsultant-model-services-agreement-4th-ed-2006-white-book#sthash.3Uxy5qT3.dpuf

  10. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Across Africa, women face a fairly consistent gender 'gap' in access to productive assets, inputs and services, compared to men. Eliminating such discrimination and promoting equal access to and use of resources can help ensure that women and men are equally prepared to cope with future challenges. A focus on gender ...

  11. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X; Dilli, Selin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267; Rijpma, Auke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314174982

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  12. The Gender Reality Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record 2005-11115-001), in which Hyde reviewed meta-analytic evidence on gender differences and concluded that most psychological gender differences are in the close-to-zero or small range. The current author notes some omissions from Hyde's review, including the findings through other research large…

  13. Gender perspective; in health:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Gender refers to women's and men's roles and responsibilities that are socially determined. Gender is related to how we are perceived and expected to think and act as women and men because of the way society is organized, not because of biological differences (1). Sex is genetic/physiological or biological ...

  14. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  15. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    3 ○ March 2010. Globalization, Growth and Poverty research. Taxes and gender equity. Codes, behaviours, and (un)intended consequences. THE EVIDENCE. Inequality has many faces: gender discrimination is one of them. While taxation offers a means to reduce socio-economic inequality, little is known about its impacts ...

  16. Gender and Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meece, Judith L.; Glienke, Beverly Bower; Burg, Samantha

    2006-01-01

    The role of gender in shaping achievement motivation has a long history in psychological and educational research. In this review, gender differences in motivation are examined using four contemporary theories of achievement motivation, including attribution, expectancy-value, self-efficacy, and achievement goal perspectives. Across all theories,…

  17. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  18. Gender and Crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruttschnitt, C.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with the last review of gender and crime that appeared in the Annual Review of Sociology (1996), I examine the developments in the more traditional approaches to this subject (the gender ratio problem and the problem of theoretical generalization), life course research, and feminist

  19. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  20. Agent-based models of strategies for the emergence and evolution of grammatical agreement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Beuls

    Full Text Available Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise. It demonstrates that agreement systems are motivated by the need to minimize combinatorial search and semantic ambiguity, and it shows, for the first time, that once a population of agents adopts a strategy to invent, acquire and coordinate meaningful markers through social learning, linguistic self-organization leads to the spontaneous emergence and cultural transmission of an agreement system. The article also demonstrates how attested grammaticalization phenomena, such as phonetic reduction and conventionalized use of agreement markers, happens as a side effect of additional economizing principles, in particular minimization of articulatory effort and reduction of the marker inventory. More generally, the article illustrates a novel approach for studying how key features of human languages might emerge.

  1. Agent-based models of strategies for the emergence and evolution of grammatical agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Katrien; Steels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender) become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise. It demonstrates that agreement systems are motivated by the need to minimize combinatorial search and semantic ambiguity, and it shows, for the first time, that once a population of agents adopts a strategy to invent, acquire and coordinate meaningful markers through social learning, linguistic self-organization leads to the spontaneous emergence and cultural transmission of an agreement system. The article also demonstrates how attested grammaticalization phenomena, such as phonetic reduction and conventionalized use of agreement markers, happens as a side effect of additional economizing principles, in particular minimization of articulatory effort and reduction of the marker inventory. More generally, the article illustrates a novel approach for studying how key features of human languages might emerge.

  2. Agent-Based Models of Strategies for the Emergence and Evolution of Grammatical Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Katrien; Steels, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Grammatical agreement means that features associated with one linguistic unit (for example number or gender) become associated with another unit and then possibly overtly expressed, typically with morphological markers. It is one of the key mechanisms used in many languages to show that certain linguistic units within an utterance grammatically depend on each other. Agreement systems are puzzling because they can be highly complex in terms of what features they use and how they are expressed. Moreover, agreement systems have undergone considerable change in the historical evolution of languages. This article presents language game models with populations of agents in order to find out for what reasons and by what cultural processes and cognitive strategies agreement systems arise. It demonstrates that agreement systems are motivated by the need to minimize combinatorial search and semantic ambiguity, and it shows, for the first time, that once a population of agents adopts a strategy to invent, acquire and coordinate meaningful markers through social learning, linguistic self-organization leads to the spontaneous emergence and cultural transmission of an agreement system. The article also demonstrates how attested grammaticalization phenomena, such as phonetic reduction and conventionalized use of agreement markers, happens as a side effect of additional economizing principles, in particular minimization of articulatory effort and reduction of the marker inventory. More generally, the article illustrates a novel approach for studying how key features of human languages might emerge. PMID:23527055

  3. Lesion-Site Affects Grammatical Gender Assignment in German: Perception and Production Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Juliane; Kotz, Sonja A.; Marschhauser, Anke; von Cramon, D. Yves; Friederici, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated phonological, derivational-morphological and semantic aspects of grammatical gender assignment in a perception and a production task in German aphasic patients and age-matched controls. The agreement of a gender indicating adjective (feminine, masculine or neuter) and a noun was evaluated during perception in…

  4. Gender dysphoria and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Chance; McGuinness, Teena M

    2014-08-01

    The age at which gender dysphoria can be diagnosed with enough certainty to justify medical intervention is controversial. The aim of this article is to explore current literature as it relates to the gender reassignment process and diagnostic indicators supporting an appropriate age for intervention. The timing of diagnosis and treatment of gender dysphoria remains the center of debate between the long-term effects of early intervention versus delay of treatment. Limited research is available on gender dysphoria treatment protocols for children. However, preliminary studies suggest that early intervention improves the quality of life in individuals who are transgender. Ongoing research suggests that it may be possible to confirm gender dysphoria at an earlier age. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Because Gender Matters : Strengthening Social and Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing inequality and environmental insecurity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will require enhanced capacity to conduct social and gender analysis in environment and natural resource management (ENRM) research. This project aims to build capacity in and demonstrate the value added to ...

  6. Testing Consent Agreement for N-methylpyrrolidone

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has signed an Enforceable Consent Agreement (ECA) pursuant to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq., with Arco Chemical Company, BASF Corporation, and International Specialty Products Company.

  7. Interagency Agreement for Wildland Fire Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management Agreement are to provide a basis for cooperation among the agencies on all aspects of wildland...

  8. 78 FR 10172 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Harbor & Terminal District and Federal Marine Terminals, Inc. (FMT). Filing Party: C. Jonathan Benner; Thompson Coburn LLC; 1909 K Street NW. Suite 600, Washington, DC 20006. Synopsis: The agreement permits FMT...

  9. 47 CFR 73.1650 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... international obligations and undertakings of the United States. Accordingly, all provisions in this part 73 are...-lateral Agreements between the United States and Mexico relating to: (i) AM Broadcasting. (ii) FM...

  10. Cooperative Agreement on Pesticide Safety Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is awarding the eXtension Foundation with a cooperative agreement to establish a system to distribute EPA funds to Pesticide Safety Education Programs (PSEPs) in State Cooperative Extension Services at Land Grant Universities.

  11. 76 FR 18219 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Line Joint Service Agreement and A.P. Moller- Maersk A/S. Filing Party: Paul M. Keane, Esq.; Cichanowicz, Callan, Keane, Vengrow & Textor, LLP; 61 Broadway, Suite 3000, New York, NY 10006-2802 Synopsis...

  12. 78 FR 63474 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ...: Evergreen Line Joint Service Agreement and Hanjin Shipping Co. Ltd. Filing Party: Paul M. Keane, Esq.; Cichanowicz, Callan, Keane, Vengrow and Textor, LLP; 61 Broadway, Suite 3000; New York, NY 10006. Synopsis...

  13. 75 FR 78245 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ...: Evergreen Line Joint Service Agreement and A.P. Moller- Maersk A/S. Filing Party: Paul M. Keane, Esq.; Cichanowicz, Callan, Keane, Vengrow & Textor, LLP; 61 Broadway, Suite 3000, New York, NY 10006- 2802. Synopsis...

  14. 76 FR 22104 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... agreement authorizes the parties to exchange slots on their respective services from Japan and Taiwan to... the assessment of dockage and wharfage charges for loading and unloading non-military passenger autos...

  15. The rise of number agreement in Nheengatu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline da Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract: Number agreement systems often present traces of older elements common to different languages of the same family; thus, their emergence is difficult to reconstruct. One possible origin of such systems is the grammaticalization of plural words into bound morphemes, which, as a result of a long process, develop into agreement markers and may become obligatory. Various investigations have provided evidence for this hypothesis. However, the complete process of change from a system with no number as grammatical category into a number agreement system in a single language has not been documented. This paper analyses documents covering different stages of the development of the Nheengatu language from Tupinambá in order to observe how the number agreement system emerged in modern Nheengatu. By doing so, this paper supports the idea that grammaticalization may have occurred rapidly in intense contact situations.

  16. 75 FR 2141 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreements to the...: AMA Waterways; American Cruise Lines, Inc.; Azamara Cruises; Carnival Cruise Lines; Celebrity Cruises...

  17. 76 FR 25353 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreement to the Secretary... Cruise Lines, Inc.; Azamara Cruises; Carnival Cruise Lines; Celebrity Cruises, Inc.; Costa Cruise Lines...

  18. 77 FR 43599 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreement to the Secretary... Cruise Lines, Inc.; Avalon Waterways; Azamara Cruises; Carnival Cruise Lines; Celebrity Cruises, Inc...

  19. 78 FR 68444 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments on the agreements to the...; American Cruise Lines, Inc.; Avalon Waterways; Azamara Cruises; Carnival Cruise Lines; Celebrity Cruises...

  20. 78 FR 49515 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ..., and restates the agreement. The amendment also revises the geographic scope, the amount of space being... exchange space with each other in the trade between the U.S. East and Gulf Coasts on the one hand, and the...

  1. 75 FR 150 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... as a single carrier); China Shipping Container Lines (Hong Kong) Company Limited and China Shipping... environmental initiatives and the reduction of air and water pollution. Agreement No.: 012008-004. Title: The...

  2. ;Agreement; in the IPCC Confidence measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehg, William; Staley, Kent

    2017-02-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has, in its most recent Assessment Report (AR5), articulated guidelines for evaluating and communicating uncertainty that include a qualitative scale of confidence. We examine one factor included in that scale: the "degree of agreement." Some discussions of the degree of agreement in AR5 suggest that the IPCC is employing a consensus-oriented social epistemology. We consider the application of the degree of agreement factor in practice in AR5. Our findings, though based on a limited examination, suggest that agreement attributions do not so much track the overall consensus among investigators as the degree to which relevant research findings substantively converge in offering support for IPCC claims. We articulate a principle guiding confidence attributions in AR5 that centers not on consensus but on the notion of support. In concluding, we tentatively suggest a pluralist approach to the notion of support.

  3. Self-enforcing trade agreements and lobbying

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buzard, Kristy

    2017-01-01

    In an environment where international trade agreements must be enforced via promises of future cooperation, the presence of an import-competing lobby has important implications for optimal punishments...

  4. Site specific agreement : Lake Mason Wetland

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The site-specific agreement describes purpose and scope of the partnership between Ducks Unlimited, Inc. and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to manage wetlands for...

  5. 76 FR 64944 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...: Hamburg-Sud (``HSDG''); Alianca Navegacao e Logistica Ltda. e CIA (``Alianca''); Compania Sud Americana de...-010. Title: Maritime Credit Agreement. Parties: Alianca Navegacao e Logistica Ltda. & Cia.; China...

  6. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Labfor research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  7. 75 FR 42445 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... No.: 012105. Title: SCM Lines Transportes/CCNI Agreement. Parties: Compania Chilena de Navegacion Interoceanica S.A. and SCM Lines Transportes Maritimos Sociedade Unipessoal, LDA. Filing Party: John P. Vayda...

  8. 75 FR 12748 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... ( http://www.fmc.gov ) or by contacting the Office of Agreements at (202)-523-5793 or [email protected]fmc...; Yangming Marine Transport Corporation; and Zim Integrated Shipping Services, Ltd. Filing Party: Joshua P...

  9. 78 FR 51726 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... ( www.fmc.gov ) or by contacting the Office of Agreements at (202) 523-5793 or [email protected]fmc.gov... Corporation; Evergreen Marine Corporation (Taiwan), Ltd.; Hamburg- S d KG; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd.; Hapag...

  10. 78 FR 36781 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... ( www.fmc.gov ) or by contacting the Office of Agreements at (202)-523-5793 or [email protected]fmc.gov... River Stevedores, Inc. and South Jersey Port Corporation. Filing Party: Eugene Mattioni; Suite 200-399...

  11. 77 FR 74013 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... ( www.fmc.gov ) or by contacting the Office of Agreements at (202)-523-5793 or [email protected]fmc.gov...; Washington, DC 20006-4007. Synopsis: The amendment would add Diamond State Port Corporation and Gloucester...

  12. New Danish Company Act on Shareholders' Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2011-01-01

    . The substantial elements in many agreements are clauses on (1) voting for board candidates, (2) voting for dividends of certain proportions, and (3) first refusal rights, respectively, call options for shares in the company. Such clauses are at the very roots of corporate law, dealing with the shareholders’ (1......Section 82 of the Danish Company Act, in force from 1 March 2010, provides that ‘Shareholders’ agreements are neither binding on the company nor on decisions taken by the general assembly’. This has far-reaching consequences for shareholders’ agreements, also for already existing agreements......) dispose of his shares in a different way than what is agreed upon, section 82 will show its ugly face, and contractual law and corporate law must in such cases be regarded as two different worlds. The remedies against this are partly of a contractual nature (penalty, mutual pledge in shares, injunction...

  13. The administrative review of concession agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmira Hajdari

    2014-01-01

    The practice of concessionary agreements in Albania is only in its early steps of development. Furthermore, the legislation that provides for the concession agreements has suffered changes to reflect the international legislation. All of which have led to the case law encountering various issues, which we have only humbly tried to reflect in this paper, while also providing our opinion with regard to addressing them.

  14. Agreement text contrastive analysis: English vs Russian

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANOVA V.V.; KISELEVA L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article studies the incongruity of the structure and stylistic organization of an agreement as one of the types of legal discourse in English and Russian. The comparative analysis of certain stylistic differences connected with the structure and content of agreement and the tips for translation suggested in this concise work are aimed at better understanding and interpreting the legal document of the given format.

  15. Age and input in the acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth, S.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analysed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that although most learners regularly overgeneralized the common gender definite determiner de to neuter nouns, there also existed child ...

  16. Gendered personality disposition and gender role attitudes among Israeli students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, L

    1999-12-01

    In a sample of 204 Israeli university students, the author examined the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and 2 aspects of gender role attitudes: occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes. Evaluations of occupational gender attributes were the least sex typed among participants in the androgynous group. At the same time, contrary to expectations, the participants in the undifferentiated and sex-typed groups had relatively stereotyped perceptions of occupations. However, no relationship was found between gendered personality disposition and stereotyped perceptions of gender roles. Regardless of gendered personality disposition, the women, compared with the men, had more liberal attitudes toward gender roles.

  17. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  18. Fenomena Kesetaraan Gender dalam Kredit

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmina, Dwi

    2009-01-01

    Gender inequality still exists in Indonesia on various sectors. However, the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measurement (GEM) showed an increasing trends in recent years. The increase in GDI and GEM index indicates the gender equality in education, labor and business opportunities. Meanwhile, the gender equality in access to credit and capital is still unclear. This paper discusses the gender issue in credit policy, accessibility and utilization in Indonesia usi...

  19. Gender nonconforming youth: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with a case vignette, a discussion follows of the reformulation of theories of gender development taking into consideration the recent upsurge of gender nonconforming and transgender youth presenting for gender services and also in the culture at large. The three predominant models of pediatric gender care are reviewed and critiqued, along with a presentation of the recently developed interdisciplinary model of gender care optimal in the treatment of gender nonconforming youth seeking either puberty blockers or cross-sex hormones.

  20. Gendered Violence, Intersectionalities and Resisting Gender Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in feminist theory and research towards a more complex approach to gender relations and a more differentiated understanding of gendered violence have been positive but also have been the subject of significant debate. Some debates have long histories, while others mark more newly emergent concerns. In this paper I reflect on three areas of debate: intersectionality, complex gendering and complex inequalities; differentiating between forms of gendered violence (with a focus on intimate partner violence (IPV, and criminalisation. In each of these areas, feminist frameworks and knowledge concerning gendered violence have been challenged and the resurgence of gender neutral accounts has been notable. I argue that keeping a structural analysis to the fore provides the best way forward for constructive debate in the field aligned with feminist aspirations for the achievement of substantive equality. El desarrollo de la teoría feminista y la investigación hacia un enfoque más complejo de las relaciones de género y una comprensión más diferenciada de la violencia de género ha sido positivo, pero también ha sido objeto de un importante debate. Algunos debates tienen una larga historia, mientras que otros marcan preocupaciones emergentes surgidas en los últimos tiempos. En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre tres áreas de debate: interseccionalidad, configuración de géneros compleja y desigualdades complejas; diferenciación entre formas de violencia de género (fijándose en la violencia de pareja (VP; y la criminalización. En cada una de estas áreas, se han cuestionado los marcos feministas y el conocimiento relativo a la violencia de género, y ha sido notable el resurgimiento de cuentas de género neutro. Se defiende que fomentar un análisis estructural ofrece la mejor forma de fomentar un debate constructivo en el campo alineado con las aspiraciones feministas para el logro de una igualdad sustantiva. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM

  1. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  2. Gender nonconforming youth: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrensaft D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diane Ehrensaft Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Beginning with a case vignette, a discussion follows of the reformulation of theories of gender development taking into consideration the recent upsurge of gender nonconforming and transgender youth presenting for gender services and also in the culture at large. The three predominant models of pediatric gender care are reviewed and critiqued, along with a presentation of the recently developed interdisciplinary model of gender care optimal in the treatment of gender nonconforming youth seeking either puberty blockers or cross-sex hormones. Keywords: gender nonconforming, transgender, pediatric gender care, puberty blockers, cross-sex hormones

  3. Gender nonconforming youth: current perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ehrensaft D

    2017-01-01

    ...: Beginning with a case vignette, a discussion follows of the reformulation of theories of gender development taking into consideration the recent upsurge of gender nonconforming and transgender youth...

  4. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  5. Gendered experiences of migration and conceptual knowledge of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Jonathan N; Ross, Norbert; Timura, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Migration is a gendered process which may differentially alter conceptual models of illness as variation and change within specific sub-domains reflect unique experiences and interactions. Forty Mexican migrants completed a questionnaire consisting of 30 true/false questions regarding the symptoms, causes, and treatments of 19 illnesses (570 total questions). Results were analyzed using the Cultural Consensus Model and residual agreement analyses to measure patterns of inter-informant agreement. While men and women share overall agreement, they differ significantly in conceptions of treatment. In general, men over-extend the efficacy of treatment options while women restrict the abilities of folk healers and emphasize dietary changes in treating many illnesses. Variations reflect different social roles and interactions as migration patterns and living conditions reinforce gendered roles in medical decision-making. Women have greater experience with illnesses and interactions with biomedical services, which causes them to approximate biomedical providers' model of treatment.

  6. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...... constructions of national and European identities/belongings. On this basis the article claims that diversity represents a dual challenge to be conceptualized within and beyond the nation state. The article explores the formation of national and transnational identities based on analyses of political actors......’ debates about gender and diversity within the national and transnational European Polity....

  7. Sex, gender and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    There is an ongoing dialogue within HIV research about how HIV affects men and women differently and how they may respond to therapy differently. What is often overlooked is the difference between sex and gender. Sex is based in a person's biology. Gender is based in how society treats men and women because of their sex and how their roles and responsibilities are generally ascribed to them. Sex and gender may play a role in the differences seen between men and women living with HIV. So what are those differences and how do they impact the course of HIV in men and women? This article will attempt to answer some of those questions.

  8. Gender and Social Remittances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe

    the extent to which migrant experiences generally constitute a source of inspiration for imagining and working for transformations in gender ideologies and practices in the current life in Yemen of these return migrants. According to Levitt (2001) such inspiration will on certain conditions work as social...... is on the surprise of finding, upon return, that social norms had changed in Yemen, in terms of a more restrictive approach to practices defined by gender. The return migrants all came to Yemen when they were still in their youth and they have had to accommodate to new gender norms upon their return in spite...

  9. Modeling of Gender Differences in Thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyoho, Anthony E; Ng, Laurel J; MacFadden, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    In January 2013, the Department of Defense lifted a ban that had prevented women from holding combat positions in the military. However, innate differences in physical traits and physiology between men and women likely will result in differences in physical performance. Sex differences in thermoregulation is a key area that needs to be examined due to the potential impact on physical performance. Therefore, we expanded our previously developed thermoregulation model (TRM) to include the effects of gender. Women have been found to have a lower sweat output in heat stress and lesser shivering in cold stress than men; therefore, the equations for sweat mass loss rate and shivering heat generation were modified for women accordingly. The updated TRM showed good agreement with female data collected from exercise in cool to hot conditions, cold air exposure, and cold water immersion. Gender differences in sweat evaporation appear minimal except for sufficiently high exercise-heat combinations. Gender differences in core temperature and heat generation during cold stress are significant. The expanded TRM can be used to assess gender-specific thermal response with future application to predicting performance differences and optimizing warfighter effectiveness for a wide range of military relevant tasks. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Gender inequality and gender differences in authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J

    2012-10-01

    Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.

  11. 78 FR 35323 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement-Gender-Informed Research (Women): Enhanced Approaches to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... will be based on research and theory and are meant to provide a medium to inform NIC initiatives as... Number: 13CS12 This number should appear in the reference line in your cover letter, on Standard Form 424.... Number of Awards and Funds Available: Under this solicitation, 1 (one) Award will be made. The total...

  12. A Case-based Reasoning Approach to Validate Grammatical Gender and Number Agreement in Spanish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bacca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Across Latin America 420 indigenous languages are spoken. Spanish is considered a second language in indigenous communities and is progressively introduced in education. However, most of the tools to support teaching processes of a second language have been developed for the most common languages such as English, French, German, Italian, etc. As a result, only a small amount of learning objects and authoring tools have been developed for indigenous people considering the specific needs of their population. This paper introduces Multilingual–Tiny as a web authoring tool to support the virtual experience of indigenous students and teachers when they are creating learning objects in indigenous languages or in Spanish language, in particular, when they have to deal with the grammatical structures of Spanish. Multilingual–Tiny has a module based on the Case-based Reasoning technique to provide recommendations in real time when teachers and students write texts in Spanish. An experiment was performed in order to compare some local similarity functions to retrieve cases from the case library taking into account the grammatical structures. As a result we found the similarity function with the best performance

  13. Collaborative Attention Work on Gender Agreement in Italian as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    In cognitivist Second Language Acquisition (SLA), attention and noticing are described as psycholinguistic processes that (may) have a role in language learning. The operationalization of such constructs, however, poses methodological challenges, since neither online nor off-line measures are coextensive with these cognitive processes that occur…

  14. The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Potential Effects on Gender Equality in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAbstract The government has realized that the textile and clothing sector is one sector that offers good prospects for diversification away from traditional commodity exports, for entry into the area of manufacturers, for absorption of large pools of manpower, for crossing the big

  15. The Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. Potential effects on gender equality in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe government has realized that textile and clothing sector is one sector that offers good prospects for diversification away from traditional commodity exports, for entry into the area of manufacturers, for absorption of large pools of manpower, for crossing the big divide between

  16. Gender Differences in Epilepsy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Jakob; Kjeldsen, Marianne Juel; Andersen, Henning; Friis, Mogens Laue; Sidenius, Per

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to look at gender differences in unselected populations of patients with epilepsy classified according to the 1989 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria. Methods...

  17. Gender and Shame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    of the oppression and domination of women by men. In this context, shame is often considered as part of the phenomenology of oppression. As a result of the subordinated position of women in society, shame is gender-specific in at least two important senses, which will be the object of this entry. In the first sense......, women are more shame-prone than men. This idea will be the object of Section 2. In the other more radical sense, shame is experienced and therefore conceptualized rather differently by different genders due to the different social positions they tend to occupy. This idea will be the object of Section 3.......This entry aims to offer a critical summary of philosophical research at the intersection of gender studies and the particular emotion of shame. Among the emotions, shame attracts particular interest from philosophers interested in gender studies who have primarily focussed on the various facets...

  18. Gender in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A broad range of socio-cultural issues have been recognized as determinants for health and disease. A notion of gender neutrality is still alive in the medical culture, suggesting that gender issues are not relevant within this field. Methods: We have explored the claim that doctors encounter...... their patients as human beings, not as men or women, and discuss causes and consequences of such a claim. Results: Empirical evidence does not support such a claim - gender seems to have a strong impact on medical knowledge and practice. The concept andronormativity signifies a state of affairs where male values...... are regarded as normal to the extent that female values disappear or need to be blatantly highlighted in order to be recognized. We have applied this frame of reference to understand how the idea of gender neutrality has been established in medicine. The average medical practitioner, teacher, or researcher...

  19. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. F. Moskalyk; M. O. Bulach

    2017-01-01

    ... women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant...

  20. Adolescents with gender dysphoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.; Klink, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    Young people with gender dysphoria are increasingly seen by pediatric endocrinologists. Mental health child specialists assess the adolescent and give advice about psychological or medical treatment. Provided they fulfill eligibility and readiness criteria, adolescents may receive pubertal

  1. The nature of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R

    1994-11-01

    I explain a biosocial model of women's gendered behavior (behavior on which the sexes differ). This model integrates a macro sociological theory with a biological theory derived from primate behavior. The sociological model is designed to explain changes in the relationship between sex and behavior over time or between groups. The biological model is designed to explain individual within-sex variance and between-sex variance in gendered behavior in a cohort. Results from an original study are presented to demonstrate that within-sex variance in women's gendered behavior is explained well by the primate model. I conclude that human nature is gendered. The implications of this conclusion are explored for demographic and other social science research.

  2. Personality assessment and self-other rating agreement : moderators and implications of agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Nederström, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    One essential aspect of personality test validation is to estimate the magnitude of self-other agreement of personality ratings. In this method, external observers form their personality judgements of the target person. The self-other agreement coefficients obtained provide approximations of the validity of the measure used. The magnitude of self-other agreement on personality has also proven to be useful in explaining real-life criteria, such as managerial performance...

  3. Agreement Execution Process Study: CRADAs and NF-WFO Agreements and the Speed of Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, Bruce J.; Cejka, Cheryl L.; Macklin, Richard; Miksovic, Ann

    2011-02-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a study on the execution of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) and Non-Federal Work for Others (NF-WFO) agreements across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratory complex. The study provides quantitiative estimates of times required to negotiate and execute these agreements across the DOE complex. It identifies factors impacting on cycle times and describes best practicies used at various laboratories and site offices that reduce cycle times.

  4. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Lagro-Janssen, T.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  5. Gender Beliefs and Embedded Gendered Values in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, Anette; Folkesson, Anne-Mari; Lindberg, Ingeborg Moqvist

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore practitioners' gender beliefs and how gendered values are embedded in Swedish preschool practice. The research question is: What beliefs about gender and the associated values, can be identified in practitioners' talk when they discuss gender issues? The study is informed by Bronwyn Davies' theoretical ideas…

  6. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not

  7. Gender and Early Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Schmeidl, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the introduction of gender into early warning will lead to more practical, realistic and usable early warning approaches, especially if early warning is understood as a flexible system that is sensitive to the diverse situations or on the ground necessitating customised solution. A gender-sensitive approach can enhance early warning models in their basic assumption (what we consider as important or not and the questions we are asking), in their modelling (incorporating ...

  8. Facebook's gender divide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  9. Cyclone, Gender, and Ritual

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshito Takasaki

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the Fijian kava ritual emerges as insurance against cyclone risk, as women's production of ritual handicraft gifts is linked with risk sharing. The cyclone tightens female-heads' constraints on intra-household male labor allocation in the gendered Fijian society. This is because male labor sharing against dwelling damage emerges as a new gendered division of labor, and cyclone relief (food aid) crowds out risk sharing against crop damage, but not against dwelling ...

  10. Gender dysphoria in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Jiska; Steensma, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) in childhood is a complex phenomenon characterized by clinically significant distress due to the incongruence between assigned gender at birth and experienced gender. The clinical presentation of children who present with gender identity issues can be highly variable; the psychosexual development and future psychosexual outcome can be unclear, and consensus about the best clinical practice is currently under debate. In this paper a clinical picture is provided of children who are referred to gender identity clinics. The clinical criteria are described including what is known about the prevalence of childhood GD. In addition, an overview is presented of the literature on the psychological functioning of children with GD, the current knowledge on the psychosexual development and factors associated with the persistence of GD, and explanatory models for psychopathology in children with GD together with other co-existing problems that are characteristic for children referred for their gender. In light of this, currently used treatment and counselling approaches are summarized and discussed, including the integration of the literature detailed above.

  11. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  12. Unfolding the phenomenon of interrater agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slaug, Björn; Schilling, Oliver; Helle, Tina

    2012-01-01

    to improve the reliability of assessment instruments. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Using a sample where 10 rater pairs had assessed the presence/absence of 188 environmental barriers by a systematic rating form, a raters × items data set was generated (N=1,880). In addition to common agreement indices, relative...... accounted for 6-11%, the items for 32-33%, and the residual for 57-60% of the variation. Multilevel regression analysis showed barrier prevalence and raters' familiarity with using standardized instruments to have the strongest impact on agreement. CONCLUSION: Supported by a conceptual analysis, we propose...

  13. Cooperative research and development agreements at METC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludlow, J.C.; Jarr, L.A.; Anderson, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986 (P.L. 99-502) provided a new mechanism for joint research between private parties and the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Joint projects under this law are called Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs) and are simply agreements between METC and the private sector to work together on a mutually beneficial project. Of primary interest to METC is the development and deployment of: (1) clean, efficient power generation technologies, (2) technologies for the characterization and exploitation of the Nation`s natural gas resource, and (3) environmental remediation technologies.

  14. Gender Justice and School Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Desheng

    2009-01-01

    Gender justice includes three basic dimensions: gender equality, respect for difference, and free choice. In reality, schools construct and reproduce the gender injustice of the social culture through multiple dimensions that include the visible and the invisible curriculum, and the teacher's behaviour. In terms of gender justice, the social…

  15. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  16. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  17. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörlin Ann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1 a self-reported gender equality index, and 2 a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH. With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Results Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Conclusions Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is

  18. 76 FR 553 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ...., Ltd.; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. Ltd.; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd.; Mediterranean Shipping Company, S... Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd. Agreement No.: 011324-020. Title: Transpacific Space Utilization...; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd.; Hapag-Lloyd AG; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd.; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd...

  19. 75 FR 66098 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd.; Hapag-Lloyd AG; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co., Ltd.; Kawasaki...; Hyundai Merchant Marine Co. Ltd.; Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd.; Nippon Yusen Kaisha Line; Orient Overseas... & Logistics GmbH & Co. KG; Beluga Chartering GmbH; Chipolbrok; Clipper Project Ltd.; Hyndai Merchant Marine Co...

  20. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  1. 48 CFR 242.002 - Interagency agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing services performed for the Supply and Services Canada. (ii) Departments and agencies may request...-DoD activities, foreign governments, or international organizations, unless otherwise provided by reciprocal agreements. (S-70)(i) Foreign governments and international organizations may request contract...

  2. Making Education Markets through Global Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses the global trade negotiations and agreements, which include education sectors as potentially tradable services, to show the complex processes at work in making global education markets. Drawing on the work of Jens Beckert and others, I focus on the micro-processes of making capitalist orders and the challenges at hand in bringing…

  3. On the Drafting of Confidentiality Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewsen, Merete; Lando, Henrik; Cummins, Tim

    2006-01-01

    IACCM (International Association for Contract and Commercial Management) has initiated. The main theoretical aspect of the article concerns the application of the value maximization principle (the Coase theorem) to the drafting of confidentiality agreements. While the article is not theoretical, its...

  4. 75 FR 74732 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Services Limited, Inc.; Mediterranean Shipping Company, SA; Seaboard Marine Ltd.; South Pacific Shipping Company, Ltd. (dba Ecuadorian Line); and Trinity Shipping Line. Filing Party: Wayne R. Rohde, Esq.; Cozen... APL's corporate address. Agreement No.: 012086-001. Title: Maersk Line/Horizon Lines Space Charter...

  5. 76 FR 11473 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Space Charter Agreement. Parties: A.P. Moeller-Maersk A/S and Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. Filing...; American President Lines, Ltd.; Maersk Line Limited; and Zim Integrated Shipping Services, Ltd. Filing...) Company/China Shipping Container Lines, Co. Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company, Ltd.; Evergreen Line...

  6. Agreement between direct fluorescent microscopy and Ziehl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sensitivity of smear microscopy for diagnosis of tuberculosis might be improved through treatment of sputum with sodium hypochlorite and application of fluorescent microscopy. This study aimed to determine the agreement between direct Fluorescent Microscopy and Ziehl-Neelsen concentration technique ...

  7. Peace agreements and durable peace in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous ACCORD publications on peace agreements have now been followed up by this one, which may be regarded as most relevant and most revealing. For everyone and every organisation committed to conflict resolution, this topic is obviously of great and constant importance. Of special concern to all of us, however, ...

  8. Emerging practices in community development agreements | Loutit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Development Agreements (CDAs) have the potential to facilitate the delivery of tangible benefits from large-scale investment projects, such as mines or forestry concessions, to affected persons and communities. To be effective, however, CDAs must be adapted to the local context, meaning that no single model ...

  9. 34 CFR 303.523 - Interagency agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interagency agreements. 303.523 Section 303.523 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND...

  10. 40 CFR 35.3010 - Delegation agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... generally be five years. As subsequent construction management assistance is awarded, the delegation... delegated functions. The Regional Administrator will evaluate those aspects of the unit which directly... the implementation of the delegation agreement; (2) List the functions delegated and functions to be...

  11. CERN signs agreement with New Zealand

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "New Zealand's particle physicists have joined the world's most ambitious scientific undertaking with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between their government and CERN . This agreement formalises the participation of New Zealand scientists in the laboratory's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project" (1 page).

  12. 30 CFR 880.12 - Cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) OSM may conduct coal formation fire control projects in States not having an approved abandoned mine... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.12 Cooperative agreements. (a) OSM shall, upon application by a State or Indian tribe with an approved abandoned mine reclamation program, enter into a...

  13. Risk-sharing agreements in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Holm-Larsen, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective Our objectives were to explore the changes in the level of interest in risk-sharing agreements (RSAs) in the EU during the last 15 years and the underlying reasons for these changes. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science...

  14. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  15. 77 FR 65886 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... Lines, Ltd. and Crowley Liner Services/Crowley Caribbean Services, LLC as parties to the agreement... amendment reflects the resignation of Bernuth Lines, Ltd. and Crowley Liner Services, Inc./Crowley Caribbean.... Karen V. Gregory, Secretary. BILLING CODE 6730-01-P ...

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community Development: The Case of Golden Star (Bogoso/Prestea) Limited and its Mine Local Community. ... of making voluntary contributions towards community development to making sustainable community development an integral part of the mining business.

  17. 40 CFR 262.58 - International agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Exports of Hazardous Waste § 262.58 International agreements. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 1253, Jan. 8, 2010. (a) Any person who exports... and Mexico are considered OECD member countries only for the purpose of transit. (b) Any person who...

  18. 48 CFR 31.109 - Advance agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Precontract costs; (5) Independent research and development and bid and proposal costs; (6) Royalties and... this 31.109 to agree to a treatment of costs inconsistent with this part. For example, an advance... 15.406-3, as applicable. (h) Examples for which advance agreements may be particularly important are...

  19. 29 CFR 29.7 - Apprenticeship agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signatures of the contracting parties (apprentice, and the program sponsor or employer), and the signature of... of probation during which the apprenticeship agreement may be cancelled by either party to the..., color, religion, national origin, or sex. (k) Contact information (name, address, phone, and e-mail if...

  20. 24 CFR 700.140 - Participatory agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participatory agreement. 700.140 Section 700.140 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (HOUSING ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  1. The implementation agreement and Indian interests

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.V.

    The agreement on deep seabed mining regime relating to the implementation of Part 11 of the Third UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982 [hereinafter: the Convention] had come as a blessing in disguise for India in her status and role as a...

  2. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  3. Effects of parallel planning on agreement production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.; Meyer, A.S.; Acheson, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in current psycholinguistics is how the time course of utterance planning affects the generation of grammatical structures. The current study investigated the influence of parallel activation of the components of complex noun phrases on the generation of subject-verb agreement.

  4. 78 FR 17234 - Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an amendment to Discover Financial Services Negotiated... U.S.C. 3622 and 3642, as well as 39 CFR 3010 and 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services... Request to Add Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement to the Market-Dominant Product...

  5. Agreement and Kappa-Type Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.

    2007-01-01

    Kappa-type indices use the concept of agreement to express the reproducibility of nominal measurements. This article grounds kappa-type indices in statistical modeling, making explicit the underlying premises and assumptions. We critically review whether the interpretation of the kappa index as a

  6. KETIMPANGAN GENDER DALAM PERTUMBUHAN EKONOMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Aktaria

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the gender inequality in 14 districts/ cities in Central Kalimantan Province by using the Gender Inequality Index (GII, which introduced by UNDP, to analyze the effect of gender inequality with economic growth and compare the use of the GII with the Gender Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM in relation to economic growth. This research uses panel data from 14 districts/cities during 2004-2007, the analytical methods used were descriptive statistics in analyzing gender inequality and statistical inference to explain the influence of gender inequality on economic growth. Descriptive analysis results showed that there are sharp gender inequality in every district/city. The results of regression analysis shows that there are negative and significant effect of gender inequality to economic growth. Gender inequality is statistically represented by a proxy of the GII is not as strong compared to a proxy of the two others.

  7. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villata, Sandra; Tabor, Whitney; Franck, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference). However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference), an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth's (2005) ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP), which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  8. Encoding and Retrieval Interference in Sentence Comprehension: Evidence from Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Villata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance verb-argument dependencies generally require the integration of a fronted argument when the verb is encountered for sentence interpretation. Under a parsing model that handles long-distance dependencies through a cue-based retrieval mechanism, retrieval is hampered when retrieval cues also resonate with non-target elements (retrieval interference. However, similarity-based interference may also stem from interference arising during the encoding of elements in memory (encoding interference, an effect that is not directly accountable for by a cue-based retrieval mechanism. Although encoding and retrieval interference are clearly distinct at the theoretical level, it is difficult to disentangle the two on empirical grounds, since encoding interference may also manifest at the retrieval region. We report two self-paced reading experiments aimed at teasing apart the role of each component in gender and number subject-verb agreement in Italian and English object relative clauses. In Italian, the verb does not agree in gender with the subject, thus providing no cue for retrieval. In English, although present tense verbs agree in number with the subject, past tense verbs do not, allowing us to test the role of number as a retrieval cue within the same language. Results from both experiments converge, showing similarity-based interference at encoding, and some evidence for an effect at retrieval. After having pointed out the non-negligible role of encoding in sentence comprehension, and noting that Lewis and Vasishth’s (2005 ACT-R model of sentence processing, the most fully developed cue-based retrieval approach to sentence processing does not predict encoding effects, we propose an augmentation of this model that predicts these effects. We then also propose a self-organizing sentence processing model (SOSP, which has the advantage of accounting for retrieval and encoding interference with a single mechanism.

  9. Effects of parallel planning on agreement production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Alma; Meyer, Antje S; Acheson, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    An important issue in current psycholinguistics is how the time course of utterance planning affects the generation of grammatical structures. The current study investigated the influence of parallel activation of the components of complex noun phrases on the generation of subject-verb agreement. Specifically, the lexical interference account (Gillespie & Pearlmutter, 2011b; Solomon & Pearlmutter, 2004) predicts more agreement errors (i.e., attraction) for subject phrases in which the head and local noun mismatch in number (e.g., the apple next to the pears) when nouns are planned in parallel than when they are planned in sequence. We used a speeded picture description task that yielded sentences such as the apple next to the pears is red. The objects mentioned in the noun phrase were either semantically related or unrelated. To induce agreement errors, pictures sometimes mismatched in number. In order to manipulate the likelihood of parallel processing of the objects and to test the hypothesized relationship between parallel processing and the rate of agreement errors, the pictures were either placed close together or far apart. Analyses of the participants' eye movements and speech onset latencies indicated slower processing of the first object and stronger interference from the related (compared to the unrelated) second object in the close than in the far condition. Analyses of the agreement errors yielded an attraction effect, with more errors in mismatching than in matching conditions. However, the magnitude of the attraction effect did not differ across the close and far conditions. Thus, spatial proximity encouraged parallel processing of the pictures, which led to interference of the associated conceptual and/or lexical representation, but, contrary to the prediction, it did not lead to more attraction errors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parent-child agreement on health-related quality of life (HRQOL): a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmil, Luis; López, Amanda Rodríguez; López-Aguilà, Sílvia; Alonso, Jordi

    2013-06-20

    Few studies have evaluated changes on parent-child agreement in HRQOL over time. The objectives of the study were to assess parent-child agreement on child's HRQOL in a 3-year longitudinal study, and to identify factors associated with possible disagreement. A sample of Spanish children/adolescents aged 8-18 years and their parents both completed the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire. Data on age, gender, family socioeconomic status (SES), and mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) was also collected at baseline (2003), and again after 3 years (2006). Changes in family composition were collected at follow-up. Agreement was assessed through intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman plots. Generalizing Estimating Equation (GEE) models were built to analyze factors associated with parent-child disagreement. A total of 418 parent-child pairs were analyzed. At baseline the level of agreement on HRQOL was low to moderate and it was related to the level of HRQOL reported. Physical well-being at baseline showed the highest level of parent-child agreement (ICC=0.59; 0.53-0.65) while less "observable" dimensions presented lower levels of agreement, (i.e. Psychological well-being: ICC= 0.46; 0.38-0.53). Agreement parent-child was lower at follow-up. Some interactions were found between rater and child's age; with increasing age, child scored lower than parents on Parents relationships and Autonomy (Beta [B] -0.47; -0.71 / -0.23) and the KIDSCREEN-10 (-0.49; -0.73 /-0.25). Parent-child agreement on child's HRQOL is moderate to low and tends to diminish with children age. Measuring HRQOL of children/adolescents mainly in healthy population samples might require direct self-assessments.

  11. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  12. Prosocial behavior and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, María Paz; Kovářík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in "neutral" baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i) the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context; and (ii) gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  13. Prosocial behaviour and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paz eEspinosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.

  14. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  15. Gender Dysphoria in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Lawrence, Anne A; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD), a term that denotes persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, replaced the diagnosis of gender identity disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013. Subtypes of GD in adults, defined by sexual orientation and age of onset, have been described; these display different developmental trajectories and prognoses. Prevalence studies conclude that fewer than 1 in 10,000 adult natal males and 1 in 30,000 adult natal females experience GD, but such estimates vary widely. GD in adults is associated with an elevated prevalence of comorbid psychopathology, especially mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and suicidality. Causal mechanisms in GD are incompletely understood, but genetic, neurodevelopmental, and psychosocial factors probably all contribute. Treatment of GD in adults, although largely standardized, is likely to evolve in response to the increasing diversity of persons seeking treatment, demands for greater client autonomy, and improved understanding of the benefits and limitations of current treatment modalities.

  16. Talking Gender and Sexuality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    psychology for analysing everyday practical language use, agency and identity in talk. Contributors re-examine the foundations of earlier research on gender in spoken interaction, critically appraise this research to see if and how it 'translates' successfully into the study of sexuality in talk, and promote...... innovative alternatives that integrate the insights of recent feminist and queer theory with qualitative studies of talk and conversation. Detailed empirical analyses of naturally occurring talk are used to uncover how gender and sexual identities, agencies and desires are contingently accomplished......This edited volume brings together scholars from psychology, linguistics, sociology and communication science to investigate how performative notions of gender and sexuality can be fruitfully explored with the rich set of tools that have been developed by conversation analysis and discursive...

  17. Signalling in international environmental agreements. Using pre-agreement emission level as a signalling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, U.

    1997-12-31

    This paper addresses the question about strategic incentives in international environmental agreements and tries to give a positive description of how the design of the agreement influences the strategic behaviour of potential participants before they enter the treaty. A common feature of the design of agreements is that the reduction obligations (RO) are made contingent on a pre-agreement or baseline emission. As it is assumed that countries posses better information about their reduction costs than does the international body in charge of deciding the RO, countries might have incentives to signal higher costs by increasing their baseline emission, and thereby reducing the costs of entering the agreement. The appropriate analytical framework is to use a signalling game approach, where the pre-agreement emission level conveys information about the privately informed country`s reduction cost. In this paper two types of agreement design are considered, one with uniform obligations, and one with differentiated obligations. This enables us to make a comparison between two different reduction regimes. The result is that the predicted outcomes vary with regard to both the environmental effectiveness and the associated expected costs for the participating countries. This means that when private information is considered, the anticipation of a given institutional framework has significant impact on the resulting distortion of the total emission level, highlighting the necessity of taking this into consideration when future designs are proposed. (au)

  18. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24-0.52; k = 0.19-0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22-0.67; k = 0.24-0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  19. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  20. Butler, Judith, Undoing Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O conceito de “gender” de Butler (Gender Trouble, 1990 foi um forte ponto de viragem nos estudos queer uma vez que torna radicalmente claro que o género não é uma essência já feita que seria vivenciada pelos sujeitos mas sim um permanente fazer pela sua própria reiteração performativa, que poderia subverter ou não os padrões dualistas hegemónicos. Undoing Gender tem a particularidade de reflectir radicalmente sobre os riscos que correm aqueles que desconstroem esses padrões. Trata-se de uma ...

  1. [Diagnosing gender identity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Mattila, Aino; Kärnä, Teemu; Joutsenneimi, Kaisla

    2015-01-01

    Transsexualism and other variations of gender identity are based on a stable sense of identity. The aetiology of this phenomenon is not fully known. Suffering caused by gender dysphoria is alleviated with sex reassignment. The psychiatric assessment of both adolescents and adults has been centralized in Finland to two university hospitals, the Helsinki University Hospital and Tampere University Hospital. In both hospitals, multidisciplinary teams aim at differential diagnosis by using well-known psychiatric and psychological instruments. Wishes for sex reassignment that are caused by a mental health disorder are excluded. Assessment in adolescence is challenging because the identity in youth is still forming.

  2. The longevity gender gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aviv, Abraham; Shay, Jerry; Christensen, Kaare

    2005-01-01

    resistant to the ravages of time. We discuss the interplay of these factors with telomere biology and oxidative stress and suggest that an explanation for the longevity gender gap may arise from a better understanding of the differences in telomere dynamics between men and women.......In this Perspective, we focus on the greater longevity of women as compared with men. We propose that, like aging itself, the longevity gender gap is exceedingly complex and argue that it may arise from sex-related hormonal differences and from somatic cell selection that favors cells more...

  3. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  4. Implementation Targets for the Paris Climate Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B.; Hope, A. P.; Tribett, W. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We provide an overview of reductions in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) needed to achieve either the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °C warming) of the Paris Climate Agreement. We will show how much energy must be produced, either by renewables that do not emit significant levels of atmospheric GHGs or via carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) coupled to fossil fuel power plants, to meet forecast global energy demand out to 2060. These projections will be based on two modeling frameworks: our empirical model of global climate (EM-GC) and the CMIP 5 GCMs used throughout IPCC (2013). For each framework, we will show estimates of transient climate response to cumulative emission of carbon to place limits on future emission of CO2 via the combustion of fossil fuel. We will also quantify the impact of future atmospheric CH4 on achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement.

  5. FETC/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. TILLMAN; E. HUGHES

    1998-08-01

    This quarter much progress was made in promoting cofiring through the many FETC/EPRI backed projects. During January 1, 1998 to March 31st, 1998 significant contractual agreements were arranged for future testing and analyses of previous testing were conducted. Most notable was the analysis done on the testing run at the Tennessee Valley Authority�s Colbert Fossil Plant that showed no significant impacts to the plant boiler due to cofiring. Northern Indiana Public Service Company also identified Bailly #7 as the site of the next series of tests using their plants. Other work done on these projects primarily focused on continued cofiring development. This report summarizes the activities during the first quarter in 1998 of the FETC/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing in order to highlight the progress at utilities.

  6. Collaborative practice agreement in solid organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Bharath R; Gillespie, Matthew W; Sparkes, Tracy M; Williams, Carla; Bartlett, Stephen T; Haririan, Abdolreza; Masters, Brian M

    2018-02-21

    Background Given the complexity of solid organ transplant recipients, a multidisciplinary approach is required. To promote medication safety and enable providers to focus on the medical and surgical needs of these patients, our department of pharmacy created a collaborative practice agreement between physicians and pharmacists. Through this agreement, credentialed pharmacists are empowered to provide inpatient services including initiation and adjustment of medications through independent review of laboratory results after multidisciplinary rounds. Objective To evaluate the effect of our collaborative practice agreement on clinical care and institutional finances. Setting An inpatient setting at a large academic medical center. Methods Three transplant pharmacists entered all clinical interventions made on abdominal transplant recipients between September and October 2013 into Quantifi ® , a software application that categorizes and assigns a cost savings value based on impact and type of intervention. Main outcome measure The main outcome measures in this study were number and categorization of interventions, as well as estimated cost savings to the institution. Results There were 1060 interventions recorded, an average of 20 interventions per pharmacist per day. The most common interventions were pharmacokinetic evaluations (36%) and dose adjustments (19%). Over the time period, these interventions translated into an estimated savings of $107,634.00, or an annual cost savings of $373,131.20 per pharmacist, or a cost-benefit ratio of 2.65 to the institution. Conclusions Based on our study, implementation of a collaborative practice agreement enables credentialed pharmacists to make clinically and financially meaningful interventions in a complex patient population.

  7. The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    Appendix. U.S. Merchandise Trade with New Zealand, 2009 .................................................... 14 Contacts Author Contact Information...Partner Countries Table 1 shows U.S. trade in goods with the TPP-7 countries. In 2009, the United States ran a merchandise trade deficit with New...by participating in the negotiations on a multilateral Anti- Counterfeiting Agreement, and that it had passed a new copyright protection act in April

  8. World trade organization and multilateral environmental agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Divljak Drago

    2012-01-01

    The subject that is studied in this paper is a complex issue of legal relations, namely interaction between the multilateral trade system of international trade within the WTO and the system of international multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection. The status of environmental protection in the WTO shows the enhancing trend thanks to raising of awareness on seriousness of the global ecological crisis. Despite of that, it is still unsatisfactory, in particular in the sp...

  9. Attraction Effects in Honorific Agreement in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Nayoung; Sturt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree et al., 2003). However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Pearlmutter et al., 1999; Xiang et al., 2009; Dillon et al., 2013), studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker et al., 2015; Sturt and Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol and Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003). Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago et al., 2015). We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers et al., 2009), but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth et al., 2008).

  10. Attraction effects in honorific agreement in Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayoung Kwon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that sentence processing is mediated by content-addressable direct retrieval processes (McElree, 2000; McElree, Foraker, & Dyer, 2003. However, the memory retrieval processes may differ as a function of the type of dependency. For example, while many studies have reported facilitatory intrusion effects associated with a structurally illicit antecedent during the processing of subject-verb number or person agreement and negative polarity items (Dillon, Mishler, Sloggett, & Phillips, 2013; Pearlmutter, Garnsey & Bock, 1999; Xiang, Dillon, & Phillips, 2009, studies investigating reflexives have not found consistent evidence of intrusion effects (Parker & Lago, & Phillips, 2015; Sturt & Kwon, 2015; cf. Nicol & Swinney, 1989; Sturt, 2003. Similarly, the memory retrieval processes could be also sensitive to cross-linguistic differences (cf. Lago, Shalom, Sigman, Lau & Phillips, 2015. We report one self-paced reading experiment and one eye-tracking experiment that examine the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement, a dependency that is different from those that have been studied to date, in Korean, a typologically different language from those previously studied. The overall results suggest that the retrieval processes underlying the processing of subject-verb honorific agreement in Korean are susceptible to facilitatory intrusion effects from a structurally illicit but feature-matching subject, with a pattern that is similar to subject-verb agreement in English. In addition, the attraction effect was not limited to the ungrammatical sentences but was also found in grammatical sentences. The clear attraction effect in the grammatical sentences suggest that the attraction effect does not solely arise as the result of an error-driven process (cf. Wagers, Lau & Phillips, 2009, but is likely also to result from general mechanisms of retrieval processes of activating of potential items in memory (Vasishth, Br

  11. Certification as a Rationale for Voluntary Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    I model the participation of firms in a voluntary agreement as a costly certification process whereby a firm informs the Regulator of its pollution intensity. Without this knowledge, the Regulator imposes the same tax on all firms in a heterogeneous industry, unduly hurting the clean ones with the lowest intensity. Certification allows clean firms to get a tax rebate. It also entails an informational externality as the dispersion of types decreases within the pool of non-participating firms, ...

  12. Dayton Agreement as Legalization of Ethnic Cleainsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vinčić Manojlović

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes neo-racism in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is a direct result of the political structure of the country. The constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, drafted under the Dayton Agreement, does not define BiH as a country of its citizens, but as a country of ethnically pure groups, mainly Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, and members of minority groups. The country continually reproduces neo-racism and the marginalization of its citizens, because the primary purpose of ethno-nationalist policies is to ensure the unity of a particular ethnic group. In this society, human rights are limited to collective rights, and the individual becomes entirely irrelevant. By analyzing policies and discourses of political parties, and analyzing the educational system and media freedom, the author focuses on the tools used for ideological control, which produces neo-racism. The article also analyzes neo-racist discrimination in state symbols and state holidays. In the end, the author discusses the possibility of the abolition of the Dayton Agreement. Examples of respect and solidarity between people, in the author's opinion, are the most suitable basis for the fight against neo-racism. The article concludes that the ethno-nationalist political divide remains strong, and that it is not likely that, in the near future, Bosnia and Herzegovina will abolish the Dayton Agreement, and with it the neo-racist discrimination against its citizens.

  13. World trade organization and multilateral environmental agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divljak Drago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject that is studied in this paper is a complex issue of legal relations, namely interaction between the multilateral trade system of international trade within the WTO and the system of international multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection. The status of environmental protection in the WTO shows the enhancing trend thanks to raising of awareness on seriousness of the global ecological crisis. Despite of that, it is still unsatisfactory, in particular in the sphere of treatment and legal significance of multilateral agreements in the field of environmental protection in the WTO. In compliance with the expressed needs, instead of declarative approach, it is necessary to enhance their formal-legal status and create a new global normative architecture of these relations. Due to these reasons, we advocate a long-term system solution, which implies changes in the WTO law, in particular in the segment of GATT via including international ecological agreements in its set of exemptions, with an appropriate use of transitional solutions. This is the only possible way to establish a stable and predictable system of coherence between these two spheres.

  14. Agreement in Modern Standard Arabic constructions with cardinal numerals over ten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Marcin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Modern Standard Arabic constructions with cardinal numerals over ten in which the noun denoting the counted object follows the numeral, e.g. al-ḫamsūna ǧundiyyan ‘the fifty soldiers’ (as opposed to al-ǧunūdu l-ḫamsūna ‘idem’, the noun is indefinite singular. When a property of the object counted is to be expressed by means of an attribute: an adjective, participle, or a relative clause, it agrees with the noun in gender, but agreement in the three remaining categories, i.e. number, case and definiteness, may be distributed between the noun and the numeral. The present study analyzes examples of such constructions found in contemporary journalistic texts. Four agreement configurations are distinguished, out of which three were described by Classical Arabic grammarians, while one is non-classical. In some instances, due to the syncretism of declension forms, agreement in case is indeterminate. The analysis of the examples shows that apart from variation in agreement that can be observed with some types of the qualifier, the choice of a particular agreement configuration depends on phraseology and/or the lexico-syntactic properties of the qualifier: whether it is a proper adjective, a nisba adjective, a participle, or a relative clause.

  15. Management of juvenile gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C

    2013-12-01

    To describe the treatment of gender dysphoria in adolescents. Careful study and evaluation of children with persistent severe gender dysphoria has led to the recommendation that puberty be suppressed at Tanner Stage II. If the dysphoria persists until age 16, treatment with sex steroids of the appropriate gender may begin at age 16 and be followed by gender-appropriate surgery. Protocols and results of treatment of early adolescents have demonstrated that the harmful effects of persistent gender dysphoria can be prevented. Pubertal suppression in early puberty not only prevents the severe distress, but also allows healthy adolescent development living in the appropriate gender.

  16. Designing Comprehensive Partnering Agreements : An Introduction to the Partnering Agreement Scorecard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Pfisterer (Stella); N. Payandeh (Nasim); S. Reid

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAgreements are a key mechanism of partnerships because their role is to govern interactions. They help partnerships become more effective by allowing partners to cope with relational, performance and situational risks that characterise inter-organisational relationships. The

  17. Football and gender 'policing'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in football. The policing of gender 'boundaries' through the kinds of exclusionary violence and bullying in the playground is also linked to the (re)production of heteronormativity. Heteronormativity is a ..... parents over children, of psychiatry over the mentally ill, of medicine over the population, of administration over the ways ...

  18. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  19. The Gender Implication.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper further contend that many women have suffered varied traumatic experiences arising from this categorization which have manifested itself in gender inequality and discrimination that has far reaching implications for the empowerment of rural women in Nigeria. The paper concludes by examining the changes that ...

  20. Gender sensitive design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommes, E.W.M.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent and in what ways do companies take gender into account in their design decisions? In the past, commerce has been criticized for designing for the dominant group in society--the notorious young, white, able-bodied, highly educated male--to the exclusion of user groups who do not fit

  1. Gender and Academic Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, Anne; Drinan, Patrick F.; Cross, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the academic integrity climate of a mid-sized, comprehensive, private university. Seeks to assess gender differences in motivations surrounding cheating behaviors among 532 undergraduate students. Findings indicate that while both males and females are reluctant to report instances of academic dishonesty that they witness, there…

  2. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  3. Gendered subjective theologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, I.; Knauth, Th.; Jozsa, D.-P.

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo1 sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in

  4. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  5. Taxation and Gender Equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    56 Inflation Expectations. Peter J.N. Sinclair. 57 The New International Monetary System. Essays in honour of Alexander Swoboda Edited by Charles Wyplosz. 58 Taxation and Gender Equity. This page intentionally left blank. A comparative analysis of direct and indirect taxes in developing and developed countries

  6. Gender and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucy E.; Graves, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe broad patterns and key developments in gender and education scholarship to provide an overview of the state of the field. They incorporate historical developments shaping research patterns, broad tensions and shifts, and emerging trajectories in inquiry. Cognizant that reviews are inherently political endeavors in both…

  7. Gender, Parenthood, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catherine E.; Willigen, Marieke Van

    1996-01-01

    Examines how gender inequality in the family affects anger. Using data from a national probability sample of 2,031 adults, found that: women have higher levels of anger than men; each additional child in the household increases anger; and children increase anger more for mothers that for fathers. Discusses various causes and expressions of anger.…

  8. Gender and food television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    This chapter examines the importance of gender in the history of food television in an American/European context, by discussing the scientific literature on the topic. The analysis covers a period from the very first shows in the 1930s and 1940s, until 2016. It will be argued that despite the app...

  9. Pornography and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.; Whelehan, P.; Bolin, A.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between gender and pornography has a long history, beginning with early modern narrative representations of sex written by men but presented from the perspective of female narrators. In the nineteenth century, the representation of sexuality became implicated in the imperial

  10. Financing for Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jim Yong

    2015-01-01

    Remarks delivered by Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group. The Third International Conference on Financing for Development represents an important milestone in efforts to achieve universal and sustainable development as we move beyond 2015 and introduce a new set of Sustainable Development Goals. This event aims to mobilize high-level political support for financing gender equality and women’s...

  11. Gender and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how stereotypical gender perceptions relate to employees with physical impairments. This is done by investigating how employees and managers in 13 Danish work organizations draw on stereotypical perceptions of femininity when they talk about their colleag...

  12. [Gender in view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A manual recently published by Mexico¿s National System for Integral Development of the Family, ¿The gender perspective: a tool for constructing equity between men and women¿, is intended to put into practice the Cairo accords. The gender perspective has been applied in recent years to interpretation of the situation of women in past and present societies. Gender is not sex; it is the manner in which societies have symbolized and understood relations between men and women. The manual concludes that the main difference between the sexes beyond the obvious genital differences is in the greater musculature and strength of males. In contemporary societies, these attributes are less needed than technical knowledge and skills, which may be obtained by either sex. Economic evolution has led increasing numbers of women to work outside their homes. The gender roles assigned for millennia, and accepted as the natural order, are no longer adequate. The power of men has been preserved by attributing the gigantic cultural differences resulting from specialization into male and female roles to the small physical differences between the sexes. Governments have slowly established legal equity, but discrimination against women has not disappeared in the workplace, public offices, or any other social sphere, and their incorporation into the work force has left them with the double workday as they continue to perform the great bulk of domestic work. It is therefore necessary to seek equity as well as equality, understood as the creation of equivalent opportunities for men and women.

  13. [Gender differences in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  14. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  15. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 11. Gender in Plants - More About Why and How Plants Change Sex. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 3 Issue 11 November 1998 pp 30-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Gender differences in sorting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merlino, L.P.; Parrotta, P.; Pozzoli, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we find strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder and

  17. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  18. Puzzles on grammatical gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, J.; Hulk, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the link between the notion of "neuter" gender and default in Dutch, a language that does not make the familiar distinction between masculine and feminine nouns, but opposes non-neuter nouns to neuter nouns. In trying to extend to Dutch the analysis of "neuter" as a default

  19. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Do plant hedge mating bets using sex change? This article addresses these and other evolutionary questions about plant gender. The Modular Nature of Plants. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German literary genius immortalised for such triumphs as The Tragedy of Doctor Faust, was also a natural scientist. He believed ...

  20. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabine eSczesny; Magdalena eFormanowicz; Franziska eMoser

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of...

  1. Gender and Working Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Bergholm

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of occupational segregation by sex and gendered practices in the workplace are complex, multidimensional and contested fields of research and academic discourse. Since the 1960s, we have seen a rapid growth in both quantity and quality of academic work in this field. Earlier simplistic main (male stream as well as straightforward feminist explanations has been roundly criticised and deconstructed. It is now clear that the study of gender relations in working life is far more complicated than it was believed decades ago. The central question in gender research is how gendered structures – in which men in general have more power, more prestigious positions and higher pay – are reproduced in a world in which demography, economy, production, education and therefore society and family have changed over time. Nordic countries represents an interesting geographical arena to examine gender relations in working life, because many factors, which have been seen in other countries as causes for female subordination, appear in other forms. At present, the labour force participation rate of women in Nordic countries is nearly equal to that of men, but there are still substantial differences. Women are better educated than men, and also, to a large extent unionised. Although these factors make Nordic women stand out globally, gender equality at work or at home has not yet been achieved. The male breadwinner is still a societal norm and a construct, which conditions the behaviour of organisations and individuals in many circumstances in working life. This influence can be obvious or obscure. From the 1990s, research has turned to focus also on the fate of the male workforce during deindustrialisation and global restructuring. Participation rate of men in gainful employment have diminished in all industrialised countries (Crouch; 1999, Walby; 1997. Nordic countries are not an exception to this trend. Men’s difficulties to adapt to a new service

  2. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups.

  3. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  4. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  5. REDEFINING GENDER ROLES WITHIN CONTEMPORARY RURAL FAMILY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adina Magdalena IORGA

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of this research is to identify the opinion of students at University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, regarding gender perception, gender characteristics, and gender...

  6. Gender cognition in transgender children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kristina R; Key, Aidan C; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-04-01

    A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  8. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  9. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    .... The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers...

  10. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  11. On subject agreement in isiNdebele | Khumalo | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agreement lies at the core of sentence structure. A verb typically must enter into a syntactic agreement relationship with a nominal. This article presents an analysis of the subject marker in the isiNdebele language. The focus of the article is on agreement between the verb and its arguments. Agreement between a head ...

  12. 34 CFR 604.1 - Federal-State relationship agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal-State relationship agreements. 604.1 Section... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL-STATE RELATIONSHIP AGREEMENTS General § 604.1 Federal-State relationship agreements. (a) A State shall enter into an agreement with the Secretary if it wishes...

  13. 46 CFR 67.350 - Conflicts with international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts with international agreements. 67.350 Section... Conflict With International Agreements § 67.350 Conflicts with international agreements. (a) If you are an... the provisions of the international agreement or treaty that you believe is in conflict with this part...

  14. 46 CFR 356.53 - Conflicts with international agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conflicts with international agreements. 356.53 Section... DOCUMENTATION International Agreements § 356.53 Conflicts with international agreements. (a) If the owner or... that it is determined that an international agreement covering the petitioner is in conflict with the...

  15. 32 CFR 21.680 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 21.680 Section... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-GENERAL MATTERS Definitions § 21.680 Technology investment... of the nation's technology and industrial base. Technology investment agreements include one kind of...

  16. 32 CFR 37.1375 - Technology investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology investment agreements. 37.1375... AGREEMENT REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 37.1375 Technology investment agreements. A special class of assistance instruments used to increase involvement of...

  17. 32 CFR 644.460 - Supplemental agreement assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental agreement assembly. 644.460 Section... Supplemental agreement assembly. (a) Composition. Supplemental agreement assembly, covering agreement for... Government. (b) Distribution. An executed copy of the assembly will be retained by the DE. An executed copy...

  18. 24 CFR 266.15 - Risk-Sharing Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Risk-Sharing Agreement. 266.15... Provisions § 266.15 Risk-Sharing Agreement. Execution of a Risk-Sharing Agreement is a prerequisite to participation in this program. The Risk-Sharing Agreement shall be in a form acceptable to the Commissioner. ...

  19. Inter-Rater Agreement of Anal Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, Teresa M.; Tokugawa, Diane; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; LaMere, Brandon J.; Schwartz, Lauren; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Most anal cancers are caused by persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV). Similar to cervical carcinogenesis, the progression from HPV infection to anal cancer goes through precancerous lesions that can be treated to prevent invasion. In analogy to cervical cytology, anal cytology has been proposed as a screening tool for anal cancer precursors in high-risk populations. We analyzed the inter-observer reproducibility of anal cytology in a population of 363 HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Liquid-based cytology (LBC) specimens were collected in the anal dysplasia clinic before performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) on all subjects. Papanicolaou-stained, LBC slides were evaluated by two cytopathologists, blinded to clinical outcome and the other pathologist's results, using the revised Bethesda terminology. Overall agreement between two observers was 66% (kappa 0.54, linear weighted kappa 0.69). Using dichotomizing cytology results (ASC-US or worse vs. less than ASC-US), the agreement increased to 86% (kappa 0.69). We observed an increasing likelihood of testing positive for markers associated with HPV-related transformation, p16/Ki-67 and HPV oncogene mRNA, with increasing severity of cytology results both for individual cytologists and for consensus cytology interpretation (ptrend < 0.0001 for all). In summary, we observed moderate to good agreement between two cytopathologists evaluating anal cytology samples collected in HIV-positive MSM. A higher severity of anal cytology was associated with biomarkers of anal precancers. Anal cytology may be used for anal cancer screening in high-risk populations, and biomarkers of HPV-related transformation can serve for quality control of anal cytology. PMID:22811048

  20. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  1. GreenIT Service Level Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Laszewski, Gregor; Wang, Lizhe

    In this paper we are introducing a framework towards the inclusion of Green IT metrics as part of service level agreements for future Grids and Clouds. As part of this effort we need to revisit Green IT metrics and proxies that we consider optimizing against in order to develop GreenIT as a Services (GaaS) that can be reused as part of a Software as a Service (SaaS) and Infrastructure Infrastructureas a service (IaaS) framework. We report on some of our ongoing efforts and demonstrate how we already achieve impact on the environment with our services.

  2. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Hughes; D. Tillman

    2000-10-01

    During the period of July 1, 2000 through September 30, 2000, alternatives for relocating the Seward Generating Station cofiring project were investigated. Allegheny Energy Supply Company LLC will accept the separate injection demonstration at its Albright Generating Station. During this period, also, efforts were made at program outreach. Papers were given at the Pittsburgh Coal Conference. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 2000 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of the relocation of Seward, and on the outreach efforts.

  3. AGREEMENT BETWEEN CERN AND UBS SA

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We wish to inform you that the agreement between CERN and UBS SA has been renewed for a period of five years with effect from 1st July 2002. This represents the culmination of work carried out since 1999 by a group consisting of representatives of the Finance Division, the SPL Division, the Staff Association and the Users Office. After analysis of the results of a market survey, it emerged that OVERALL the UBS offered the best conditions and guarantees for the CERN personnel. Owing to developments in the banking market, new conditions have had to be negotiated, which will be presented to you by the UBS (see article).

  4. Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project (TCAPP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keegan, P.; Benioff, R.

    1999-10-20

    The Technology Cooperation Agreement Pilot Project (TCAPP) is helping developing countries design and implement actions to attract investment in clean energy technologies that will meet their economic development goals, while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. TCAPP was launched by three US government agencies -- the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) -- in August 1997 to establish a model for climate change technology cooperation with developing and transition countries. This report describes the TCAPP approach and the significant progress made by the participating countries.

  5. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tillman; E. Hughes

    1999-07-01

    During the period of April 1, 1999 through June 30, 1999, wood cofiring testing at both Seward Generating Station of GPU Genco and Bailly Generating Station of Northern Indiana Public Service Company provided the focus for all activities. In both cases, the testing was directed at the impacts of cofiring on efficiency, operability, and NO{sub x} emissions. This report summarizes the activities during the second calendar quarter in 1999 of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of testing activities at both generating stations.

  6. USDOE/EPRI BIOMASS COFIRING COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Tillman; E. Hughes

    1999-04-01

    During the period of January 1, 1999 through March 31, 1999, construction was performed in support of two major demonstrations. Major progress was made on several projects including cofiring at Seward (GPU Genco), and Bailly (NIPSCO). Most of the work was focused on construction and system commissioning activities at the Seward and Bailly Generating Stations. Additionally, petroleum coke cofiring testing was completed at the Bailly Generating Station. This report summarizes the activities during the first calendar quarter in 1999--the fourth contract quarter in 1998--of the USDOE/EPRI Biomass Cofiring Cooperative Agreement. It focuses upon reporting the results of construction activities and related events.

  7. Grammatical Gender Trouble and Hungarian Gender[lessness]. Part I: Comparative Linguistic Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O. Vasvári

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define linguistic gender[lessness], with particular reference in the latter part of the article to Hungarian, and to show why it is a feminist issue. I will discuss the [socio]linguistics of linguistic gender in three types of languages, those, like German and the Romance languages, among others, which possess grammatical gender, languages such as English, with only pronominal gender (sometimes misnamed ‘natural gender’, and languages such as Hungarian and other Finno-Ugric languages, as well as many other languages in the world, such as Turkish and Chinese, which have no linguistic or pronomial gender, but, like all languages, can make lexical gender distinctions. While in a narrow linguistic sense linguistic gender can be said to be afunctional, this does not take into account the ideological ramifications in gendered languages of the “leakage” between gender and sex[ism], while at the same time so-called genderless languages can express societal sexist assumptions linguistically through, for example, lexical gender, semantic derogation of women, and naming conventions. Thus, both languages with overt grammatical gender and those with gender-related asymmetries of a more covert nature show language to represent traditional cultural expectations, illustrating that linguistic gender is a feminist issue.

  8. Gender bias affects forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlène Elias; Susan S Hummel; Bimbika S Basnett; Carol J.P. Colfer

    2017-01-01

    Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure,...

  9. Troubling Gender through Mail Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A persistent and troubling trend in teacher education programmes is how gender is constructed heteronormatively. Finding ways that challenge novice teacher thinking about gender and gender identities has proven to be difficult ([Grace, A. P., and K. Wells. 2006. "The Quest for a Queer Inclusive Cultural Ethics: Setting Directions for…

  10. Gender Issues within Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Students' Union (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This handbook functions as a crown on the European Students' Union's work on gender equality over the past two years. Since the establishment of the Gender Equality Committee, a lot of work has been done to improve gender equality in higher education generally, and in student unions more particularly. This handbook gathers the experiences and…

  11. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  12. Motivation, Gender, and Possible Selves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair; Cliffordson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the consistency with which gender differences have been found in second language motivation, little systematic research has taken place on motivation and gender to date. Permeating self-concept development, gender impacts not only current selves but also future-oriented possible selves. In construing possible selves, females tend to…

  13. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  14. Policy scorecard for gender mainstreaming: gender equity in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Helen

    2013-04-01

    To examine whether gender mainstreaming for women's health is included in national and state health policies. A policy analysis tool (Policy Scorecard) was developed and then applied to Australia's National Health Priority Areas as well as policies of three Australian States. Despite Australia's leadership in women's health policy, its health policies are largely devoid of gender equity concerns at both national and state levels. Mainstreaming of gender equity outcomes has not yet occurred in Australia. Applying the Policy Scorecard for Gender Mainstreaming to local and country-specific policies is revealing of governments' commitment to women, and how well gender equity goals are embedded into policies and programs. Policy analysis using this gender-sensitive Policy Scorecard provides opportunities for advocacy to advance women's health and gender equity at any level of government, in any country. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  15. [Risk sharing agreements: with orphan drugs?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo-Artero, C; del Llano, J; Poveda, J L

    2012-01-01

    To summarize available information on share risk agreements (RSA) with orphan drugs (OD). A bibliographic search was carried out in MEDLINE, EMBASE and INAHTA using 19 keywords and combinations thereof. Papers published as original, narrative and systematic reviews, editorials, commentaries, letters to the Editor, and special articles were included and reviewed. Public or private institutional reports or documents found in Google that contained relevant information were also reviewed. experience gained so far with RSA is scant. No published rigorous evaluations of outcomes of these agreements were found. It seems, however, that OD are suitable for introduction in clinical practice by means of RSA. There are two main types of RSA: financially based, and performance-outcome based. A number of theoretical advantages of SRA are described, as well as hurdles that hinder their design, implementation, and followup, and thus endangering their success. Very few RSA have clearly succeed so far. If thoroughly managed, RSA may reasonably contribute to value-based pricing of OD, improve their pharmacovigilance, knowledge about their comparative effectiveness, and to reducing uncertainty and its consequences on patients, industry, payers and clinicians. There are technical groups that can bring the essential knowledge to manage RSA in Spain. The challenge now is to be able to harmonize their assessments and appraisals, to put in motion the mechanisms needed to overcome those hurdles, and to provide them adequate political and institutional support. Copyright © 2012 SEFH. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  17. Differential Object Marking, Case and Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ormazabal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present empirical evidence showing that Differential Object Marking (DOM  in Spanish is determined by structural conditions related to Case and agreement. We also argue that semantic concepts such as specificity, definiteness, animacy, or topicality, tightly connected to the presence or absence of A, must be parasitic on the syntactic configurations where DOM is licensed. We also present some consequences of our analysis for the general theory of agreement. We argue that the same structural relation is involved in all cases of DOM, as well as in Dative Clitic Constructions, where the presence of the particle A preceding clitic-doubled datives is syntactically unified with DOM phenomena. The accusative/dative distinction traditionally attributed to the Spanish pronominal system does not correspond, in synchronic terms, to different case relations, but distinguishes between agreeing and non-agreeing arguments. Similarly, the distribution of DOM corresponds to a Case-checked/Caseless difference. We extend the analysis to account for well-known restrictions on the co-appearance of two DOM arguments, which  are analyzed as the consequence of a competition between two arguments for a single target.

  18. Reliability of anxiety assessment. II. Symptom agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyer, A J; Mannuzza, S; Martin, L Y; Gallops, M S; Endicott, J; Schleyer, B; Gorman, J M; Liebowitz, M R; Klein, D F

    1989-12-01

    Accurate assessment of "subdisorder" anxiety symptoms, ie, anxiety symptoms central to DSM-III-R-diagnosed anxiety disorders but not meeting disorder criteria because of insufficient frequency, duration, or accompanying subjective distress or impairment, may be critical to case identification in genetic, epidemiologic, and high-risk studies. However, concerns that the mild and often transient nature of these phenomena will foster unreliability have discouraged their use. We assessed the test-retest reliability of "subdisorder" anxiety symptoms in 104 outpatients with anxiety. Good to excellent agreement was found for lifetime occurrence of any panic attack, the spontaneous and situationally predisposed subtypes of panic, and five nonsocial irrational fears (public transportation, driving oneself, crowds, situations associated with death [eg, dead bodies and funerals], and cats and dogs). Four social and three additional nonsocial fears were considered to have adequate reliability. However, agreement on stimulus-bound panic, "near" panic attacks, persistent generalized anxiety, and the remaining nine nonsocial and six social irrational fears was only fair to poor. The major source of unreliability was variation in information reported by the subject to the rater.

  19. Gendering pursuits of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøtt, Thomas; Cheraghi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is embedded in networks that are embedded in culture. An entrepreneur's network of advisors comprises a network within the private sphere of family and friends and a network outside, in the public sphere. This networking is gendered, we hypothesise, in that typically, the private sphere...... network is heavily utilised by women, whereas the public sphere network is stronger for men. We also hypothesise, that these gendered networks are embedded in culture, in that women's networks are reduced within traditional culture, and that culture moderates the effects of networks on innovation. 68...... in traditional culture than in secular-rational culture. Typically, the private sphere network impedes innovation, whereas the public sphere network benefits innovation, especially in traditional culture....

  20. Towards ensuring gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A

    1996-01-01

    All people should participate in the development process. Many, however, remain excluded from the benefits of development. For example, women are privy to only a small share of developmental opportunities. The goals of equality, development, and peace were stated during the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in September 1995. The author considers whether women truly have equitable access to literacy, education, food, nutrition, health, employment, and the political and economic decision making process. She stresses that the goals pronounced at the Fourth World Conference on Women must be backed up with the necessary resources, including institutions established at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that the objectives are implemented and the implementation is monitored. The author further argues that in order for women to achieve equality with men, all girls must have access to primary and secondary schools; basic literacy is inadequate. Moreover, gender stereotyping must be avoided and gender sensitization ensured at all levels.

  1. Communication and Gender:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mara Miranda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to discuss communication and gender actions based on Argentina's experience with the institution of the Defensoría del Público de Servicios de Comunicación Audiovisual, created in 2012, as a result of the application of law n° 26.522 on Servicios de Comunicación Audiovisual, known popularly as Ley de Medios, sanctioned in 2009. This is a qualitative research, whose method used was the documentary analysis, which allowed to know some actions of the Defensoría del Público focused on the gender perspective in communication, among them, the monitoring of news programs and publications. The research pointed out that the institution acts in the fight against the reproduction of discourses that are discriminatory and harmful to women in the audiovisual media.

  2. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six promin...

  3. Gender and Posthuman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione La Camera blu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Camera Blu is an important contribution to the study of gender and the posthuman for different reasons. Currently, posthumanism has become a highly fashionable academic trend. Considering that anthropocentrism is leading to an environmental eco-disaster so deep as to endanger the very survival of the human species, this breakthrough in academia is a great opportunity for social reform. On the other hand, the hegemonic appropriation of the posthumanist discourse is obscuring the core meaning of the posthuman with ironic consequences. The “neutral” subject, that is male, white, heterosexual, Western etc., is rediscovering the posthuman in the name of the Father, in an ahistorical reconstruction in which the decisive contribution of feminism is gradually superseded by names of male theorists, to ensure a phallocratic genealogy to Posthuman Studies. Is this a defeat of the posthuman? Not at all. The interest that posthumanism is attracting can only bring satisfaction to scholars who have been working for years to its promotion. And still, because in this proliferation of the posthuman, the meaning of the term is taking on different shades, colors and nuances, it is crucial to rediscover its roots. Posthumanism stems from Feminism: forgetting this genealogical debt means giving up the deepest identity of the posthuman. This issue of the Camera Blu wishes to emphasize this powerful genealogy, and to lay a platform for further development of gender through the posthuman, and of the posthuman through gender, reflecting on the possible futures of gender in relation to the human and the posthuman species.

  4. Senses of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Lim; Kath Browne

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the testimony of trans respondents to Count Me In Too (a participatory action research project that examined LGBT lives in Brighton and Hove), and this analysis occasions the development of innovative concepts for thinking about understandings and experiences of trans phenomena and gender. The analysis starts by exploring the diversity of trans identities before considering evidence of how health services pathologise trans experiences. These analyses not only call into que...

  5. [Gender effect on cardiomyopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Elena; Berardini, Alessandra; Graziosi, Maddalena; Rosmini, Stefania; Pazzi, Chiara; Rapezzi, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    The role of a gender effect (that means differences in clinical manifestations, access to therapies and response to treatments according to gender) in cardiomyopathies remains a matter of debate. Although recent studies have evaluated the differences in the clinical features and prognosis between the two sexes, many issues remain to be elucidated. At present, the only sex-specific condition that affects females is peripartum cardiomyopathy. Recent evidence suggests a pathogenetic role of a prolactin derivative, and ongoing clinical trials are investigating the possibility of targeted therapies using prolactin secretion inhibitors, such as bromocriptine and carbegoline. Although women were considered so far only carriers of X-linked diseases (Anderson-Fabry disease, Danon disease, Hunter syndrome and dystrophinopathies), clinical experience showed a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in females due to random X chromosome inactivation. Conversely, in mitochondrial diseases (with matrilineal inheritance), cardiomyopathies may occur in the context of clinical multisystemic involvement without significant gender-related differences. Autosomal inherited cardiomyopathies also show different phenotypes and prognostic impact according to gender. The hypothesis of a premenopausal protective role of female hormones towards myocardial involvement has been raised by recent data on transtiretin-related amyloidosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Preexisting cardiomyopathies may affect pregnancy, labor and delivery in women, since all these conditions are associated with important hemodynamic changes. Women with low-risk hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (asymptomatic and without left ventricular outflow tract gradient) usually can tolerate pregnancy. Conversely, women who are symptomatic before pregnancy or have severe hypertrophy with important outflow tract gradient are at higher risk and should be referred to a tertiary center to be evaluated on a case by case basis

  6. Emotion, gender and genre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, Scandinavian TV crime fiction has been regarded as a public arena for critical exhibition of and debate about salient features in contemporary social development. To explain the acknowledged impact of this kind of crime fiction, it is necessary to involve the notions of emotion and...... and gender in combination with the mixing of genres, as especially the thriller and the melodrama have invaded the police procedural. This is demonstrated in an analysis of The Killing....

  7. Sex, gender role, attribution of pathology, and handwriting tidiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, John; Money, Molly

    2003-10-01

    An archival study sampled personality test protocols with spontaneous handwriting specimens from 73 men and 168 women for signatures and scores on selected scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Judges applied a 5-point scale to sort signatures for tidiness. Interrater agreement was .93. The mean handwriting tidiness score for men was 1.8 and 2.8 for women, a significant difference of 1 point. Correlations between handwriting tidiness and MMPI-2 scores did not support the hypothesis that erratic handwriting is associated with pathology but scores for gender role correlated significantly with handwriting tidiness. Masculine Gender Role predicted sloppy penmanship and Feminine Gender Role predicted tidy writing, independent of the writers' biological sex.

  8. Gender gaps and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conly, S

    1998-01-01

    Findings from studies conducted worldwide indicate that educating girls allows them to gain more control over their lives, which, in turn, means that they have fewer, healthier children. In patriarchal societies, however, this education must last 6 or 7 years to be fully beneficial. Education of girls is also among the best economic investments a country can make because it leads to increased productivity and economic growth. However, women still suffer from a gender gap that has resulted in lower literacy among women and lower school attendance and duration of schooling among girls. However, gains have been made, and the gender gap in enrollment is narrowing in some regions, such as Latin America and East Asia. The gender gap continues its stranglehold, however, in the most populous and impoverished countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Enrollment rates in secondary schools have risen faster than for primary schools worldwide, with striking gains in East Asia. In some regions, such as Latin America, the secondary school enrollment rates are actually higher for girls than for boys. Strategies to improve girls' educational participation include 1) building more schools, 2) providing "girl-friendly" facilities, 3) increasing the number of women teachers, 4) improving the quality and relevance of the curriculum, 5) promoting education among parents, 6) providing sexual health education and services to reduce pregnancy-related drop-outs, and 7) making school hours flexible to accommodate girls' schedules.

  9. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored.

  10. Gender, globalisation, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, S

    2000-03-01

    This article discusses the link between gender, globalization and democracy in relation to women¿s empowerment. Analyzing gender relations within the processes of development planning involves five approaches: 1) welfare, 2) equity, 3) anti-poverty, 4) efficiency, and 5) empowerment. In addition, a new approach, which combines efficiency and empowerment, must be added to highlight the problematic nature of the direction of causality assumed by traditional theory of development. The rise on women's representation in national parliament can be attributed to the increase of women's economic power and women's political struggles. However, promotion of globalization produces new opportunities for feminist politics, as well as difficulties, which include: the emergent position of productive engagement in which an efficient economy and democratic society are seen as interdependent; and increase in parliamentary representation correlates with increased paid employment for women. In conclusion, the author underscores that globalization is a gendered process which is restructuring social relations on a large scale and the challenges it bring provide opportunities for women in development.

  11. Audio-visual gender recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Xu, Xun; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-11-01

    Combining different modalities for pattern recognition task is a very promising field. Basically, human always fuse information from different modalities to recognize object and perform inference, etc. Audio-Visual gender recognition is one of the most common task in human social communication. Human can identify the gender by facial appearance, by speech and also by body gait. Indeed, human gender recognition is a multi-modal data acquisition and processing procedure. However, computational multimodal gender recognition has not been extensively investigated in the literature. In this paper, speech and facial image are fused to perform a mutli-modal gender recognition for exploring the improvement of combining different modalities.

  12. A cue-based approach to the acquisition of grammatical gender in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodina, Yulia; Westergaard, Marit

    2012-11-01

    This article discusses the acquisition of gender in Russian, focusing on some exceptional subclasses of nouns that display a mismatch between semantics and morphology. Experimental results from twenty-five Russian-speaking monolinguals (age 2 ; 6-4 ; 0) are presented and, within a cue-based approach to language acquisition, we argue that children rely on certain morphosyntactic micro-cues in the course of acquisition of semantic agreement. A discrepancy is observed in the acquisition of semantic agreement across the different noun classes, and this suggests that children are highly sensitive to fine distinctions in syntax and morphology and use detailed input information to make specific inferences concerning the gender of different noun classes. Furthermore, we argue that acquisition data may provide a more accurate account of how gender assignment proceeds in the mind of a speaker than has been traditionally assumed by gender assignment theories.

  13. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  14. Gender Roles, Gender (Inequality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.

  15. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  16. Gender differences in child aggression : Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  17. Community-based naming agreement, familiarity, image agreement and visual complexity ratings among adult Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Annamma

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The validity of Snodgrass and Vanderwart pictures and their norms derived on a western population on naming, familiarity, imageability and visual-complexity, is not established on a population with cultural background different from the west. We developed, therefore, a set of culturally appropriate pictures for and derived norms on Indians. Line-drawings of 103 concepts (67 from Snodgrass and Vanderwart, 36 new from 10 semantic-categories were normed on 200 community-based older subjects. Only 31% of the Snodgrass and Vanderwart items showed a concept-agreement on the Indians comparable to western norms. Naming, familiarity and image-agreement mutually correlated but not with visual-complexity. Low-education and rural-residence tended to reduced concept-agreement. The output of this study will be of use in national and cross-national studies.

  18. Tooth shade measurements under standard and nonstandard illumination and their agreement with skin color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dwairi, Ziad; Shaweesh, Ashraf; Kamkarfar, Sohrab; Kamkarfar, Shahrzad; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lynch, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between skin color (shade) and tooth shade under standard and nonstandard illumination sources. Four hundred Jordanian participants (200 males, 200 females, 20 to 50 years of age) were studied. Skin colors were assessed and categorized using the L'Oreal and Revlon foundation shade guides (light, medium, dark). The Vita Pan Classical Shade Guide (VPCSG; Vident) and digital Vita EasyShade Intraoral Dental Spectrophotometer (VESIDS; Vident) were used to select shades in the middle thirds of maxillary central incisors; tooth shades were classified into four categories (highest, high, medium, low). Significant gender differences were observed for skin colors (P = .000) and tooth shade guide systems (P = .001 and .050 for VPCSG and VESIDS, respectively). The observed agreement was 100% and 93% for skin and tooth shade guides, respectively. The corresponding kappa statistic values were 1.00 and 0.79, respectively (substantial agreement, P < .001). The observed agreement between skin color and tooth shades (VPCSG and VESIDS) was approximately 50%. The digital tooth shade guide system can be a satisfactory substitute for classical tooth shade guides and clinical shade matching. There was only moderate agreement between skin color and tooth shade.

  19. A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today

    OpenAIRE

    Gukovas, Renata; Muller, Miriam; Pereira, Ana Claudia; Reimao, Maira Emy

    2016-01-01

    The Gender Diagnostic: ‘A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today: Institutions, Outcomes, and a Closer Look at Racial and Geographic Differences Gender issues in Brazil’ highlights progress on gender equality in the country and lays out the main areas of persisting challenges. It details gender outcomes beyond the national aggregate and emphasizes that gender inequality in Brazil has to be und...

  20. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  1. Understanding the development of international environmental agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jens

    There are many different theoretical schools concerned with how international regimes develop, and each supplies its own interpretation focusing on one or a few aspects of the process. Such ‘one shot’ explanations may be fruitful for scientific debate, but less useful as conceptual frameworks...... for practitioners and planners manoeuvring in a complex world. On the basis of a review of selected theories of international and environmental regulation, this article initiates the development of a conceptual framework for understanding the development of internationalenvironmental agreements. The point...... condensations of elements from many different domains into one narrative (Marteen Hajer). Political Institutions are codes of conduct that serve to define social practices, assign roles to the participants, and guide interaction among occupants of these roles (Oran Young). Regarding the negotiation between...

  2. An agreement for applied research in Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 26 February, two of CERN's Directors-General had a very official handshake. Luciano Maiani, CERN's current Director-General, and Carlo Rubbia, one of his predecessors and current "commissario straordinario" of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiante, Institute for new technologies, energy and the environment) signed a collaboration agreement between their two organisations. ENEA carries out applied research in various fields such as renewable energies, new materials and medical applications. The organisation, which employs 3400 people in 10 laboratories in Italy, has a clear interest, therefore, in the technologies developed at CERN, which, in turn, seeks to promote them. Their collaboration will shortly lead to common research projects. CERN now has two Italian partners : INFN, its historical partner for particle physics research and ENEA for technological applications.

  3. Clitic doubling and pure agreement person features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Rocha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze clitic doubling constructions in dialectal non-standard Brazilian Portuguese. Within the Minimalism Framework, we explain very peculiar aspects of the doubled structures in this language, namely the fact that they occur only for 1st and 2nd person pronouns and that they co-vary with single clitic structures and single strong pronoun structures. Our approach assumes that the clitics me and te are hosted by a dedicated functional projection and result from the checking of the sole person feature [speaker:±]. Moreover, we show that, unlikely other cross-linguistic phenomena of pronominal doubling, Brazilian Portuguese Clitic Doubling does neither yield (nor is a result of any interpretive effect, but rather is an instance of a pure agreement chain. This leads us to advocate, contra the standard Minimalist Program, for the validity of the conceptual postulation of AgrP, as a condition on well-formedness of certain structures.

  4. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  5. The General Agreement on Trade in Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francina Esteve García

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The conclusion of GATS and its inclusion as an annex in the constitutive Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO responds to the need for disposing of a stable juridical instrument which, given the current economic interdependence between States, can be applied to the international trade in services.One of the main new features of this agreement is its field of application given that it includes all service sectors (except those provided for in the name of governmental authorities and the four forms of carrying out trade in services and, as regards the principle of market access and that of national treatment, will be regulated according to those respective obligations which the Members have assumed.In exchange for not accepting the exclusion of any service sector, the negotiations concerning some fundamental sectors could not be totally closed and deadlines were extended in order to unblock the most controversial themes.One of the fundamental principles of the GATS is the most favoured nation clause of inconditional character but its consecration has been attenuated by the possibility of maintaining important exceptions in its application. The principle of transparency is also essential in the field of services, given that this sector is characterised by large public interventionism in access regulation and the exercise of the different economic activities which form it.The balance of the GATS is globally positive given that it includes a multilateral framework of principles and disciplines which is administered in the headquarters of the WTO, which have been accepted by a great majority of States within the international community and which remain subject to the WTO’s mechanism for the solution of differences.However, the opening of the market and the suppression of restrictions which derive from internal regulations have not been achieved given that, orientating itself around the objectives of national politics, liberalization is

  6. 22 CFR 124.8 - Clauses required both in manufacturing license agreements and technical assistance agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to all United States laws and regulations relating to exports and to all administrative acts of... connection with any possible infringement of privately owned patent or proprietary rights, either domestic or... defense service exported from the United States in furtherance of this agreement and any defense article...

  7. A just peace agreement, or just a peace agreement: Reflections on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agreements and more broadly in terms of fundamental questions about society, has long been a subject of rigorous academic and practical debate, one in which Professor Van der Merwe made landmark contributions. This debate is founded upon two specific dimensions: the interpretation of the relationship between peace ...

  8. Latitude Reduction Based on Gender Categorization and Gender Stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    This dissertation consists of four articles; two articles which apply experimental methodologies from social psychology, and two articles which apply queer theory. These two different methodologies are applied in order to uncover different kinds of asymmetrical power relations driven by sex/gender...... categorization. The social psychology methodology is applied in order to capture fundamental psychological mechanism at play in patriarchal society – striving to unveil gender inequalities between the binary categories of men and women. The queer theoretical meta-perspective is applied in order to allow us...... to take a step back from our sex/gender categories, and unveil which effects categorizing by sex/gender has on people who are considered unintelligible by the categories. Therefore, this language philosophical perspective offers tools to analyse non-binary sexed/gendered people, and the sex/gender...

  9. Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification of gender identity-related conditions over time, and indicate how these changes were associated with the changes in conceptualization. A diagnosis of 'transsexualism' appeared first in DSM-III in 1980. This version also included a childhood diagnosis: gender identity disorder of childhood. As research about gender incongruence/gender dysphoria increased, the terminology, placement and criteria were reviewed in successive versions of the DSM. Changes in various aspects of the diagnosis, however, were not only based on research. Social and political factors contributed to the conceptualization of gender incongruence/gender dysphoria as well.

  10. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE GENDER GAP IN MATHEMATICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Michalopoulos, Christos

    2018-03-01

    A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument. Furthermore, individual data for PISA 2012 and the multilevel data model were used. The conclusion drawn also does not support the argument. In fact, the relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003.

  11. Bridging the gender gap seven principles for achieving gender balance

    CERN Document Server

    Roseberry, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of efforts to promote gender equality, most leadership positions in business, politics, education, and even NGOs are occupied by men, and most people still work in occupations dominated by one sex. This book argues that gender imbalances in leadership and occupations are not simply a moral issue or an economic issue, but a governance issue. Gender imbalances persist in large part because the very people with the authority and influence to do something about them know very little about gender and how it works in their organizations and in society at large. Gender imbalanced governance is an expression of entrenched ideas about masculinity and femininity that lead to poor decision making. Improving the quality of governance requires action to counteract the main justifications for the status quo. Based on interviews and conversations with leaders and managers in Europe and the United States, the book presents seven of the most common explanations for persistent gender imbalances and shows how th...

  12. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  13. Prevalence of Adolescent Gender Experiences and Gender Expression in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Inga; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Ottová-Jordan, Veronika; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Adolescence marks a transition period in the development of gender experience and expression. Although there is growing awareness about various gender identities in health research, only limited data on the prevalence of adolescent gender variance in the general population exist. German female and male adolescents (n = 940) aged 10-16 years participating in the nationally representative "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" Hamburg survey were asked to report their current gender experience (identification as both feminine and masculine) and gender expression (gender role as a girl or boy). Two overall categories and five subcategories on gender experience and expression were established based on previous research. In total, 4.1% of the adolescents' responses were rated as variant in gender experience and 3.0% as nonconforming in expression. Both variant experiences and nonconforming expression together were present in only .9% of adolescents. Gender variance was more strongly present in girls and in younger age groups. In detail, 1.6% reported an incongruent, 1.1% an ambivalent, and 1.5% no gender identification. Another 8.0% of the responses could be rated as only somewhat congruent. Fluidity between clearly congruent or incongruent pathways is present in adolescence, including variant as well as possibly still developing (only somewhat clear) gender experiences, whereas clearly incongruent identification and nonconforming expression were less frequent. Understanding adolescent gender development as multidimensional is important to identify the needs of those who do not fit into the current understanding of either female or male. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women’s empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries’ progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic ...

  15. Mapping the gendered city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2017-01-01

    Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  16. Criminal Procedural Agreements in China and England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Pei (Wei)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The past decades have witnessed a marked convergence of various practices alongside conventional criminal proceedings containing negotiations and resulting in agreements between suspects or defendants and criminal justice authorities. These agreements, under the

  17. Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management and Stafford Act Response Agreement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Master Cooperative Wildland Fire Management Agreement is an interagency agreement for fire control in Washington and Oregon. The plan outlines resources,...

  18. Agreement concerning Alamosa and Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Attached is a Letter of Agreement (Agreement) which Region 6 developed in concert with the Division of Refuges and the plaintiffs in the Audubon et. al. v. Babbitt...

  19. Gender perspectives in European research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, Ineke

    2008-01-01

    Attention to sex and gender aspects in biomedical and health-related research has been a major initiative of the EU gender equality policy for research. The EU funded GenderBasic project (2005-2008), conceived to stimulate this attention to sex and gender and to provide practical tools to researchers, resulted in the publication of 10 reviews by high-level scientists in a Supplement to Gender Medicine in December 2007: "Bringing Gender Expertise to Biomedical and Health-Related Research". Four commissioned reviews covered methodological aspects of addressing sex and gender in biomedical research--ranging from basic, molecular to public health research--next to six reviews that addressed sex and gender aspects relevant to selected health areas: anxiety disorders, asthma, metabolic syndrome, nutrigenomics, osteoporosis and work-related health. The review articles, that were discussed at an expert meeting, attended - upon invitation - by a mixed audience of basic and clinical researchers, epidemiologists, social scientists and gender researchers, came up with excellent state of the art data, solutions to methodological and conceptual problems, practical tools and interesting questions for further research. The expert meeting created great enthusiasm among the participants and a real exchange took place among researchers from various backgrounds. Most life sciences researchers were familiar with the concept of sex differences but confessed that the effects of socially constructed gender until now, had received too little attention. The GenderBasic project yielded three major achievements for European research: (1) it stimulated and promoted research into sex differences; (2) it stimulated research into the workings of gender, illustrated by useful examples in particular in understanding masculinity and its effects on the health of individual men; (3) it highlighted sex-gender interaction and granted gender a prominent place on the research agenda that resulted from

  20. Agreement Liberty Principle in Case of Contractual Commitments Execution

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva, Ekaterina V

    2016-01-01

    In this article author on the basis of the analysis of decisions of the supreme courts content of a liberty principle of the agreement reveals. The author showed an agreement liberty principle role in case of execution of contractual commitments. Author emphasizes long nature of a liberty principle of the agreement. In conclusion author notes that fair execution, non-execution or termination of the contract represent implementation of a liberty principle of the agreement as both execution, an...

  1. Broverman's methodology reversed: assessing university students' perceptions of the gender-role characteristics of counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eve M; McNeil, Keith; Dubsick, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    This study examined university students' perceptions of which gender-role characteristics described helpful counselors for 137 nonmajors from an introduction to counseling class. Using a modification of the Broverman, et al. method (1970) and a modified version of their Stereotype Questionnaire, participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Participants indicated the characteristics of a helpful counselor, a helpful female counselor, or a helpful male counselor using 20 bipolar items of gender-role characteristics. t tests were applied to whether agreement of the pole considered most frequently was greater than chance (50%). Analysis indicated agreement on characteristics were most helpful in a counselor, and the direction of this agreement did not differ across the three conditions or as a function of participants' sex. Agreement was high for the individual gender-role characteristic items across conditions as two of 20 items showed significant differences. There was significantly more agreement that male counselors should not have their feelings easily hurt than female counselors and significantly less agreement that male counselors should be able to express tender feelings easily relative to a counselor of unspecified sex.

  2. NETL-EERC ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christina B. Behr-Andres; Daniel J. Daly

    2001-07-31

    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of the 6-year Environmental Management Cooperative Agreement (EMCA) between the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), a nonprofit, contract-supported unit of the University of North Dakota, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The first portion of the report summarizes EMCA's structure, activities, and accomplishments. The appendix contains profiles of the individual EMCA tasks. Detailed descriptions and results of the tasks can be found separately in published Final Topical Reports. EMCA (DOE Contract No. DE-FC21-94MC31388) was in place from the fall of 1994 to the summer of 2001. Under EMCA, approximately $5.4 million was applied in three program areas to expedite the commercialization of 15 innovative technologies for application in DOE's EM Program ($3.8 million, or 69% of funds), provide technical support to the Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA; $1.04 million, or 19% of funds), and provide for the coordination of the EMCA activities ($0.62 million, or 11% of funds). The following sections profile the overall accomplishments of the EMCA program followed by a summary of the accomplishments under each of the EMCA areas: commercialization, DDFA technical support, and management. Table 1 provides an overview of EMCA, including program areas, program activities, the duration and funding of each activity, and the associated industry partner, if appropriate.

  3. Arms control agreements: A quantitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koubi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the arms control phenomenon by examining in a rigorous, quantitative manner the military and political environment surrounding the introduction of the treaties in the period 1816-1987. The thesis uses formal statistical analysis to examine military and enmity developments preceding and following arms control agreements. Differences are uncovered in the pattern of military spending and international conflict across two broadly defined types of treaties: (1) treaties that prepare for war by establishing humanitarian rules for its conduct; and (2) treaties that aim at promoting peace by controlling the level and quality of armaments. The main empirical findings include: peace' treaties tend to be introduced in periods of low military spending relative to war' treaties; military spending experiences a decrease (increase) in the short run before a peace' ( war') treaty. While both types of treaties seem effective in restraining military expenditures in the short run (three years) after the treaty, these gains are short lived with reversal to a pattern of military buildups in the longer run. Similarly, peace' treaties tend to both follow and be followed by low levels of international tensions (as reflected in serious disputes) relative to war' treaties.

  4. Gender and medical careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, Elianne

    2011-03-01

    The concerns about physicians' career advancement tend to be raised in gender terms, because women presently constitute close to and will soon form a majority of the medical students in most western societies. The question is to what extent female and male medical students and residents today make similar or different career and lifestyle choices? Two major mechanisms have been referred to as the reason for gender differences in career paths for physicians. The major theoretical framework tends to be the socialization or sex-role theory and later versions of this explanatory framework. The other mechanism referred to is structural and points to the barriers or the concrete support that women and men experience in making their career decisions. Studies of medical students in the UK and US have shown that women students expected family demands to hamper career plans, while male students were less influenced by family concerns. The importance of role models and mentors in setting the career goals of medical students and residents has recently confirmed early studies of the topic. A number of studies have documented that early negative experiences or lack of encouragement in medical school deter women from choosing surgery as a career. Recent studies suggest that lifestyle choices rather than merely career advancement influence both female and male surgeons' career plans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Courtney A; Koons-Witt, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    The current study examines U.S. prison programming availability and participation by gender on a national level. The authors build upon previous literature by using national-level data, something that has been done in very limited cases previously. The main concern of this study is gender and its effects on programming availability and participation. The U.S. corrections field has undergone major changes in regard to population trends, fiscal constraints, policies, and research over the last few decades without a large-scale examination of the effects of these changes on programming across the United States. In this study, multiple types of programming areas were examined and results indicated that often female prisons (i.e., prisons housing only females) were more likely to offer programs (e.g., mental health options) and women were more likely to participate in many programming options compared with male prisons and men, respectively. We discuss the possible reasons for this and implications for future research.

  6. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  7. 10 CFR 603.1340 - Technology investment agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technology investment agreement. 603.1340 Section 603.1340 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS TECHNOLOGY INVESTMENT AGREEMENTS Definitions of Terms Used in this Part § 603.1340 Technology investment agreement. A TIA is a special type of...

  8. 7 CFR 301.87-6 - Compliance agreement; cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... regulated articles under this subpart. 7 The compliance agreement shall be a written agreement between a... in telephone directories.) (b) Any compliance agreement may be canceled orally or in writing by the inspector who is supervising its enforcement whenever the inspector finds that such person has failed to...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.227-76 - Project employee confidentiality agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... confidentiality agreement. 1552.227-76 Section 1552.227-76 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL... Clauses 1552.227-76 Project employee confidentiality agreement. As prescribed in 1527.409, insert the following clause: Project Employee Confidentiality Agreement (MAY 1994) (a) The Contractor recognizes that...

  10. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality agreement and remedies. 47.85... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement and remedies. (a) The confidentiality agreement authorized by § 47.84— (1) May restrict the use of the...

  11. 45 CFR 162.915 - Trading partner agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trading partner agreements. 162.915 Section 162... REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.915 Trading partner agreements. A covered entity must not enter into a trading partner agreement that would do any of the...

  12. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  13. Towards a Development-Oriented Economic Partnership Agreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Economic Partnership Agreements are far apart from the original developmentfocused agreements aimed at strengthening regional integration as envisaged by the ACP countries and the EU in the context of the Cotonou Agreement. This paper aims to articulate strategies that should guide West Africa's ...

  14. 34 CFR 682.405 - Loan rehabilitation agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan rehabilitation agreement. 682.405 Section 682.405... Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.405 Loan rehabilitation agreement. (a) General. (1) A guaranty agency that has a basic program agreement must enter into a loan rehabilitation...

  15. 7 CFR 3550.205 - Delinquency workout agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delinquency workout agreements. 3550.205 Section 3550... Delinquency workout agreements. Borrowers with past due accounts may be offered the opportunity to avoid liquidation by entering into a delinquency workout agreement that specifies a plan for bringing the account...

  16. Basic structure and recent developments of joint operating agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Adrian [Conoco (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    This article discusses the joint operating agreement which is the preferred way for petroleum companies in the North Sea to organize their joint ventures. The advantages of this agreement are to do with tax and simplicity of organization and these are detailed for agreements relating to exploration and production operations. (UK)

  17. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317... subject to a lease-purchase agreement is a reasonable amount in accordance with § 982.503, any...-purchase agreements. (a) A family leasing a unit with assistance under the program may enter into an...

  18. 76 FR 4393 - Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... Discover Financial Services Negotiated Service Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Financial Services negotiated service agreement to the market dominant product list. This notice addresses... 3020, et seq., to add a Discover Financial Services (DFS) negotiated service agreement to the market...

  19. Constructions of Sex and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Responding to the ethical and performative call of Judith Butler not to propagate the sex- and gender-related violence of the imbedded discourse that we study, this article inquires into the discursive strategies of Jewish scripture by analysing how it orchestrates certain norms of sex and gender...... Jews and non-Jews are able to influence their own representations of sex and gender and thus liberate themselves from the normativity implied by scriptural discourse....

  20. GENDER ISSUES IN WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    STAICULESCU Ana Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...

  1. Gender identities and gender dysphoria in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper, Lisette; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-02-01

    Several studies estimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria among adults by examining the number of individuals turning to health services. Since individuals might be hesitant to seek medical care related to gender dysphoria, these studies could underestimate the prevalence. The studies also lack information regarding the variance among different aspects of gender dysphoric conditions. Therefore, the current study estimated the prevalence by examining self-reported gender identity and dysphoria in a Dutch population sample (N = 8,064, aged 15-70 years old). Three measures assessed aspects of gender dysphoria: gender identity, dislike of the natal female/male body, and wish to obtain hormones/sex reassignment surgery. Results showed that 4.6 % of the natal men and 3.2 % of the natal women reported an ambivalent gender identity (equal identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth) and 1.1 % of the natal men and 0.8 % of the natal women reported an incongruent gender identity (stronger identification with other sex as with sex assigned at birth). Lower percentages reported a dislike of their natal body and/or a wish for hormones/surgery. Combining these figures estimated the percentage of men reporting an ambivalent or incongruent gender identity combined with a dislike of their male body and a wish to obtain hormones/surgery at 0.6 %. For women, this was 0.2 %. These novel findings show that studies based on the number of individuals seeking medical care might underestimate the prevalence of gender dysphoria. Furthermore, the findings argue against a dichotomous approach to gender dysphoria.

  2. Gender Recognition Using Cognitive Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Andersen, Tobias; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we use cognitive modeling to estimate the ”gender strength” of frontal faces, a continuous class variable, superseding the traditional binary class labeling. To incorporate this continuous variable we suggest a novel linear gender classification algorithm, the Gender Strength...... Regression. In addition, we use the gender strength to construct a smaller but refined training set, by identifying and removing ill-defined training examples. We use this refined training set to improve the performance of known classification algorithms. Also the human performance of known data sets...

  3. Investigating gender violence in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiring, Fred

    2014-01-01

    As Jamaica moves through implementation of their National Policy on Gender Equality and develops harassment legislation, this article attempts to investigate current levels and trends of gender-based violence in Jamaica. All analyses make use of existing data and data formats in developing performance indicators that illustrate the current state of gender violence in Jamaica. The analyses provide a baseline for the future assessment and comparison with internationally accepted gender-based violence indicators. All source data has been included to facilitate comparisons and discussions regarding related levels and trends of violence as well as addressing performance indicator effectiveness.

  4. GENDER AND STUDENT BURNOUT SYNDROME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecilia López-Pozos

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the influence of postmodernism on development of the burnout syndrome academic, manifested in various symptomatologies involved in the academic performance of the female gender...

  5. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vocal Body, Gender and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dordete Steckert Jacobs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The text discusses scientific and artistic discourses from the perspective of vocalities gendering, which assigns specific and binary gender marks to bodies. For this, it contextualizes the territory of Feminist Critique and Gender Theories, mainly based on the thoughts of the feminist philosopher Judith Butler, who approaches sex and gender as naturalized cultural constructions. It points, in this context, to a view of biological determinism implied in these discourses concerning the voice, which naturalizes vocal production from physiological aspects of vocal bodies, limiting the understanding of training and vocal creation in the arts.

  7. Gender differences in customer expectations and perceptions of corporate social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabrese, Armando; Costa, Roberta; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The literature on business ethics, corporate social responsibility and sustainability includes many studies on gender differences, however the results are often contrasting. In particular, there has not yet been full agreement on the role and significance of gender differences in customer...... the use of a standardized measure of effect size for analysing the substantive significance of gender differences in customer expectations and perceptions of corporate social responsibility. This novel approach increases results reliability and, accordingly, the effectiveness of company or policy maker...... of expectations, and the significance of gender differences decreases with age. In contrast, the perception of corporate social responsibility does not show significant gender differences, either at the general level or when the analyses are repeated by education levels and age groups. The paper introduces...

  8. Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions ...

  9. Beyond Gendered Universities? Implications for Research on Gender in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime; Sallee, Margaret; Hart, Jeni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the extent to which Acker's (1990) concept of gendered organizations frames extant scholarship and to explore the implications of using this framework to address gender inequities in organizational life, and particularly in academe. Through a systematic analysis of articles, we found that while Acker's…

  10. Gender discrimination, gender disparities in obesity and human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabrizio; Mariani, Michele

    2017-03-01

    Measuring gender inequality and women's empowerment is essential to understand the determinants of gender gaps, evaluate policies and monitor countries' progress. With this aim, over the past two decades, research has mainly been directed towards the development of composite indices. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new and interdisciplinary perspective to the current debate on measuring gender inequality in human development. As a starting point, we develop a simple macroeconomic model of the interdependence between human development and gender inequality. We then introduce a biometric indicator, based on the ratio of female to male body mass index, to measure women's empowerment at the country level. Finally, by using the latest available data, we examine the ability of this biometric indicator to capture countries' performance in achieving gender equality. We obtain five main results: 1) we provide a theoretical framework to explain the joint determination of human development and gender inequality; 2) we show how to use this framework to simulate the impact of exogenous shocks or policy changes; 3) we demonstrate that exogenous changes have a direct and a multiplier effect on human development and gender inequality; 4) we find that the distribution of obesity between the female and male populations represents a useful proxy variable for measuring gender equality at the country level; 5) finally, we use these results to integrate and develop existing knowledge on the 'ecological' approach to the overweight and obesity pandemic.

  11. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. Secondly, stereotyping characterising some males, sustains them in doubting the capabilities of people of different gender. Thirdly, inappropriate socialisation of the male folk is behind their inability to ...

  12. The perceptions of students on gender equality | Nkosi | Gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is about the perceptions of University of Venda students regarding gender equality. South Africa has made significant strides in relation to gender mainstreaming. In addition to the constitution, there are many policies that have been developed and adopted to ensure fair and equal treatment of women. However ...

  13. Agreement Liberty Principle in Case of Contractual Commitments Execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Kiseleva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article author on the basis of the analysis of decisions of the supreme courts content of a liberty principle of the agreement reveals. The author showed an agreement liberty principle role in case of execution of contractual commitments. Author emphasizes long nature of a liberty principle of the agreement. In conclusion author notes that fair execution, non-execution or termination of the contract represent implementation of a liberty principle of the agreement as both execution, and agreement cancelation have the contractual nature.

  14. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  15. Gender inequality in Russia: the perspective of participatory gender budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, Venera

    2014-11-01

    Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making. PMID:26869947

  17. Gendered war and gendered peace: truth commissions and postconflict gender violence: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Tristan Anne

    2009-10-01

    That war is profoundly gendered has long been recognized by feminist international relations scholars. What is less recognized is that the postwar period is equally gendered. Currently undertheorized is how truth-seeking exercises in the aftermath of conflict should respond to this fact. What happens to women victims of war violence? The difficulties of foregrounding gendered wartime violence in truth telling are illustrated by the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The article explores some consequences of the failure to uncover gendered truth, including its impact on the government's reparations policy, and continued "peacetime" violence perpetrated against women in South Africa.

  18. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  19. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  20. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...