WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject topic transfer

  1. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  2. Using Topic Models to Interpret MEDLINE's Medical Subject Headings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, David; Karimi, Sarvnaz; Cavedon, Lawrence

    We consider the task of interpreting and understanding a taxonomy of classification terms applied to documents in a collection. In particular, we show how unsupervised topic models are useful for interpreting and understanding MeSH, the Medical Subject Headings applied to articles in MEDLINE. We introduce the resampled author model, which captures some of the advantages of both the topic model and the author-topic model. We demonstrate how topic models complement and add to the information conveyed in a traditional listing and description of a subject heading hierarchy.

  3. A Unified Analysis for Subject Topics in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo de Andrade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of subject topics, consisting of the movement of either a genitive or a locative constituent into subject position in Brazilian Portuguese. This construction occurs with different verb classes, shows subject-verb agreement and precludes a resumptive pronoun. The goal of the present text is to account for its distribution. To do so, we argue that the two subclasses of unaccusative verbs found with genitive and locative topics instantiate some sort of secondary predication, and that only specific configurations allow for the movement of a constituent out of the argument structure domain. Finally, we address the comparative issue involved in explaining why the derivation of such a construction is not possible in European Portuguese.

  4. A Course in Advanced Topics in Heat and Mass Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.

    1983-01-01

    A three or four semester-hour graduate course was designed to provide basic instruction in heat/mass transfer topics relevant to chemical engineering problems and to train students to develop mathematical descriptions for new situations encountered in problem-solving. Course outline and list of references used in the course are provided. (JM)

  5. Current Topics in the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Januščák, J.; Václavík, Jiří; Šot, P.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 7 (2015), s. 492-498 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1276; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * ruthenium * isoquinoline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2015

  6. Managing risk in nanotechnology topics in governance, assurance and transfer

    CERN Document Server

    McAlea, Eamonn; Mullins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to address how nanotechnology risks are being addressed by scientists, particularly in the areas of human health and the environment and how these risks can be measured in financial terms for insurers and regulators. It provides a comprehensive overview of nanotechnology risk measurement and risk transfer methods, including a chapter outlining how Bayesian methods can be used. It also examines nanotechnology from a legal perspective, both current and potential future outcomes. The global market for nanotechnology products was valued at $22.9 billion in 2013 and increased to about $26 billion in 2014. This market is expected to reach about $64.2 billion by 2019, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 19.8% from 2014 to 2019. Despite the increasing value of nanotechnologies and their widespread use, there is a significant gap between the enthusiasm of scientists and nanotechnology entrepreneurs working in the nanotechnology space and the insurance/regulatory sector. Scientists are scarcely aware...

  7. Myiasis owing to Dermatobia hominis in a HIV-infected subject: Treatment by topical ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyti, E; Nacher, M; Merrien, L; El Guedj, M; Roussel, M; Sainte-Marie, D; Couppié, P

    2007-01-01

    We report the occurrence of myiasis owing to Dermatobia hominis (Dh) in a HIV-infected subject. HIV infection did not modify the pathogenicity of myiasis. However, the clinical presentation seemed unusual with voluminous inflammatory nodules. Use of topical ivermectin killed the larvae and facilitated their extraction.

  8. A controlled laboratory comparison of 4 topical skin creams moisturizing capability on human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel L; Chakravarthy, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    This study compares human skin capacitance (moisture) readings after the application of 4 different, commercially available, topical skin creams. Twenty-one subjects (15 women and 6 men) aged 49.38 ± 11.02) years (mean ± SD) participated. This study was conducted in a climate-controlled laboratory on healthy human subjects. Randomized experimental study comparing 4 topical skin creams for their effect on human skin capacitance (moisture). Subject forearm skin was conditioned for 7 days prior to testing by washing with a standard soap and application of no other products. Each subject was marked with 5 test sites on the forearms. Sites on the volar surface of each subject's forearms were randomly assigned for application of 1 of 4 product pairs, consisting of a cleanser and a topical skin cream or a control site. A Corneometer was used to measure skin capacitance. Each site on the arms was cleaned and dried, tested again for moisture content, subjected to topical skin cream application, and finally tested again for moisture content. Changes were measured by subtracting the capacitance readings at baseline from values measured following topical skin cream application for each test site. The mean change in capacitance was 13.9 for product 1, 10.3 for product 3, 8.7 for product 2, 1.6 for product 4, and 0.8 for the control site. The mean capacitance change in sites treated with product 1 (13.9 ± 8.0, mean ± SD) was significantly greater than all others. There was no difference between the change in capacitance of product 2 (mean = 8.7, SD = 4.9) and product 3 (10.3 ± 7.1) t(20) = 1.081, P = .293, nor between product 4 (1.6 ± 3.9) and the control site (0.3, ± 2.2) t(20) = 0.779, P = .445. The capacitance change of products 2 and 3 was greater than that of product 4 and the control site. Commercially available topical skin creams vary in their impact on human skin capacitance. In this study, sites tested with product 1 had a greater skin capacitance reading than

  9. NASA Physical Sciences - Presentation to Annual Two Phase Heat Transfer International Topical Team Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Motil, Brian; McQuillen, John

    2014-01-01

    The Two-phase Heat Transfer International Topical Team consists of researchers and members from various space agencies including ESA, JAXA, CSA, and RSA. This presentation included descriptions various fluid experiments either being conducted by or planned by NASA for the International Space Station in the areas of two-phase flow, flow boiling, capillary flow, and crygenic fluid storage.

  10. Pattern of neuropathic pain induced by topical capsaicin application in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn; Dimova, Violeta; Hermens, Hanneke; Zimmermann, Michael; Geisslinger, Gerd; Oertel, Bruno G; Ultsch, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Human experimental pain models are widely used to study drug effects under controlled conditions, but they require further optimization to better reflect clinical pain conditions. To this end, we measured experimentally induced pain in 110 (46 men) healthy volunteers. The quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) was applied on untreated ("control") and topical capsaicin-hypersensitized ("test") skin. Z-transformed QST-parameter values obtained at the test site were compared with corresponding values published from 1236 patients with neuropathic pain using Bayesian statistics. Subjects were clustered for the resemblance of their QST pattern to neuropathic pain. Although QST parameter values from the untreated site agreed with reference values, several QST parameters acquired at the test site treated with topical capsaicin deviated from normal. These deviations resembled in 0 to 7 parameters of the QST pattern observed in patients with neuropathic pain. Higher degrees (50%-60%) of resemblance to neuropathic QST pattern were obtained in 18% of the subjects. Inclusion in the respective clusters was predictable at a cross-validated accuracy of 86.9% by a classification and regression tree comprising 3 QST parameters (mechanical pain sensitivity, wind-up ratio, and z-transformed thermal sensory limen) from the control sites. Thus, we found that topical capsaicin partly induced the desired clinical pattern of neuropathic pain in a preselectable subgroup of healthy subjects to a degree that fuels expectations that experimental pain models can be optimized toward mimicking clinical pain. The subjects, therefore, qualify for enrollment in analgesic drug studies that use highly selected cohorts to enhance predictivity for clinical analgesia.

  11. Weather, Ocean and Climate topics in Geosciences, a new subject in Norwegian upper secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, P. J. K.

    2009-09-01

    Weather, Ocean and Climate topics in Geosciences, a new subject in Norwegian upper secondary education. Pål J. Kirkeby Hansen Faculty of Education and International Studies, Oslo University College (PalKirkeby.Hansen@lui.hio.no) The Knowledge Promotion is the latest curriculum reform in Norwegian compulsory and upper secondary education implemented autumn 2006. The greenhouse effect, the increased greenhouse effect and the importance of the ozone layer are topics in Natural Science upper secondary year 1, but only in Programme for General Studies, chosen by less than 50% of the students. In Geography the same cohort learns about ocean and air currents and their impact on climate, and in particular conditions influencing the weather and climate in Norway. If the students during year 1 get interested in further education in weather, ocean, climate or other geosciences topics, they could continue their education on Programme for Specialization in General Studies and choose the new science subject Geosciences at years 2 and/or 3. Among many geo-topics, Geosciences contains: climate, weather, water circulation, glaciers, atmospheric currents, weather forecasts, variations in the ozone layer, climatic development from the latest Ice Age, climate change - causes, effects and challenges, surface and deep-sea currents in oceans - causes and consequences for the climate, el Niño and la Niña - causes and influence on the climate. The students are supposed to make extensive investigations of different geosciences-parameters on their own in an outdoor field using different tools of geosciences, and on the Internet and other media, and present the results. One serious problem introducing a new subject in upper secondary education is who are able to teach this subject. We who developed the curriculum on mission of the education ministry, had first of all teachers with a degree in natural geography in mind. To empower other interested teachers, for instance with degree in

  12. Constructing Web subject gateways using Dublin Core, the Resource Description Framework and Topic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Tramullas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Specialised subject gateways have become an essential tool for locating and accessing digital information resources, with the added value of organisation and previous evaluation catering for the needs of the varying communities using these. Within the framework of a research project on the subject, a software tool has been developed that enables subject gateways to be developed and managed. Method. General guidelines for the work were established which set out the main principles for the technical aspects of the application, on one hand, and on aspects of the treatment and management of information, on the other. All this has been integrated into a prototype model for developing software tools. Analysis. The needs analysis established the conditions to be fulfilled by the application. A detailed study of the available options for the treatment of information on metadata proved that the best option was to use the Dublin Core, and that the metadata set should be included, in turn, in RDF tags, or in tags based on XML. Results. The project has resulted in the development of two versions of an application called Potnia (versions 1 and 2, which fulfil the requirements set out in the main principles, and which have been tested by users in real application environments. Conclusion. The tagging layout found to be the best, and the one used by the writers, is based on integrating the Dublin Core metadata set within the Topic Maps paradigm, formatted in XTM.

  13. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Education: Reponses of Primary School Teachers on the Topical Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencič Majda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability and a sustainable and ecological development are common debate topics in today’s society. This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in green building with regard to schools. The research was conducted on a representative sample of primary school teachers, focusing on some of their opinions on green building. We asked them which aspect of building they favoured and how often they asked themselves certain questions about the school they taught in. Furthermore, we were interested to see whether we would find age-related differences. To this end, teachers were divided into two groups, namely, teachers of up to 35 years of age and teachers over 35. We were surprised to find that teachers over 35 had a more positive attitude towards green building in schools compared to their younger colleagues. Based on the results, we came to a conclusion that the topics pertaining to ecology and sustainable development are neglected in today’s education. However, making them part of school curriculum is not enough, as the opinions and attitudes of teachers on sustainable and ecological issues also have an important impact on the subject-matter itself.

  14. Progress in paediatric parasitology: a preface to a topic focusing on ever younger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Chiodini, Peter; Booth, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Without realizing it perhaps, the research activities of many parasitologists are often focused upon the study of parasites most commonly found in children. Though there is little recognition of paediatric parasitology as a separate topic within medical parasitology, with the global interest in promotion of maternal and child health, alleviation of diseases associated with poverty and requirements of 'child-sized' medicines, a more formal consideration is now timely. Recent research, for example, has highlighted that defining precisely the 'first-age' at which parasites interfere with a child's health, or normal developmental processes, is being revised. Attention is now drawn towards ever younger subjects, for parasites have the capacity to also influence the health of the foetus within the in utero environment, altering immune-development. These subtle, yet evolutionary profound interactions perhaps manifest themselves as to why some children are more prone to infection(s), develop overt disease and sadly die while others do not. Here, we address the growing importance of paediatric parasitology and its applications within disease control strategies as highlighted in the 2010 Autumn Symposium of the British Society of Parasitology.

  15. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is filtered by the transmission channel through which it passes. The amount of reduction for a given envelope, or modulation, frequency has been called the modulation transfer function (MTF) and can be derived from the impulse response of the transmission channel [Schroeder......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...... [Houtgast, T. and Steeneken, H.J.M. (1973) Modulation transfer-function in room acoustics as a predictor of speech intelligibility, Acustica, 28, 66-73]. In the present study, the results of intensity modulation detection experiments with broad-band noise carriers are reported in monaural and binaural...

  16. The Effect of Topical Anaesthesia on Pressure Pain Thresholds in symptom-free subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Anna; Carlsson, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Palpation, a standard procedure in the diagnostic process of muscular pain conditions – myalgia, aims to provoke a muscular pain response. The origin of pain elicited by palpation is not fully understood. There is also a possibility that the pressure elicit response from mechanoreceptors in skin, sub mucosal tissue or periosteum, which may affect the validity of the method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical anesthesia on pressure pain thresholds at masseter, temporal...

  17. Interaction, Transference, and Subjectivity: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Fieldwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundgaard Andersen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further investigate through a case study how the psychoanalytical concepts of “transference” and “institutional transference” can provide insight into the dynamics of efficiency and democracy at a number of Danish human service organisations.

  18. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  19. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE TEACHING METHODS AND EMERGING TOPICS IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kosmatin Fras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student’s team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI for identifying deep and

  20. Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Han, Aleum; Kim, Sojung; Son, Dasom; Min, Heewon

    2014-12-01

    Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300 ± 133 (female 288 ± 92, male 311 ± 163) per 100 cm(2) hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the number of fibres transferred but the relationship was not observed. The number of fibres transferred varied significantly for the 10 repeated experiments performed under the same conditions for the same subject. The subjects were then asked to wash their hands with water. One test group washed their hands with standing water, and the other with running tap water. Afterwards, the number of fibres remaining on the test subjects' hands were investigated. Migration of the fibres on the surface of the observed hands did occur but total loss of transferred fibre after hand washing did not occur. The average number of fibres remaining per 100 cm(2) hand area was 14 ± 10 (range=3-72) for hand washing with standing water, and 10 ± 12 (range=0-79) for washing with running tap water. The results of this study show the possibility of finding fibres on the hands of a person involved in a criminal case even after hand washing before fibre collection. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Topics in design and analysis of transcutaneous energy transfer to ventricular assist devices.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Wolter Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This research studies a Transcutaneous Energy Transfer (TET) system which uses electromagnetic fields to transfer power from outside the body to an artificial organ (AO) in the body. It works like a high frequency transformer whereas the skin is part of the magnetic coupling between the primary (external) and secondary (internal) coils. Thus, the external coil (transmitter), which is excited by an oscillator circuit that transforms the continuous (DC) voltage to high-frequency alternating (AC...

  2. Zeaxanthin-based dietary supplement and topical serum improve hydration and reduce wrinkle count in female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steve; Frank, Emily; Gierhart, Dennis; Simpson, Paula; Frumento, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Dietary modification, through supplementation and elimination diets, has become an area of interest to help slow skin aging, reduce symptom severity or prevent reoccurrence of certain dermatologic conditions [Clinical Dermatology vol. 31 (2013) 677-700]. Free radical components (reactive oxygen species or ROS) or lipid peroxide (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of accelerated skin aging when prolonged oxidative stress occurs. The use of antioxidant-related therapies such as nutraceuticals is of particular interest in restoring skin homeostasis. Antioxidant carotenoid zeaxanthin is concentrated in the eye and skin tissue and believed to decrease the formation of ROS associated with UV light exposure. With zeaxanthin, phytoceramides, and botanical extracts an oral and topical test product (with zeaxanthin, algae extracts, peptides, hyaluronate) have been developed to improve the appearance and condition of skin when used as directed. Subjects were divided into three groups: two tests (skin formula 1 - oral product alone (ZO-1), skin formula 2- oral product with topical product (ZO-2 + ZT)), and one placebo control. The study consisted of a washout visit, baseline (randomization), week two (2), week four (4), week six (6), week eight (8), and week twelve (12). Key parameters measured were as follows: fine lines, deep lines, total wrinkles, wrinkle severity, radiance/skin color (L, a*, b*), discolorations, and skin pigment homogeneity. Thirty-one subjects completed the twelve-week study; no adverse events were recorded during the study. Statistically significant improvements from baseline mean hydration score were observed in active groups at weeks 2, 6, and 8. A statistically significant difference was observed between mean differences from baseline scores for total wrinkle count at week 4 for the combination active groups compared to placebo. A statistically significant difference from baseline scores for fine lines count was also observed at

  3. The transfer of drugs and therapeutics into human breast milk: an update on selected topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Hari Cheryl

    2013-09-01

    Many mothers are inappropriately advised to discontinue breastfeeding or avoid taking essential medications because of fears of adverse effects on their infants. This cautious approach may be unnecessary in many cases, because only a small proportion of medications are contraindicated in breastfeeding mothers or associated with adverse effects on their infants. Information to inform physicians about the extent of excretion for a particular drug into human milk is needed but may not be available. Previous statements on this topic from the American Academy of Pediatrics provided physicians with data concerning the known excretion of specific medications into breast milk. More current and comprehensive information is now available on the Internet, as well as an application for mobile devices, at LactMed (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov). Therefore, with the exception of radioactive compounds requiring temporary cessation of breastfeeding, the reader will be referred to LactMed to obtain the most current data on an individual medication. This report discusses several topics of interest surrounding lactation, such as the use of psychotropic therapies, drugs to treat substance abuse, narcotics, galactagogues, and herbal products, as well as immunization of breastfeeding women. A discussion regarding the global implications of maternal medications and lactation in the developing world is beyond the scope of this report. The World Health Organization offers several programs and resources that address the importance of breastfeeding (see http://www.who.int/topics/breastfeeding/en/).

  4. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  5. A Study of the Subject Categorization of the MIS-related Journals in the ISI Databases Using Topical Features in the Text Content and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed and discussed that the MIS-related journals under the ISI subject category of IS&LS are simultaneously given with subject category Management, using methods of topic modeling, journal clustering and subject category prediction. In the experiment of journal clustering, all journals under subject category Management and other journals also having similar topical features can be gathered into a cluster, and “management” is their common and the most distinct topic. Because the journals belonged to this cluster are almost same to those in the MIS clusters generated by the previous studies, we considered it as the MIS cluster in this study. In the second experiment, we used the classification and regression tree (CART technique to predict assignment of subject category with that the journals in the original subject category Management and in the MIS cluster produced in this study as positive examples, respectively. The trees generated by the two tests both used the occurring probabilities of the topic “management” as the main classification rule. However, in the latter test, we did not only obtain a simpler classification tree but also had a result with less predicting errors. This means that if all journals in the MIS cluster could be given with subject category Management, the retrieval results can be more effective and complete.

  6. Myelination process in preterm subjects with periventricular leucomalacia assessed by magnetization transfer ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Gassias, Dimitrios; Argyropoulou, Maria [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Drougia, Aikaterini; Andronikou, Styliani [University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-09-15

    Magnetization transfer imaging assesses the myelination status of the brain. To study the progress of myelination in children with periventricular leucomalacia (PVL) by measuring the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and to compare the MTR values with normal values. Brain MTR in 28 PVL subjects (16 males, 12 females, gestational age 30.7{+-}2.5 weeks, corrected age 3.1{+-}2.9 years) was measured using a 3D gradient echo sequence (TR/TE 32/8 ms, flip angle 60 , 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) without and with magnetization transfer prepulse and compared with normal values for preterm subjects. MTR of white-matter structures followed a monoexponential function model (y=A-B*exp(-x/C)) while the thalamus and caudate nucleus had a poor goodness of fit. MTR of the splenium of the corpus callosum reached a final value lower than normal (0.67 versus 0.70) at a younger age [t(99%) at 10.32 versus 18.90 months; P<0.05]. MTR of the normal-appearing occipital white matter and of the genu of the corpus callosum reached a normal final MTR but at a younger age than normal preterm infants [t(99%) at 8.51 versus 14.50 months and 12.51 versus 20.85 months, respectively]. In PVL subjects, myelination of the splenium is characterized by early arrest and deficient maturation. Accelerated myelination in unaffected white matter might suggest a compensatory process of reorganization. (orig.)

  7. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. A phase 2a randomized controlled study to evaluate the pharmacokinetic, safety, tolerability and clinical effect of topically applied Umeclidinium in subjects with primary axillary hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, A; Bissonnette, R; Maari, C; DuBois, J; Pene Dumitrescu, T; Haddad, J; Yamaguchi, Y; Dalessandro, M

    2018-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common medical condition which can have a significant impact on quality of life. Umeclidinium (UMEC) is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) developed as a dermal formulation. This 2-week, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study evaluated systemic exposure, safety and tolerability of topically administered UMEC in subjects with primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Clinical effect was a secondary objective, measured by gravimetry and the hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS). Vehicle was included to evaluate safety. Twenty-three subjects were randomized to either 1.85% UMEC (N = 18) or vehicle (N = 5) once daily. Measurable plasma concentrations were observed in 78% of subjects after the treatment. Nine subjects (50%) on UMEC and two subjects (40%) on vehicle reported AEs, most commonly application site reactions. At Day 15, seven subjects (41%) in UMEC and two subjects (40%) in vehicle had at least a 50% reduction in sweat production. Eight subjects (47%) in UMEC and one subject (20%) in vehicle had at least a two-point reduction in HDSS. No comparisons of treatment arms were planned prospectively. The measurable exposure, acceptable safety and preliminary clinical activity observed in this proof-of-concept study suggest the potential clinical utility of topical UMEC in subjects with axillary hyperhidrosis. © 2017 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Effects of Lewis number on coupled heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subjected to external convective heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Anjun; Zhang, Yuwen; Ma, Hongbin; Critser, John

    2010-01-01

    Heat and mass transfer in a circular tube subject to the boundary condition of the third kind is investigated. The closed form of temperature and concentration distributions, the local Nusselt number based on the total external heat transfer and convective heat transfer inside the tube, as well as the Sherwood number were obtained. The effects of Lewis number and Biot number on heat and mass transfer were investigated. PMID:20862211

  10. Cross-Subject EEG Feature Selection for Emotion Recognition Using Transfer Recursive Feature Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Wang, Yongxiong; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject. A validating set is introduced to independently determine the optimal hyper-parameter and the feature ranking of the T-RFE model aiming at controlling the overfitting. The effectiveness of the T-RFE algorithm for such cross-subject emotion classification paradigm has been validated by DEAP database. With a linear least square support vector machine classifier implemented, the performance of the T-RFE is compared against several conventional feature selection schemes and the statistical significant improvement has been found. The classification rate and F-score achieve 0.7867, 0.7526, 0.7875, and 0.8077 for arousal and valence dimensions, respectively, and outperform several recent reported works on the same database. In the end, the T-RFE based classifier is compared against two subject-generic classifiers in the literature. The investigation of the computational time for all classifiers indicates the accuracy improvement of the T-RFE is at the cost of the longer training time.

  11. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088

  12. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Bifurcation topology transfer in nonlinear nanocantilever arrays subject to parametric and internal resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souayeh Saoussen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective nonlinear dynamics of a coupled array of nanocantilevers is investigated while taking into account the main sources of nonlinearities. The amplitude and phase equations of this device, subject to parametric and internal resonances, are analytically derived by means of a multi-modal Galerkin discretization coupled with a multiscale analysis. Based on the steady-state solutions of these equations, the frequency responses are numerically computed for a two-beam array. The effects of different parameters are investigated and several dynamical aspects are confirmed by numerical simulations. Particularly, we have demonstrated that the bifurcation topology transfer is imposed by the first nanocantilever and it can be general to the collective nonlinear dynamics of the NEMS array.

  15. Tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TA-8995, a selective cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ford, John; Lawson, Matt; Fowler, David; Maruyama, Nobuko; Mito, Seiji; Tomiyasu, Koichi; Kinoshita, Shuji; Suzuki, Chisa; Kawaguchi, Atsuhiro; Round, Patrick; Boyce, Malcolm; Warrington, Steve; Weber, Werner; van Deventer, Sander; Kastelein, John J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Two double-blind, randomized studies were conducted to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral TA-8995, a new cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, in healthy subjects. Study 1: Subjects received single doses of TA-8995 or placebo (fasted). Doses were 5,

  16. Interphase formation of a resin transfer molded silica phenolics composites subjected to dynamic impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baichen; Huang, Yudong

    2008-05-01

    In this study interphase formation of a resin transfer molded (RTMed) silica-phenolics composites subjected to dynamic impregnation process was investigated. The solvent effect on the interphase formation of silica fiber-phenolics composites was evaluated. UV-vis spectra, XPS and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to characterize the competitive adsorption of the components of phenolics solution onto silica reinforcement surfaces. Interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and void content of silica-phenolics composites were also measured. It has been found that phenolics forms distribution gradient over RTM mold with respect to isomeric composition under the effect of solvent, which result, to varying extent, in the inhomogeneity of void content and thus ILSS of a final product. For the first time, it has been shown that the RTM process of silica-phenolics composites is highly solvent-dependent. Our work gives an insight into the role of organic solvent in a RTM solution impregnation processing and provides useful information and trends relating microscopic to macroscopic behavior.

  17. Subjective learning discounts test type: evidence from an associative learning and transfer task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher; Speagle, James Z

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which memory test format and test transfer influence the dynamics of metacognitive judgments. Participants completed two study-test phases for paired-associates, with or without transferring test type, in one of four conditions: (1) recognition then recall, (2) recall then recognition, (3) recognition throughout, or (4) recall throughout. Global judgments were made prestudy, poststudy, and posttest for each phase; judgments of learning (JOLs) following item study were also collected. Results suggest that metacognitive judgment accuracy varies substantially by memory test type. Whereas underconfidence in JOLs and global predictions increases with recall practice (Koriat's underconfidence-with-practice effect), underconfidence decreases with recognition practice. Moreover, performance changes when transferring test type were not fully anticipated by pretest judgments.

  18. Convective heat transfer from rotating disks subjected to streams of air

    CERN Document Server

    aus der Wiesche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief describes systematically results of research studies on a series of convective heat transfer phenomena from rotating disks in air crossflow. Phenomena described in this volume were investigated experimentally using an electrically heated disk placed in the test section of a wind tunnel. The authors describe findings in which transitions between different heat transfer regimes can occur in dependency on the involved Reynolds numbers and the angle of incidence, and that these transitions could be related to phenomenological Landau and Landau-de Gennes models. The concise volume closes a substantial gap in the scientific literature with respect to flow and heat transfer in rotating disk systems and provides a comprehensive presentation of new and recent results not previously published in book form.

  19. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Hsi Yuan; Sang-Bing Tsai; Chien-Yun Dai; Hsiao-Ming Chen; Wan-Fei Chen; Chia-Huei Wu; Guodong Li; Jiangtao Wang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency...

  20. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naim Terai, Matthias Müller-Holz, Eberhard Spoerl, Lutz E PillunatDepartment of Ophthalmology, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.Methods: In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer.Results: Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21, -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03 and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003, which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P< 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001, followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002, latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001 and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004 at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.Keywords: tear-film, tear secretion, corneal sensitivity, antiglaucoma medication

  1. A binaural advantage in the subjective modulation transfer function with simple impulse responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The speech transmission index (STI) has been a popular method for predicting speech intelligibility in rooms. It is based on the magnitude of the modulation transfer function, which can be derived from the impulse response of the room and the background noise levels. However, it does not take...... to enhance the detectability of sinusoidal intensity modulations imposed on a broadband noise carrier and then convolved with simple, dichotic impulse responses. The results show that there can be a significant advantage to listening with two ears over listening with just one. Some further investigations...

  2. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  3. Use of the Case Western Reserve/Veterans Administration neuroprosthesis for exercise, standing and transfers by a paraplegic subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, George P; Smith, Thomas C; Triolo, Ronald J; Gagnon, Jason; DiRisio, Darryl; Miller, Michael E; Rhodi, Lori

    2012-07-01

    Functional electric stimulation (FES) is a technology that may allow patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to transfer stand and walk. This paper reports upon the use of the Case Western Reserve Neuroprosthesis by a T6 ASIA B paraplegic subject. The subject was able to stand for two minutes and 50 seconds. He could walk 35 feet with a swing to gait. Measurement of energy consumption showed that metabolic demand was only 2.1 metabolic equivalent units. The factors that limited the use of the device that need to be improved to make the technology practical for household or community ambulation are speed (5.8 m/min) of ambulation and fatigue of the stimulated muscles.

  4. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Quenching of curcumine fluorescence by thionine, both immobilised in cellulose acetate occurs in accordance with the Forster mechanism of energy transfer. The rate constant of energy transfer for this donor - acceptor pair is found to be 9.4 x 109 L ' mol S1 with R0 = 37±1 Б. When this donor - acceptor pair is ...

  5. Flow and heat transfer in gas turbine disk cavities subject to nonuniform external pressure field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.P.; Kim, Y.W.; Tong, T.W. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Injestion of hot gas from the main-stream gas path into turbine disk cavities, particularly the first-stage disk cavity, has become a serious concern for the next-generation industrial gas turbines featuring high rotor inlet temperature. Fluid temperature in the cavities increases further due to windage generated by fluid drag at the rotating and stationary surfaces. The resulting problem of rotor disk heat-up is exacerbated by the high disk rim temperature due to adverse (relatively flat) temperature profile of the mainstream gas in the annular flow passage of the turbine. A designer is concerned about the level of stresses in the turbine rotor disk and its durability, both of which are affected significantly by the disk temperature distribution. This distribution also plays a major role in the radial position of the blade tip and thus, in establishing the clearance between the tip and the shroud. To counteract mainstream gas ingestion as well as to cool the rotor and the stator disks, it is necessary to inject cooling air (bled from the compressor discharge) into the wheel space. Since this bleeding of compressor air imposes a penalty on the engine cycle performance, the designers of disk cavity cooling and sealing systems need to accomplish these tasks with the minimum possible amount of bleed air without risking disk failure. This requires detailed knowledge of the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer in the cavity. The flow in the wheel space between the rotor and stator disks is quite complex. It is usually turbulent and contains recirculation regions. Instabilities such as vortices oscillating in space have been observed in the flow. It becomes necessary to obtain both a qualitative understanding of the general pattern of the fluid motion as well as a quantitative map of the velocity and pressure fields.

  6. Fluorouracil Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carac® Cream ... Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [ ... by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to ...

  7. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone topical works by ... clean and completely dry. Open your testosterone topical container. If you are using a packet, fold the ...

  8. Simultaneous transfer of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein in aging subjects with or without coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina H. M Azevedo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL to simultaneously receive nonesterified cholesterol, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids changes with aging and the presence of coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with biochemical analyses. SUBJECTS: Eleven elderly patients with coronary artery disease (74±5 years were compared with the following groups of non-coronary artery disease subjects (referred to as "healthy": 25 young (25±5 years, 25 middle-aged (42± years, and 25 elderly subjects (75±8 years. METHODS: Plasma samples were incubated with a nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; the transfer of the lipids from the nanoemulsion to the HDL was measured in chemically precipitated HDL. HDL size and paraoxonase-1 activity were also determined. RESULTS: The transfer of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids to high-density lipoprotein was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. Non-esterified cholesterol and triglyceride transfer was not different among these three groups. The HDL size was significantly greater (p<0.001 in healthy elderly subjects than in the middle-aged and younger subjects. The paraoxonase-1 activity was similar among the groups. Compared with healthy elderly subjects, coronary artery disease elderly subjects had significantly less (p<0.05 transfer of non-esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, and cholesteryl esters to the HDL and a significantly smaller (p<0.05 HDL size. CONCLUSION: Because lipid transfer is enhanced in healthy elderly subjects but not in those with coronary artery disease, increasing lipid transfer to HDL may be a protective mechanism against the disease.

  9. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  10. Magnetization transfer ratio in the brain of preterm subjects: age-related changes during the first 2 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Zikou, Anastasia; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, Kostandina; Andronikou, Styliani [Medical School University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    To study the progress of myelination in preterm-born subjects by measuring the MT ratio (MTR) from birth, up to 24 months of corrected age.One hundred twenty-five preterm subjects (64 males and 61 females of gestational age 33{+-}2.4 weeks with chronologic and corrected age of 9.3{+-}5.1 and 7.7{+-}5.1 months, respectively) with normal brain MR using classic sequences were further evaluated for MTR by using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR=32/TE=8/flip angle=6 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) with and without magnetization transfer prepulse. The magnetization transfer ratio was calculated as: MTR=(SIo-SIm)/SIo x 100%, where SIm refers to signal intensity from an image acquired with a MT prepulse and SIo the signal intensity from the image acquired without a MT prepulse. MTR increased asymptotically in the genu (R{sup 2}=0.85) and splenium (R{sup 2}=0.85) of the corpus callosum, the white matter of the frontal lobe (R{sup 2}=0.91) and occipital lobe (R{sup 2}=0.82), thalamus (R{sup 2}=0.86), caudate nucleus (R{sup 2}=0.67) and putamen (R{sup 2}=0.71), reaching the 95% of the final value at the corrected age 18.7, 17.7, 15.6, 12.9, 10.4, 9.2 and 6.4 months, respectively. This study shows age-related changes of the brain MTR and provides data that may be useful to assess disturbances in the progress of myelination. (orig.)

  11. Lipid transfer proteins: the most frequent sensitizer in Italian subjects with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Scala, E; Rumi, G; Gaeta, F; Caruso, C; Alonzi, C; Maggioletti, M; Ferrara, R; Palazzo, P; Palmieri, V; Zeppilli, P; Mari, A

    2012-11-01

    Specific food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (S-FDEIAn) is a distinct form of food allergy in which symptoms are elicited by exercise performed after ingesting food to which the patient has become sensitised. Non-specific FDEIAn (NS-FDEIAn) is a syndrome provoked by exercise performed after ingesting any food. We sought to identify the culprit allergenic molecules in patients with FDEIAn, combining 'classic' allergy testing with an allergenic molecule-based microarray approach for IgE detection. All subjects were evaluated who reported at least one episode of anaphylaxis in association with physical exercise performed within 4 h after a meal. We performed skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial food extracts, prick plus prick tests (P + P) with fresh foods (P + P), and serum specific IgE assays by means of both the ImmunoCAP (CAP) and the ISAC 89 microarray system (ISAC). Among our 82 FDEIAn patients, the most frequent suspected foods were tomato, cereals, and peanut. SPT, P + P, and CAP displayed different degrees of sensitivity. Each test disclosed some positivities not discovered by others. Seventy-nine subjects were positive to at least one food (49 to more than 20), whereas three were negative. All suspected foods were positive to at least one of SPT, P + P, and CAP. When tested using the ISAC, 64 (78%) subjects were positive to Pru p 3 [peach lipid transfer protein (LTP)], 13 were positive to other food allergen molecules, and five displayed negative results to all food allergenic molecules. Overall, 79 patients probably had S-FDEIAn and the other 3 NS-FDEIAn. Multiple food hypersensitivity represents a clinical hallmark of a large percentage of FDEIAn patients. The very high prevalence of IgE to the LTP suggests a role of this allergen group in causing S-FDEIAn. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Circadian blood pressure variability in type 1 diabetes subjects and their nondiabetic siblings - influence of erythrocyte electron transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoni Maria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normotensive non-diabetic relatives of type 1 diabetes (T1D patients have an abnormal blood pressure response to exercise testing that is associated with indices of metabolic syndrome and increased oxidative stress. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the circadian variability of blood pressure and the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI in healthy siblings of T1D patients vs healthy control subjects who had no first-degree relative with T1D. Secondary aims of the study were to explore the influence of both cardiovascular autonomic function and erythrocyte electron transfer activity as oxidative marker on the ambulatory blood pressure profile. Methods Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was undertaken in 25 controls, 20 T1D patients and 20 siblings. In addition to laboratory examination (including homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity and clinical testing of autonomic function, we measured the rate of oxidant-induced erythrocyte electron transfer to extracellular ferricyanide (RBC vfcy. Results Systolic blood pressure (SBP midline-estimating statistic of rhythm and pulse pressure were higher in T1D patients and correlated positively with diabetes duration and RBC vfcy; autonomic dysfunction was associated with diastolic BP ecphasia and increased AASI. Siblings had higher BMI, lower insulin sensitivity, larger SBP amplitude, and higher AASI than controls. Daytime SBP was positively, independently associated with BMI and RBC vfcy. Among non-diabetic people, there was a significant correlation between AASI and fasting plasma glucose. Conclusions Siblings of T1D patients exhibited a cluster of sub-clinical metabolic abnormalities associated with consensual perturbations in BP variability. Moreover, our findings support, in a clinical setting, the proposed role of transplasma membrane electron transport systems in vascular pathobiology.

  13. Transfer of spatial knowledge from a virtual environment to reality: Impact of route complexity and subject's strategy on the exploration mode

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard N'Kaoua; Jérôme Rodrigues; Hélène Sauzéon; Grégory Wallet

    2009-01-01

    The use of virtual reality as tool in the area of spatial cognition raises the question of the quality of learning transfer from a virtual to a real environment. It is first necessary to determine with healthy subjects, the cognitive aids that improve the quality of transfer and the conditions required, especially since virtual reality can be used as effective tool in cognitive rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the exploratio...

  14. Tacrolimus Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

  15. Clindamycin Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are using topical clindamycin.you should know that abrasive or medicated soaps and skin products that contain ... severe or do not go away: dry or peeling skin itching or burning skin redness of skin ...

  16. Ciclopirox Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all ... you can reach these areas. Wipe off the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on ...

  17. Estradiol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medication that is applied topically to the vagina. Estradiol is in a class of medications called ... swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina vaginal discharge Some side effects can be serious. ...

  18. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-1T - Transfers to foreign corporations subject to section 367(a): In general (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... directly, indirectly, or constructively. Indirect or constructive transfers that are described in section... of an inter-dealer quotation system. An inter-dealer quotation system is any system of general... section 1504(d). Section 367(A) applies to the constructive reorganization and transfer of property from a...

  19. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is inversely associated with betaine in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Garcia, Erwin; Jeyarajah, Elias; Gruppen, Eke G.; Connelly, Margery A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The choline metabolite, betaine, plays a role in lipid metabolism, and may predict the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) require phosphatidylcholine as

  20. Training Efficiency and Transfer Success in an Extended Real-Time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somatomotor Cortex of Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Schweizer, Renate; Frahm, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somatomotor cortices (SMCs) attained by an extended functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal (FS) was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line general linear model analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e., the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the FS. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance (FP) in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the FP showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left- and right-hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right-hand trainings. PMID:26500521

  1. Training efficiency and transfer success in an extended real-time functional MRI neurofeedback training of the somato-motor cortex of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor eAuer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of self-regulation of the somato-motor cortices (SMC attained by an extended functional MRI (fMRI neurofeedback training. Sixteen healthy subjects performed 12 real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback training sessions within 4 weeks, involving motor imagery of the dominant right as well as the non-dominant left hand. Target regions of interests in the SMC were individually localized prior to the training by overt finger movements. The feedback signal was defined as the difference between fMRI activation in the contra- and ipsilateral SMC and visually presented to the subjects. Training efficiency was determined by an off-line GLM analysis determining the fMRI percent signal changes in the somato-motor cortex (SMC target areas accomplished during the neurofeedback training. Transfer success was assessed by comparing the pre- and post-training transfer task, i.e. the neurofeedback paradigm without the presentation of the feedback signal. Group results show a distinct increase in feedback performance in the transfer task for the trained group compared to a matched untrained control group, as well as an increase in the time course of the training, indicating an efficient training and a successful transfer. Individual analysis revealed that the training efficiency was not only highly correlated to the transfer success but also predictive. Trainings with at least 12 efficient training runs were associated with a successful transfer outcome. A group analysis of the hemispheric contributions to the feedback performance showed that it is mainly driven by increased fMRI activation in the contralateral SMC, although some individuals relied on ipsilateral deactivation. Training and transfer results showed no difference between left and right hand imagery, with a slight indication of more ipsilateral deactivation in the early right hand trainings.

  2. Cognitive effects of oxybutynin chloride topical gel in older healthy subjects: a 1-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gary G; Staskin, David R; MacDiarmid, Scott; McIlwain, Marilyn; Dahl, Naomi V

    2012-10-01

    Oxybutynin is a common antimuscarinic therapy for overactive bladder. Transdermally administered oxybutynin chloride topical gel 10% (OTG) has a low propensity for anticholinergic adverse effects and possibly also a low risk of cognitive impairment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled study evaluated the effects of OTG on cognitive and psychomotor functions in older healthy adults. Healthy adults aged 60-79 years were assigned randomly (1:1:1) to 1-week's treatment with OTG (1 g [100 mg oxybutynin] applied once daily on rotating sites of upper arms/shoulders, abdomen or thighs) plus oral placebo, immediate-release oxybutynin (OXB-IR; 5 mg capsule three times/day) plus placebo gel, or double placebo. Delayed recall Name-Face Association Test (NFAT) score was the primary end point. Treatments were compared by analysis of covariance. Of 152 participants (mean age, 68 years), 49 received OTG, 52 OXB-IR and 51 placebo. NFAT Delayed Recall tests revealed no significant treatment differences (overall, p = 0.2733; OTG vs placebo, p = 0.1551; OXB-IR vs placebo, p = 0.1767). However, a significant effect (p = 0.0294) was noted for the Misplaced Objects Test, with scores declining only for OXB-IR. Approximately twice as many participants receiving OXB-IR (n = 10) as those receiving OTG (n = 5) or placebo (n = 6) showed a significant decline (≥6 points) in Total Recall score for the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised. No significant effects on psychomotor reaction time were observed. The most common adverse event, dry mouth, occurred in 6.1%, 73.1% and 7.8% of participants receiving OTG, OXB-IR and placebo, respectively. OTG applied for 1 week had no clinically meaningful effect on recent memory or other cognitive functions in healthy, older adults. Registered as NCT00752141 at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  3. Lipid transfer to HDL is higher in marathon runners than in sedentary subjects, but is acutely inhibited during the run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisberg, Mauro; Bachi, André L L; Latrilha, Conceição; Dioguardi, Giuseppe S; Bydlowski, Sergio P; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-07-01

    Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and

  4. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Mechanism of energy transfer from an optical-breakdown plasma to a metal surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, E. A.; Kovalev, A. S.; Popov, Aleksandr M.; Seleznev, B. V.

    1990-03-01

    A two-dimensional theoretical model is developed for the description of the transfer of energy from a surface-breakdown plasma, maintained by CO2 laser radiation, to a target. An investigation is reported of the efficiency of the interaction of laser radiation with a target as a function of the radiation intensity and spot size. A strong localization of the laser interaction is shown to be due to a heat-conduction energy flux, whereas the energy deposited outside the irradiation spot is due to radiative energy transfer at ultraviolet frequencies.

  5. Topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mritunjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects.

  6. 31 CFR 500.579 - Authorization for release of certain blocked transfers by banking institutions subject to U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the jurisdiction of the United States pursuant to this part because of an interest of North Korea or a... subject to U.S. jurisdiction. (a) Banking institutions subject to the jurisdiction of the United States... check remittance, provided that no funds are released to the Government of North Korea, any entity...

  7. Educational Transfer as a Strategy for Remaking Subjectivities: Transnational and National Articulations of "New History" in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerides, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold. At a narrative level, it seeks to expand the thematic coverage of recent scholarship on educational transfer to include the mobility of a specific paradigm of history teaching across borders in Europe. At a theoretical level, the article focuses on the borders of intergovernmental and nongovernmental…

  8. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance

  9. Effects of Cross-Sectional Shape, Solidity, and Distribution of Heat-Transfer Coefficient on the Torsional Stiffness of Thin Wings Subjected to Aerodynamic Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Robert G.

    1959-01-01

    A study has been made of the effects of varying the shape, solidity, and heat-transfer coefficient of thin wings with regard to their influence on the torsional-stiffness reduction induced by aerodynamic heating. The variations in airfoil shape include blunting, flattening, and combined blunting and flattening of a solid wing of symmetrical double-wedge cross section. Hollow double-wedge wings of constant skin thickness with and without internal webs also are considered. The effects of heat-transfer coefficients appropriate for laminar and turbulent flow are investigated in addition to a step transition along the chord from a lower to a higher constant value of heat-transfer coefficient. From the results given it is concluded that the flattening of a solid double wedge decreases the reduction in torsional stiffness while slight degrees of blunting increase the loss. The influence of chordwise variations in heat-transfer coefficient due to turbulent and laminar boundary-layer flow on the torsional stiffness of solid wings is negligible. The effect of a step transition in heat-transfer coefficient along the chord of a solid wing can, however, become appreciable. The torsional-stiffness reduction of multiweb and hollow double-wedge wings is substantially less than that calculated for a solid wing subjected to the same heating conditions.

  10. Effects of Radiation Heat Transfer on Entropy Generation at Thermosolutal Convection in a Square Cavity Subjected to a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Brahim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermosolutal convection in a square cavity filled with a binary perfect gas mixture and submitted to an oriented magnetic field taking into account the effect of radiation heat transfer is numerically investigated. The cavity is heated and cooled along the active walls whereas the two other walls are adiabatic and insulated. Entropy generation due to heat and mass transfer, fluid friction and magnetic effect has been determined for laminar flow by solving numerically: The continuity, momentum energy and mass balance equations, using a Control Volume Finite-Element Method. The structure of the studied flows depends on five dimensionless parameters which are: The Grashof number, the buoyancy ratio, the Hartman number, the inclination angle of the magnetic field and the radiation parameter.

  11. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  12. Plasma kinetics of an LDL-like nanoemulsion and lipid transfer to HDL in subjects with glucose intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina P Bertato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Glucose intolerance is frequently associated with an altered plasma lipid profile and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Nonetheless, lipid metabolism is scarcely studied in normolipidemic glucose-intolerant patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether important lipid metabolic parameters, such as the kinetics of LDL free and esterified cholesterol and the transfer of lipids to HDL, are altered in glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids. METHODS: Fourteen glucose-intolerant patients and 15 control patients were studied; none of the patients had cardiovascular disease manifestations, and they were paired for age, sex, race and co-morbidities. A nanoemulsion resembling a LDL lipid composition (LDE labeled with 14C-cholesteryl ester and ³H-free cholesterol was intravenously injected, and blood samples were collected over a 24-h period to determine the fractional clearance rate of the labels by compartmental analysis. The transfer of free and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the LDE to HDL was measured by the incubation of the LDE with plasma and radioactivity counting of the supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions. RESULTS: The levels of LDL, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apo A1 and apo B were equal in both groups. The 14C-esterified cholesterol fractional clearance rate was not different between glucose-intolerant and control patients, but the ³H-free-cholesterol fractional clearance rate was greater in glucose-intolerant patients than in control patients. The lipid transfer to HDL was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: In these glucose-intolerant patients with normal plasma lipids, a faster removal of LDE free cholesterol was the only lipid metabolic alteration detected in our study. This finding suggests that the dissociation of free cholesterol from lipoprotein particles occurs in normolipidemic glucose intolerance and may participate in

  13. Metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and transfer of lipids to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in vegan and omnivore subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, J C; Vinagre, C G; Pozzi, F S; Slywitch, E; Maranhão, R C

    2013-01-01

    Vegan diet excludes all foodstuffs of animal origin and leads to cholesterol lowering and possibly reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. The aim was to investigate whether vegan diet improves the metabolic pathway of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, consisting in lipoprotein lipolysis and removal from circulation of the resulting remnants and to verify whether the diet alters HDL metabolism by changing lipid transfers to this lipoprotein. 21 vegan and 29 omnivores eutrophic and normolipidemic subjects were intravenously injected triglyceride-rich emulsions labeled with (14)C-cholesterol oleate and (3)H-triolein: fractional clearance rates (FCR, in min(-1)) were calculated from samples collected during 60 min for radioactive counting. Lipid transfer to HDL was assayed by incubating plasma samples with a donor nanoemulsion labeled with radioactive lipids; % lipids transferred to HDL were quantified in supernatant after chemical precipitation of non-HDL fractions and nanoemulsion. Serum LDL cholesterol was lower in vegans than in omnivores (2.1 ± 0.8, 2.7 ± 0.7 mmol/L, respectively, p vegans than in omnivores (0.016 ± 0.012, 0.003 ± 0.003, p vegans than in omnivores (2.7 ± 0.6, 3.5 ± 1.5%, p vegans, but the lipolysis process, estimated by triglyceride FCR was equal. Increased removal of atherogenic remnants and diminution of cholesteryl ester transfer may favor atherosclerosis prevention by vegan diet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat transfer experiments with a central receiver tube subjected to unsteady and non-uniform heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Torrijos, María; Marugán-Cruz, Carolina; Sobrino, Celia; Santana, Domingo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, a molten salt test loop to study the heat transfer process in external molten salt receivers is described. The experimental installation is formed by a cylindrical molten salt tank, a pump, a flow meter, and an induction heater to generate the heat flux, which is applied in a small rectangular region of the tube surface. In central tower plants, the external receiver pipe is considered to be under unilateral concentrated solar radiation, because only one side of the pipe receives high heat flux. The main advantage of using an induction heater is the control of heating in different areas of the tube. In order to measure the effects of a non-homogenous and unsteady heat flux on the wall temperature distribution a series of experiments have been carried out. 4 K-type thermocouples have been welded at different axial and azimuthal positions of the pipe to obtain the wall temperature distribution. Different temperature measurements have been made varying the heat flux and water velocity to study their effects on the heat transfer process.

  15. Stochastic Analysis of the Efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer System Subject to Antenna Variability and Position Uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Marco; Stockman, Gert-Jan; Rogier, Hendrik; Vande Ginste, Dries

    2016-07-19

    The efficiency of a wireless power transfer (WPT) system in the radiative near-field is inevitably affected by the variability in the design parameters of the deployed antennas and by uncertainties in their mutual position. Therefore, we propose a stochastic analysis that combines the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) theory with an efficient model for the interaction between devices in the radiative near-field. This framework enables us to investigate the impact of random effects on the power transfer efficiency (PTE) of a WPT system. More specifically, the WPT system under study consists of a transmitting horn antenna and a receiving textile antenna operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz. First, we model the impact of the textile antenna's variability on the WPT system. Next, we include the position uncertainties of the antennas in the analysis in order to quantify the overall variations in the PTE. The analysis is carried out by means of polynomial-chaos-based macromodels, whereas a Monte Carlo simulation validates the complete technique. It is shown that the proposed approach is very accurate, more flexible and more efficient than a straightforward Monte Carlo analysis, with demonstrated speedup factors up to 2500.

  16. Stochastic Analysis of the Efficiency of a Wireless Power Transfer System Subject to Antenna Variability and Position Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rossi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a wireless power transfer (WPT system in the radiative near-field is inevitably affected by the variability in the design parameters of the deployed antennas and by uncertainties in their mutual position. Therefore, we propose a stochastic analysis that combines the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC theory with an efficient model for the interaction between devices in the radiative near-field. This framework enables us to investigate the impact of random effects on the power transfer efficiency (PTE of a WPT system. More specifically, the WPT system under study consists of a transmitting horn antenna and a receiving textile antenna operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM band at 2.45 GHz. First, we model the impact of the textile antenna’s variability on the WPT system. Next, we include the position uncertainties of the antennas in the analysis in order to quantify the overall variations in the PTE. The analysis is carried out by means of polynomial-chaos-based macromodels, whereas a Monte Carlo simulation validates the complete technique. It is shown that the proposed approach is very accurate, more flexible and more efficient than a straightforward Monte Carlo analysis, with demonstrated speedup factors up to 2500.

  17. Study of heat and mass transfer of water evaporation in a gypsum board subjected to natural convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannouni, K.; El Abrach, H.; Dhahri, H.; Mhimid, A.

    2017-06-01

    The present paper reports a numerical study to investigate the drying of rectangular gypsum sample based on a diffusive model. Both vertical and low sides of the porous media are treated as adiabatic and impermeable surfaces plate. The upper face of the plate represents the permeable interface. The energy equation model is based on the local thermal equilibrium assumption between the fluid and the solid phases. The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used for solving the governing differential equations system. The obtained numerical results concerning the moisture content and the temperature within a gypsum sample were discussed. A comprehensive analysis of the influence of the mass transfer coefficient, the convective heat transfer coefficient, the external temperature, the relative humidity and the diffusion coefficient on macroscopic fields are also investigated. They all presented results in this paper and obtained in the stable regime correspond to time superior than 4000 s. Therefore the numerical error is inferior to 2%. The experimental data and the descriptive information of the approach indicate an excellent agreement between the results of our developed numerical code based on the LBM and the published ones.

  18. Effects of margarines and butter consumption on lipid profiles, inflammation markers and lipid transfer to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, A C M; Maranhão, R C; de Sousa, H P; Schaefer, E J; Santos, R D

    2010-10-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effects of daily servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine and plant sterol margarine, within recommended amounts, on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (Apos), biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and on the transfer of lipids to HDL particles in free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome. This was a randomized, single-blind study where 53 metabolic syndrome subjects (62% women, mean age 54 years) received isocaloric servings of butter, no-trans-fat margarine or plant sterol margarine in addition to their usual diets for 5 weeks. The main outcome measures were plasma lipids, Apo, inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers (CRP, IL-6, CD40L or E-selectin), small dense LDL cholesterol concentrations and in vitro radioactive lipid transfer from cholesterol-rich emulsions to HDL. Difference among groups was evaluated by analysis of variance. There was a significant reduction in Apo-B (-10.4 %, P=0.043) and in the Apo-B/Apo-A-1 ratio (-11.1%, P=0.034) with plant sterol margarine. No changes in plasma lipids were noticed with butter and no-trans-fat margarine. Transfer rates of lipids to HDL were reduced in the no-trans-fat margarine group: triglycerides -42.0%, (Pbutter and sterol margarine) and free cholesterol -16.2% (P=0.006 vs sterol margarine). No significant effects were noted on the concentrations of inflammatory and endothelial dysfunction markers among the groups. In free-living subjects with the metabolic syndrome consumption of plant sterol and no-trans-fat margarines within recommended amounts reduced, respectively, Apo-B concentrations and the ability of HDL to accept lipids.

  19. Mass Transfer Operations for the Practicing Engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Part of the Essential Engineering Calculations Series, this book presents step-by-step solutions of the basic principles of mass transfer operations, including sample problems and solutions and their applications, such as distillation, absorption, and stripping. Presenting the subject from a strictly pragmatic point of view, providing both the principles of mass transfer operations and their applications, with clear instructions on how to carry out the basic calculations needed, the book also covers topics useful for readers taking their professional exams.

  20. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...... food-web systems, nephron pressure and flow regulation, pulsatile secretion of hormones, thermostatically controlled radiator systems, post-stall maneuvering of aircrafts, transfer electron devices for microwave generation, economic long waves, human decision making behavior, and pattern formation...

  1. Three-Dimensional, Numerical Investigation of Flow and Heat Transfer in Rectangular Channels Subject to Partial Blockage

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-25

    Numerical simulation of flow and heat transfer in two adjacent channels is conducted with one of the channels partially blocked. This system simulates typical channels of a material testing reactor. The blockage is assumed due to the buckling of one of the channel plates inward along its width. The blockage ratio considered in this work is defined as the ratio between the cross-sectional area of the blocked and the unblocked channel. In this work, we consider a blockage ratio of approximately 40%. However, the blockage is different along the width of the channel, ranging from 0% at the end of the channel to 90% in the middle. The channel walls are sandwiching volumetric heat sources that vary spatially as chopped cosine functions. Interesting patterns are highlighted and investigated. The reduction in the flow area of one channel results in the flow redistributing among the two channels according to the changes in their hydraulic conductivities. The results of the numerical simulations show that the maximum wall temperature in the blocked channel is well below the boiling temperature at the operating pressure.

  2. Heat transfer applications for the practicing engineer

    CERN Document Server

    Theodore, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a training tool for individuals in industry and academia involved with heat transfer applications. Although the literature is inundated with texts emphasizing theory and theoretical derivations, the goal of this book is to present the subject of heat transfer from a strictly pragmatic point of view. The book is divided into four Parts: Introduction, Principles, Equipment Design Procedures and Applications, and ABET-related Topics. The first Part provides a series of chapters concerned with introductory topics that are required when solving most engineering problems, inclu

  3. Assessing the opinions of subjects with or without sustained hand injury about toe-to-thumb transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Kucuker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic finger amputations may lead to significant functional and aesthetic impairment yet when compared with the number of finger amputations, toe-to-hand transplantation numbers are very low. Material Method: In this study we aimed to assess the thoughts of healthy subjects, with or without previously sustained hand injury, about toe-to-hand transplantation and re-assess their thoughts following a brief informative description of the surgery. Results: We found that after visual briefing, willingness to undergo toe-to-hand transplantation dramatically increased. Conclusion: Visual briefings including video presentations have a great impact on eliminating negative prejudgement. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(3.000: 58-62

  4. Finite Element Modeling of GFRP-Reinforced Concrete Interior Slab-Column Connections Subjected to Moment Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gouda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model (FEM was constructed using specialized three-dimensional (3D software to investigate the punching shear behavior of interior slab-column connections subjected to a moment-to-shear ratio of 0.15 m. The FEM was then verified against the experimental results of full-scale interior slab-column connections reinforced with glass fiber reinforcement polymer (GFRP bars previously tested by the authors. The FEM results showed that the constructed model was able to predict the behavior of the slabs with reasonable accuracy. Afterward, the verified model was used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effects of reinforcement ratio, perimeter-to-depth ratio, and column aspect ratio on the punching shear behavior of such connections. The test results showed that increasing the tested parameters enhanced the overall behavior of the connections in terms of decreasing deflections and reinforcement strain and increasing the ultimate capacity. In addition, the obtained punching shear stresses of the connections were compared to the predictions of the Canadian standard and the American guideline for FRP-reinforced concrete structures.

  5. Exploring inter-task transfer following a CO-OP approach with four children with DCD: A single subject multiple baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistran, Julie; Martini, Rose

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach has been shown to be effective for improving the performance of tasks worked on in therapy and the use of cognitive strategies. No study to date seems to have explored its effectiveness for improving performance of untrained tasks (inter-task transfer) in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). This study aimed to determine whether CO-OP leads to improved performance in an untrained task. A single-subject design with multiple baselines across skills was adopted, with three replications. Four children with DCD (7-12years) received 10 sessions of CO-OP intervention where each child worked on three tasks during therapy sessions and a fourth task was identified, but not worked on, to verify inter-task transfer. Task performance was rated over four phases (baseline, intervention, post-intervention, follow-up) using the Performance Quality Rating Scale (PQRS-OD). Graphed data was statistically analyzed using a two or three standard deviation band method. Significant improvement was obtained for 11 of 12 tasks worked on during therapy and for two of the four untrained tasks. These results indicate that the effectiveness of CO-OP to improve untrained tasks in children merit further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparação entre medidas de descarga, simetria e transferência de peso em indivíduos com e sem hemiparesia Comparison between bearing, symmetry, and transfer weight measurements in subjects with or without hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Fachin Martins

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliação da Simetria e Transferência de Peso (ASTP foi indicada para se fazer associação entre simetria e atividades funcionais nas hemiparesias, apontando simétricos como mais capacitados. Contudo, tais relações não são claras e divergem com evidências que sugerem assimetrias como estratégias funcionais. Assim, objetivou-se verificar se as medidas subjetivamente determinadas pela ASTP concordam com medidas calculas pela descarga de peso entre os pés. Realizou-se estudo observacional do tipo transversal para amostra de sujeitos com hemiparesia (n=20 pareados por idade e gênero a controles (n=20. Os participantes submeteram-se a procedimentos para obtenção de escore determinado pela ASTP e para cálculo da razão de simetria (RS na descarga de peso entre os pés obtido por meio de duas balanças digitais. Os resultados obtidos pela ASTP identificaram apenas um sujeito com hemiparesia apresentando simetria, dentre os quatro sujeitos identificados pela RS como simétricos. Ainda, a ASTP não diferenciou assimetrias com sobrecarga para o lado afetado e apresentou correlação significativa somente quando os escores foram analisados com os valores de RSAssessment of symmetry and weight-transfer (ASWT was indicated to relate symmetry and functional activity in the hemiparesis, pointing as the most qualified symmetrical. However, such relationships are not clear and disagree with evidences suggesting asymmetries as strategies for functional strategies. Then, it was proposed to verify the measurements subjectively determined by ASWT agree with measurements calculated by weight-bearing distribution for each foot. It was applied observational study with transversal design for sample of subjects with hemiparesis (n=20 matched by age and gender with controls (n=20. Participants were included in procedures toobtain scores by ASWT and to calculate symmetry ratio (SR in the weight-bearing between feet by digital scales. The results obtained by

  7. Evaluation of jaw and neck muscle activities while chewing using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Narita, Noriyuki; Endo, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to quantitatively clarify the physiological features in rhythmically coordinated jaw and neck muscle EMG activities while chewing gum using EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses in 20 healthy subjects. The chewing side masseter muscle EMG signal was used as the reference signal, while the other jaw (non-chewing side masseter muscle, bilateral anterior temporal muscles, and bilateral anterior digastric muscles) and neck muscle (bilateral sternocleidomastoid muscles) EMG signals were used as the examined signals in EMG-EMG transfer function and EMG-EMG coherence function analyses. Chewing-related jaw and neck muscle activities were aggregated in the first peak of the power spectrum in rhythmic chewing. The gain in the peak frequency represented the power relationships between jaw and neck muscle activities during rhythmic chewing. The phase in the peak frequency represented the temporal relationships between the jaw and neck muscle activities, while the non-chewing side neck muscle presented a broad range of distributions across jaw closing and opening phases. Coherence in the peak frequency represented the synergistic features in bilateral jaw closing muscles and chewing side neck muscle activities. The coherence and phase in non-chewing side neck muscle activities exhibited a significant negative correlation. From above, the bilateral coordination between the jaw and neck muscle activities is estimated while chewing when the non-chewing side neck muscle is synchronously activated with the jaw closing muscles, while the unilateral coordination is estimated when the non-chewing side neck muscle is irregularly activated in the jaw opening phase. Thus, the occurrence of bilateral or unilateral coordinated features in the jaw and neck muscle activities may correspond to the phase characteristics in the non-chewing side neck muscle activities during rhythmical chewing. Considering these novel findings in healthy subjects, EMG

  8. Statistical Evaluations of the Reproducibility and Reliability of 3-Tesla High Resolution Magnetization Transfer Brain Images: A Pilot Study on Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly H. Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetization transfer imaging (MT may have considerable promise for early detection and monitoring of subtle brain changes before they are apparent on conventional magnetic resonance images. At 3 Tesla (T, MT affords higher resolution and increased tissue contrast associated with macromolecules. The reliability and reproducibility of a new high-resolution MT strategy were assessed in brain images acquired from 9 healthy subjects. Repeated measures were taken for 12 brain regions of interest (ROIs: genu, splenium, and the left and right hemispheres of the hippocampus, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and cerebral white matter. Spearman's correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were computed. Multivariate mixed-effects regression models were used to fit the mean ROI values and to test the significance of the effects due to region, subject, observer, time, and manual repetition. A sensitivity analysis of various model specifications and the corresponding ICCs was conducted. Our statistical methods may be generalized to many similar evaluative studies of the reliability and reproducibility of various imaging modalities.

  9. Human-competitive automatic topic indexing

    CERN Document Server

    Medelyan, Olena

    2009-01-01

    Topic indexing is the task of identifying the main topics covered by a document. These are useful for many purposes: as subject headings in libraries, as keywords in academic publications and as tags on the web. Knowing a document’s topics helps people judge its relevance quickly. However, assigning topics manually is labor intensive. This thesis shows how to generate them automatically in a way that competes with human performance. Three kinds of indexing are investigated: term assignment, a task commonly performed by librarians, who select topics from a controlled vocabulary; tagging, a popular activity of web users, who choose topics freely; and a new method of keyphrase extraction, where topics are equated to Wikipedia article names. A general two-stage algorithm is introduced that first selects candidate topics and then ranks them by significance based on their properties. These properties draw on statistical, semantic, domain-specific and encyclopedic knowledge. They are combined using a machine learn...

  10. Evaluating topic models with stability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Topic models are unsupervised techniques that extract likely topics from text corpora, by creating probabilistic word-topic and topic-document associations. Evaluation of topic models is a challenge because (a) topic models are often employed...

  11. Transfer prices – a debate amongst multinational companies and tax authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer pricing is a topical subject because it has a strong impact on affiliated companies as well as on the countries in which these companies operate. Transfer pricing is one of the most important aspects of international tax, but a practical approach will help to focus on solutions to these problems, solutions that will help countries emerging to address evaluation issues transfer pricing in which is robust and equitable to all parties involved.

  12. Repeated topical treatment, in contrast to single oral doses, with Vitamin A-containing preparations does not affect plasma concentrations of retinol, retinyl esters or retinoic acids in female subjects of child-bearing age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nohynek, G.J.; Meuling, W.J.A.; Vaes, W.H.J.; Lawrence, R.S.; Shapiro, S.; Schulte, S.; Steiling, W.; Bausch, J.; Gerber, E.; Sasa, H.; Nau, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is widely used in cosmetic preparations. Given that oral Vitamin A and its metabolites present a potential reproductive risk, the present study investigated the effect of topical Vitamin A on human endogenous plasma levels of Vitamin A and its metabolites. Methods: Two groups

  13. Robotic technology evolution and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville I.

    1992-01-01

    A report concerning technology transfer in the area of robotics is presented in vugraph form. The following topics are discussed: definition of technology innovation and tech-transfer; concepts relevant for understanding tech-transfer; models advanced to portray tech-transfer process; factors identified as promoting tech-transfer; factors identified as impeding tech-transfer; what important roles do individuals fulfill in tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; federal infrastructure for promoting tech-transfer; robotic technology evolution; robotic technology transferred; and recommendations for successful robotics tech-transfer.

  14. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  15. Regulatory Information By Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops and enforces regulations that span many environmental topics, from acid rain reduction to wetlands restoration. Each topic listed below may include related laws and regulations, compliance enforcement information, policies guidance

  16. Topic Prominence in Chinese EFL Learners' Interlanguage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topicprominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspective. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The…

  17. Context updating during sentence comprehension: the effect of aboutness topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Juliane; Spalek, Katharina; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2014-10-01

    To communicate efficiently, speakers typically link their utterances to the discourse environment and adapt their utterances to the listener's discourse representation. Information structure describes how linguistic information is packaged within a discourse to optimize information transfer. The present study investigates the nature and time course of context integration (i.e., aboutness topic vs. neutral context) on the comprehension of German declarative sentences with either subject-before-object (SO) or object-before-subject (OS) word order using offline comprehensibility judgments and online event-related potentials (ERPs). Comprehensibility judgments revealed that the topic context selectively facilitated comprehension of stories containing OS (i.e., non-canonical) sentences. In the ERPs, the topic context effect was reflected in a less pronounced late positivity at the sentence-initial object. In line with the Syntax-Discourse Model, we argue that these context-induced effects are attributable to reduced processing costs for updating the current discourse model. The results support recent approaches of neurocognitive models of discourse processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  19. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    by Adam et al. In the paper by V Man'ko et al the diagonal representation of the density operator (usually called P-function of Glauber-Sudarshan) is related to the star-product quantization method and to the tomographic-probability representation of quantum states. Laskowski et al suggest an elegant geometrical criterion for the separability, which is based on the local correlation measurements readily available in the laboratory. Mizrahi describes a method to derive the Pauli-Schrödinger equation starting from a simple model of a qubit carried by a massive particle. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. Kupczynski advocates various statistical tests which could be used to search for a fine structure in experimental data in order to answer the question: is quantum theory predictably complete? For an ion confined within a Paul trap, Mihalcea constructs an invariant operator based on the Lews and Riesenfeld approach and determines the spectrum of the quasienergy operator. Popov et al construct pair-coherent states of the Barut-Girardello kind for two noninteracting subsystems of pseudoharmonic oscillators and examine their statistical properties in different regions of parameters. The property of entanglement, considered to be the most intriguing property of composite quantum systems, has been an important research subject in recent years. It is considered to be a possible resource for quantum computation and communication. Therefore, a substantial number of papers in this topical issue is devoted to entanglement. Leon et al write that two-photon emission from two atoms initially excited in a common electromagnetic

  20. 自動化研究主題探勘方法及其在計算語言學之應用 An Automatic Method for Topic Exploration in a Subject Domain and Its Application on Computational Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available 由於科學研究的規模日益龐大而且研究的工作也愈來愈複雜,研究人員與科技管理人員需要一套能夠有效地探勘研究主題的方法。過去我們針對這個問題提出一系列 文本處理與文字資訊探勘的技術,其中主要為關鍵語詞抽取技術以及資訊視覺化技術。關鍵語詞抽取技術以研究領域中的論文文字資料做為輸入,自動化抽取關鍵語 詞來代表領域中的重要主題。資訊視覺化技術則將這些語詞和它們之間的關係呈現在二維的圖形,提供使用者可以透過產生的圖形了解該領域的重要主題和它們的發 展情形。其餘還包括了語詞共現估計、主題相關程度計算以及論文映射等技術。本論文將這些技術整合起來並應用到國內的計算語言學領域,確認這個領域研究與發 展的重點。���果發現計算語言學早期著重於各種語言知識的計算理論化,以因應機器翻譯的需求;中期和近期則有語音處理和資訊檢索等更多的應用出現,而應用的 技術則傾向採用具有強健與容易實作等特性的統計導向方法。Because the size of modern scientific research is larger than before and the task of research becomes even more complex, researchers and managers urgently need an effective method to explore important topics in research domains. In the past, we had proposed a series of technologies based on text processing and text mining to deal with such a problem. Using text information in papers of the examined domain as input, a technology for term extraction was proposed to select key terms in the text information to represent important topics in the domain. Another proposed technology for information visualization was used to present the terms and their relationships in two-dimensional graphs with a technology of information visualization. Users can easily browse the topics of the domain as well as their

  1. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone responsiveness to low sodium and blood pressure reactivity to angiotensin-II are unrelated to cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The blood pressure increase associated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, torcetrapib is probably attributable to an off-target effect but it is unknown whether activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be related to variation in the

  2. Topical anesthetic creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaweski, Susan

    2008-06-01

    Topical anesthetic creams have positive applications in plastic surgery. For certain procedures, they can replace injected local anesthetics. By replacing injections with a topical cream, the negative effects associated with injections, such as pain, needle anxiety, and edema at the surgical site, are eliminated. A variety of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved topical anesthetic creams are available for use; however, much care must be taken when prescribing and administering these drugs, as anesthetic creams compounded in nonstandard doses can result in severe toxicity and death. When used appropriately, topical anesthetic creams can provide a safe and effective alternative to other forms of anesthesia. This article provides an overview of topical anesthetic creams, including availability, composition, safety, and efficacy.

  3. Topical therapies for rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nally, Jennie B; Berson, Diane S

    2006-01-01

    Therapeutic options for rosacea include topical agents, oral therapies, laser and light treatments, and surgical procedures. Topical therapies play a critical role in the treatment of patients with papulopustular rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea, and have the ability to effectively minimize certain manifestations of the disease, including papules, pustules, and erythema. The 3 primary agents for the topical treatment of rosacea are metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Each of these therapies is approved for the treatment of rosacea and has been validated by multiple studies. Additional topical therapies including benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, retinoids, topical steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin are not approved for the treatment of rosacea and play variable roles in the management of this condition.

  4. Tracking topic birth and death in LDA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Andrew T.; Robinson, David Gerald

    2011-09-01

    Most topic modeling algorithms that address the evolution of documents over time use the same number of topics at all times. This obscures the common occurrence in the data where new subjects arise and old ones diminish or disappear entirely. We propose an algorithm to model the birth and death of topics within an LDA-like framework. The user selects an initial number of topics, after which new topics are created and retired without further supervision. Our approach also accommodates many of the acceleration and parallelization schemes developed in recent years for standard LDA. In recent years, topic modeling algorithms such as latent semantic analysis (LSA)[17], latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA)[10] and their descendants have offered a powerful way to explore and interrogate corpora far too large for any human to grasp without assistance. Using such algorithms we are able to search for similar documents, model and track the volume of topics over time, search for correlated topics or model them with a hierarchy. Most of these algorithms are intended for use with static corpora where the number of documents and the size of the vocabulary are known in advance. Moreover, almost all current topic modeling algorithms fix the number of topics as one of the input parameters and keep it fixed across the entire corpus. While this is appropriate for static corpora, it becomes a serious handicap when analyzing time-varying data sets where topics come and go as a matter of course. This is doubly true for online algorithms that may not have the option of revising earlier results in light of new data. To be sure, these algorithms will account for changing data one way or another, but without the ability to adapt to structural changes such as entirely new topics they may do so in counterintuitive ways.

  5. Topical treatment of melasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    .... The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment...

  6. Hypertrichosis by Topical Psoralen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Pavithran

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases in which topical psoralen induced hypertrichosis in the depigmented patches of vitiligo are being reported. -The possible mechanisms for this hypertrichosis are briefly discussed.

  7. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

  8. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature...

  9. Topical treatment of melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  10. Topical treatment of melasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  11. Conduction and convection heat transfer characteristics of water-based au nanofluids in a square cavity with differentially heated side walls subjected to constant temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ternik Primož

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the natural convection in a square cavity filled with the water-based Au nanofluid. The cavity is heated on the vertical and cooled from the adjacent wall, while the other two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The governing differential equations have been solved by the standard finite volume method and the hydrodynamic and thermal fields were coupled together using the Boussinesq approximation. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the nanoparticles’ volume fraction on the heat transfer characteristics of Au nanofluids at the given base fluid’s (i.e. water Rayleigh number. Accurate results are presented over a wide range of the base fluid Rayleigh number and the volume fraction of Au nanoparticles. It is shown that adding nanoparticles in a base fluid delays the onset of convection. Contrary to what is argued by many authors, we show by numerical simulations that the use of nanofluids can reduce the heat transfer rate instead of increasing it.

  12. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  13. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  14. Preliminary stop of the TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, M M; Kruse, A J; Kooreman, L F S; Zur Hausen, A; Hopman, A H N; Sep, S J S; Van Gorp, T; Slangen, B F M; van Beekhuizen, H J; van de Sande, A J M; Gerestein, C G; Nijman, H W; Kruitwagen, R F P M

    2017-02-07

    The "TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" (TOPIC) trial was stopped preliminary, due to lagging inclusions. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy and clinical applicability of imiquimod 5% cream in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The lagging inclusions were mainly due to a strong patient preference for either of the two treatment modalities. This prompted us to initiate a new study on the same subject, with a non-randomized, open-label design: the 'TOPical Imiquimod treatment of high-grade Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (TOPIC)-3' study. Original TOPIC-trial: Medical Ethics Committee approval number METC13231; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02329171, 22 December 2014. TOPIC-3 study: Medical Ethics Committee approval number METC162025; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02917746, 16 September 2016.

  15. Heat transfer analysis of fractional second-grade fluid subject to Newtonian heating with Caputo and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asjad, Muhammad Imran; Shah, Nehad Ali; Aleem, Maryam; Khan, Ilyas

    2017-08-01

    The present study is a comparative analysis of unsteady flows of a second-grade fluid with Newtonian heating and time-fractional derivatives, namely, the Caputo fractional derivative (singular kernel) and the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative (non-singular kernel). A physical model for second-grade fluids is developed with fractional derivatives. The expressions for temperature and velocity fields in dimensionless form as well as rates of heat transfer are determined by means of the Laplace transform technique. Solutions for ordinary cases corresponding to integer order derivatives are also obtained. Numerical computations for a comparison between the solutions of the problem with the Caputo time-fractional derivative, problem with Caputo-Fabrizio time-fractional derivative and of the ordinary fluid problem were made. The influence of some flow parameters and fractional parameter α on temperature field as well as velocity field was presented graphically and in tabular forms.

  16. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  17. Combined non-gray conductive and radiative heat transfer simulation of a single glass window subjected to solar and thermal radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Maatouk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined nongray conductive and radiative heat transfer in single glass window using the Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model REM2, has been investigated in one dimensional case. The optical constants of the glass window have been determined by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR. The absorption and emission within the glass layer are taken into consideration. The boundary surfaces of the glass are specular. Spectral dependence of radiation properties of the glass is taken into account. Both collimated and diffuse solar and thermal irradiations are applied at boundary surfaces, using the spectral solar model proposed by Bird. The simulation has been performed for one position of the sun at noon true solar time on the 5th of July for three locations in Japan, Sendai, Tokyo, and Sapporo cities. Steady state temperature and heat flux distributions within the glass layer for each position of the sun of the three locations are obtained. The radiative heat flux through the glass mediums is the predominant mode compared with the conductive one. Therefore, the temperature distributions within the glass layer are not linear in shape.

  18. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your health care provider. What are topical acne treatments? Topical acne treatments are medications applied directly on the skin that are used in the treatment of acne and other skin problems. Topical acne treatments can ...

  19. Conditionals Are Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, John

    1978-01-01

    A review of analyses of conditionals (in the philosophical literature) and of topics (primarily in linguistics) reveals that their definitions are very similar. This paper justifies the method of basing semantic analysis of a construction on a cross-linguistic examination of its superficial form. (Author/NCR)

  20. Differential Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections.

  1. Selected topics in magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  2. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  3. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  4. Topical immunomodulators in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandpur Sujay

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

  5. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  6. Revision topics in otology

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan

    2017-01-01

    This e book covers all important topics in otology. Frequently asked exam questions are discussed in detail in this e book. This book will help students of otolaryngology during their exam preparations. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  7. Characters and Topical Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature i...

  8. Transportation: Topic Paper E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper reviews the issue of transportation services. In the area of urban mass transit, four relevant pieces of legislation and public transportation accessibility regulations are cited, and cost issues are explored. Paratransit systems,…

  9. Choosing a Dissertation Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useem, Bert

    1997-01-01

    Succinctly summarizes considerations that should be taken into account when choosing a dissertation topic. These include resonance with organizational culture, contribution to the discipline, assistance in a job search, and tractability. Tractability (the ability to produce a finished product) combines the components of scope, clarity of problem,…

  10. Transfer functions of laminar premixed flames subjected to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and non-thermal plasma discharges

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2016-06-23

    The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.

  11. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and

  12. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  13. Special topics in the theory of piezoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jiashi

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectricity has been a steadily growing field, with recent advances made by researchers from applied physics, acoustics, materials science, and engineering. This collective work presents a comprehensive treatment of selected advanced topics in the subject. The book is written for an intermediate graduate level and is intended for researchers, mechanical engineers, and applied mathematicians interested in the advances and new applications in piezoelectricity.

  14. Side-to-side symmetry of radioprotein transfer from tissue space to systemic vasculature following subcutaneous injection in normal subjects and patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pain, Simon J.; O' Mahony, Susan; Purushotham, Arnie [Cambridge Breast Unit, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Barber, Robert W.; Ballinger, James R.; Solanki, Chandra K.; Peters, A.Michael [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Box 170, CB2 2QQ, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mortimer, Peter S. [Department of Physiological Medicine, St George' s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    Quantitative lymphoscintigraphy can be used for investigation of unilateral lymphatic disease of the limbs, such as breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL). Previous studies have compared lymphatic function in the affected limb with that in the unaffected contralateral limb. This study aims to confirm that the assumption of pre-morbid symmetry, never previously demonstrated, is valid. A dual-isotope technique, with bilateral subcutaneous hand injection of polyclonal human immunoglobulin G (HIgG) labelled with either technetium-99m or indium-111, was performed on a total of 37 subjects. The use of two different labels, one for each limb, enabled comparison not only of the rate of clearance from the injection depot, but also of the rate of appearance in venous blood. Results demonstrate clear symmetry between the two arms with respect to both depot clearance and blood appearance rates, as well as the coupling between these two variables. In unilateral lymphatic disease, results of quantitative lymphoscintigraphy should be expressed in relation to the normal arm rather than to an independent control population. (orig.)

  15. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was

  16. Topic Centred Subject/Language Learning Materials and Their Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…

  17. The Operation and Impact of Participants' Trans-Expedition Reflective Practice: Structuring and Optimising the Transfer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Mark; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    With gap year activities, including expeditions, for young people worth an estimated £2 billion annually, the subject of transfer (or ensuring that outcomes offer positive benefits to participants' general lives) from these experiences is an important topic in outdoor education. This paper argues that many of the claims for a positive behavioural…

  18. Transference, transference interpretations, and transference-focused psychotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Kenneth N; Scala, J Wesley

    2012-09-01

    The concept of transference and the use of transference interpretations in psychotherapy have been highly controversial topics garnering frequent attention both within psychoanalysis and across multiple orientations of psychotherapy. In this article, we review the empirical evidence as it bears on this controversy and discuss the implications of the evidence for psychoanalysis, psychodynamic psychotherapy, and therapy in general. We provide a brief historical and contextual overview, followed by a discussion of the development of the concept of transference. We then discuss the evidence for the concept of transference from basic psychological research and contend that these findings are not only consistent with a social-cognitive and information processing model, but that they may also indicate conflict and defensive processes suggestive of a dynamic transference process model. We continue with a discussion of the evidence for the concept of transference from psychotherapy research and examine process findings relating to the use of transference interpretations and transference-focused psychotherapies. Finally, we present the implications of this emerging evidence for clinical practice. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergles, A.E.; Webb, R.L.; Junkhan, G.H.; Jensen, M.K.

    1979-05-01

    Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. A bibliography of world literature on augmentation is presented. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fourteen techniques are grouped in terms of their application to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 1,967, including 75 surveys of various techniques and 42 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included as they will be the subject of a future topical report.

  20. Topics in Operator Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  1. Topics on continua

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  2. Topic and Topic-Comment Constructions in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dingxu

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to provide a precise definition for topic and to derive most of the properties of topic from this definition. The main assumption is that the topic-comment construction is a syntactic device employed to fulfill certain discourse functions. (Author/VWL)

  3. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  4. Topical, Yes, but It Dives beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Topical science is about developing an awareness of science issues in the news and the importance of science stories that affect pupils' lives and the world around them. It is about making science relevant for pupils and engaging them in the subject. The author explores how children can be engaged and inspired through topical science. The idea of…

  5. Topics in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Hadeler, Karl Peter

    2017-01-01

    This book analyzes the impact of quiescent phases on biological models. Quiescence arises, for example, when moving individuals stop moving, hunting predators take a rest, infected individuals are isolated, or cells enter the quiescent compartment of the cell cycle. In the first chapter of Topics in Mathematical Biology general principles about coupled and quiescent systems are derived, including results on shrinking periodic orbits and stabilization of oscillations via quiescence. In subsequent chapters classical biological models are presented in detail and challenged by the introduction of quiescence. These models include delay equations, demographic models, age structured models, Lotka-Volterra systems, replicator systems, genetic models, game theory, Nash equilibria, evolutionary stable strategies, ecological models, epidemiological models, random walks and reaction-diffusion models. In each case we find new and interesting results such as stability of fixed points and/or periodic orbits, excitability...

  6. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  7. Thermal radiation heat transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.; Howell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of heat transfer by thermal radiation is presented, including the radiative behavior of materials, radiation between surfaces, and gas radiation. Among the topics considered are property prediction by electromagnetic theory, the observed properties of solid materials, radiation in the presence of other modes of energy transfer, the equations of transfer for an absorbing-emitting gas, and radiative transfer in scattering and absorbing media. Also considered are radiation exchange between black isothermal surfaces, radiation exchange in enclosures composed of diffuse gray surfaces and in enclosures having some specularly reflecting surfaces, and radiation exchange between nondiffuse nongray surfaces. The use of the Monte Carlo technique in solving radiant-exchange problems and problems of radiative transfer through absorbing-emitting media is explained.

  8. Topics from the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosswald, Emil

    1984-01-01

    Many of the important and creative developments in modern mathematics resulted from attempts to solve questions that originate in number theory. The publication of Emil Grosswald’s classic text presents an illuminating introduction to number theory. Combining the historical developments with the analytical approach, Topics from the Theory of Numbers offers the reader a diverse range of subjects to investigate, including: * divisibility * congruences * the Riemann zeta function * Diophantine equations and Fermat’s conjecture * the theory of partitions Comprehensive in nature, Topics from the Theory of Numbers is an ideal text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students alike. "In my opinion it is excellent. It is carefully written and represents clearly a work of a scholar who loves and understands his subject. One can only wish more authors would take such pains and would be as good and honest expositors as Grosswald." — Marc Kac "This book is designed for use in a first course in number theory at...

  9. Topics on tournaments in graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, John W

    2015-01-01

    Tournaments, in this context, are directed graphs ― an important and interesting topic in graph theory. This concise volume collects a substantial amount of information on tournaments from throughout the mathematical literature. Suitable for advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, the straightforward treatment requires a basic familiarity with finite mathematics. The fundamental definitions and results appear in the earlier sections, and most of the later sections can be read independently of each other. Subjects include irreducible and strong tournaments, cycles and strong subtourname

  10. Superconcentration and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  11. Researching Distressing Topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Jackson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative researchers who explore sensitive topics may expose themselves to emotional distress. Consequently, researchers are often faced with the challenge of maintaining emotional equilibrium during the research process. However, discussion on the management of difficult emotions has occupied a peripheral place within accounts of research practice. With rare exceptions, the focus of published accounts is concentrated on the analysis of the emotional phenomena that emerge during the collection of primary research data. Hence, there is a comparative absence of a dialogue around the emotional dimensions of working with secondary data sources. This article highlights some of the complex ways in which emotions enter the research process during secondary analysis, and the ways in which we engaged with and managed emotional states such as anger, sadness, and horror. The concepts of emotional labor and emotional reflexivity are used to consider the ways in which we “worked with” and “worked on” emotion. In doing so, we draw on our collective experiences of working on two collaborative projects with ChildLine Scotland in which a secondary analysis was conducted on children’s narratives of distress, worry, abuse, and neglect.

  12. Topical liquiritin improves melasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M; Metwalli, M

    2000-04-01

    Twenty women with a clinical diagnosis of melasma were treated with liquiritin cream on one side of the face and with a vehicle cream on the other side twice daily for 4 weeks. Patients were advised to avoid sun exposure and/or used topical sunscreen during the entire period of treatment. Inclusion criteria included an age range from 18 to 40 years and bilateral and symmetrical idiopathic epidermal melasma. Exclusion criteria included patients with dermal melasma (differentiated by Wood's light), melasma with pregnancy, and patients currently receiving hormone replacement therapy. Melasma pigmentary intensity was rated on a five-point scale in relation to the patient's normal facial skin (1, no difference; 2, slightly more pigmented; 3, moderately more pigmented; 4, markedly more pigmented; and 5, intensely more pigmented). The size of the lesions was measured directly using a millimeter grid scale. Ratings and measurements were made prior to treatment and at each of the follow-up visits (after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks). Clinical evaluation was performed at week 4; the overall response was rated as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Color photographs were taken at the start and at week 4 of the study. Side-effects were observed and treated.

  13. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534) and obesity (r =  -.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  14. Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Paul

    Full Text Available By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM, as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689 and allergies (r = 0.810 temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r =  .534 and obesity (r =  -.631 related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media.

  15. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  16. Topics in Bethe Ansatz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang

    Integrable quantum spin chains have close connections to integrable quantum field. theories, modern condensed matter physics, string and Yang-Mills theories. Bethe. ansatz is one of the most important approaches for solving quantum integrable spin. chains. At the heart of the algebraic structure of integrable quantum spin chains is. the quantum Yang-Baxter equation and the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. This. thesis focuses on four topics in Bethe ansatz. The Bethe equations for the isotropic periodic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with N. sites have solutions containing ±i/2 that are singular: both the corresponding energy and the algebraic Bethe ansatz vector are divergent. Such solutions must be carefully regularized. We consider a regularization involving a parameter that can be. determined using a generalization of the Bethe equations. These generalized Bethe. equations provide a practical way of determining which singular solutions correspond. to eigenvectors of the model. The Bethe equations for the periodic XXX and XXZ spin chains admit singular. solutions, for which the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenvectors are ill-defined. We use a twist regularization to derive conditions for such singular solutions to bephysical, in which case they correspond to genuine eigenvalues and eigenvectors of. the Hamiltonian. We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain. with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots. split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We. argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a. generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the. leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters. We argue that the Hamiltonians for A(2) 2n open quantum spin chains

  17. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  18. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  19. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cyclodextrin. Regioselective photamination of 4-nitrovera- trole upon cyclodextrin complexation. 273. Cyclohexanone. Hydrogen transfer reaction of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol catalysed by CeO2-ZnO materials: Promoting effect of ceria. 561. DFT. Measures to evaluate heteroaromaticity and their limitations: Story of ...

  20. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  1. Resources for Topics in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noate, Judith, Comp.

    This guide for conducting library research on topics in art or the work of a particular artist presents suggestions for utilizing four categories of resources: books, dictionaries and encyclopedias, indexes, and a periodicals and serials list (PASL). Three topics are researched as examples: the contemporary artist and author Frank Stella, the…

  2. Recent advances in topical anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthetics act on the peripheral nerves and reduce the sensation of pain at the site of application. In dentistry, they are used to control local pain caused by needling, placement of orthodontic bands, the vomiting reflex, oral mucositis, and rubber-dam clamp placement. Traditional topical anesthetics contain lidocaine or benzocaine as active ingredients and are used in the form of solutions, creams, gels, and sprays. Eutectic mixtures of local anesthesia cream, a mixture of various topical anesthetics, has been reported to be more potent than other anesthetics. Recently, new products with modified ingredients and application methods have been introduced into the market. These products may be used for mild pain during periodontal treatment, such as scaling. Dentists should be aware that topical anesthetics, although rare, might induce allergic reactions or side effects as a result of an overdose. Topical anesthetics are useful aids during dental treatment, as they reduce dental phobia, especially in children, by mitigating discomfort and pain. PMID:28879311

  3. The Repeated Name Penalty, the Overt Pronoun Penalty, and Topic in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Shinichi; Dubinsky, Stanley; Almor, Amit

    2017-02-01

    When reading sentences with an anaphoric reference to a subject antecedent, repeated-name anaphors result in slower reading times relative to pronouns (the Repeated Name Penalty: RNP), and overt pronouns are read slower than null pronouns (the Overt Pronoun Penalty: OPP). Because in most languages previously tested, the grammatical subject is typically also the discourse topic it remains unclear whether these effects reflect anaphors' subject-hood or their topic-hood. To address this question we conducted a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese, a language which morphologically marks both subjects and topics overtly. Our results show that both repeated-name topic-subject anaphors and repeated-name non-topic-subject anaphors exhibit the RNP and that both overt-pronoun topic-subject and overt-pronoun non-topic-subject anaphors show the OPP. However, a detailed examination of performance revealed an interaction between the anaphor topic marking, reference form, and the antecedent's grammatical status, indicating that the effect of the antecedent's grammatical status is strongest for null pronoun and repeated name subject anaphors and that the overt form most similar to null pronouns is the repeated name topic anaphor. We discuss the implications of these findings for theories of anaphor processing.

  4. Topic modelling in the information warfare domain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors provide context to Topic Modelling as an Information Warfare technique. Topic modelling is a technique that discovers latent topics in unstructured and unlabelled collection of documents. The topic structure can be searched...

  5. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs.

  6. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  7. Assessing the Scope and Feasibility of First-Year Students' Research Paper Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinto, Erin; Bowles-Terry, Melissa; Santos, Ariel J.

    2016-01-01

    This study applied a content analysis methodology in two ways to evaluate first-year students' research topics: a rubric to examine proposed topics in terms of scope, development, and the "researchability" of the topic, as well as textual analysis, using ATLAS.ti, to provide an overview of the types of subjects students select for a…

  8. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  9. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  10. Preface to Special Topic: Marine Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, F. T.; Iglesias, G.; Santos, P. R.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2015-12-30

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) is generates from waves, currents, tides, and thermal resources in the ocean. MRE has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. This special topic presents a compilation of works selected from the 3rd IAHR Europe Congress, held in Porto, Portugal, in 2014. It covers different subjects relevant to MRE, including resource assessment, marine energy sector policies, energy source comparisons based on levelized cost, proof-of-concept and new-technology development for wave and tidal energy exploitation, and assessment of possible inference between wave energy converters (WEC).

  11. Topic structure for information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; Sanderson, M.; Zhai, C.; Zobel, J.; Allan, J.; Aslam, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In my research, I propose a coherence measure, with the goal of discovering and using topic structures within and between documents, of which I explore its extensions and applications in information retrieval.

  12. Lattice quantum chromodynamics: Some topics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I review some topics in lattice quantum chromodynamics, focusing more on the recent results. These include: the QCD phase diagram in the - plane,; the quark number susceptibilities, and; the screening lengths.

  13. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria ...

  14. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  15. Safety and Health Topics: Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Asbestos Asbestos This page requires that javascript be enabled for ... Hazards and Toxic Substances Hazardous Waste What is asbestos? Asbestos is the name given to a group ...

  16. Essays on subjective expectations and mortality trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters on two topics. The first topic, covered in chapter 2, 3, and 4, is about subjective expectations. Economists have long understood that expectations are important determinants of economic decisions. However, expectations are rarely observed. One way to overcome

  17. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  18. Topics in modern differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Verstraelen, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.

  19. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  1. An effective night slimming topical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Abril, E; Rona, C; Vesnaver, R; Cenni, A; Oliva, M

    2012-06-01

    So-called 'sex-specific fat' appears to be physiologically advantageous, but it has a cosmetic downside as well. A pool of functional ingredients, principally represented by botanical extracts, was selected to treat this condition, specifically for people intimidated by other more invasive approaches. The topical product was formulated using ingredients aimed at two specific actions; adipolysis and microcirculation stimulation [1-4]. The product was conceived for night-time application because during the night the body releases Growth Hormone, which activates adipolysis and blood flow, and the skin barrier function and metabolic rate are also more active. We aimed at assessing the effect of the topical product vs. placebo through an in vivo evaluation protocol, performed using a skin bioengineering method, namely ultrasonography, and clinical evaluation. The protocol was conducted as a double-blind, active vs. placebo trial (form. N°690 vs. form. N°1362), on 100 subjects enrolled by two research centres (Pavia and Rome, Italy), over a 4 week period, during which volunteers were checked four times, both clinically and instrumentally. At the end of the trial, both centres agreed on the slimming effects of the topical product. Tolerability was good. The enrolled volunteers expressed their full satisfaction regarding the product under study. © 2012 The Authors. ICS © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Topics in Gravitation and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami Taghanaki, Sina

    This thesis is focused on two topics in which relativistic gravitational fields play an important role, namely early Universe cosmology and black hole physics. The theory of cosmic inflation has emerged as the most successful theory of the very early Universe with concrete and verifiable predictions for the properties of anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Coalescences of black hole binaries have recently been detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), opening a new arena for observationally testing the dynamics of gravity. In part I of this thesis we explore some modifications to the standard theory of inflation. The main predictions of single field slow-roll inflation have been largely consistent with cosmological observations. However, there remain some aspects of the theory that are not presently well understood. Among these are the somewhat interrelated issues of the choice of initial state for perturbations and the potential imprints of pre-inflationary dynamics. It is well known that a key prediction of the standard theory of inflation, namely the Gaussianity of perturbations, is a consequence of choosing a natural vacuum initial state. In chapter 3, we study the generation and detectability of non-Gaussianities in inflationary scalar perturbations that originate from more general choices of initial state. After that, in chapter 4, we study a simple but predictive model of pre-inflationary dynamics in an attempt to test the robustness of inflationary predictions. We find that significant deviations from the standard predictions are unlikely to result from models in which the inflaton field decouples from the pre-inflationary degrees of freedom prior to freeze-out of the observable modes. In part II we turn to a study of an aspect of the thermodynamics of black holes, a subject which has led to important advances in our understanding of quantum gravity. For objects which

  3. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  4. Topical corticosteroids: Abuse and Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugandar Inakanti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Topical Corticosteroids are among the most commonly prescribed medication in an out-patient dermatology setting since they were first introduced in early 1950s. Probably no other group of drugs has had such a profound impact on the specialty as Topical Corticosteroid. They provide rapid symptomatic relief in almost all inflammatory dermatoses, especially in the short term. Multiple pathways including rebound vasodilatation and proinflammatory cytokine release have been proposed as the mechanism for such reactions. Aim: To study various adverse effects of topical corticosteroids misuse over face. Materials and Methods: 130 patients with a history of topical corticosteroid use on face for minimum 1 month duration were included in this study. Results: Majority of patients were between age group of 21 to 30 (65.4%. Female sex preponderance over male sex with 67.8%. Majority of patients were House wives (49% followed by Employees (23%. Duration of application of TC was 3-6 months (77% in majority of cases. Most commonly abused TC was Betamethasone Valerate (79.2%. Conclusion: Topical Corticosteroid should not be used on the face unless it is under strict dermatological supervision.

  5. Deep Unfolding for Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Lee, Chao-Hsi

    2018-02-01

    Deep unfolding provides an approach to integrate the probabilistic generative models and the deterministic neural networks. Such an approach is benefited by deep representation, easy interpretation, flexible learning and stochastic modeling. This study develops the unsupervised and supervised learning of deep unfolded topic models for document representation and classification. Conventionally, the unsupervised and supervised topic models are inferred via the variational inference algorithm where the model parameters are estimated by maximizing the lower bound of logarithm of marginal likelihood using input documents without and with class labels, respectively. The representation capability or classification accuracy is constrained by the variational lower bound and the tied model parameters across inference procedure. This paper aims to relax these constraints by directly maximizing the end performance criterion and continuously untying the parameters in learning process via deep unfolding inference (DUI). The inference procedure is treated as the layer-wise learning in a deep neural network. The end performance is iteratively improved by using the estimated topic parameters according to the exponentiated updates. Deep learning of topic models is therefore implemented through a back-propagation procedure. Experimental results show the merits of DUI with increasing number of layers compared with variational inference in unsupervised as well as supervised topic models.

  6. Safety of topical corticosteroids in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ching-Chi; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wojnarowska, Fenella; Kirtschig, Gudula; Davies, Emily; Bennett, Cathy

    2015-10-26

    Topical corticosteroids are the most frequently prescribed dermatological treatment and are often used by pregnant women with skin conditions. However, little is known about their safety in pregnancy. To assess the effects of topical corticosteroids on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. This is an update of a review previously published in 2009. We updated our searches of the following databases to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of included studies, published reviews, articles that had cited the included studies, and one author's literature collection, for further references to relevant RCTs. Randomised controlled trials and cohort studies of topical corticosteroids in pregnant women, as well as case-control studies comparing maternal exposure to topical corticosteroids between cases and controls when studies reported pre-specified outcomes. The primary outcomes included mode of delivery, major congenital abnormality, birth weight, and preterm delivery (delivery before 37 completed weeks gestation); the secondary outcomes included foetal death, minor congenital abnormality, and low Apgar score (less than seven at 5 min). We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two authors independently applied selection criteria, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. A third author was available for resolving differences of opinion. A further author independently extracted data from included studies that were conducted by authors of this systematic review. We included 7 new observational studies in this update, bringing the total number to 14, including 5 cohort and 9 case-control studies, with 1,601,515 study subjects.Most studies found no causal associations

  7. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2014-01-01

    Against a background of rather mixed evidence about transfer pricing practices in multinational enterprises (MNEs) and varying attitudes on the part of tax authorities, this paper explores how multiple aims in transfer pricing can be pursued across four different transfer pricing regimes. A MNE h...

  8. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  9. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  10. Topical application of hemostatic paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mizanur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As a measure to control minor surgical bleeding, surgeons usually depend on a number of hemostatic aids. Topical use of bovine thrombin is a widely used procedure to arrest such minor bleeding. A 35 year old male sergeant of Bangladesh Air Force presented with repeated development of hematoma in his left thigh without any history of trauma or previous history of bleeding. Critical analysis of the patient’s history, routine and sophisticated hematological investigations revealed that the patient developed anti-thrombin antibody following the application of hemostatic paste in the tooth socket five years back during minor dental procedure to stop ignorable bleeding episodes. Therefore, topical use of hemostatic glue/paste or bovine thrombin should be avoided to desist minor bleeding as recombinant human thrombin is now available for topical use.

  11. Topical corticosteroids in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, N W; McCullough, M J

    2005-12-01

    Topical corticosteroids represent an important therapeutic aid in the management of a range of oral mucosal disease conditions. Like all medications, their successful use depends upon an understanding of the disease process. This includes an appropriate diagnosis, a clear view of the desirable treatment outcomes and knowledge of whether treatment is aimed at management of a chronic disease or enhanced resolution of a short-term condition. This paper reviews the use of topical corticosteroids and their possible roles in the management of oral disease.

  12. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    CERN Document Server

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  13. Topics in current aerosol research

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  14. Rosacea and its topical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooderham, M

    2009-02-01

    Many options exist for the treatment of rosacea, including topical and systemic therapies, laser and light-based therapies, and surgical procedures. A classification system for rosacea identifies 4 subtypes (i.e., erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular), which may help guide therapeutic decision-making. The goals of therapy include reduction of papules, pustules, erythema, physical discomfort, and an improvement in quality of life. Standard topical treatment agents include metronidazole, azelaic acid, and sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur. Second line therapies include benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, calcineurin inhibitors, and permethrin.

  15. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buras, A.J.

    1980-09-01

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics.

  16. Topic Map for Authentic Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Wandsvik, Atle; Zare, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    E-business is a new trend in Internet use. Authentic travel is an approach to travel and travel business which helps the traveler experience what is authentic in the travel destination. But how can the traveler find those small authentic spots and organize them together to compose a vacation? E-business techniques, combined withTopic Maps, can help.

  17. Trends in biomedical informatics: automated topic analysis of JAMIA articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Chao; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Kim, Hyeon-Eui; Sun, Jimeng; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-11-01

    Biomedical Informatics is a growing interdisciplinary field in which research topics and citation trends have been evolving rapidly in recent years. To analyze these data in a fast, reproducible manner, automation of certain processes is needed. JAMIA is a "generalist" journal for biomedical informatics. Its articles reflect the wide range of topics in informatics. In this study, we retrieved Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and citations of JAMIA articles published between 2009 and 2014. We use tensors (i.e., multidimensional arrays) to represent the interaction among topics, time and citations, and applied tensor decomposition to automate the analysis. The trends represented by tensors were then carefully interpreted and the results were compared with previous findings based on manual topic analysis. A list of most cited JAMIA articles, their topics, and publication trends over recent years is presented. The analyses confirmed previous studies and showed that, from 2012 to 2014, the number of articles related to MeSH terms Methods, Organization & Administration, and Algorithms increased significantly both in number of publications and citations. Citation trends varied widely by topic, with Natural Language Processing having a large number of citations in particular years, and Medical Record Systems, Computerized remaining a very popular topic in all years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Report on tool transfer and alignment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gasparin, Stefania; De Grave, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    the accuracy of the hybrid tooling process chain with a focus on the part transfer and re-position of different machining chains have not been addressed thoroughly and are the topic of Task 2.2.3 “Tool transfer for hybrid manufacturing”. First results are presented in this report, focussing on a specific...

  19. Acute progressive midbrain hemorrhage after topical ocular cyclopentolate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisaneller, Tarkan; Ozdemir, Ozgur; Sonmez, Erkin; Altinors, Nur

    2008-01-01

    Cyclopentolate is a synthetic anti-cholinergic agent widely used in ophthalmology clinics. It can cause cardiovascular side-effects such as hypertension, ventricular arrhythmias and tachycardias. A 55-year-old male lost his consciousness after topical cyclopentolate hydrocloride (1%) administration for routine fundoscopic examination in another center. An urgent cranial magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed a midbrain hemorrhage and he was transferred to our hospital. The Glasgow Coma Scale score was at 4 points at admission. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and mechanically ventilated. Despite vigorous medical treatment, spontaneous respiration and brainstem reflexes disappeared 12 h after his administration. A control cranial computerized tomography showed enlargement and opening of the hemorrhage into the ventricular system. The patient died on the 12th day of his administration. Systemic side-effects of topical ocular cyclopentolate administration and prevention methods were discussed with regard to the current literature.

  20. Topical silver for infected wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Joel W

    2009-01-01

    Vermeulen H, van Hattem JM, Storm-Versloot MN, Ubbink DT. Topical silver for treating infected wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007(1);CD005486. What is the clinical evidence base for silver dressings in the management of contaminated and infected acute and chronic wounds? Investigations were identified by Cochrane Wounds Group Specialized Register (2006), CENTRAL (2006), MEDLINE (2002-2006), EMBASE (2002-2006), CINAHL (2002-2006), and digital dissertations (2006) searches. Product manufacturers were contacted to identify additional eligible studies. The search terms included wound infection, surgical wound infection, ulcer, wound healing, and silver. Each study fulfilled the following criteria: (1) The study was a randomized controlled trial of human participants that compared dressings containing silver with any dressings without silver, dressings with other antiseptics, or dressings with different dosages of silver. (2) The participants were aged 18 years and older with contaminated and infected open wounds of any cause. (3) The study had to evaluate the effectiveness of the dressings using an objective measure of healing. No language or publication status restrictions were imposed, and participants could be recruited in any care setting. Studies were excluded if the wounds were ostomies (surgically formed passages). Study quality assessment was conducted independently by 3 authors using the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement and Dutch Cochrane Centre protocols. Characteristics of the study, participants, interventions, and outcome measures were extracted by one author and verified by a second using a standard form. The principal outcome measure was healing (time to complete healing, rate of change in wound area and volume, number and proportion of wounds healed within trial period). Secondary measures were adverse events (eg, pain, maceration, erythema), dressing leakage, and wound odor. Based on the unique comparisons in the studies, a meta

  1. Application of Nail Polish During Topical Management of Onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q.

    2016-01-01

    Topical antifungal management of toenail onychomycosis has been fraught with several therapeutic challenges including difficulty gaining access to the site of infection and the need for prolonged durations of therapy. In addition, there has been a marked lack of information on the impact of toenail polish application on drug penetration after application. This article reviews available data from studies evaluating the effect of nail polish on antifungal drag penetration using ex vivo laboratory models with cadaver fingernail plates with both tavaborole 5% solution and efinaconazole 10% solution. In addition, changes in nail polish appearance and color transfer to applicators are also discussed, with changes noted with topical efinaconazole. Importantly, there are no data on whether or not nail polish application alters the efficacy of these topical agents. PMID:27672416

  2. Hard-to-Teach Topics: Using ICT Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    In November 2007 a joint ATM/MA team began working together to consider how ICT can be used to support the teaching and learning of topics that are considered to be "hard to teach" in secondary mathematics, within a project that complements that of the Secondary National Strategy. In the best subject association spirit, it was decided to…

  3. Topical cyclosporine for atopic keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-López, Julio J; López-Alcalde, Jesús; Morcillo Laiz, Rafael; Fernández Buenaga, Roberto; Rebolleda Fernández, Gema

    2012-09-12

    Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a chronic ocular surface non-infectious inflammatory condition that atopic dermatitis patients may suffer at any time point in the course of their dermatologic disease and is independent of its degree of severity. AKC is usually not self resolving and it poses a higher risk of corneal injuries and severe sequelae. Management of AKC should prevent or treat corneal damage. Although topical corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for patients with AKC, prolonged use may lead to complications. Topical cyclosporine A (CsA) may improve AKC signs and symptoms, and be used as a corticosteroid sparing agent. To determine the efficacy and gather evidence on safety from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of topical CsA in patients with AKC. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2012), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (January 1937 to July 2012), OpenGrey (System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe) (www.opengrey.eu/), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en), the IFPMA Clinical Trials Portal (http://clinicaltrials.ifpma.org/no_cache/en/myportal/index.htm) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2012. We also handsearched the following conference proceedings: American Academy of Ophthalmology, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, International Council of Opthalmology and Societas

  4. Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.

  5. Ethical use of topical corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Saraswat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving them. This can only be achieved if we have a thorough understanding of the skin disease being treated coupled with expertise in the use of the varied potencies and available dosage forms of topical corticosteroids. A good understanding of human psychology and effective communication is also needed to use these agents optimally.

  6. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  7. Ethical Use of Topical Corticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswat, Abir

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving the...

  8. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  9. Topics in string theory and quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Gaume, Luis

    1992-01-01

    These are the lecture notes for the Les Houches Summer School on Quantum Gravity held in July 1992. The notes present some general critical assessment of other (non-string) approaches to quantum gravity, and a selected set of topics concerning what we have learned so far about the subject from string theory. Since these lectures are long (133 A4 pages), we include in this abstract the table of contents, which should help the user of the bulletin board in deciding whether to latex and print the full file. 1-FIELD THEORETICAL APPROACH TO QUANTUM GRAVITY: Linearized gravity; Supergravity; Kaluza-Klein theories; Quantum field theory and classical gravity; Euclidean approach to Quantum Gravity; Canonical quantization of gravity; Gravitational Instantons. 2-CONSISTENCY CONDITIONS: ANOMALIES: Generalities about anomalies; Spinors in 2n dimensions; When can we expect to find anomalies?; The Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem and the computation of anomalies; Examples: Green-Schwarz cancellation mechanism and Witten's SU(2) ...

  10. Light scattering reviews 8 radiative transfer and light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Light scattering review (vol 8) is aimed at the presentation of recent advances in radiative transfer and light scattering optics. The topics to be covered include: scattering of light by irregularly shaped particles suspended in atmosphere (dust, ice crystals), light scattering by particles much larger as compared the wavelength of incident radiation, atmospheric radiative forcing, astrophysical radiative transfer, radiative transfer and optical imaging in biological media, radiative transfer of polarized light, numerical aspects of radiative transfer.

  11. Transfer Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten; Rossing, Christian Plesner

    trade internally as the units have to decide what prices should be paid for such inter-unit transfers. One important challenge is to uncover the consequences that different transfer prices have on the willingness in the organizational units to coordinate activities and trade internally. At the same time...

  12. UHMS position statement: topical oxygen for chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmeier, J J; Hopf, H W; Warriner, R A; Fife, C E; Gesell, L B; Bennett, M

    2005-01-01

    . Paradoxically, claims of decreased collagen production and fibroblast inhibition in wounds subjected to topical oxygen have been reported in studies of topical oxygen as a benefit of topical oxygen therapy. The literature on topical oxygen is mostly small case series or small controlled but not randomized trials. Moreover, the studies generally are not aimed at specific ulcer types, but rather at "chronic wounds." This non-specific approach is recognized as a major design flaw in any study of therapies designed to improve impaired wound healing. The only randomized trial for topical oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers actually showed a tendency toward impaired wound healing in the topical oxygen group. Contentions that topical oxygen is superior to hyperbaric oxygen are not proven. There are potentially plausible mechanisms that support both possibly beneficial and detrimental effects of topical oxygen therapy, and thus well designed and executed basic science research and clinical trials are clearly needed. There is some ongoing research in regard to the role of topical oxygen at established wound laboratories. Neither CMS nor other third party payors recognize or reimburse for topical oxygen. Therefore, the policy of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society in regard to topical oxygen is stated as follows: 1. Topical oxygen should not be termed hyperbaric oxygen since doing so either intentionally or unintentionally suggests that topical oxygen treatment is equivalent or even identical to hyperbaric oxygen. Published documents reporting experience with topical oxygen should clearly state that topical oxygen not hyperbaric oxygen is being employed. 2. Mechanisms of action or clinical study results for hyperbaric oxygen cannot and should not be co-opted to support topical oxygen since hyperbaric oxygen therapy and topical oxygen have different routes and probably efficiencies of entry into the wound and their physiology and biochemistry are necessarily different. 3. The

  13. Topicality as War News Value: A Pragma – Linguistic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fareed Hameed Al-Hindawi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses one of the criteria of war news values in printed media. The current study concerns itself with only Topicality as the target of scrutiny. It explores this value through the application of a model of analysis based on a pragma-linguistic approach. The analysis is intended to achieve the following aims: first, bringing topicality as one criterion of news values to the attention of pragmatists; second, introducing an analytical framework which is hoped to be useful for pragmatists to analyze news values, and to be available in their hands for further development. This framework aims at explicitly revealing the linguistic as well as the pragmatic properties of the war news texts as far as topicality is concerned. In relation to the aims of the study and owing to the fact that people are eager to understand what is going on, it is hypothesized that topicality comes into viewable interaction between grammar and pragmatics. The findings of the data analysis indicate how topicality is transferred to the receiver of the message and how it shapes news reporting.

  14. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Weng

    Full Text Available We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  15. Topicality and impact in social media: diverse messages, focused messengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lilian; Menczer, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    We have a limited understanding of the factors that make people influential and topics popular in social media. Are users who comment on a variety of matters more likely to achieve high influence than those who stay focused? Do general subjects tend to be more popular than specific ones? Questions like these demand a way to detect the topics hidden behind messages associated with an individual or a keyword, and a gauge of similarity among these topics. Here we develop such an approach to identify clusters of similar hashtags in Twitter by detecting communities in the hashtag co-occurrence network. Then the topical diversity of a user's interests is quantified by the entropy of her hashtags across different topic clusters. A similar measure is applied to hashtags, based on co-occurring tags. We find that high topical diversity of early adopters or co-occurring tags implies high future popularity of hashtags. In contrast, low diversity helps an individual accumulate social influence. In short, diverse messages and focused messengers are more likely to gain impact.

  16. Building bridges across electronic health record systems through inferred phenotypic topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You; Ghosh, Joydeep; Bejan, Cosmin Adrian; Gunter, Carl A; Gupta, Siddharth; Kho, Abel; Liebovitz, David; Sun, Jimeng; Denny, Joshua; Malin, Bradley

    2015-06-01

    Data in electronic health records (EHRs) is being increasingly leveraged for secondary uses, ranging from biomedical association studies to comparative effectiveness. To perform studies at scale and transfer knowledge from one institution to another in a meaningful way, we need to harmonize the phenotypes in such systems. Traditionally, this has been accomplished through expert specification of phenotypes via standardized terminologies, such as billing codes. However, this approach may be biased by the experience and expectations of the experts, as well as the vocabulary used to describe such patients. The goal of this work is to develop a data-driven strategy to (1) infer phenotypic topics within patient populations and (2) assess the degree to which such topics facilitate a mapping across populations in disparate healthcare systems. We adapt a generative topic modeling strategy, based on latent Dirichlet allocation, to infer phenotypic topics. We utilize a variance analysis to assess the projection of a patient population from one healthcare system onto the topics learned from another system. The consistency of learned phenotypic topics was evaluated using (1) the similarity of topics, (2) the stability of a patient population across topics, and (3) the transferability of a topic across sites. We evaluated our approaches using four months of inpatient data from two geographically distinct healthcare systems: (1) Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) and (2) Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). The method learned 25 phenotypic topics from each healthcare system. The average cosine similarity between matched topics across the two sites was 0.39, a remarkably high value given the very high dimensionality of the feature space. The average stability of VUMC and NMH patients across the topics of two sites was 0.988 and 0.812, respectively, as measured by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Also the VUMC and NMH topics have smaller variance of characterizing

  17. Topic extraction from adverbial clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rubio Alcalá

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers new data to support findings about Topic extraction from adverbial clauses. Since such clauses are strong islands, they should not allow extraction of any kind, but we show here that if the appropriate conditions are met, Topics of the CLLD kind in Romance can move out of them. We propose that two conditions must be met for such movement to be possible: the first is that the adverbial clause must have undergone topicalisation in the first place; the second is that the adverbial clause is inherently topical from a semantic viewpoint. Contrast with other language families (Germanic, Quechua and Japanese is provided and the semantic implications of the proposal are briefly discussed. Keywords: topicalisation; Clitic Left Dislocation; syntactic islands; adverbial clauses Este artículo ofrece nuevos datos sobre la extracción de Tópicos desde oraciones subordinadas adverbiales. Dado que dichas oraciones son islas fuertes, no deberían permitir extracción de ningún tipo, pero mostramos que si se dan las condiciones apropiadas, los Tópicos del tipo CLLD en lenguas románicas pueden desplazarse fuera de ellas. Proponemos que se deben cumplir dos condiciones para que ese movimiento sea posible: la primera es que la propia subordinada adverbial se haya topicalizado en primer lugar; la segunda es que la subordinada adverbial sea inherentemente un Tópico desde el punto de vista semántico. Proporcionamos también algunos contrastes con otras familias lingüísticas (germánica, quechua y japonés y se discuten brevemente las implicaciones semánticas de la propuesta. Palabras clave: topicalización; dislocación a la izquierda con clítico; islas sintácticas; oraciones adverbiales

  18. Tactile friction of topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedung, L; Buraczewska-Norin, I; Dawood, N; Rutland, M W; Ringstad, L

    2016-02-01

    The tactile perception is essential for all types of topical formulations (cosmetic, pharmaceutical, medical device) and the possibility to predict the sensorial response by using instrumental methods instead of sensory testing would save time and cost at an early stage product development. Here, we report on an instrumental evaluation method using tactile friction measurements to estimate perceptual attributes of topical formulations. Friction was measured between an index finger and an artificial skin substrate after application of formulations using a force sensor. Both model formulations of liquid crystalline phase structures with significantly different tactile properties, as well as commercial pharmaceutical moisturizing creams being more tactile-similar, were investigated. Friction coefficients were calculated as the ratio of the friction force to the applied load. The structures of the model formulations and phase transitions as a result of water evaporation were identified using optical microscopy. The friction device could distinguish friction coefficients between the phase structures, as well as the commercial creams after spreading and absorption into the substrate. In addition, phase transitions resulting in alterations in the feel of the formulations could be detected. A correlation was established between skin hydration and friction coefficient, where hydrated skin gave rise to higher friction. Also a link between skin smoothening and finger friction was established for the commercial moisturizing creams, although further investigations are needed to analyse this and correlations with other sensorial attributes in more detail. The present investigation shows that tactile friction measurements have potential as an alternative or complement in the evaluation of perception of topical formulations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. New patents on topical anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, Carmen; Macaluso, Laura; Frascani, Federica; Paolino, Giovanni; D'Andrea, Vito; Richetta, Antonio G; Calvieri, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia is defined as a total or partial loss of sensation and it may be general, local or topical, depending on the method of drug administration and area of the body affected. General anesthesia is a reversible state of unconsciousness produced by anesthetic agents, characterized by amnesia, muscle relaxation and loss of sensitivity to pain of the whole body. General anesthetic drugs can be classified into two main groups according to their predominant molecular pharmacological effects: volatile and intravenous agents. Local anesthesia produce a reversible loss of sensation in a portion of the body and it reversibly block impulse conduction along nerve axons and other excitable membrane. All local anesthetics (LA) are membrane stabilizing drugs; they reversibly decrease the rate of depolarization and repolarization of excitable membranes. They act mainly by inhibiting sodium influx through sodium-specific ion channels in the neuronal cell membrane, in particular the voltage-gated sodium channels. When the influx of sodium is interrupted, an action potential cannot arise and signal conduction is inhibited. The main local anesthetic (LA) agents for skin anesthesia are benzocaine (aminoester), prilocaine and lidocaine (aminoamides) which are commercially available as gels, ointments and creams (benzocaine and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine) or as a bioadhesive (lidocaine) with different compositions (vehicles and excipients) for adults or pediatric use. Topical anesthetics decrease anxiety, pain and discomfort during cutaneous procedures and provide effective analgesia with rapid onset, prolonged duration and minimal side effects. This article outlines the different classes of topical anesthetics available and gives an overview of the mechanism of action, metabolism of each different class, of the possible complications that can occur because of their use and their possible treatment options and new patents.

  20. Modern topics in electron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  1. Potential theory—selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Aikawwa, Hiroaki

    1996-01-01

    The first part of these lecture notes is an introduction to potential theory to prepare the reader for later parts, which can be used as the basis for a series of advanced lectures/seminars on potential theory/harmonic analysis. Topics covered in the book include minimal thinness, quasiadditivity of capacity, applications of singular integrals to potential theory, L(p)-capacity theory, fine limits of the Nagel-Stein boundary limit theorem and integrability of superharmonic functions. The notes are written for an audience familiar with the theory of integration, distributions and basic functional analysis.

  2. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A

    1969-01-01

    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  3. Topics in computational linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultberg, Tim Helge

    2000-01-01

    of high quality solvers and the use of algebraic modelling systems to handle the communication between the modeller and the solver. This dissertation features four topics in computational linear optimization: A) automatic reformulation of mixed 0/1 linear programs, B) direct solution of sparse unsymmetric...... of an augmented system is computed. This involves the solution of a sparse triangular system with 's' right-hand sides. Solution sparsity is exploited in the sparse triangular solves of the block LU factorization. 3) a factorization of the Schur complement matrix, of order 's', is computed. The idea...

  4. Topical use of fluorides for caries control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Toumba, Kyriacos Jack; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2011-01-01

    Since the early findings on the protective effects of fluoride present in drinking water upon caries incidence and prevalence, intensive research has been conducted in order to determine the benefits, safety, as well as the cost-effectiveness of other modalities of fluoride delivery. The present chapter reviews the various forms of topical fluoride use - professionally and self-applied - with special emphasis on clinical efficacy and possible side effects. The most widely used forms of fluoride delivery have been subject of several systematic reviews, providing strong evidence supporting the use of dentifrices, gels, varnishes and mouth rinses for the control of caries progression. Dentifrices with fluoride concentrations of 1,000 ppm and above have been shown to be clinically effective in caries prevention when compared to a placebo treatment, but the evidence regarding formulations with 450-550 ppm is still subject of debate. Therefore, the recommendation for low-fluoride dentifrice use must take into account both risks and benefits. The evidence for the combined use of two modalities of fluoride application in comparison to a single modality is still inconsistent, implying that more studies with adequate methodology are needed to determine the real benefits of each method. Considering the currently available evidence and risk-benefit aspects, it seems justifiable to recommend the use of fluoridated dentifrices to individuals of all ages, and additional fluoride therapy should also be targeted towards individuals at high caries risk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A. Garrido-Ramos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS, together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  6. Accelerating Topical Anaesthesia Using Microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lleucu B; Gateley, Christopher; Holland, Phillip; Coulman, Siôn A; Birchall, James C

    2017-09-08

    Topical anaesthetics reduce pain during venous access procedures in children. However, clinical use is hindered by a significant anaesthetic onset time. Restricted diffusion of the topical anaesthetic through the stratum corneum barrier is the principal reason for the delayed onset. Microneedles can painlessly pierce the skin. This study evaluated microneedle pre-treatment of ex vivo human skin as a means to increase the rate of tetracaine permeation, in order to accelerate the onset of anaesthesia. Franz-type diffusion cells were used to determine permeation of a commercial tetracaine formulation, Ametop gel, through human skin epidermis. Microneedle-assisted permeation was compared to untreated epidermis. Upon completion of the permeation studies, the epidermal membranes were visually characterised. At 30 min, 5.43 µg/cm2 of tetracaine had permeated through the untreated membrane compared to 12.13 µg/cm2 through the microneedle-treated membrane. Insertion of a hypodermic needle created a large single channel in the epidermis (approx. 4,250 μm2) whilst the punctured surface area following microneedle treatments was estimated to be 75,000 μm2. Pre-treatment of skin with microneedles significantly enhances the permeation of tetracaine. Microneedles have the potential to more than halve the onset time for anaesthesia when applying Ametop gel. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Satellite DNA: An Evolving Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-09-18

    Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes. The whole of the historical and current approaches to the topic gives us a broad view of the function and evolution of satellite DNA and its role in chromosomal evolution. Currently, we have extensive information on the molecular, chromosomal, biological, and population factors that affect the evolutionary fate of satellite DNA, knowledge that gives rise to a series of hypotheses that get on well with each other about the origin, spreading, and evolution of satellite DNA. In this paper, I review these hypotheses from a methodological, conceptual, and historical perspective and frame them in the context of chromosomal organization and evolution.

  8. Station Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ixed rail transit external system transfers for systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of...

  9. Fundamental principles of heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Stephen

    1977-01-01

    Fundamental Principles of Heat Transfer introduces the fundamental concepts of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. It presents theoretical developments and example and design problems and illustrates the practical applications of fundamental principles. The chapters in this book cover various topics such as one-dimensional and transient heat conduction, energy and turbulent transport, forced convection, thermal radiation, and radiant energy exchange. There are example problems and solutions at the end of every chapter dealing with design problems. This book is a valuable int

  10. Topics and Research Directions for Symmetric Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Daemen, Joan; Lucks, Stefan; Vaudenay, Serge

    2017-01-01

    This is a summary of the open discussion on future research topics for symmetric cryptography chaired by Stefan Lucks. During this session participants were suggesting topics of potential future interest.

  11. Mammography: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administration) - PDF Mammography (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Mammography updates by ... Breast cancer screenings Mammogram - calcifications Mammography Related Health Topics Breast Cancer Breast Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  12. Prediabetes:MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Spanish Prediabetes (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Prediabetes updates by ... Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant Prediabetes Related Health Topics A1C Diabetes Diabetes in Children and Teens Diabetes ...

  13. Dialysis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... access for hemodialysis (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Dialysis updates by ... for hemodialysis Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Creatinine Kidney Cysts Kidney Failure Peritoneal Disorders National ...

  14. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handouts Postural drainage (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pulmonary Rehabilitation updates ... this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Postural drainage Related Health Topics Lung Diseases National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  15. Vaginal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding in pregnancy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginal Bleeding updates ... late pregnancy Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy Related Health Topics Menstruation Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from ...

  16. Pain Relievers: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for back pain (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pain Relievers updates ... Tolmetin overdose Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Chronic Pain Medicines Opioid Abuse and Addiction Over- ...

  17. Collapsed Lung: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Pneumothorax - infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Collapsed Lung updates ... Lung surgery Pneumothorax - slideshow Pneumothorax - infants Related Health Topics Chest Injuries and Disorders Lung Diseases Pleural Disorders ...

  18. Gastrointestinal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vomiting blood (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Gastrointestinal Bleeding updates ... Vomiting blood Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Hemorrhoids Peptic Ulcer National Institutes of Health The ...

  19. Vaginitis: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Vulvovaginitis - overview (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Vaginitis updates by ... Vaginitis test - wet mount Vulvovaginitis - overview Related Health Topics Trichomoniasis Vaginal Diseases Yeast Infections Other Languages Find ...

  20. Pneumococcal Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention, Immunization Action Coalition) - PDF Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Pneumococcal Infections updates ... ray Meningitis - pneumococcal Sputum gram stain Related Health Topics Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Sinusitis Streptococcal Infections National Institutes ...

  1. Eye Care: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute) Sports and Your Eyes (National Eye Institute) Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Eye Care updates by email What's this? GO Related Health Topics Eye Diseases Eye Infections Eye Injuries Eye Wear ...

  2. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...

  3. Healthy Aging: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Older Adults) (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Nutrition for Seniors: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine) Also ... over 65 Related Health Topics Exercise for Seniors Nutrition for Seniors Seniors' Health National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  4. Infection Control: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections when visiting (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Staph infections - hospital (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic ... precautions Personal protective equipment Preventing infections when visiting Staph infections - hospital Related Health Topics Hepatitis HIV/AIDS ...

  5. The Topical Counterplan: A Competitive Policy Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Edward M.; Dolley, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Argues that traditional requirements that a counterplan cannot be topical should be reconsidered by the policy debate community. Contends that the acceptance of the topical counterplan reduces the schism between theory and practice in debate. (MS)

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Highly charged ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillaspy, J. D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of highly charged ions, the methods of producing them (with particular emphasis on table-top devices), and their use as a tool for both basic science and applied technology. Topics discussed include: charge dependence and scaling laws along isoelectronic or isonuclear sequences (for wavefunction size or Bohr radius, ionization energy, dipole transition energy, relativistic fine structure, hyperfine structure, Zeeman effect, Stark effect, line intensities, linewidths, strength of parity violation, etc), changes in angular momentum coupling schemes, selection rules, interactions with surfaces, electron-impact ionization, the electron beam ion trap (EBIT), ion accelerators, atomic reference data, cosmic chronometers, laboratory x-ray astrophysics, vacuum polarization, solar flares, ion implantation, ion lithography, ion microprobes (SIMS and x-ray microscope), nuclear fusion diagnostics, nanotechnology, quantum computing, cancer therapy and biotechnology.

  7. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  8. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  9. Topics in Banach space theory

    CERN Document Server

    Albiac, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This text provides the reader with the necessary technical tools and background to reach the frontiers of research without the introduction of too many extraneous concepts. Detailed and accessible proofs are included, as are a variety of exercises and problems. The two new chapters in this second edition are devoted to two topics of much current interest amongst functional analysts: Greedy approximation with respect to bases in Banach spaces and nonlinear geometry of Banach spaces. This new material is intended to present these two directions of research for their intrinsic importance within Banach space theory, and to motivate graduate students interested in learning more about them. This textbook assumes only a basic knowledge of functional analysis, giving the reader a self-contained overview of the ideas and techniques in the development of modern Banach space theory. Special emphasis is placed on the study of the classical Lebesgue spaces Lp (and their sequence space analogues) and spaces of continuous f...

  10. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  11. Ethics of Cancer Gene Transfer Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Translation of cancer gene transfer confronts many familiar-and some distinctive-ethical challenges. In what follows, I survey three major ethical dimensions of cancer gene transfer development. Subheading 1 centers on the ethics of planning, designing, and reporting animal studies. Subheading 2 describes basic elements of human subjects protection as pertaining to cancer gene transfer. In Subheading 3, I describe how cancer gene transfer researchers have obligations to downstream consumers of the evidence they produce.

  12. TRANSFERENCE LOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Deneanu, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    It is the psychoanalysis’ merit to have discovered one of most common phenomenon that happens in almost all kind of human relations, and that is transference. Psychoanalytic framework did not produce it, but stimulate it. Transference love—one of the most powerful tool used by the analyst to get to understand a pacient’s pattern of falling in love—is an emotional relationship (a conglomeration of affection, tenderness, friendship, erotic and sexual feelings) developed by a pacient for his/her...

  13. Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure" in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. Results We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Conclusion Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

  14. Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsuk; Wang, Weiqing; Yu, Hong

    2006-03-16

    Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure") in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings.

  15. Exploring supervised and unsupervised methods to detect topics in biomedical text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minsuk; Wang, Weiqing; Yu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    Background Topic detection is a task that automatically identifies topics (e.g., "biochemistry" and "protein structure") in scientific articles based on information content. Topic detection will benefit many other natural language processing tasks including information retrieval, text summarization and question answering; and is a necessary step towards the building of an information system that provides an efficient way for biologists to seek information from an ocean of literature. Results We have explored the methods of Topic Spotting, a task of text categorization that applies the supervised machine-learning technique naïve Bayes to assign automatically a document into one or more predefined topics; and Topic Clustering, which apply unsupervised hierarchical clustering algorithms to aggregate documents into clusters such that each cluster represents a topic. We have applied our methods to detect topics of more than fifteen thousand of articles that represent over sixteen thousand entries in the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. We have explored bag of words as the features. Additionally, we have explored semantic features; namely, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) that are assigned to the MEDLINE records, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) semantic types that correspond to the MeSH terms, in addition to bag of words, to facilitate the tasks of topic detection. Our results indicate that incorporating the MeSH terms and the UMLS semantic types as additional features enhances the performance of topic detection and the naïve Bayes has the highest accuracy, 66.4%, for predicting the topic of an OMIM article as one of the total twenty-five topics. Conclusion Our results indicate that the supervised topic spotting methods outperformed the unsupervised topic clustering; on the other hand, the unsupervised topic clustering methods have the advantages of being robust and applicable in real world settings. PMID:16539745

  16. Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    ICTP's annual Spring School on Superstring Theory and Related Topics provides pedagogical treatment of these subjects through lectures by some of the world's top string theorists. The activity is intended for theoretical physicists or mathematicians with knowledge of quantum field theory, general relativity and string theory. It is organized in collaboration with the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Italian Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN).

  17. Learning about Teaching the Extracurricular Topic of Nanotechnology as a Vehicle for Achieving a Sustainable Change in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on teachers' transfer of a variety of teaching methods from a teaching module on nanotechnology, which is an example of a topic outside the science curriculum, to teaching topics that are part of the chemistry curriculum. Nanotechnology is outside the science curriculum, but it was used in this study as a means to carry out a…

  18. Public understanding of geoscientific topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Ute; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    Geoscientific topics and their consequences for the society are becoming more and more important for our daily life. Natural hazards such as flood and storm or the consequences of the climate change are urgent tasks and great challenges we have to tackle. Cascading natural hazards or environmental risks, can't be evaluated as single events by one scientific discipline, they rather need the expertise of different experts. The same applies for slowly progressive processes such as the climate change and its different aftereffects. More than ever politicians, decision makers, but also the public are asking for comprehensive background information and data to discuss activity options and to develop sustainable solutions. The improvement of public knowledge about science, their assets and drawbacks, chances and risks is getting crucial. To paint a comprehensive picture of different factors, correlations and dependencies the pooling of expertise is required. Thus eight research centres of the research field "Earth and Environment" of the Helmholtz-Association, Germany's largest scientific research organisation are currently building up a knowledge platform. Scientists of different disciplines will provide background information and explain their latest findings in an understandable way. Infographics, maps and animations will be applied to simplify and interpret complicated facts and findings. In addition to the web presence target group-specific products and activities will be organized. To meet the expectations of the different stakeholders an intensive dialog is aspired: round table discussions, exhibitions in museums and public places, tweeds are envisaged. In the beginning the partners will concentrate on the topics "consequences of the climate change", "pollutant dispersion" and "natural hazards/meteorological extreme events". The project is called Earth System Knowledge Platform (ESKP) coordinated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) and the Helmholtz

  19. Ocular Safety of Topical Naltrexone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    cohort do not permit statistical analysis of the data. Table 2. Number of Subjects that experienced adverse events Group Dosage Acuity1 Pain2 SLF3 IOP4...examination and ancillary tests enumerated in the Study Design section. 7. Statistical and sample size justification The sample size is as suggested by the FDA...corticosteroids. Should a person receiving VIVITROL develop progressive dyspnea and hypoxemia , the diagnosis of eosinophilic pneumonia should be considered (see

  20. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Ahmet; Üsküdarlı, Suzan; Özgür, Arzucan

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s) the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision) and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  1. Identifying Topics in Microblogs Using Wikipedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yıldırım

    Full Text Available Twitter is an extremely high volume platform for user generated contributions regarding any topic. The wealth of content created at real-time in massive quantities calls for automated approaches to identify the topics of the contributions. Such topics can be utilized in numerous ways, such as public opinion mining, marketing, entertainment, and disaster management. Towards this end, approaches to relate single or partial posts to knowledge base items have been proposed. However, in microblogging systems like Twitter, topics emerge from the culmination of a large number of contributions. Therefore, identifying topics based on collections of posts, where individual posts contribute to some aspect of the greater topic is necessary. Models, such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, propose algorithms for relating collections of posts to sets of keywords that represent underlying topics. In these approaches, figuring out what the specific topic(s the keyword sets represent remains as a separate task. Another issue in topic detection is the scope, which is often limited to specific domain, such as health. This work proposes an approach for identifying domain-independent specific topics related to sets of posts. In this approach, individual posts are processed and then aggregated to identify key tokens, which are then mapped to specific topics. Wikipedia article titles are selected to represent topics, since they are up to date, user-generated, sophisticated articles that span topics of human interest. This paper describes the proposed approach, a prototype implementation, and a case study based on data gathered during the heavily contributed periods corresponding to the four US election debates in 2012. The manually evaluated results (0.96 precision and other observations from the study are discussed in detail.

  2. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  3. Topical absorption and systemic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhan, Fatima Sasha; Maibach, Howard

    2011-09-01

    Dermal absorption of some chemicals and drugs can cause systemic toxicity. We evaluated several case reports from the past decade, which discuss the dermal absorption of a specific chemical and potential local and systemic effects. We focused on herbicide and pesticide exposure along with exposure to cutaneous medication, occupational contact, and cosmeceutical exposure. Although causality cannot be established in most cases, it is critical to be aware of the possible effects of topical absorption that may not be immediately apparent. We recommended further studies on specific chemicals to ascertain causality and determine the highest exposure level with no observed adverse affect level (NOAEL) and the reference dose (RfD). Post-marketing epidemiology data in most geographical areas are markedly limited. A weak link in public health resides in the inadequate reporting and workup of alleged chemically related adverse effects. This arena mandates a re-thinking of how to increase this reporting, and workup, as a backup to our preclinical and clinical studies. Public awareness and funding will be rewarded by increased evidence to backup pre-approval pre-marketing studies.

  4. Decision Point 1 Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonsky, Al; Barsoumian, Shant; Legere, David

    2013-05-01

    This Topical Report addresses accomplishments achieved during Phase 2a of the SkyMine® Carbon Mineralization Pilot Project. The primary objectives of this project are to design, construct, and operate a system to capture CO2 from a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial coal-fired cement kiln, convert that CO2 to products having commercial value (i.e., beneficial use), show the economic viability of the CO2 capture and conversion process, and thereby advance the technology to the point of readiness for commercial scale demonstration and proliferation. The overall process is carbon negative, resulting in mineralization of CO2 that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere. The project will also substantiate market opportunities for the technology by sales of chemicals into existing markets, and identify opportunities to improve technology performance and reduce costs at the commercial scale. The project is being conducted in two phases. The primary objectives of Phase 1 were to elaborate proven SkyMine® process chemistry to commercial pilot-scale operation and complete the preliminary design for the pilot plant to be built and operated in Phase 2, complete a NEPA evaluation, and develop a comprehensive carbon life cycle analysis. The objective of the current Phase (2a) is to complete the detailed design of the pilot plant to be built in Phase 2b.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Amand; Simkovic, Fedor

    1998-12-01

    We review the recent developments in the field of nuclear double beta decay, which is presently an important topic in both nuclear and particle physics. The mechanism of lepton number violation within the neutrinoless double beta decay (0954-3899/24/12/001/img5-decay) is discussed in the context of the problem of neutrino mixing and the R-parity violating supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The problem of reliable determination of the nuclear matrix elements governing both two-neutrino and neutrinoless modes of the double beta decay is addressed. The validity of different approximation schemes in the considered nuclear structure studies is analysed and the role of the Pauli exclusion principle for a correct treatment of nuclear matrix elements is emphasized. The constraints on different lepton-number violating parameters such as effective electron neutrino mass, effective right-handed weak interaction parameters, effective Majoron coupling constant and R-parity violating SUSY parameters are derived from the best presently available experimental limits on the half-life of 0954-3899/24/12/001/img5-decay.

  6. Transfer Timing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim present Simulation Presentation Interactive Media Element This IME is used in the Computer Communications and Networks class offered in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Sciences. This introductory computer networking course provides the theory and principles of networking and communications protocols. This IME is used to help students understand data transfer options. CS3502 Computer Communications and Networks

  7. Seamless Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In 2014, approximately 7.3 million undergraduate students (42 percent) were enrolled in community colleges in the US, the latest statistic offered by the Community College Research Center. At some schools, like Cleveland State University (OH), more transfer students graduated in 2014 with a bachelor's degree than students who entered four-year…

  8. Use of a Latent Topic Model for Characteristic Extraction from Health Checkup Questionnaire Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Y; Miyano, I; Kataoka, H; Nakajima, N; Watabe, T; Yasuda, N; Okuhara, Y

    2015-01-01

    When patients complete questionnaires during health checkups, many of their responses are subjective, making topic extraction difficult. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a model capable of extracting appropriate topics from subjective data in questionnaires conducted during health checkups. We employed a latent topic model to group the lifestyle habits of the study participants and represented their responses to items on health checkup questionnaires as a probability model. For the probability model, we used latent Dirichlet allocation to extract 30 topics from the questionnaires. According to the model parameters, a total of 4381 study participants were then divided into groups based on these topics. Results from laboratory tests, including blood glucose level, triglycerides, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, were compared between each group, and these results were then compared with those obtained by hierarchical clustering. If a significant (p topic model and hierarchical clustering grouping revealed that, in the latent topic model method, a small group of participants who reported having subjective signs of urinary disorder were allocated to a single group. The latent topic model is useful for extracting characteristics from a small number of groups from questionnaires with a large number of items. These results show that, in addition to chief complaints and history of past illness, questionnaire data obtained during medical checkups can serve as useful judgment criteria for assessing the conditions of patients.

  9. Emulgel based topical delivery system for loratadine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was taken up with the objective of formulating emulgels to facilitate topical delivery of loratadine in the treatment of localized skin allergy. It was attempted to prepare the emulgels using three different types of surfactants, i.e. cationic, non-ionic and anionic.   Further, the aim was to compare the formulations for their drug release and stability. Loratadine was incorporated into an o/w system, which was subsequently gellified using Carbopol 940. The resulting emulgels were subject to tests for physical characteristics. Thereafter, ex vivo drug release study, skin irritation test and in vivo test for anti-allergic activity were also carried out.  A considerably higher drug release was recorded from the emulgel formulated with the cationic surfactant, cetrimide. Drug release kinetics were investigated by fitting the drug release data into various models. The drug release from all the formulations was found to follow zero-order kinetics. In addition, the prepared emulgels exhibited satisfactory physical characteristics and good stability. Besides being non-irritant to the skin, they were effective in alleviating symptoms of skin allergy.

  10. Preverbal subjects in null subject languages are not necessarily dislocated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent work on null subject languages it has been claimed that preverbal subjects are always (clitic-left dislocated. In this paper, we argue against this claim, on the grounds of empirical evidence from European Portuguese concerning agreement facts, asymmetries between preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs with respect to minimality effects, the existence of languages with a mixed system (null expletive subjects and full referential ones, language acquisition data, the behavior of negative QPs and interpretation facts, and propose a non-uniform analysis of preverbal subjects and clitic-left dislocated XPs that derives their topic interpretation from a predication rule stated configurationally (section 2. Our account of the SVO and VSO orders displayed in European Portuguese relies on a specific formulation of the EPP parameter, on the locality constraint Attract Closest X and on the independently motivated claim that V-movement targets T in European Portuguese (section 3. Under our analysis, the computational system generates equally economical SVO and VSO derivations and discourse considerations, at the appropriate interface, rule out the unfelicitous ones.

  11. Recent Advances In Topical Therapy In Dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Thappa Devinder

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With changing times various newer topical agents are introduced in the field of dermatology. Tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are immunisuppressants, which are effective topically and are tried in the management of atopic dermatitis as well as other disorders including allergic contact dermatitis, atrophic lichen planus, pyoderma gangrenosum. Imiquimod, an immune response modifier, is presently in use for genital warts but has potentials as anti- tumour agent and in various other dermatological conditions when used topically. Tazarotene is a newer addition to the list of topical reginoids, which is effective in psoriasis and has better effect in combination with calcipotriene, phototherapy and topical costicosteroids. Tazarotene and adapelene are also effective in inflammatory acne. Calcipotriol, a vitamin D analogue has been introduced as a topical agent in the treatment of psoriasis. Steroid components are also developed recently which will be devoid of the side effects but having adequate anti-inflammatory effect. Topical photodynamic therapy has also a wide range of use in dermatology. Newer topical agents including cidofovir, capsaicin, topical sensitizers, topical antifungal agents for onychomycosis are also of use in clinical practice. Other promising developments include skin substitutes and growth factors for wound care.

  12. HierarchicalTopics: visually exploring large text collections using topic hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Wenwen; Yu, Li; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhiqiang; Ribarsky, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing large textual collections has become increasingly challenging given the size of the data available and the rate that more data is being generated. Topic-based text summarization methods coupled with interactive visualizations have presented promising approaches to address the challenge of analyzing large text corpora. As the text corpora and vocabulary grow larger, more topics need to be generated in order to capture the meaningful latent themes and nuances in the corpora. However, it is difficult for most of current topic-based visualizations to represent large number of topics without being cluttered or illegible. To facilitate the representation and navigation of a large number of topics, we propose a visual analytics system--HierarchicalTopic (HT). HT integrates a computational algorithm, Topic Rose Tree, with an interactive visual interface. The Topic Rose Tree constructs a topic hierarchy based on a list of topics. The interactive visual interface is designed to present the topic content as well as temporal evolution of topics in a hierarchical fashion. User interactions are provided for users to make changes to the topic hierarchy based on their mental model of the topic space. To qualitatively evaluate HT, we present a case study that showcases how HierarchicalTopics aid expert users in making sense of a large number of topics and discovering interesting patterns of topic groups. We have also conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate the effect of hierarchical topic structure. The study results reveal that the HT leads to faster identification of large number of relevant topics. We have also solicited user feedback during the experiments and incorporated some suggestions into the current version of HierarchicalTopics.

  13. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Peeler, Ryan; Topham, Philip

    2012-03-15

    Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector) are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further, opinion leaders missed in scientific publication network analysis

  14. Discovering opinion leaders for medical topics using news articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnalagadda Siddhartha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification of subject experts for medical topics helps in improving the implementation of discoveries by speeding the time to market drugs and aiding in clinical trial recruitment, etc. Identifying such people who influence opinion through social network analysis is gaining prominence. In this work, we explore how to combine named entity recognition from unstructured news articles with social network analysis to discover opinion leaders for a given medical topic. Methods We employed a Conditional Random Field algorithm to extract three categories of entities from health-related new articles: Person, Organization and Location. We used the latter two to disambiguate polysemy and synonymy for the person names, used simple rules to identify the subject experts, and then applied social network analysis techniques to discover the opinion leaders among them based on their media presence. A network was created by linking each pair of subject experts who are mentioned together in an article. The social network analysis metrics (including centrality metrics such as Betweenness, Closeness, Degree and Eigenvector are used for ranking the subject experts based on their power in information flow. Results We extracted 734,204 person mentions from 147,528 news articles related to obesity from January 1, 2007 through July 22, 2010. Of these, 147,879 mentions have been marked as subject experts. The F-score of extracting person names is 88.5%. More than 80% of the subject experts who rank among top 20 in at least one of the metrics could be considered as opinion leaders in obesity. Conclusion The analysis of the network of subject experts with media presence revealed that an opinion leader might have fewer mentions in the news articles, but a high network centrality measure and vice-versa. Betweenness, Closeness and Degree centrality measures were shown to supplement frequency counts in the task of finding subject experts. Further

  15. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    the Euler, Froude, Reynolds, Weber, and Cauchy numbers are defined as essential tools for interpreting and using experimental data. The derivations of the energy and momentum equations are treated in detail. One-dimensional equations for steady nonuniform flow are developed, and the restrictions applicable to the equations are emphasized. Conditions of uniform and gradually varied flow are discussed, and the origin of the Chezy equation is examined in relation to both the energy and the momentum equations. The inadequacy of all uniform-flow equations as a means of describing gradually varied flow is explained. Thus, one of the definitive problems of river hydraulics is analyzed in the light of present knowledge. This report is the outgrowth of a series of short schools conducted during the spring and summer of 1953 for engineers of the Surface Water Branch, Water Resources Division, U. S. Geological Survey. The topics considered are essentially the same as the topics selected for inclusion in the schools. However, in order that they might serve better as a guide and outline for informal study, the arrangement of the writer's original lecture notes has been considerably altered. The purpose of the report, like the purpose of the schools which inspired it, is to build a simple but strong framework of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics. It is believed that this framework is capable of supporting a detailed analysis of most of the practical problems met by the engineers of the Geological Survey. It is hoped that the least accomplishment of this work will be to inspire the reader with the confidence and desire to read more of the recent and current technical literature of modern fluid mechanics.

  16. Topics in nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nirenberg, Louis

    2001-01-01

    Since its first appearance as a set of lecture notes published by the Courant Institute in 1974, this book served as an introduction to various subjects in nonlinear functional analysis. The current edition is a reprint of these notes, with added bibliographic references. Topological and analytic methods are developed for treating nonlinear ordinary and partial differential equations. The first two chapters of the book introduce the notion of topological degree and develop its basic properties. These properties are used in later chapters in the discussion of bifurcation theory (the possible br

  17. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  18. Heat Transfer Basics and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Böckh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author’s experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises ...

  19. Involuntary transfer of Intellectual property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed habiba

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available IPR owners have a right about voluntary transfer but sometimes Intellectual property right transfer by force and thus, there are challenge that this article regard for its. IPR shall be devolved to their legitimate heirs after their death unless, owner indicate otherwise in their wills. The heirs have the exclusive right to exercise economic and moral rights, they decide upon publication of the work and in general do every exploitation. But, they shall exercise The decisive manner that IPR of holder intended before his death. On other hand, IPR may be liable to seizure or IPR have been used in mortgage loan. Thus they can be transfer to new person.Here, we regard to Involuntary transfer.This article highlight subject of involuntary transfer and analysis on aspects

  20. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  1. Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Kyle W.; Smith, Matthew S.; Giraud-Carrier, Christophe; Hanson, Carl L.

    Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller subset that was seeded by tobacco-related queries. Topic modeling across the large dataset uncovers several public health-related topics, although tobacco is not detected by this method. However, topic modeling across the tobacco subset provides valuable insight about tobacco use in the United States. The methods used in this paper provide a possible toolset for public health researchers and practitioners to better understand public health problems through large datasets of conversational data.

  2. [Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, H-J; Schmidt, O; Ritsche, A

    2014-11-01

    Reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement is limited by various factors. The main factors affecting reproducibility include the characteristics of the measurement method and of the subject and the examiner. This article presents the results of a study on this topic, focusing on the reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes. The results of previous studies are not all presented in the same way by the respective authors and cannot be fully standardized without consulting the original scientific data. To the extent that they are comparable, the results of our study largely correspond largely with those of previous investigations: During repeated subjective refraction measurement, 95% of the deviation from the mean value was approximately ±0.2 D to ±0.65 D for the spherical equivalent and cylindrical power. The reproducibility of subjective refraction measurement in healthy eyes is limited, even under ideal conditions. Correct assessment of refraction results is only feasible after identifying individual variability. Several measurements are required. Refraction cannot be measured without a tolerance range. The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under supplemental).

  3. Additional Degree Required? Advanced Subject Knowledge and Academic Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Since the Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) first published its terminal degree statement in 1975, the topic of librarians and advanced subject degrees has been controversial, and research on the topic has remained limited. Based on data gathered from two major online job sites as well as library and information science programs…

  4. Health Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) TB Screening Tests (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Genetics Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library ...

  5. Topical Antimicrobial Therapy for Treating Chronic Wounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin A. Lipsky; Christopher Hoey

    2009-01-01

    .... Topical therapy affords many potential advantages but also has disadvantages. Opinions differ on which clinical signs define wound infection and on whether quantitative microbiological studies are useful...

  6. Topical anesthetics for cosmetic and laser dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Snehal P; Goldberg, David J

    2005-01-01

    Many effective and simple topical anesthetic products are available today and commonly used in medical and non-medical settings. The increased use of topical anesthetics, especially by non-physicians in the medical and non-medical settings, has resulted in increased rates of complications including ineffective anesthesia, allergy, and even potential fatalities. This review focuses on various techniques and formulations for topical anesthesia and their appropriate applications in cosmetic and laser dermatology. In addition, the history, pharmacology, and clinical complications of topical anesthetics are discussed.

  7. Updates of Topical and Local Anesthesia Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Ricardo A; Kirpalani, Tarun; Mohan, Naveen

    2016-04-01

    As described in this article, there are many advances in topical and local anesthesia. Topical and local anesthetics have played a great role in dentistry in alleviating the fears of patients, eliminating pain, and providing pain control. Many invasive procedures would not be performed without the use and advances of topical/local anesthetics. The modern-day dentist has the responsibility of knowing the variety of products on the market and should have at least references to access before, during, and after treatment. This practice ensures proper care with topical and local anesthetics for the masses of patients entering dental offices worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Alinia, H; Feldman, S R

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of rosacea is challenging because several pathophysiologic processes may be involved, including neurovascular dysregulation and alterations in innate immune status. Demodex mites may play a role in the latter mechanism. Topical ivermectin is a new therapeutic modality which demonstrates antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory properties. This article reviews published evidence related to the efficacy and safety of topical ivermectin. PubMed was utilized to search for key words "topical ivermectin", "ivermectin cream" and "rosacea". Three clinical trials were found that studied topical ivermectin as a treatment option for rosacea. Ivermectin was effective, safe and well tolerated. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  9. Topical tacrolimus as treatment of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masutaka Furue

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Masutaka Furue, Satoshi TakeuchiDepartment of Dermatology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, chronic, relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. The mainstays of treatment for AD are topical tacrolimus and topical steroids. Tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, not only complements existing treatment options but also overcomes some of the drawbacks of topical steroid therapy when given topically and thus meets the long-term needs of patients in preventing disease progression. Topical tacrolimus has been widely recognized in terms of its short- and long-term efficacies and safety, and it is also accepted as a first-line treatment for inflammation in AD. The recent proactive use of topical tacrolimus may emphasize a long-term benefit of this calcineurin inhibitor for AD treatment. To reduce possible long-term adverse effects, it is important to monitor its topical doses in daily clinics.Keywords: atopic dermatitis, topical tacrolimus, topical steroids, dose, proactive use, adverse effects

  10. Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress

  11. Acute Toxicity from Topical Cocaine for Epistaxis: Treatment with Labetalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Laurin, Erik G; Tabish, Nabil; Lange, Richard A

    2017-03-01

    Topical cocaine is sometimes used for the treatment of epistaxis, as it has both potent anesthetic and vasoconstrictive properties. Cocaine has unpredictable cardiovascular effects, such as sudden hypertension, tachycardia, coronary arterial vasoconstriction, and dysrhythmia. We report a case of acute iatrogenic cardiovascular toxicity from the use of topical cocaine in a 56-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with profound epistaxis. To prepare for cauterization and nasal packing, the patient received 4% topical cocaine-soaked nasal pledgets. He became hypertensive, tachypneic, tachycardic, and dysphoric immediately after administration. To directly counter these adverse hyperadrenergic effects, the patient was given 10 mg intravenous labetalol, a mixed β- and α-blocker. This instantly normalized his vital signs and adverse subjective effects. His epistaxis was successfully treated, and he was discharged 1 h later. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We believe that emergency physicians should be aware of the unpredictable acute cardiovascular toxicity of topical cocaine. Labetalol represents an effective first-line treatment, which, unlike benzodiazepines, directly counters the pharmacologic effects of cocaine and has no respiratory or sedative side effects. Labetalol, with its mixed β/α-blocking properties, also mitigates the potential for "unopposed α-stimulation." Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Guided Inquiry Learning for Comparison Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnidar; Khabibah, S.; Sulaiman, R.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims at producing a good quality learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics and describing the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning for comparison topics. This research is a developmental research using 4-D model. The result is learning device consisting of lesson plan, student’s worksheet, and achievement test. The subjects of the study were class VII students, each of which has 46 students. Based on the result in the experimental class, the learning device using guided inquiry for comparison topics has good quality. The learning device has met the valid, practical, and effective aspects. The result, especially in the implementation class, showed that the learning process with guided inquiry has fulfilled the effectiveness indicators. The ability of the teacher to manage the learning process has fulfilled the criteria good. In addition, the students’ activity has fulfilled the criteria of, at least, good. Moreover, the students’ responses to the learning device and the learning activities were positive, and the students were able to complete the classical learning. Based on the result of this research, it is expected that the learning device resulted can be used as an alternative learning device for teachers in implementing mathematic learning for comparison topics.

  13. Gender and Topicality in Onwueme's Plays

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... often high-lighted her discussion of topical, national and global issues against the metaphorical backdrop of women ... among other things and champions of causes. This by itself is topical. For as .... youth restiveness due to unemployment on the global as well as the local levels. Her concerns touch also on ...

  14. Correlated Topic Vector for Scene Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Qin, Fei; Wan, Fang; Zhu, Yi; Jiao, Jianbin; Ye, Qixiang

    2017-07-01

    Scene images usually involve semantic correlations, particularly when considering large-scale image data sets. This paper proposes a novel generative image representation, correlated topic vector, to model such semantic correlations. Oriented from the correlated topic model, correlated topic vector intends to naturally utilize the correlations among topics, which are seldom considered in the conventional feature encoding, e.g., Fisher vector, but do exist in scene images. It is expected that the involvement of correlations can increase the discriminative capability of the learned generative model and consequently improve the recognition accuracy. Incorporated with the Fisher kernel method, correlated topic vector inherits the advantages of Fisher vector. The contributions to the topics of visual words have been further employed by incorporating the Fisher kernel framework to indicate the differences among scenes. Combined with the deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and Gibbs sampling solution, correlated topic vector shows great potential when processing large-scale and complex scene image data sets. Experiments on two scene image data sets demonstrate that correlated topic vector improves significantly the deep CNN features, and outperforms existing Fisher kernel-based features.

  15. Topical treatments in psoriasis: today and tomorrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jan D.; Spuls, Phyllis I.

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy in psoriasis is Of use in mild cases. It is also applied as an adjunct to phototherapy and systemic treatments in moderate to severe cases. Long-established pharmaceuticals such as cignolin, tar preparations, and glucocorticoids are still in use. Newer topical agents such as vitamin

  16. Torpedo: topic periodicity discovery from text data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Deng, Hongbo; Han, Jiawei

    2015-05-01

    Although history may not repeat itself, many human activities are inherently periodic, recurring daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or following some other periods. Such recurring activities may not repeat the same set of keywords, but they do share similar topics. Thus it is interesting to mine topic periodicity from text data instead of just looking at the temporal behavior of a single keyword/phrase. Some previous preliminary studies in this direction prespecify a periodic temporal template for each topic. In this paper, we remove this restriction and propose a simple yet effective framework Torpedo to mine periodic/recurrent patterns from text, such as news articles, search query logs, research papers, and web blogs. We first transform text data into topic-specific time series by a time dependent topic modeling module, where each of the time series characterizes the temporal behavior of a topic. Then we use time series techniques to detect periodicity. Hence we both obtain a clear view of how topics distribute over time and enable the automatic discovery of periods that are inherent in each topic. Theoretical and experimental analyses demonstrate the advantage of Torpedo over existing work.

  17. Topic Time Series Analysis of Microblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    of residence. Topic 158, Distance: 3.7809 Top words: 1. tracking 2. graffiti 3. station 4. plaza 5. mariachi Analysis: This topic describes Tweets by a... graffiti tracking service hired by the LA Metro Link. On the righthand side are the locations of the Metro Link stations in the area, which

  18. Corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Slomovic, Allan R.; Spanjaard, Lodewijk

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to report a case of corneal staining after treatment with topical tetracycline. METHODS: A patient with crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus viridans after corneal transplantation was treated topically with tetracycline eye drops, based on results of

  19. Topical Antibacterials and Global Challenges on Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature of bacterial infections and topical antibacterials. The advantages of topical route application as compared to systemic administration include the decreased risk of systemic side effects and even toxicity, reduced the possibility to elicit bacterial resistance, and the application of high concentration of antibacterial agent ...

  20. Anesthesia: A Topic for Interdisciplinary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labianca, Dominick A.; Reeves, William J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary approach for teaching the topic of anesthesia as one aspect of a chemistry-oriented course for nonscience majors which focuses on timely topics such as the energy crisis and drugs. Historical treatment with the examination of literature is emphasized in teaching. (HM)

  1. Topical silver for treating infected wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, H.; van Hattem, J. M.; Storm-Versloot, M. N.; Ubbink, D. T.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Topical silver treatments and silver dressings are increasingly used for the local treatment of contaminated or infected wounds, however, there is a lack of clarity regarding the evidence for their effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on wound healing of topical silver and

  2. Topical Treatment of Degenerative Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zengdong; Huang, Rongzhong

    2018-01-01

    This article reviews topical management strategies for degenerative osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A search of Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane library using MeSH terms including "topical," "treatment," "knee" and "osteoarthritis" was carried out. Original research and review articles on the effectiveness and safety, recommendations from international published guidelines and acceptability studies of topical preparations were included. Current topical treatments included for the management of knee OA include topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, capsaicin, salicylates and physical treatments such as hot or cold therapy. Current treatment guidelines recommend topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as an alternative and even first-line therapy for OA management, especially among elderly patients. Guidelines on other topical treatments vary, from recommendations against their use, to in favor as alternative or simultaneous therapy, especially for patients with contraindications to other analgesics. Although often well-tolerated and preferred by many patients, clinical care still lags in the adoption of topical treatments. Aspects of efficacy, safety and patient quality of life data require further research. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring Topic Structure: Coherence, Diversity and Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. He (Jiyin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe use of topical information has long been studied in the context of information retrieval. For example, grouping search results into topical categories enables more effective information presentation to users, while grouping documents in a collection can lead to efficient information

  4. Psoriasis: improving adherence to topical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldman, S.R.; Horn, E.J.; Balkrishnan, R.; Basra, M.K.; Finlay, A.Y.; McCoy, D.; Menter, A.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2008-01-01

    Topical therapy has an important role in psoriasis treatment. It is efficacious and has a favorable safety profile as demonstrated in clinical trials. However, poor treatment outcomes from topical therapy regimens likely result from poor adherence and ineffective use of the medication. The

  5. Dexmedetomidine premedication in cataract surgery under topical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ophthalmologist, blinded to the study group, measured the IOP using a Schioetz tonometer under topical analgesia in the non-operated eye. The IOP was recorded before the premedication and at the end of the surgery. Surgery was performed under topical anaesthesia using instillation of few drops of 0.5% paracaine.

  6. Fostering Topic Knowledge: Essential for Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proske, Antje; Kapp, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers emphasize the role of the writer's topic knowledge for writing. In academic writing topic knowledge is often constructed by studying source texts. One possibility to support that essential phase of the writing process is to provide interactive learning questions which facilitate the construction of an adequate situation…

  7. Behavior Analysis of Elderly using Topic Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieping, K.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes two new topic models for the analysis of human behavior in homes that are equipped with sensor networks. The models are based on Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic models and can detect patterns in sensor data in an unsupervised manner. LDA-Gaussian, the first variation of

  8. Aerodynamics of wind turbines emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, R S

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines with topics ranging from Fundamental to Application of horizontal axis wind turbines, this book presents advanced topics including: Basic Theory for Wind turbine Blade Aerodynamics, Computational Methods, and Special Structural Reinforcement Technique for Wind Turbine Blades.

  9. Topical antioxidants in radiodermatitis: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-09-01

    Radiation-induced skin toxicity is the most prevalent side effect of radiation therapy. Not only does it have a significant effect on patients' quality of life, but it also results in poor follow-up and early termination of radiotherapy treatment. Several skin care practices and topical applications have been studied in the field of radiodermatitis, including skin washing, topical steroids, and mechanical skin barriers. Aside from these methods, many patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Many of these alternative therapies are topically applied antioxidants. While the rationale behind the use of antioxidants in treating radiodermatitis is strong, clinical studies have been far less consistent. Even in large scale randomised controlled trials, findings have been limited by the inconsistent use of topical vehicles and placebos. In this article, the authors review the role of topical antioxidants to better help the practitioner navigate through different available skin directed antioxidants.

  10. Teaching of Computer Science Topics Using Meta-Programming-Based GLOs and LEGO Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štuikys, Vytautas; Burbaite, Renata; Damaševicius, Robertas

    2013-01-01

    The paper's contribution is a methodology that integrates two educational technologies (GLO and LEGO robot) to teach Computer Science (CS) topics at the school level. We present the methodology as a framework of 5 components (pedagogical activities, technology driven processes, tools, knowledge transfer actors, and pedagogical outcomes) and…

  11. Topical delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J C; Perry, D D; Russell, D N; Jones, B F

    1981-01-01

    Systemic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), administered either by smoking marihuana or as synthetic THC in soft gelatin capsules, lowers ocular tension in various glaucomas, but at the expense of significant decreases in systolic blood pressure. Topical THC in light mineral oil vehicles, though effective in laboratory animals, was not shown effective in 0.05 and 0.1% topical solutions when administered to six subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma in a randomized, balanced, double-masked protocol. Light mineral oil, which has an affinity for corneal epithelium, is an optimum vehicle for administering drugs whose mechanisms of action are systemic rather than local within the eye. Further glaucoma research should therefore proceed with marihuanas containing insignificant levels of THC (less than 0.4%) and with various local delivery systems of the ocular-active cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa.

  12. Conference report: hot topics in antibody-drug conjugate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela

    2013-12-01

    American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Sheraton San Diego Hotel and Marina, San Diego, CA, USA, 19-23 May 2013 The National Biotechnology Conference, is a premier meeting for biotechnology professionals covering a broad range of hot topics in the biotechnology industry. Attracting participants from academia, industry and regulatory, this meeting features sessions that aim to address emerging subjects of interest and allows for open exchange between scientists. The 2013 conference featured leading researchers in the fields of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) and immunogenicity. Herein, we present a summary of the ADC hot topics, including bioanalytical and PK considerations, quantitative evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity and ADME to understand ADC drug-drug interactions, and clinical considerations for ADC development. This article aims to summarize the recommendations that were made by the speakers during various sessions throughout the conference.

  13. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. Chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the

  14. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Directorate (NVE). To prevent cross-subsidization, the largest state-owned firm was split to form Statkraft SF, Norway's largest generation company, and Statnett SF, the major transmission company. Statnett is also the system operator of the entire Norwegian power system. Many distribution companies, usually publicly owned, are still part of vertically integrated companies, but there is strict separation of the financial accounts for transmission/distribution and generation/marketing. Trading is accomplished through several channels. The largest organized market is the common Norwegian-Swedish pool, NordPool. NordPool ASA is owned by Statnett Marked (which is a subsidiary of Statnett) and the Swedish grid-company, Svenska Kraftnaet. NordPool also supports the Finnish and Danish markets, thus through cooperation with the grid-companies of Denmark (Eltra) and Finland (Fingrid), locational markets are provided in these countries as well. Unlike England and Wales, only part of actual production is traded on this market. In addition, independent brokers offer various energy-contracts and facilitate bilateral contracts. In 1998 22% of the energy was traded on the hourly day-ahead (spot) market of NordPool. NordPool also organizes a forward and futures market and settles contracts from the regulation market organized by Statnett. The regulation market is a realtime market used to settle imbalances in real time. In total, close to 30% of the energy traded is organized through NordPool, and this share is increasing year by year. The efficiency of the market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system, and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. Throughout, the findings are illustrated by means of simple examples. This is to enhance readability and intuition. To start with, chapter 2 is devoted to power flow models, whereas chapter 3 provides an overview of models developed to efficiently

  15. Students’ conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diawati, Chansyanah, E-mail: chansyanahd@yahoo.com [Program Studi Pendidikan Kimia Jurusan PMIPA FKIP, Universitas Lampung, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soemantri Brodjonegoro No. 1 Gedung Meneng, Bandar Lampung35145 (Indonesia)

    2016-02-08

    The enthalpy concept and its change were introduced to describe the forms of internal energy transfer in chemical reactions. Likewise, the concepts of exothermic and endothermic reactions introduced as a consequence of heat transfer form. In the heat measurement process at constant pressure, work is often ignored. The exothermic or endothermic reactions, usually only based on the increase or decrease of the reaction temperature, without associated with the internal energy. Depictions of enthalpy and its change assumed closely related to students’ problem-solving ability. Therefore, the study to describe pre-service chemistry teacher student’s conceptions and problem-solving ability on topic chemical thermodynamics has been done. This research was a case study of chemical education course in Provinsi Lampung. The subjects of this study were 42 students who attend the chemical thermodynamics course. Questions about exothermic and endothermic reactions, enthalpy and its change, as well as internal energy and its change were given in the form of an essay exam questions. Answers related to conception qualitatively categorized, while problem solving answers were scored and assessed. The results showed that, in general, students were having problems in enthalpy and describe the changes in the form of heat and work. The highest value of problem solving ability obtained 26.67 from the maximum value of 100. The lowest value was 0, and the average value was 14.73. These results show that the problem-solving ability of pre-service chemistry teacher students was low. The results provide insight to researchers, and educators to develop learning or lab work on this concept.

  16. 76 FR 81806 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... parasites when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective... topical solution used on cattle to control infestations of certain species of external and internal...

  17. 75 FR 26647 - Ophthalmic and Topical Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Ivermectin Topical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...; Ivermectin Topical Solution AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule, technical... parasites when cattle are treated with a topical solution of ivermectin. DATES: This rule is effective May..., filed a supplement to ANADA 200-340 for PRIVERMECTIN (ivermectin), a topical solution used on cattle to...

  18. Characterizing interdisciplinarity of researchers and research topics using web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Hiroki; Akaishi, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Researchers' networks have been subject to active modeling and analysis. Earlier literature mostly focused on citation or co-authorship networks reconstructed from annotated scientific publication databases, which have several limitations. Recently, general-purpose web search engines have also been utilized to collect information about social networks. Here we reconstructed, using web search engines, a network representing the relatedness of researchers to their peers as well as to various research topics. Relatedness between researchers and research topics was characterized by visibility boost-increase of a researcher's visibility by focusing on a particular topic. It was observed that researchers who had high visibility boosts by the same research topic tended to be close to each other in their network. We calculated correlations between visibility boosts by research topics and researchers' interdisciplinarity at the individual level (diversity of topics related to the researcher) and at the social level (his/her centrality in the researchers' network). We found that visibility boosts by certain research topics were positively correlated with researchers' individual-level interdisciplinarity despite their negative correlations with the general popularity of researchers. It was also found that visibility boosts by network-related topics had positive correlations with researchers' social-level interdisciplinarity. Research topics' correlations with researchers' individual- and social-level interdisciplinarities were found to be nearly independent from each other. These findings suggest that the notion of "interdisciplinarity" of a researcher should be understood as a multi-dimensional concept that should be evaluated using multiple assessment means.

  19. Efectividad del uso tópico de Salvia officinalis en la disminución del índice gingival en sujetos con gingivitis Effectiveness of topical use of Salvia officinalis in the gingival index decrease in subjects with gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Valenzuela Melgarejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La gingivitis es el problema periodontal de mayor prevalencia en la población, por lo que deben buscarse más alternativas de tratamiento y prevención. Objetivo: Evaluar efecto del uso de Salvia officinalis en disminución del índice gingival modificado (IG en alumnos de Odontología de la Universidad del Desarrollo diagnosticados con gingivitis, año 2010. Sujetos y Método: Fue realizado un estudio cuantitativo, ciego, experimental del tipo ensayo clínico controlado con placebo, sobre la acción de extracto de S. officinalis en dentífrico y colutorios para gingivitis inducida por placa bacteriana, en 33 alumnos de odontología de la Universidad del Desarrollo, Concepción; 13 mujeres y 20 hombres entre 21 y 29 años. Fueron divididos en tres grupos; placebo, colutorio y dentífrico. Luego del inicio del tratamiento fueron citados a los 7, 14 y 28 días, finalizando el tratamiento el día 14. Resultados: En el control no se encontró diferencias significativas (p=0.061 la primera semana, mientras que en los grupos con colutorio o dentífrico si hubo diferencias significativas (p=0.000 y p=0.002. La última semana al retirar el placebo, el IG se mantuvo, por otro lado en los grupos con S. officinalis no continuó el descenso. La disminución del IG fue mayor para los grupos colutorio y dentífrico que para el control. Discusión: El uso de S. officinalis es efectivo en la disminución del IG. El colutorio y dentífrico logran disminuir con mayor rapidez el IG. El colutorio logró la mayor disminución del IG.Background: Gingivitis is the most prevalent periodontal problem in people, so we need to find new alternatives for treatment and prevention. Aim: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis in the declining modified gingival index (GI in dentistry students of the Universidad del Desarrollo diagnosed with gingivitis, year 2010. Subjects and Methods: This was a quantitative study, blinded, experimental type of placebo

  20. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  1. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders......The concept of governance has mutated into an all‐embracing buzz‐word characterised by a low degree of conceptual precision and empirical focus. This paper therefore suggests a narrower and more precise understanding of governance and the regulatory function it fulfils by advancing the argument...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  2. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  3. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James David Adams Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  4. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  5. Topic maps for exploring nosological, lexical, semantic and HL7 structures for clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Grace I; Grant, Andrew M; Soroka, Steven D

    2008-12-01

    A topic map is implemented for learning about clinical data associated with a hospital stay for patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease, diabetes and hypertension. The question posed is: how might a topic map help bridge perspectival differences among communities of practice and help make commensurable the different classifications they use? The knowledge layer of the topic map was generated from existing ontological relationships in nosological, lexical, semantic and HL7 boundary objects. Discharge summaries, patient charts and clinical data warehouse entries rectified the clinical knowledge used in practice. These clinical data were normalized to HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) markup standard and stored in the Clinical Document Repository. Each CDA entry was given a subject identifier and linked with the topic map. The ability of topic maps to function as the infostructure ;glue' is assessed using dimensions of semantic interoperability and commensurability.

  6. Heat transfer modelling of first walls subject to plasma disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Makowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the plasma disruption problem and potential thermal consequences to the first wall is given. Thermal models reviewed include: a) melting of a solid with melt layer in place; b) melting of a solid with complete removal of melt (ablation); c) melting/vaporization of a solid; and d) vaporization of a solid but no phase change affecting the temperature profile.

  7. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  8. Effectiveness of topic-specific infobuttons: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Fiol, Guilherme; Haug, Peter J; Cimino, James J; Narus, Scott P; Norlin, Chuck; Mitchell, Joyce A

    2008-01-01

    Infobuttons are decision support tools that provide links within electronic medical record systems to relevant content in online information resources. The aim of infobuttons is to help clinicians promptly meet their information needs. The objective of this study was to determine whether infobutton links that direct to specific content topics ("topic links") are more effective than links that point to general overview content ("nonspecific links"). Randomized controlled trial with a control and an intervention group. Clinicians in the control group had access to nonspecific links, while those in the intervention group had access to topic links. Infobutton session duration, number of infobutton sessions, session success rate, and the self-reported impact that the infobutton session produced on decision making. The analysis was performed on 90 subjects and 3,729 infobutton sessions. Subjects in the intervention group spent 17.4% less time seeking for information (35.5 seconds vs. 43 seconds, p = 0.008) than those in the control group. Subjects in the intervention group used infobuttons 20.5% (22 sessions vs. 17.5 sessions, p = 0.21) more often than in the control group, but the difference was not significant. The information seeking success rate was equally high in both groups (89.4% control vs. 87.2% intervention, p = 0.99). Subjects reported a high positive clinical impact (i.e., decision enhancement or knowledge update) in 62% of the sessions. Limitations The exclusion of users with a low frequency of infobutton use and the focus on medication-related information needs may limit the generalization of the results. The session outcomes measurement was based on clinicians' self-assessment and therefore prone to bias. The results support the hypothesis that topic links are more efficient than nonspecific links regarding the time seeking for information. It is unclear whether the statistical difference demonstrated will result in a clinically significant impact

  9. Transfer price: theoretical and applied aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Yatskevych Inna V.

    2013-01-01

    Modern conditions of development of entrepreneurial activity result in fundamental reformation of relations between economic subjects. Not only the subjects change, but also the forms of their interaction with each other on the basis of partner relations. One of the mechanisms of formation and development of partner relations is the transfer price, which is a prerequisite of systematisation of theoretical aspects of formation of the transfer price (notions, essence, participant of price forma...

  10. Newborn Screening: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine) Article: Promotion of early pediatric hearing detection through patient navigation: ... screening tests (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Newborn Screening updates by ...

  11. Physicians' Religious Topic Avoidance during Clinical Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagran, Melinda M; MacArthur, Brenda L; Lee, Lauren E; Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie R

    2017-05-08

    Religious and spiritual (R/S) conversations at the end-of-life function to help patients and their families find comfort in difficult circumstances. Physicians who feel uncertain about how to discuss topics related to religious beliefs may seek to avoid R/S conversations with their patients. This study utilized a two-group objective structured clinical examination with a standardized patient to explore differences in physicians' use of R/S topic avoidance tactics during a clinical interaction. Results indicated that physicians used more topic avoidance tactics in response to patients' R/S inquiries than patients' R/S disclosures; however, the use of topic avoidance tactics did not eliminate the need to engage in patient-initiated R/S interactions.

  12. Mining Concurrent Topical Activity in Microblog Streams

    CERN Document Server

    Panisson, A; Quaggiotto, M; Cattuto, C

    2014-01-01

    Streams of user-generated content in social media exhibit patterns of collective attention across diverse topics, with temporal structures determined both by exogenous factors and endogenous factors. Teasing apart different topics and resolving their individual, concurrent, activity timelines is a key challenge in extracting knowledge from microblog streams. Facing this challenge requires the use of methods that expose latent signals by using term correlations across posts and over time. Here we focus on content posted to Twitter during the London 2012 Olympics, for which a detailed schedule of events is independently available and can be used for reference. We mine the temporal structure of topical activity by using two methods based on non-negative matrix factorization. We show that for events in the Olympics schedule that can be semantically matched to Twitter topics, the extracted Twitter activity timeline closely matches the known timeline from the schedule. Our results show that, given appropriate techn...

  13. Physicians’ Religious Topic Avoidance during Clinical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda M. Villagran

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Religious and spiritual (R/S conversations at the end-of-life function to help patients and their families find comfort in difficult circumstances. Physicians who feel uncertain about how to discuss topics related to religious beliefs may seek to avoid R/S conversations with their patients. This study utilized a two-group objective structured clinical examination with a standardized patient to explore differences in physicians’ use of R/S topic avoidance tactics during a clinical interaction. Results indicated that physicians used more topic avoidance tactics in response to patients’ R/S inquiries than patients’ R/S disclosures; however, the use of topic avoidance tactics did not eliminate the need to engage in patient-initiated R/S interactions.

  14. Cardiovascular Complications Resulting from Topical Lidocaine Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Lin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Topical lidocaine is one of the most commonly used anesthetics in the emergency department (ED. The advantages of topical anesthesia include ease of application, minimal discomfort on administration, and rapid onset of anesthesia. Systemic toxic effects after topical lidocaine application are rare. We present a case of a man aged 48 years with no history of heart disease and no evidence of bradycardia in previous electrocardiograms. The patient had sprayed lidocaine solution on the glans of his penis before sex during the 2 weeks prior to admission. Cardiovascular adverse events occurred, including chest tightness and bradycardia. After 2 hours conservative treatment at our ED, his symptoms were alleviated. He was discharged from the ED without any medication. The case suggests that detailed patient histories are necessary for accurate diagnosis and that rapid diagnosis and implementation of treatment is necessary for successful patient outcomes in cases of cardiovascular complications resulting from topical lidocaine application.

  15. Diabetic Diet: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by email What's this? GO MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Counting carbohydrates Diabetes diet - gestational Diabetes type 2 - meal planning Glycemic ... diabetes Sweeteners - sugar substitutes Related Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Diabetes in Children and Teens Diabetes Type 1 ...

  16. Web Enabled DROLS Verity TopicSets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this effort has been the design and development of automatically generated TopicSets and HTML pages that provide the basis of the required search and browsing capability for DTIC's Web Enabled DROLS System...

  17. Diets: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Teenagers 5 Ways to Spot a Fad Diet (Nemours ... diet Related Health Topics Child Nutrition DASH Diet Diabetic Diet Nutrition Nutrition for Seniors Vegetarian Diet Weight ...

  18. Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Show Less Related Health Topics Breastfeeding Calcium Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Cholesterol Dietary Fats Dietary Fiber Dietary Proteins Diets Eating Disorders Food Labeling Food Safety Infant and Newborn Nutrition Malnutrition Nutrition for Seniors Nutritional Support Obesity Pregnancy and ...

  19. Granuloma faciale successfully treated with topical tacrolimus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Clare; Coutts, Ian

    2009-08-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a benign chronic condition characterized by recurrent plaques and nodules most commonly found on the face. We report a man with a 6-month history of plaques on his forehead and preauricular area consistent with GF that responded to twice-daily application of topical tacrolimus ointment, and who remains in remission 1 year later. This case supports previous reports of the successful use of topical tacrolimus in treating GF.

  20. Toxic Keratopathy Secondary to Topical Proparacaine

    OpenAIRE

    Anıl Kubaloğlu; Esin Söğütlü Sarı; Pınar Sorgun Evcili; Sibel Akyol; Arif Koytak; Yusuf Özertürk

    2012-01-01

    Pur po se: To evaluate the clinical findings of toxic keratopathies secondary to topical proparacaine (Alcaine, Alcon) abuse and the results of medical and/or surgical treatment options. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively analyzed twenty-two eyes of 25 patients who developed toxic keratopathy secondary to topical anesthetic abuse between March 2005 and December 2009. Severe pain unresponsive to medical treatment with persistent epithelial defects (PED) and stromal ulcers wer...

  1. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti; Seyyed Mahyar Shariatpanahi; Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani; Behjat Javadi

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM....

  2. Efficacy of functional microarray of microneedles combined with topical tranexamic acid for melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yang; Ma, Renyan; Juliandri, Juliandri; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Bai; Wang, Daguang; Lu, Yan; Zhou, Bingrong; Luo, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate the efficacy of a functional microarray of microneedles (MNs) plus topical tranexamic acid (TA) for melasma in middle-aged women in China. Thirty female subjects with melasma were enrolled in this study. The left or right side of the face was chosen randomly to be pretreated with a functional microarray of MNs, followed by topical 0.5% TA solution once per week for 12 weeks. The other half-face was the control, treated with a sham device plus topical 0.5% TA solution. At ...

  3. TOPICAL STEROIDS IN THERAPY OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC DERMATITIS OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Sharova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It's known that topical therapy with corticosteroids is an important component of treating diseases with dermatitis symptoms. Effects of this kind of medications are multifarious, whereas the result is one and only — reduced subjective and objective symptoms of dermatitis, restoration of psychological and emotional condition of patients, improved quality of their life. To the topical corticosteroids with high therapeutic index (an integral parameter reflecting efficiency and safety of a medication refers hydrocortisone 17bbutyrate (Locoid. The article presents the basic results of its application, as well as announces new formulations of the medication with a wider usage opportunity.Key words: children, topical steroids, treatment, atopic dermatitis.

  4. Are ethical topics in epidemiology included in the graduate epidemiology curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Goodmonson, S

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, via a mail questionnaire, the extent to which topics in epidemiology are included in the graduate epidemiology curricula in departments of epidemiology within the 24 US schools of public health. Responses from 101 faculty (79% of faculty queried) indicated that 86% believed that education concerning ethical issues in epidemiologic research should be included in the curriculum. Topics included most frequently are ethical issues concerning protection of human subjects, clinical trials, screening programs, and use/abuse of data. The most common mode of presenting these topics is through one-on-one mentoring or through seminars.

  5. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukaya M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mototsugu Fukaya,1 Kenji Sato,2 Mitsuko Sato,3 Hajime Kimata,4 Shigeki Fujisawa,5 Haruhiko Dozono,6 Jun Yoshizawa,7 Satoko Minaguchi8 1Tsurumai Kouen Clinic, Nagoya, 2Department of Dermatology, Hannan Chuo Hospital, Osaka, 3Sato Pediatric Clinic, Osaka, 4Kimata Hajime Clinic, Osaka, 5Fujisawa Dermatology Clinic, Tokyo, 6Dozono Medical House, Kagoshima, 7Yoshizawa Dermatology Clinic, Yokohama, 8Department of Dermatology, Kounosu Kyousei Hospital, Saitama, Japan Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Keywords: topical steroid addiction, atopic dermatitis, red burning skin syndrome, rebound, corticosteroid, eczema

  6. [Prevention -- a topic in social-psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christiane K; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

    2005-10-01

    Currently, substantial effort is made to establish prevention as one of the main parts of the German health care system. In this context we investigated the current role of prevention in social-psychiatric research. We analysed original papers published in the journal Psychiatrische Praxis in the years 2003-2004 by computer-aided full text analysis. 16.5 % of the studies mentioned prevention, in one fourth of these, prevention was the main topic. Subject of these papers were suicide prevention in psychiatric patients, relapse prevention in mentally ill offenders, and prevention of acute confusional state after hip surgery. Most of the work was dedicated to tertiary prevention, followed by secondary prevention. Two papers mentioned primary preventive aspects and only one report was dedicated to primary prevention as a main topic. Although early diagnosis and intervention as well as rehabilitation of mental disorders are main topics of social psychiatry, only few reports relate explicitly to prevention. The role of social psychiatry in primary prevention has to be defined.

  7. Incorporating Topic Assignment Constraint and Topic Correlation Limitation into Clinical Goal Discovering for Clinical Pathway Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathways are widely used around the world for providing quality medical treatment and controlling healthcare cost. However, the expert-designed clinical pathways can hardly deal with the variances among hospitals and patients. It calls for more dynamic and adaptive process, which is derived from various clinical data. Topic-based clinical pathway mining is an effective approach to discover a concise process model. Through this approach, the latent topics found by latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA represent the clinical goals. And process mining methods are used to extract the temporal relations between these topics. However, the topic quality is usually not desirable due to the low performance of the LDA in clinical data. In this paper, we incorporate topic assignment constraint and topic correlation limitation into the LDA to enhance the ability of discovering high-quality topics. Two real-world datasets are used to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that the topics discovered by our method are with higher coherence, informativeness, and coverage than the original LDA. These quality topics are suitable to represent the clinical goals. Also, we illustrate that our method is effective in generating a comprehensive topic-based clinical pathway model.

  8. Single-Subject Designs in Special Education: Advantages and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb H.

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject designs provide the special education field with an alternative to group designs. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the topic of single-subject designs by providing an overview of the relevant literature and a discussion of the major issues and applications of these designs in the field of special education. This paper is…

  9. Analyzing the field of bioinformatics with the multi-faceted topic modeling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Go Eun; Kang, Keun Young; Song, Min; Lee, Jeong-Hoon

    2017-05-31

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of molecular biology and computing technology. To characterize the field as convergent domain, researchers have used bibliometrics, augmented with text-mining techniques for content analysis. In previous studies, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) was the most representative topic modeling technique for identifying topic structure of subject areas. However, as opposed to revealing the topic structure in relation to metadata such as authors, publication date, and journals, LDA only displays the simple topic structure. In this paper, we adopt the Tang et al.'s Author-Conference-Topic (ACT) model to study the field of bioinformatics from the perspective of keyphrases, authors, and journals. The ACT model is capable of incorporating the paper, author, and conference into the topic distribution simultaneously. To obtain more meaningful results, we use journals and keyphrases instead of conferences and bag-of-words.. For analysis, we use PubMed to collected forty-six bioinformatics journals from the MEDLINE database. We conducted time series topic analysis over four periods from 1996 to 2015 to further examine the interdisciplinary nature of bioinformatics. We analyze the ACT Model results in each period. Additionally, for further integrated analysis, we conduct a time series analysis among the top-ranked keyphrases, journals, and authors according to their frequency. We also examine the patterns in the top journals by simultaneously identifying the topical probability in each period, as well as the top authors and keyphrases. The results indicate that in recent years diversified topics have become more prevalent and convergent topics have become more clearly represented. The results of our analysis implies that overtime the field of bioinformatics becomes more interdisciplinary where there is a steady increase in peripheral fields such as conceptual, mathematical, and system biology. These results are

  10. Stealth monitoring of adherence to topical medication: adherence is very poor in children with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci-Manwaring, Jennifer; Tusa, Mark G; Carroll, Christie; Camacho, Fabian; Kaur, Mandeep; Carr, David; Fleischer, Alan B; Balkrishnan, Rajesh; Feldman, Steven R

    2007-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common problem for which topical agents are the primary treatment. When topical medications fail, further therapy may include systemic agents with the potential for greater toxicity. Adherence to topical treatment of atopic dermatitis has not been well characterized. Poor adherence to topical medication could account for failure of topical therapy. To determine adherence to topical treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. Thirty-seven children were given 0.1% triamcinolone ointment and were counseled to use it twice daily. They were told to return in 4 weeks, at which time they were told to continue treatment for another 4 weeks. Electronic monitors were used to measure adherence over the entire 8 week study. Patients were not informed of the compliance monitoring until the end of the study. Twenty-six patients completed 8 weeks of treatment. Mean adherence from the baseline to the end of the study was 32%. Adherence was higher on or near office visit days and subsequently decreased rapidly. This study was limited by the large number of subjects who failed to return for follow-up appointments or withdrew from the study. Adherence to topical medications is very poor in a clinic population of children with atopic dermatitis. Office visits are one means to increase adherence. If adherence to topical treatment can be improved, exposure to more costly and potentially toxic systemic agents may be avoidable.

  11. Ocular responses in healthy subjects to topical bunazosin 0.3%--an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist.

    OpenAIRE

    Trew, D. R.; Wright, L. A.; Smith, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The ocular effects of the alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drug bunazosin, administered as eyedrops, have been measured in a placebo-controlled double-blind single-dose study in 15 healthy volunteers. The drug significantly reduced intraocular pressure over 10 hours, and there was no associated change in pulsatile ocular blood flow. Characteristic effects of alpha-adrenoceptor blockade were observed--miosis, ptosis, and conjunctival hyperaemia. The miosis alone persisted for more than 24 hours in ...

  12. Can population topics form the subject of educational action? The politician's point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahran, M

    1993-03-01

    Political action should encompass paying attention to the changing conditions of society and to the improvement of socio economic conditions. Development plans and population programs must be integrated in order for both to achieve their objectives. National population policies linked with socioeconomic development can modify population situations. Population education is a means of dealing with rapid population growth. Cultural, religious, and ideological differences contribute to the variation in the concepts and objectives of population education in developing countries. Egypt has been aware of the population problem since 1952. There have been several stages in the evolution of social changes that have upgraded the status of women, mandated compulsory education, advanced socioeconomic development, and improved demographic conditions. Although population growth puts pressure on educational resources, the better educated person has a greater sense of responsibility for his children. These educated families tend to have fever children and adopt family planning without the need for external motivation. Egypt was one of the first countries to ensure the right to free education at the primary level; currently, basic education is required for 8 years. The national population policy has guaranteed since 1973, in addition to the Constitutional provision, that five-year plans include a national program for education. The objectives were to strengthen democracy, to provide comprehensive development, to become a continuous process, and to be compatible with Arab culture. Specific objectives were to reduce the population growth rate, to achieve a better geographic distribution of population and to improve the quality of life. Educational services are to be upgraded;l and illiteracy eradication is targeted for those aged 15-35 years. The Ministry of Education has a role in providing for the inculcation in the minds of young people that social and economic conditions are related to population issues. The National Population Council with the Ministry of Education develops curriculum; the Ministry also trains teachers for population education and develops home economics curricula on the family, motherhood, and child rearing. The population component for the 1992-97 five-year plan is directed to programs for the promotion of population education both inside and outside schools and to illiteracy.

  13. A researcher's journey: Exploring a sensitive topic with vulnerable women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Christine A; Browne, Jenny; Taylor, Jan; Davis, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    The conduct of research regardless of the subject or methods employed brings responsibilities and challenges. These are greater when dealing with sensitive topics and vulnerable groups and therefore researchers must navigate a range of complex issues and make choices in relation to practical, ethical and philosophical concerns. While literature dealing with research methodologies and research design may assist to some degree, it cannot provide a clear pathway or template as each research project must respond to a unique set of circumstances. We can however, also learn from sharing our stories and critical reflections on our research processes. The purpose of this article is to highlight the practical and methodological issues arising from researching a sensitive topic with vulnerable women experiencing an Assumption of Care. Research involving topics that are deeply personal and private combined with a vulnerable population can be complex and challenging for the researcher. Although some issues were anticipated from the literature, others encountered in this study were unexpected. Special considerations and prerequisites were necessary to build mutual trust and share power with women who had experienced an Assumption of Care at birth. Narrative Inquiry was a good methodological fit for this study as it privileged the voices of women and insisted that their experiences be considered within the context of their lives. Although Narrative Inquiry is a suitable choice for researching sensitive topics with vulnerable women specific considerations are still required to ensure the benefits of this research for both participants and researchers. Family and Community Service (FACS) have now replaced the formerly known Department of Community Services (DoCS) and in consideration of the timing of this study this article uses the terminology as DoCS. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...... to the topic of frost resistance of wet building materials. Three computer algorithms are presented to facilitate the numerical analysis of the phenomenons considered....

  15. Photorejuvenation using topical 5-methyl aminolevulinate and red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ricardo; López, Laura; Candelas, Daniel; Pedraz, Javier

    2008-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been proved to be effective in skin rejuvenation. To evaluate clinical efficacy and side effects of photodynamic therapy using topical 5-methyl aminolevulinate and red light for photorejuvenation. A randomized, prospective, split-face comparison study of 10 white, adult patients with moderate photodamage, Fitzpatrick skin types 2 or 3, and no occurrence of actinic keratosis was performed. Three treatments using topical methyl aminolevulinate cream, applied for 1 hour on one half of the face and 3 hours on the other half before illumination with red light. A blinded investigator prior to treatment and 2 months after the third treatment evaluated each side of the subject's faces. A moderate improvement in fine lines, tactile roughness, and skin tightness was observed in most of the patients, mostly on the 3-hour time side. There were no changes in mottled pigmentation or telangiectasias. Side effects were observed in all subjects (erythema, edema, scaling) mainly in the 3-hour incubation time side. The small number of patients and the lack of placebo group. Methyl aminolevulinic-photodynamic therapy with red light can improve fine lines, tactile roughness and skin tightness in patients with moderate photoaging and no occurrence of actinic keratosis.

  16. Task-Driven Comparison of Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eric; Gleicher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Topic modeling, a method of statistically extracting thematic content from a large collection of texts, is used for a wide variety of tasks within text analysis. Though there are a growing number of tools and techniques for exploring single models, comparisons between models are generally reduced to a small set of numerical metrics. These metrics may or may not reflect a model's performance on the analyst's intended task, and can therefore be insufficient to diagnose what causes differences between models. In this paper, we explore task-centric topic model comparison, considering how we can both provide detail for a more nuanced understanding of differences and address the wealth of tasks for which topic models are used. We derive comparison tasks from single-model uses of topic models, which predominantly fall into the categories of understanding topics, understanding similarity, and understanding change. Finally, we provide several visualization techniques that facilitate these tasks, including buddy plots, which combine color and position encodings to allow analysts to readily view changes in document similarity.

  17. Nanoparticles - A paradigm for topical drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S Chaudhari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery is still a challenge due to the difficulties in controlling the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API fate within the skin. Due to the safety of the component material and controlled release abilities, nanoparticles offer an excellent opportunity for the rational delivery of drugs to the desired target site and hence these carrier systems are effectively used for topical delivery of variety of active principles for both pharmaceutical as well as cosmetic purposes. Recently, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs have shown a great potential as carriers for topical administration of active substances, principally owing to the possible targeting effect and controlled release in different skin strata. Also, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs are a new type of topical delivery system offering improved performance in terms of drug loading and long-term stability with the ability to form highly concentrated dispersions. Another invention in the field of topical drug delivery is the use of micellar nanoparticles (MNPs that offer a potentially fast and inexpensive pharmaceutical development model by using drugs already proven safe and effective to create new proprietary formulations. These novel drug delivery systems have gained much interest as they combine both the technology of lipid sciences and nanosciences, and hence may be better alternative carriers.

  18. Aligning mathematics with tutoring platform topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Haskins

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dr Math was a mobile mathematics tutoring service, used by school learners across South Africa. The wealth of historic data available, with regard to the conversations between tutors and learners, may contain valuable insights as to which mathematics topics are most frequently encountered on the Dr Math service. This alignment may serve as an indicator of the utility of an online tutorial service as a reflection of the curriculum covered by learners, and as an extra avenue of support. This study makes use of automated means to rank the topics discussed on the Dr Math service and to align them with the topics encountered in the South African National Senior Certificate final examinations. The study finds that there is a close alignment with regard to the observations of the Department of Basic Education on factors influencing the performance of the learners. The topics most frequently discussed on the Dr Math service also align closely with the topics with which the learners have most difficulty in their final exams.

  19. Polymethacrylate microparticles gel for topical drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar Ibrahim; El-Khordagui, Labiba K

    2010-10-01

    Evaluating the potentials of particulate delivery systems in topical drug delivery. Polymethacrylate microparticles (MPs) incorporating verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model hydrophilic drug with potential topical clinical uses, using Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit L100 were prepared for the formulation of a composite topical gel. The effect of initial drug loading, polymer composition, particularly the proportion of Eudragit L100 as an interacting polymer component and the HLB of the dispersing agent on MPs characteristics was investigated. A test MPs formulation was incorporated in gel and evaluated for drug release and human skin permeation. MPs showed high % incorporation efficiency and % yield. Composition of the hybrid polymer matrix was a main determinant of MPs characteristics, particularly drug release. Factors known to influence drug release such as MPs size and high drug solubility were outweighed by strong VRP-Eudragit L100 interaction. The developed MPs gel showed controlled VRP release and reduced skin retention compared to a free drug gel. Topical drug delivery and skin retention could be modulated using particulate delivery systems. From a practical standpoint, the VRP gel developed may offer advantage in a range of dermatological conditions, in response to the growing off-label topical use of VRP.

  20. Learning topic models by belief propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Cheung, William K; Liu, Jiming

    2013-05-01

    Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) is an important hierarchical Bayesian model for probabilistic topic modeling, which attracts worldwide interest and touches on many important applications in text mining, computer vision and computational biology. This paper represents the collapsed LDA as a factor graph, which enables the classic loopy belief propagation (BP) algorithm for approximate inference and parameter estimation. Although two commonly used approximate inference methods, such as variational Bayes (VB) and collapsed Gibbs sampling (GS), have gained great success in learning LDA, the proposed BP is competitive in both speed and accuracy, as validated by encouraging experimental results on four large-scale document datasets. Furthermore, the BP algorithm has the potential to become a generic scheme for learning variants of LDA-based topic models in the collapsed space. To this end, we show how to learn two typical variants of LDA-based topic models, such as author-topic models (ATM) and relational topic models (RTM), using BP based on the factor graph representations.

  1. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Natalie; Hiom, Sarah; Birchall, James C.

    2017-01-01

    Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w) gabapentin 0.75% (w/w) Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w) DMSO or 70% (w/w) ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w) gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations. PMID:28867811

  2. Development and Evaluation of Topical Gabapentin Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Topical delivery of gabapentin is desirable to treat peripheral neuropathic pain conditions whilst avoiding systemic side effects. To date, reports of topical gabapentin delivery in vitro have been variable and dependent on the skin model employed, primarily involving rodent and porcine models. In this study a variety of topical gabapentin formulations were investigated, including Carbopol® hydrogels containing various permeation enhancers, and a range of proprietary bases including a compounded Lipoderm® formulation; furthermore microneedle facilitated delivery was used as a positive control. Critically, permeation of gabapentin across a human epidermal membrane in vitro was assessed using Franz-type diffusion cells. Subsequently this data was contextualised within the wider scope of the literature. Although reports of topical gabapentin delivery have been shown to vary, largely dependent upon the skin model used, this study demonstrated that 6% (w/w gabapentin 0.75% (w/w Carbopol® hydrogels containing 5% (w/w DMSO or 70% (w/w ethanol and a compounded 10% (w/w gabapentin Lipoderm® formulation were able to facilitate permeation of the molecule across human skin. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are required to investigate the topical delivery performance and pharmacodynamic actions of prospective formulations.

  3. Diabetes topics associated with engagement on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Mart, Adelina; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Caburnay, Charlene A

    2015-05-07

    Social media are widely used by the general public and by public health and health care professionals. Emerging evidence suggests engagement with public health information on social media may influence health behavior. However, the volume of data accumulating daily on Twitter and other social media is a challenge for researchers with limited resources to further examine how social media influence health. To address this challenge, we used crowdsourcing to facilitate the examination of topics associated with engagement with diabetes information on Twitter. We took a random sample of 100 tweets that included the hashtag "#diabetes" from each day during a constructed week in May and June 2014. Crowdsourcing through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform was used to classify tweets into 9 topic categories and their senders into 3 Twitter user categories. Descriptive statistics and Tweedie regression were used to identify tweet and Twitter user characteristics associated with 2 measures of engagement, "favoriting" and "retweeting." Classification was reliable for tweet topics and Twitter user type. The most common tweet topics were medical and nonmedical resources for diabetes. Tweets that included information about diabetes-related health problems were positively and significantly associated with engagement. Tweets about diabetes prevalence, nonmedical resources for diabetes, and jokes or sarcasm about diabetes were significantly negatively associated with engagement. Crowdsourcing is a reliable, quick, and economical option for classifying tweets. Public health practitioners aiming to engage constituents around diabetes may want to focus on topics positively associated with engagement.

  4. Analyses of Research Topics in the Field of Informetrics Based on the Method of Topic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used the approach of topic modeling to uncover the possible structure of research topics in the field of Informetrics, to explore the distribution of the topics over years, and to compare the core journals. In order to infer the structure of the topics in the field, the data of the papers published in the Journal of Informetricsand Scientometrics during 2007 to 2013 are retrieved from the database of the Web of Science as input of the approach of topic modeling. The results of this study show that when the number of topics was set to 10, the topic model has the smallest perplexity. Although data scopes and analysis methodsare different to previous studies, the generating topics of this study are consistent with those results produced by analyses of experts. Empirical case studies and measurements of bibliometric indicators were concerned important in every year during the whole analytic period, and the field was increasing stability. Both the two core journals broadly paid more attention to all of the topics in the field of Informetrics. The Journal of Informetricsput particular emphasis on construction and applications ofbibliometric indicators and Scientometrics focused on the evaluation and the factors of productivity of countries, institutions, domains, and journals.

  5. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Vaupotič, Nataša; Čepič, Mojca

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate for a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a pathway through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they should know before considering them. In the presentation of the teaching module, which consists of a lecture and experimental work in a chemistry and physics laboratory, we focus on experiments on phase transitions, polarization of light, double refraction and colours. A pilot evaluation of the module was performed among pre-service primary school teachers who have no special preference for natural sciences. The evaluation shows that the module is very efficient in transferring knowledge. A prior study showed that the informally obtained pre-knowledge on liquid crystals of the first-year students from several different fields of study was negligible. Since social science students are the least interested in natural sciences, it can be expected that students in any study programme will on average achieve at least as good qualitative knowledge of phenomena related to liquid crystals as the group involved in the pilot study.

  6. Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this lesson you will first learn what topic modeling is and why you might want to employ it in your research. You will then learn how to install and work with the MALLET natural language processing toolkit to do so. MALLET involves modifying an environment variable (essentially, setting up a short-cut so that your computer always knows where to find the MALLET program and working with the command line (ie, by typing in commands manually, rather than clicking on icons or menus. We will run the topic modeller on some example files, and look at the kinds of outputs that MALLET installed. This will give us a good idea of how it can be used on a corpus of texts to identify topics found in the documents without reading them individually.

  7. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-11-15

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  8. Applied atomic and collision physics special topics

    CERN Document Server

    Massey, H S W; Bederson, Benjamin

    1982-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 5: Special Topics deals with topics on applications of atomic collisions that were not covered in the first four volumes of the treatise. The book opens with a chapter on ultrasensitive chemical detectors. This is followed by separate chapters on lighting, magnetohydrodynamic electrical power generation, gas breakdown and high voltage insulating gases, thermionic energy converters, and charged particle detectors. Subsequent chapters deal with the operation of multiwire drift and proportional chambers and streamer chambers and their use in high energy p

  9. Topics in current aerosol research (part2)

    CERN Document Server

    Hidy, G M

    1972-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research, Part 2 contains some selected articles in the field of aerosol study. The chosen topics deal extensively with the theory of diffusiophoresis and thermophoresis. Also covered in the book is the mathematical treatment of integrodifferential equations originating from the theory of aerosol coagulation. The book is the third volume of the series entitled International Reviews in Aerosol Physics and Chemistry. The text offers significant understanding of the methods employed to develop a theory for thermophoretic and diffusiophoretic forces acting on spheres in t

  10. Topical antimicrobial agents in ophthalmology. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Dovgan’

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The data on different antimicrobial agents (fluoroquinolones, minoglycosides, macrolides, fusidic acid, chloramphenicol and their activity against various microorganisms are reviewed. The findings from different researchers are analyzed. Considerable attention is devoted to the problem of antimicrobial resistance in ophthalmology. Pharmacokinetics of topical antimicrobial agents applied in ophthalmology, their safety and tolerability are described. The indications for topical antimicrobial agents use in ophthalmology approved in Russian Federation are presented. With regard for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, safety profile and good tolerability, it is concluded that fluoroquinolones are medication of choice for empirical antimicrobial treatment in ophthalmology.

  11. Pityriasis Folliculorum: Response to Topical Ivermectin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darji, Kavita; Burkemper, Nicole M

    2017-12-01

    Pityriasis folliculorum has been described as a dry type of rosacea with extensive proliferation of Demodex folliculorum in pilosebaceous follicles of the skin. This skin condition is frequently difficult to manage, with various treatment options showing mixed efficacy. Oral ivermectin, a macrocyclic lactone parasiticide with anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic effects, is one of the leading treatment modalities for demodicosis. Topical ivermectin has recently been FDA approved as therapy for rosacea. We present the case of a woman with pityriasis folliculorum who showed significant improvement from using topical ivermectin with no adverse events related to treatment.

  12. Conference on Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this collection are a sampling of some of the research presented during the conference “Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics”, held in May of 2015 at Purdue University in honor of the 60th birthday of Rodrigo Bañuelos. A wide variety of topics in probability theory is covered in these proceedings, including heat kernel estimates, Malliavin calculus, rough paths differential equations, Lévy processes, Brownian motion on manifolds, and spin glasses, among other topics.

  13. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  14. A Bibliometric Analysis on Cancer Population Science with Topic Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Ding-Cheng; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Okamoto, Janet; Liu, Hongfang; Leichow, Scott

    2015-01-01

    ...: author topic modeling (AT) and dynamic topic modeling (DTM). Our initial results show that AT can address reasonably the issues related to investigators' research interests, research topic distributions and popularities...

  15. Essentials of radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Essentials of Radiation Heat Transfer is a textbook presenting the essential, fundamental information required to gain an understanding of radiation heat transfer and equips the reader with enough knowledge to be able to tackle more challenging problems. All concepts are reinforced by carefully chosen and fully worked examples, and exercise problems are provided at the end of every chapter. In a significant departure from other books on this subject, this book completely dispenses with the network method to solve problems of radiation heat transfer in surfaces. It instead presents the powerful radiosity-irradiation method and shows how this technique can be used to solve problems of radiation in enclosures made of one to any number of surfaces. The network method is not easily scalable. Secondly, the book introduces atmospheric radiation, which is now being considered as a potentially important area, in which engineers can contribute to the technology of remote sensing and atmospheric sciences in general, b...

  16. Topical cooling (icing) delays recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Yu; Lee, Jo-Ping; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Liu, Te-Chih; Lai, Cheng- Hsiu; Harris, M Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-05-01

    It is generally thought that topical cooling can interfere with blood perfusion and may have positive effects on recovery from a traumatic challenge. This study examined the influence of topical cooling on muscle damage markers and hemodynamic changes during recovery from eccentric exercise. Eleven male subjects (age 20.2 ± 0.3 years) performed 6 sets of elbow extension at 85% maximum voluntary load and randomly assigned to topical cooling or sham groups during recovery in a randomized crossover fashion. Cold packs were applied to exercised muscle for 15 minutes at 0, 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The exercise significantly elevated circulating creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK-MB) and myoglobin levels. Unexpectedly, greater elevations in circulating CK-MB and myoglobin above the control level were noted in the cooling trial during 48-72 hours of the post-exercise recovery period. Subjective fatigue feeling was greater at 72 hours after topical cooling compared with controls. Removal of the cold pack also led to a protracted rebound in muscle hemoglobin concentration compared with controls. Measures of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and muscle strength during recovery were not influenced by cooling. A peak shift in IL-12p70 was noted during recovery with topical cooling. These data suggest that topical cooling, a commonly used clinical intervention, seems to not improve but rather delay recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

  17. Multinational transfer pricing and international taxation: what, why ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International transfer pricing issues are the subject of this paper. The huge and growing volume of tangible and intangible goods and the motivation (profit, politics and finance) for manipulations involved in transfer pricing situations makes this an important area of study. Multinational transfer pricing has so much reporting ...

  18. Unidirectional Manchester Encoded Data Transfer via a Fiber Optic Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The subject of this thesis is the application of Manchester coding techniques to digital data transfer . Asynchronous receipt of digital data for...necessary hardware to allow Manchester encoded data transfer over a fiber optic data link. The scope of the project was limited to the transfer of byte

  19. Transfer factor and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Vera, Javier; Chávez Sánchez, Raúl; Flores Sandoval, Graciela; Orea Solano, Modesto; López Tiro, José Jesús; Santiago Santos, A D; Espinosa Padilla, Sara; Espinosa Rosales, Francisco; Huerta, J; Ortega Martell, José Antonio; Berrón Pérez, Renato; Estrada García, Alejandro; Pérez Tapia, Mayra; Rodríguez Flores, Azucena; Serrano Miranda, Ernestina; Pineda García, Oscar; Andaluz, Consuelo; Cervantes Trujano, Edgar; Portugués Díaz, Abraham; Barrientos Zamudio, Javier; Cano Ortíz, Laura; Serafín López, Jeanet; Jiménez Martínez, María Del Carmen; Aguilar Velázquez, Gustavo; Garfias Becerra, Yonathan; Santacruz Valdéz, Concepción; Aguilar Ángeles, Daniel; Rojo Guiérrez, María Isabel; Aguilar Santelises, Miguel; Estrada Parra, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Although various mechanisms involving antibodies and various cell types participate, a Thl and Th2 cells imbalance seems to play a central role for allergy development. Other lymphocyte subpopulations, such as Th17, CD4 FOXP3, and Th9 positive regulatory T lymphocytes may also be involved in the allergic response. Regulatory processes are an appealing target for therapeutic approaches aiming to solve allergic reactions by restoring the delicate balance within the immune system. Transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is meant to transfer cell-mediated immunity from immune competent donors to unsensitized or deficient recipients. A PubMed search on the current knowledge on TF indicates that TF may restore the Th1/Th2 balance and improve immune regulatory mechanisms of patients receiving it. Our preliminary results demonstrate that TF induces mRNA expression of IFN-g, osteopontin, RANTES, and hBD-2 in human healthy subjects. TF has been used to treat a variety of immune dysfunction related-pathologies, such as allergy, autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies, infectious diseases and tumors. Patients receiving TF together with their conventional treatment often have better clinical evolution than without it, as we have witnessed, adding TF to the usual medical treatment of allergic diseases as an attempt to provide allergic patients with those regulatory elements that they apparently lack but require to achieve properly regulated immune responses and thus obtain a faster and better resolution of allergic reactions.

  20. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stewardship Research Highlights Technology Transfer Visiting NIEHS Your Environment. Your Health. Search NIEHS submit NIEHS Home Page ... Health & Human Services USA.gov National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences 111 T.W. Alexander Drive Durham, ...

  1. PRAGMATIC TRANSFER IN REQUEST REALIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indawan Syahri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the pragmatic transfer in English request realizations made by EFL learners, i.e. the proficient learners. The subjects were students of an English Study Program who obtained TOEFL-like scores of at least 450. The data were collected by means of DCT-questionnaires and Role-plays. The results show that the subjects realize requests in the form of external modifications more frequently. Most of them embed their requests with supportive moves dominantly. They enfold the acts with the moves before, after or in both positions. Of the three positions, they mostly insert the moves initial position, i.e., through inductive patterns. This is due to pragmatic transfer.

  2. Transferring lean management infrastructure for increasing productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph.D.Daniel Georgescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available These years, manufacturing function have been transferred rapidly and globally from matured countries to emerging countries. In this paper is about the critical elements for successful transfer of lean management among sites and countries. Based on this general descriptive analysis, current global transfer activity of Lean as well as its future direction is also described. According to the gradual progress of lean management transfer, necessity of its refinement/reinforcement is recognized and some research subjects are proposed for contributing further encouragement of its global activities. In this paper, based on this understanding, requisites for transfer of lean management are discussed through investigating global activity of Lean and specification of infrastructure enabling its smooth transfer is examined

  3. Tolerability of Topical Retinoids: Are There Clinically Meaningful Differences Among Topical Retinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Leonora; Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Alinia, Hossein; Feldman, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Topical retinoids are first-line treatment options for acne vulgaris. These drugs, however, produce varying degree of cutaneous irritation within the first few weeks of treatment. Our purpose was to examine differences in tolerability of topical retinoids and assess whether these differences would be clinically meaningful. A PubMed search was performed for sources on topical retinoids in acne vulgaris treatment. Thirty-four clinical studies were analyzed. Thirteen studies had statistically significant results on tolerability of retinoid based on retinoid, vehicle, concentration, or skin type. All studies classified most of skin reactions as mild-moderate. Large differences in the number of dropouts due to irritation were not identified. Irritation studies did not show a high frequency of clinically significant irritation with topical retinoids. We anticipate that the large variation in patient use of topical retinoids would likely account for more variation in response than differences between drug formulations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. NVC-422 topical gel for the treatment of impetigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Susan M; Krantz, Kenneth D; Blanco, Daisy M; Fernández, Josefina A; Ocampo, Naomi; Najafi, Azar; Memarzadeh, Bahram; Celeri, Chris; Debabov, Dmitri; Khosrovi, Behzad; Anderson, Mark

    2011-08-15

    Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection affecting children worldwide that is caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, or both. Staphylococcus species can quickly develop drug resistance rendering mupirocin, fusidic acid, and erythromycin ineffective. Preclinical and clinical studies demonstrated that NVC-422 (N, N-dichloro-2, 2-dimethyltaurine) rapidly kills pathogens without the development of drug resistance. 129 patients with clinically diagnosed impetigo were randomized to three dose groups (0.1, 0.5, or 1.5% NVC-422 topical gel) in a study conducted at 2 centers; 125 patients (97%) had microbiologically confirmed infection. Treatment was administered three times a day (TID) for 7 days to all randomized subjects. Response was measured at the completion of treatment (Day 8) and 1 week post treatment (Day 15) by the Skin Infection Rating Scale (SIRS) and by microbiological response. A total of 120 subjects (96%) completed all 7 days of treatment and were assessed at end of treatment (EOT). Clinical response rate at EOT in the PPC population was excellent in each of the dose groups (84.6%, 87.2%, and 92.3% in the 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.5% dose groups respectively). The majority of the infections were caused by S. aureus, alone (106/125, 85%) of which approximately 10% were MRSA. There were no clinical recurrences in any treatment groups. Treatment-emergent adverse events were seen in 5.4% of the subjects (7/129) and were mild to moderate and resolved. NVC-422 topical gel administered TID was well tolerated, with high rates of clinical and microbiological responses for treating impetigo.

  5. Topical Antibacterials and Global Challenges on Resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The skin acts as the first line of defence against the invasion of microorganisms. Damage to the skin such as abrasion, bruises and trauma will expose underlying tissue to bacterial infection. Minor skin infections can be easily treated with topical antibacterial medication that is available over the counter or by ...

  6. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2007-02-15

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  7. Atopic dermatitis: tacrolimus vs. topical corticosteroid use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    addition, increased permeability to topical corticosteroids is noted at anatomical sites with a thin epidermis like the ... Pitted nails. Irritant contact dermatitis. History of exposure to irritants. Rash in area of exposure. Damage to skin barrier. Absence of family history. Insect bites. Symmetric distribution around the scalp, neck,.

  8. Spectral Learning for Supervised Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yining; Zhu, Jun

    2017-03-15

    Supervised topic models simultaneously model the latent topic structure of large collections of documents and a response variable associated with each document. Existing inference methods are based on variational approximation or Monte Carlo sampling, which often suffers from the local minimum defect. Spectral methods have been applied to learn unsupervised topic models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), with provable guarantees. This paper investigates the possibility of applying spectral methods to recover the parameters of supervised LDA (sLDA). We first present a two-stage spectral method, which recovers the parameters of LDA followed by a power update method to recover the regression model parameters. Then, we further present a single-phase spectral algorithm to jointly recover the topic distribution matrix as well as the regression weights. Our spectral algorithms are provably correct and computationally efficient. We prove a sample complexity bound for each algorithm and subsequently derive a sufficient condition for the identifiability of sLDA. Thorough experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets verify the theory and demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the spectral algorithms. In fact, our results on a large-scale review rating dataset demonstrate that our single-phase spectral algorithm alone gets comparable or even better performance than state-of-the-art methods, while previous work on spectral methods has rarely reported such promising performance.

  9. Image Search Reranking With Hierarchical Topic Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinmei; Yang, Linjun; Lu, Yijuan; Tian, Qi; Tao, Dacheng

    2015-10-01

    With much attention from both academia and industrial communities, visual search reranking has recently been proposed to refine image search results obtained from text-based image search engines. Most of the traditional reranking methods cannot capture both relevance and diversity of the search results at the same time. Or they ignore the hierarchical topic structure of search result. Each topic is treated equally and independently. However, in real applications, images returned for certain queries are naturally in hierarchical organization, rather than simple parallel relation. In this paper, a new reranking method "topic-aware reranking (TARerank)" is proposed. TARerank describes the hierarchical topic structure of search results in one model, and seamlessly captures both relevance and diversity of the image search results simultaneously. Through a structured learning framework, relevance and diversity are modeled in TARerank by a set of carefully designed features, and then the model is learned from human-labeled training samples. The learned model is expected to predict reranking results with high relevance and diversity for testing queries. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we collect an image search dataset and conduct comparison experiments on it. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed TARerank outperforms the existing relevance-based and diversified reranking methods.

  10. Selected papers on analysis and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains translations of papers that originally appeared in the Japanese journal Sūgaku. The papers range over a variety of topics, including operator algebras, analysis, and statistics. This volume is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in analysis and its applications.

  11. Antibiotics: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not using them properly, can add to antibiotic resistance . This happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of ... Pseudomembranous colitis Sensitivity analysis Related Health Topics Antibiotic ... The primary NIH organization for research on Antibiotics is the National Institute ...

  12. [Oral hairy leukoplakia induced by topical steroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigarios, E; Fricain, J-C; Projetti, F; Boulanger, M; Sibaud, V

    2015-10-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is an EBV-associated condition of the oral mucosa, which is often painless. It is found predominantly in HIV-positive patients and is considered a clinical indicator of immunosuppression. OHL has rarely been described in HIV-negative patients, being found most often in association with iatrogenic immunosuppression. OHL induced by topical steroids remains extremely rare. An 81-year-old HIV-negative woman, treated for 3 months with topical steroids for oral lichen planus, developed an asymptomatic white, corrugated, non-removable plaque with vertical folds on the lateral edge of the tongue. Associated oral candidiasis was noted. Based upon histological findings and in situ hybridisation showing numerous EBV-infected epithelial cells, a diagnosis of oral hairy leucoplakia was made. To our knowledge, we report herein only the second recorded case of OHL induced strictly by topical steroids. Self-medication and poor adherence to dosage recommendations were noted in the patient's medical history. Physicians must be aware of the rare but nevertheless possible adverse events associated with topical steroid use, particularly when such medication is prescribed over a long period for inflammatory diseases of the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Topical beta-Blockers and Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Wittenian, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study. Participants: To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484

  14. Topical beta-blockers and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, Rogier P. H. M.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Stricker, Bruno H. C.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the associations between long-term and short-term use of topical beta-blockers and mortality. Prospective population-based cohort study. To examine long-term effects, 3842 participants aged 55 years and older were recruited. To examine short-term effects, 484 incident beta-blocker users and

  15. Common Core: Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karge, Belinda Dunnick; Moore, Roxane Kushner

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core has become a household term and yet many educators do not understand what it means. This article explains the historical perspectives of the Common Core and gives guidance to teachers in application of Teaching Optimum Topic Exploration (TOTE) necessary for full implementation of the Common Core State Standards. An effective…

  16. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are available over the counter, and are often used by patients for self-treatment.1 Decongestants are often combined with antihistamines for the more effective topical ... fibroblast proliferation, microvascular permeability and the production of procollagens, while H4-receptor signalling affects cytokine and chemokine release ...

  17. Topics in cement and concrete research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail,

  18. Topical treatment options for allergic conjunctivitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    including redness, itching, tearing, blurry vision, chemosis and eyelid oedema, to improve quality of life.1,4 In addition to avoiding the offending antigen, a variety of topical preparations, each targeting a different point in the inflammatory process, is available to manage the symptoms of ocular allergy.5. Artificial tears.

  19. Topical negative pressure for treating chronic wounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, Dirk T.; Westerbos, Stijn Joël; Evans, Debra; Land, Lucy; Vermeulen, Hester

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds mainly affect the elderly and those with multiple health problems. Despite the use of modern dressings, some of these wounds take a long time to heal, fail to heal, or recur, causing significant pain and discomfort to the person and cost to health services. Topical

  20. Expose Mechanical Engineering Students to Biomechanics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui

    2011-01-01

    To adapt the focus of engineering education to emerging new industries and technologies nationwide and in the local area, a biomechanics module has been developed and incorporated into a mechanical engineering technical elective course to expose mechanical engineering students at ONU (Ohio Northern University) to the biomedical engineering topics.…

  1. Dexmedetomidine premedication in cataract surgery under topical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary aims were: (1) To study the effect of dexmedetomidine in decreasing the intraocular pressure. (2) The impact on surgeons' satisfaction. (3) Hemodynamic effects. Methods: We conducted a prospective randomized study on ASA I/II patients presenting for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Patients were ...

  2. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 ...

  3. Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Yung; /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2005-01-01

    Hot topics in flavor physics at CDF are reviewed. Selected results of top, beauty, charm physics and exotic states in about 200 pb{sup -1} data collected by the CDF II detector in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron are presented.

  4. Topical Metered-dosing Dispenser Performance Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Kupiec, Thomas C; Vu, Nicole T

    2016-01-01

    Topical metered-dosing dispensers are designed for dosing accuracy and ease-of-use by the patients while protecting the packaged products from environmental exposure and contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and residual of available topical metered-dosing dispensers with different types of topical cream for practical application. Triplicate samples of five different dispensers were tested. This test was completed using three types of commercial topical cream-bases of dissimilar Total Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Load Percentages, Transdermal Penetration Percentages, and Specific Gravities. The dispensers were evaluated according to specified dose-uniformity criteria for a total dispensing capacity of 30 mL at 0.5 mL per dose for 60 doses. The study shows Topi-CLICK performed with the best precision and accuracy of dosing in comparison to the airless-pump type dispensers. While the dispensing was highly variable with airless pumps and may require calibration for each packaged product, remarkably the performance of Topi-CLICK was not affected by different types of cream-bases and does not require additional metering calibration. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  5. Chlorhexidine allergy due to topical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandita N Keni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine is commonly used in dentistry in various forms. Allergic reactions to chlorhexidine of both immediate and delayed type have been reported. Although the incidence is low there may be severe manifestations in some patients. This report presents a case of allergy to chlorhexidine following topical application.

  6. Human Relations. Discussion Topics and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Marilyn; And Others

    Designed primarily for students in the intermediate grades, this document provides discussion topics, poetry, and activities to help students: (1) recognize the uniqueness of themselves and others; (2) become aware of their uniqueness as members of the human family; (3) become aware of individual differences, emotions, and feelings; (4) recognize…

  7. Topical Treatments for Localized Neuropathic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Roberto; Symeonidou, Z; Bartolo, M

    2017-03-01

    Topical therapeutic approaches in localized neuropathic pain (LNP) syndromes are increasingly used by both specialists and general practitioners, with a potentially promising effect on pain reduction. In this narrative review, we describe the available compounds for topical use in LNP syndromes and address their potential efficacy according to the literature. Local anaesthetics (e.g., lidocaine, bupivacaine and mepivacaine), as well as general anaesthetic agents (e.g., ketamine), muscle relaxants (e.g., baclofen), capsaicin, anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., diclofenac), salicylates, antidepressants (e.g., amitriptyline and doxepin), α2 adrenergic agents (e.g., clonidine), or even a combination of them have been tested in various applications for the treatment of LNP. Few of them have reached a sufficient level of evidence to support systematic use as treatment options. Relatively few systemic side effects or drug-drug interactions and satisfactory efficacy seem to be the benefits of topical treatments. More well-organized and tailored studies are necessary for the further conceptualization of topical treatments for LNP.

  8. Toddler Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6 months to 2 years Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler Nutrition is the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to ...

  9. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  10. Dexmedetomidine premedication in cataract surgery under topical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dexmedetomidine premedication in cataract surgery under topical anaesthesia: to assess patient and surgeon satisfaction. Poonam S Ghodkia*, Shalini P Sardesaia and Swapnagandha S Halikarb a Department of Anaesthesiology, Shrimati Kashibai Navale Medical College, Pune, India b Department of Ophthalmology, ...

  11. Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years.

  12. Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years. PMID:23197223

  13. Race and Schools and Related Topics (Bibliography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrated Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography lists references dealing with race and schools under such topics as history, children, Black woman, American scene, Spanish Americans, Indian Americans, other ethnic groups, teachers, compensatory education, Afro-American Studies, innovative approaches, colleges, law and government, and school and work. (EB)

  14. Integration of CompTIA Cloud+ Into Universiti Teknologi MARA's Computer Engineering Special Topics Syllabus

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Ihsan Mohd; Md Zan, Md Mahdfudz; Md Tahir, Nooritawati; Abidin, Husna Zainol; Rizman, Zairi Ismael

    2017-01-01

    Cloud computing is one of the frontier technologies in computer engineering. Therefore, it is important to prepare the students with the knowledge and skills required in this field. This paper describes the integration of the renowned CompTIA Cloud+ professional training course into the ECE648: Special Topics in Computer Networking subject. The subject is a final year elective for the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia undergraduate computer engineering stu...

  15. Effects of High-Dose Capsaicin on TMD Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B.K.; Fillingim, R.B.; Lee, S.; Brao, R.; Price, D.D.; Neubert, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a complex musculoskeletal disorder that presents with pain, limited jaw opening, and abnormal noises in the temporomandibular joint. Despite the significant impact that TMD has in terms of suffering and financial burden, relatively few new treatments have emerged; therefore, development of novel treatments to treat TMD pain remains a high priority. The rationale of this study was to use a double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a high-concentration (8%) capsaicin cream on TMD. This is based on the hypothesis that targeting TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) for pain control may provide a novel method for pain relief in TMD patients. TRPV1 is primarily expressed on a population of nociceptive-specific neurons and provides a candidate target for the development of pain treatments. Capsaicin is the primary agonist for TRPV1 and has been used previously in relatively low doses (0.025% to 0.075%) as a therapeutic for a variety of pain disorders, including postherpetic neuralgia and osteoarthritis; however, analgesic efficacy remains equivocal. TMD and healthy control subjects were assigned to either an active capsaicin or vehicle control group. The treatments were applied for 2 h and then removed. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was completed prior to drug application (baseline), 2 h after drug application, and 1 wk later. Perceived pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) following capsaicin or vehicle cream application. Significantly lower pain was reported in the week after application in the capsaicin-treated TMD subjects. For QST measures, there was a decreased thermal pain threshold 2 h after capsaicin application for both the control and TMD groups, but this resolved within a week. Capsaicin had no effect on pressure pain threshold or mechanical sensitivity in both TMD and healthy individuals. This study demonstrates that 8% topical capsaicin therapy is a

  16. Heat transfer. Basics and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Boeckh, Peter von

    2012-07-01

    The book provides an easy way to understand the fundamentals of heat transfer. The reader will acquire the ability to design and analyze heat exchangers. Without extensive derivation of the fundamentals, the latest correlations for heat transfer coefficients and their application are discussed. The following topics are presented - Steady state and transient heat conduction - Free and forced convection - Finned surfaces - Condensation and boiling - Radiation - Heat exchanger design - Problem-solving After introducing the basic terminology, the reader is made familiar with the different mechanisms of heat transfer. Their practical application is demonstrated in examples, which are available in the Internet as MathCad files for further use. Tables of material properties and formulas for their use in programs are included in the appendix. This book will serve as a valuable resource for both students and engineers in the industry. The author's experience indicates that students, after 40 lectures and exercises of 45 minutes based on this textbook, have proved capable of designing independently complex heat exchangers such as for cooling of rocket propulsion chambers, condensers and evaporators for heat pumps. (orig.)

  17. The first clinical experience on efficacy of topical flutamide on melasma compared with topical hydroquinone: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalatkhah H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Adalatkhah,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani2,3 1Department of Dermatology, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Background: Treatment of melasma is unsatisfactory most of the times. Hormonal role is shown to exist in pathogenesis of the melasma, and sex-hormone related drugs may have an effect on melasma.Aim: To investigate efficacy of 1% flutamide cream versus 4% hydroquinone cream on melasma.Methods: In a parallel randomized clinical trial, 74 women with melasma were allocated to receive a sunscreen along with 4% hydroquinone cream or 1% flutamide cream. Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI, mexameter melanin assay, and patient satisfaction were investigated.Results: Mean age of the participants was 33.8 years. Mean length of time suffering from Melasma was 96.3 months. The subjects reported in average 1.1 hours per day of exposure to sunlight. Mean standardized total patient satisfaction score was 28.8 (standard deviation [SD] 17.2 in flutamide group patients versus 18 (SD 15.5 in control group (P<0.01. Regardless of treatment group, the skin darkness assessed upon MASI scales was reduced over the treatment course (P<0.001. Using mixed effects, longitudinal modeling showed better treatment efficacy based on MASI scale for flutamide group compared to the hydroquinone group (P<0.05. However, longitudinal analysis of mexameter scores did not reveal any significant difference in melanin measurements between flutamide and hydroquinone.Conclusion: Topical flutamide appeared as effective as topical hydroquinone in treating melasma using mexameter assessment but with a better MASI improvement trend and higher patient satisfaction in flutamide treatment versus topical hydroquinone. As the present study is possibly the

  18. Comparison of hyaluronic acid-containing topical eye drops with carbomer-based topical ocular gel as a tear replacement in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca: A prospective study in twenty five dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.

  19. Comparison of efficacy among various topical anesthetics: An approach towards painless injections in periodontal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Koppolu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: From the present study, it can be concluded that procaine gel is a better than other topical LA agents, as the number of studies on this subject is rare and clinical results are mixed, further studies are required with a larger sample before its routine application in our field.

  20. Labour Market Effects of Employment Protection. IAB Labour Market Research Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich

    The labor market effects of employment protection were examined in a study of Germany's employment protection regulations and their impact on employment practices and patterns. The following topics were considered: (1) the question of whether Germany's labor market problems are a result of regulations; (2) employment security as a subject of labor…

  1. A Procedure for Writing Content-Fair Essay Examination Topics for Large-Scale Writing Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetker, James; Brossell, Gordon

    1986-01-01

    Reports on a study in the development of content-fair essay topics that provide the majority of examinees with the chance to write on a subject about which they know a great deal, and that reduce opportunities for linguistic misinterpretation. (HTH)

  2. Subdermal penetration of topically applied clobetasol propionate in ointment base through intact human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Jelstrup; Sindrup, J H; Kristensen, J K

    1992-01-01

    Some data have demonstrated a substantial subdermal accumulation of topically applied drugs in animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible effect of epicutaneously applied clobetasol propionate on blood flow in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Nine healthy subjects were studied...

  3. Transfer Readiness Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Skillman, Thelma; And Others

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) has implemented a prototype model for determining student transfer readiness as a primary means of assessing community college transfer effectiveness. This report provides definitions of transfer readiness and guidelines for colleges participating in the CCC transfer readiness study. First, a memorandum from…

  4. A comparison between topical Griseofulvin and topical Clotrimazole in Tinea Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoori P

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Griseofulvin is a well-known, effective, systemic antifungal agent which has not been used topically in the current clinical practice. In order to treat the common superficial fungal infection of tinea versicolor, a new topical formulation of griseofulvin (1% was tried in 105 patients during a double blind study and its efficacy compared with placebo (its vehicle and clotrimazol (1% solutions. As a result, 17.9% of patients treated by griseofulvin, 38.9% of patients on clotrimazole and 3.3% of patients receiving placebo were completely cured. This study suggests that in proper solvent, topical griseofulvin might show its antifungal action.

  5. The efficacy of topical hyaluronan in rhinosinusitis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Vella, P; Moffa, A; Grimaldi, V; Sabatino, L; Rinaldi, V; Lopez, M A; Baptista, P; Salvinelli, F

    2017-12-04

    Rhinosinusitis is one of the most common inflammatory conditions of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and is one of the most common causes of absence from work and for visits to the family doctor. The treatment strategy in both acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is to reduce the severity of the symptoms, minimize the duration of the disease and prevent complications. Topical therapy has become an important tool in otolaryngologists’ armamentarium for rhinosinusitis treatment. Recently, topical hyaluronic acid (HA), the major component of many extracellular matrices that promotes tissue healing, including activation and moderation of the inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, migration and angiogenesis, has been proposed for ARS and CRS adjuvant tool. The aim of the study is to systematically review the published literature regarding all the therapeutic effects of HA on the ARS and CRS. Relevant published studies were found in PubMed, Google Scholar and Ovid, using a combined keyword search or medical subject headings. At the end of our study selection process, 5 relevant publications were included: 2 of them investigated the potential role of HA in reducing symptoms and preventing exacerbations of CRS in adult population, two of them in paediatric patients affected by upper respiratory tract infections and one of them in cystic fibrosis patients with bacterial rhinopharyngitis. Data deriving from the present review of 5 clinical studies showed that the use of topical HA represents a relevant therapeutic advance in rhinosinusitis to minimize symptoms and prevent reacutization with a significant improvement of their quality of life, as it avoids systemic side effects and increases local drug activity. Further studies on larger populations and with new specific nebulization devices for upper airway are needed to confirm these encouraging results.

  6. Topical phenytoin for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiang Yong; Li, Hong Ling; Su, He; Cai, Hui; Guo, Tian Kang; Liu, Ruifeng; Jiang, Lei; Shen, Yan Fei

    2017-02-22

    Pressure ulcers are common in clinical practice and pose a significant health problem worldwide. Apart from causing suffering to patients, they also result in longer hospital stays and increase the cost of health care. A variety of methods are used for treating pressure ulcers, including pressure relief, patient repositioning, biophysical strategies, nutritional supplementation, debridement, topical negative pressure, and local treatments including dressings, ointments and creams such as bacitracin, silver sulphadiazine, neomycin, and phenytoin. Phenytoin is a drug more commonly used in the treatment of epilepsy, but may play an important role in accelerating ulcer healing. To assess the effects of topical phenytoin on the rate of healing of pressure ulcers of any grade, in any care setting. In September 2016, we searched the following electronic databases to identify relevant randomized clinical trials: the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We handsearched conference proceedings from the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Wound Management Association and the Tissue Viability Society for all available years. We searched the references of the retrieved trials to identify further relevant trials. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) addressing the effects (both benefits and harms) of topical phenytoin on the healing of pressure ulcers of any grade compared with placebo or alternative treatments or no therapy, irrespective of blinding, language, and publication status. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted information on participants, interventions, methods and results and assessed risk of bias using

  7. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  8. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  9. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  10. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  11. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  12. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Siegel, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Further expanding on the changes made to the fifth edition, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, 6th Edition continues to highlight the relevance of thermal radiative transfer and focus on concepts that develop the radiative transfer equation (RTE). The book explains the fundamentals of radiative transfer, introduces the energy and radiative transfer equations, covers a variety of approaches used to gauge radiative heat exchange between different surfaces and structures, and provides solution techniques for solving the RTE.

  13. Risk assessment of topically applied products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Tue; Basse, Line Hollesen; Halling-Sørensen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The human risk of harmful substances in semisolid topical dosage forms applied topically to normal skin and broken skin, respectively, was assessed. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and three derivatives of BADGE previously quantified in aqueous cream and the UV filters 3-BC and 4-MBC were used...... as model compounds. Tolerable daily intake (TDI) values have been established for BADGE and derivatives. Endocrine disruption was chosen as endpoint for 3-BC and 4-MBC. Skin permeation of the model compounds was investigated in vitro using pig skin membranes. Tape stripping was applied to simulate broken...... skin associated with various skin disorders. BADGE and derivatives had a tendency to permeate pig skin membranes in vitro with higher fluxes in the tape stripped membranes compared to the non-treated membranes. Data from the in vitro skin permeation study and from the literature were used as input...

  14. Topical Nano and Microemulsions for Skin Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christofori M. R. R. Nastiti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanosystems such as microemulsions (ME and nanoemulsions (NE offer considerable opportunities for targeted drug delivery to and via the skin. ME and NE are stable colloidal systems composed of oil and water, stabilised by a mixture of surfactants and cosurfactants, that have received particular interest as topical skin delivery systems. There is considerable scope to manipulate the formulation components and characteristics to achieve optimal bioavailability and minimal skin irritancy. This includes the incorporation of established chemical penetration enhancers to fluidize the stratum corneum lipid bilayers, thus reducing the primary skin barrier and increasing permeation. This review discusses nanosystems with utility in skin delivery and focuses on the composition and characterization of ME and NE for topical and transdermal delivery. The mechanism of skin delivery across the stratum corneum and via hair follicles is reviewed with particular focus on the influence of formulation.

  15. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollstein, R N; McDonald, C

    1980-11-01

    Infection is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in burns. Burn wound infection is defined as burn wound bacterial proliferation in a density equal to or greater than 10(5) bacteria per gram of tissue. Gram-negative bacteria, notably Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as staphylococci and fungal opportunists, have been identified as prominent invaders. Topical and systemic antimicrobial agents are essential adjuncts in the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection. Topical antimicrobial therapy is indicated in all hospitalized burn patients. Short-term use of systemic antimicrobials for prophylaxis and treatment is required in all moderate and major burns, specifically for early prophylaxis, perioperative prophylaxis, and clinical infection. Antimicrobial choice is based on specific patient or environmental bacteriological data.

  16. [Cosmetics and topical medications in acne: Where is the boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F; Claudel, J-P; Auffret, N; Leccia, M-T; Dréno, B

    2017-12-01

    Acne is a chronic disease that may cause sequels such as atrophic or hypertrophic scars or post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Topical and systemic medications with proven pharmacologic activity and which have received marketing authorization are the key actors in the treatment of acne. However, these topical or systemic treatments frequently cause adverse effects related to impairment of the skin barrier, and cosmetics must therefore be used in combination to help protect the skin barrier. Nowadays, new cosmetic products containing active ingredients tested in vitro or in a small number of subjects have changed the world of cosmetics. In being described as "dermo-cosmetic" and in integrating active ingredients in their formulations, these cosmetics are now being presented as being specifically adapted for a given disease, and no longer limited to skin care and hygiene but suitable as an adjunctive or even an alternative to current medications. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the respective roles of medications and cosmetics in the management of acne. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanoparticles containing curcuminoids (Curcuma longa: development of topical delivery formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Zamarioli

    Full Text Available Solid lipid nanoparticles incorporating Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae, curcuminoids were produced by the hot melt emulsion method. A Box–Behnken factorial design was adopted to study the nanoparticles production at different levels of factors such as the percentage of curcuminoids, time of homogenization and surfactant ratio. The optimized nanoparticles were incorporated into hydrogels for stability, drug release and skin permeation tests. The average nanoparticle sizes were 210.4 nm; the zeta potential of −30.40 ± 4.16; the polydispersivity was 0.222 ± 0.125. The average encapsulation efficiency of curcumin and curcuminoids was 52.92 ± 5.41% and 48.39 ± 6.62%, respectively. Solid lipid nanocapsules were obtained with curcumin load varying from 14.2 to 33.6% and total curcuminoids load as high as 47.7%. The topical formulation containing SLN-Curcuminoids showed good spreadability and stability when subjected to mechanical stress test remained with characteristic color, showed no phase separation and no significant change in pH. As a result of slow release, the nanoparticles were able to avoid permeation or penetration in the pig ear epidermis/dermis during 18 h. The topical formulation is stable and can be used in further in vivo studies for the treatment of inflammatory reactions, in special for radiodermitis.

  18. Topical vitamin A treatment of recalcitrant common warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Anca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common warts (verruca vulgaris are benign epithelial proliferations associated with human papillomavirus (HPV infection. Salicylic acid and cryotherapy are the most frequent treatments for common warts, but can be painful and cause scarring, and have high failure and recrudescence rates. Topical vitamin A has been shown to be a successful treatment of common warts in prior informal studies. Case The subject is a healthy, physically-active 30 old female with a 9 year history of common warts on the back of the right hand. The warts resisted treatment with salicylic acid, apple cider vinegar and an over-the-counter blend of essential oils marketed for the treatment of warts. Daily topical application of natural vitamin A derived from fish liver oil (25,000 IU led to replacement of all the warts with normal skin. Most of the smaller warts had been replaced by 70 days. A large wart on the middle knuckle required 6 months of vitamin A treatment to resolve completely. Conclusion Retinoids should be further investigated in controlled studies to determine their effectiveness in treating common warts and the broad range of other benign and cancerous lesions induced by HPVs.

  19. Topical vitamin A treatment of recalcitrant common warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Anca; Garry, Robert F

    2012-01-17

    Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are benign epithelial proliferations associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Salicylic acid and cryotherapy are the most frequent treatments for common warts, but can be painful and cause scarring, and have high failure and recrudescence rates. Topical vitamin A has been shown to be a successful treatment of common warts in prior informal studies. The subject is a healthy, physically-active 30 old female with a 9 year history of common warts on the back of the right hand. The warts resisted treatment with salicylic acid, apple cider vinegar and an over-the-counter blend of essential oils marketed for the treatment of warts. Daily topical application of natural vitamin A derived from fish liver oil (25,000 IU) led to replacement of all the warts with normal skin. Most of the smaller warts had been replaced by 70 days. A large wart on the middle knuckle required 6 months of vitamin A treatment to resolve completely. Retinoids should be further investigated in controlled studies to determine their effectiveness in treating common warts and the broad range of other benign and cancerous lesions induced by HPVs.

  20. On subject use in English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu Revencu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the issue of syntactic transfer in child L2 acquisition, by presenting a two-part study in which Romanian monolinguals are compared to Romanian-Hebrew balanced bilinguals in two spontaneous production tasks. The main research question concerns the influence of Hebrew as a second L1 on the (resetting of the Null Subject Parameter in English-L2, as Hebrew exhibits the same subject and verb morphology pattern as English for certain persons and tenses. The collected data provide evidence in favour of both access to UG and syntactic transfer, supporting the Full Access Full Transfer Hypothesis.

  1. 21 CFR 868.5170 - Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator. 868... topical anesthesia applicator. (a) Identification. A laryngotracheal topical anesthesia applicator is a device used to apply topical anesthetics to a patient's laryngotracheal area. (b) Classification. Class...

  2. Business Education Research: Identification and Prioritization of Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Wilhelm, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Using an affinity diagram, business educators generated 110 research topics. In a two-round modified Delphi, 15 business educators aggregated, categorized, and rank ordered the topics. Topics related to workplace soft skills, business communication, technology, and distance learning ranked highest. Topics related to traditional business education…

  3. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  4. Recent Topics in Instrumentation and Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kazuo; Watanabe, Hironori; Kodaira, Kazuaki; Matsumura, Taiyo

    Instrumentation and measurement play a vital role in research and development in the science and engineering fields. Recently, the goals of instrumentation and measurement have expanded to meet not only the industrial and science requirements but also the needs in all fields of social life, such as medicine and welfare, the environment, and disaster and security. In this article, recent technical topics in the instrumentation and measurement field are reported.

  5. Preface: Special Topic on Reaction Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Cecilia; Henkelman, Graeme

    2017-10-01

    This Special Topic Issue on Reaction Pathways collects original research articles illustrating the state of the art in the development and application of methods to describe complex chemical systems in terms of relatively simple mechanisms and collective coordinates. A broad range of applications is presented, spanning the sub-fields of biophysics and material science, in an attempt to showcase the similarities in the formulation of the approaches and highlight the different needs of the different application domains.

  6. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  7. Topics in cement and concrete research

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...

  8. A Note on Topical N-Grams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-24

    networks” is considered as a phrase because of the frequent use of it as a fixed expression . However, it specifies two distinct concepts: biological...noun, however, in other topics such as real estate, it does even not mean a phrase, that is, it is not idiomatic at all. In this paper, we propose a new...contract number NBCHD030010, and under contract number HR0011-06-C-0023. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this

  9. Topics in theoretical and applied statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Giommi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the latest research findings from the 46th International Meeting of the Italian Statistical Society (SIS) in Rome, during which both methodological and applied statistical research was discussed. This selection of fully peer-reviewed papers, originally presented at the meeting, addresses a broad range of topics, including the theory of statistical inference; data mining and multivariate statistical analysis; survey methodologies; analysis of social, demographic and health data; and economic statistics and econometrics.

  10. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J

    2008-01-03

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.

  11. Armenian media coverage of science topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkhitaryan, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The article discusses features and issues of Armenian media coverage on scientific topics and provides recommendations on how to promote scientific topics in media. The media is more interested in social or public reaction rather than in scientific information itself. Medical science has a large share of the global media coverage. It is followed by articles about environment, space, technology, physics and other areas. Armenian media mainly tends to focus on a scientific topic if at first sight it contains something revolutionary. Media primarily reviews whether that scientific study can affect the Armenian economy and only then decides to refer to it. Unfortunately, nowadays the perception of science is a little distorted in media. We can often see headlines of news where is mentioned that the scientist has made "an invention". Nowadays it is hard to see the border between a scientist and an inventor. In fact, the technological term "invention" attracts the media by making illusionary sensation and ensuring large audience. The report also addresses the "Gitamard" ("A science-man") special project started in 2016 in Mediamax that tells about scientists and their motivations.

  12. Topical betamethasone for prevention of radiation dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidvari Shapour

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although acute radiation dermatitis (ARD is a common side-effect of radiotherapy (RT, currently there is no general consensus about its prevention or treatment of choice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prophylactic use of topical betamethasone 0.1% can prevent ARD caused by chest wall irradiation. Methods: Fifty-one patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer and were going to receive RT, were randomly assigned to receive topical betamethasone 0.1%, petrolatum or none during RT. The frequency and severity of ARD (measured using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute radiation morbidity scoring criteria were recorded at the end of each week during RT and two weeks after its completion. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by relevant statistical methods. Results: All patients developed some degree of ARD, the frequency and severity of which increased with time and reached the maximum at the end of the seventh week for all groups. Patients receiving betamethasone had less severe ARD than the other two groups throughout the course of the study, but this difference was significant only at the end of the third week (p =0.027. No significant difference was observed between the petrolatum and control arms. Conclusion: Prophylactic and ongoing use of topical betamethasone 0.1% during chest wall RT for breast cancer delays occurrence of ARD but does not prevent it. Petrolatum has no effect on the prevention of ARD in these patients.

  13. Topical rebamipide improves lid wiper epitheliopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itakura H

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Tomoyuki Kashima,2 Mariko Itakura,1 Hideo Akiyama,2 Shoji Kishi2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan Abstract: Administration of topical rebamipide increases the mucin level of tear film and improves the ocular surface in short break-up time type of dry eye. Lid wiper epitheliopathy (LWE is a disorder of the marginal conjunctiva of the upper eyelid with dry eye symptoms. LWE may be related to mechanical forces during blinking resulting in inflammation of the ocular surface. Rebamipide also has various anti-inflammatory effects. In this report, we tried treatment with topical rebamipide for two cases of LWE. One case had been treated with sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution and diquafosol sodium eye drops by other doctors for several weeks. The other case was not previously treated. In both cases, fluorescein staining of the cornea and lid margin was remarkably improved, ocular symptoms decreased, and tear film break-up times increased with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2–3 weeks. Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal and conjunctival disorders in LWE. This drug may provide a novel approach to the treatment of LWE. Keywords: corneal erosion, dry eye, lid wiper, Mucosta®, mucin, rebamipide

  14. Application of Topic Map on Knowledge Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sou-shan Wu

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM has received much attention from both academics and practitioners in the past few years. Following the KM trend, many organizations have built their own knowledge repositories or data warehouses. However, information or knowledge is still scattered everywhere without being properly managed. The rapid growth of the Internet accelerates the creation of unstructured and unclassified information and causes the explosion of information overload. The effort of browsing information through general-purpose search engines turns out to be tedious and painstaking. Hence, an effective technology to solve this information retrieval problem is much needed. The purpose of this research is to explore the application of text mining technique in organizing knowledge stored in unstructured natural language text documents. Major components of text mining techniques required for topic map in particular will be presented in detail.Two sets of unstructured documents are utilized to demonstrate the usage of SOM for topic categorization. The first set of documents is a collection of speeches given by Y.C. Wang, Chairman of the Taiwan Plastics Group, and the other is the collection of all laws and regulations related to securities and future markets in Taiwan. We also try to apply text mining to these two sets of documents to generate their respective topic maps, thus revealing the differences between organizing explicit and tacit knowledge as well as the difficulties associated with tacit knowledge.[Article content in Chinese

  15. Intelligent topical sentiment analysis for the classification of e-learners and their topics of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, M; Kulanthaivel, G; Chellatamilan, T

    2015-01-01

    Every day, huge numbers of instant tweets (messages) are published on Twitter as it is one of the massive social media for e-learners interactions. The options regarding various interesting topics to be studied are discussed among the learners and teachers through the capture of ideal sources in Twitter. The common sentiment behavior towards these topics is received through the massive number of instant messages about them. In this paper, rather than using the opinion polarity of each message relevant to the topic, authors focus on sentence level opinion classification upon using the unsupervised algorithm named bigram item response theory (BIRT). It differs from the traditional classification and document level classification algorithm. The investigation illustrated in this paper is of threefold which are listed as follows: (1) lexicon based sentiment polarity of tweet messages; (2) the bigram cooccurrence relationship using naïve Bayesian; (3) the bigram item response theory (BIRT) on various topics. It has been proposed that a model using item response theory is constructed for topical classification inference. The performance has been improved remarkably using this bigram item response theory when compared with other supervised algorithms. The experiment has been conducted on a real life dataset containing different set of tweets and topics.

  16. Topical menthol increases cutaneous blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Daniel H; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-09-01

    Menthol, the active ingredient in several topically applied analgesics, activates transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) receptors on sensory nerves and on the vasculature inducing a cooling sensation on the skin. Ilex paraguariensis is also a common ingredient in topical analgesics that has potential vasoactive properties and may alter the mechanisms of action of menthol. We sought to characterize the microvascular effects of topical menthol and ilex application and to determine the mechanism(s) through which these compounds may independently and combined alter cutaneous blood flow. We hypothesized that menthol would induce vasoconstriction and that ilex would not alter skin blood flow (SkBF). Three separate protocols were conducted to examine menthol and ilex-mediated changes in SkBF. In protocol 1, placebo, 4% menthol, 0.7% ilex, and combination menthol+ilex gels were applied separately to the skin and red cell flux was continuously measured utilizing laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). In protocol 2, seven concentrations of menthol gel (0.04%, 0.4%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, 8%) were applied to the skin to model the dose-response curve. In protocol 3, placebo, menthol, ilex, and menthol+ilex gels were applied to skin under local thermal control (34°C) both with and without sensory nerve blockage (topical lidocaine 4%). Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) and local heating (42°C) protocols were conducted to determine the relative contribution of endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs)/sensory nerves and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Red cell flux was normalized to mean arterial pressure expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: flux·mmHg(-1)) in all protocols. Topical menthol application increased SkBF compared to placebo (3.41±0.33 vs 1.1±0.19CVC: pmenthol (main effect, pmenthol application during PORH (3.62±0.29 vs. 2.50±0.21flux·mmHg(-1); pmenthol-mediated vasodilation at thermoneutral baseline (1.29±0.19flux·mmHg(-1

  17. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  18. A Survey of Topic Modeling in Text Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Rubayyi Alghamdi; Khalid Alfalqi

    2015-01-01

    Topic models provide a convenient way to analyze large of unclassified text. A topic contains a cluster of words that frequently occur together. A topic modeling can connect words with similar meanings and distinguish between uses of words with multiple meanings. This paper provides two categories that can be under the field of topic modeling. First one discusses the area of methods of topic modeling, which has four methods that can be considerable under this category. These methods are Laten...

  19. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  20. Topical tranexamic acid as an adjuvant treatment in melasma: Side-by-side comparison clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jong Yoon; Lee, Jong Hee; Lee, Joo Heung

    2016-08-01

    Tranexamic acid (TNA) is a novel therapeutic agent for hyperpigmented skin disorders. The efficacy and safety of topical TNA in patients with melasma has not been heretofore studied. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical TNA combined with intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment in Asians with melasma. A randomized, split-face (internally controlled) study was conducted in 15 women who received four monthly sessions of IPL to both sides of the face. Topical TNA or vehicle was applied to a randomly assigned side during and after IPL treatment. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks after completing the IPL treatments. Baseline and follow-up melanin index (MI; measured by Mexameter®, Courage and Khazaka, Cologne, Germany) and modified melasma area and severity index (mMASI) scores were determined. Thirteen subjects completed the study without serious adverse events. MI and mMASI decreased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks after the last IPL treatment on the topical TNA side but not on the vehicle side. The efficacy of topical TNA in preventing rebound pigmentation after IPL treatment was also statistically significant. Topical TNA can be considered an effective and safe adjuvant to conventional treatment for melasma.

  1. Evaluation of contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Topical drugs are an important group of contact allergens. The present study aimed to evaluate contact sensitivity to topical drugs in patients with contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Between 2003 and 2008, 129 patients were followed up at the Department of Dermatology at Ankara University School of Medicine with clinically suspected contact sensitivity to topical drugs. In this study, the patch test reactions to the European Standard Battery and topical drugs used by the patients and medicament patch test results were evaluated. Results: Positive patch test reaction to one or more allergens was found in 80 (62.0% of 129 patients included in the study. Sixty-one of the 80 patients (61/129, 47.3% had positive patch test reaction to medicaments. Medicament sensitivity was detected in 37.9% (49/129 of subjects. Nitrofurazone was found to be the most common allergen (18.6%. Discussion: The present study showed that topical drugs are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. Therefore, the probability of contact sensitivity to topical drugs should also be considered in patients with the clinical diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis and, suspected cases should be evaluated further with patch testing in order to find the responsible allergens.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  3. [The importance of transference in Junguian psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotillo, Irene Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    Transference is an absolutely natural and spontaneous process which cannot be developed in an artificial and voluntary manner by the therapist. Transference is carried out in a subjective interpersonal relation consisting of a patient and an analyst. Jung will say he feels happy when transference takes place calmly or runs virtually unnoticed and the therapist can then focus on other therapeutic factors that play an important role. One could argue that Jungian psychotherapy consists of two people who get together to try to understand what is happening in the subconscious of one of them. The Jungian therapist is an active therapist who encourages and helps the patient to develop its individuation.

  4. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  5. Simple Ion Transfer at Liquid|Liquid Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Sanchez Vallejo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects related to the charge transfer reactions occurring at the interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES are described. The particular topics to be discussed involve simple ion transfer. Focus is given on theoretical approaches, numerical simulations, and experimental methodologies. Concerning the theoretical procedures, different computational simulations related to simple ion transfer are reviewed. The main conclusions drawn from the most accepted models are described and analyzed in regard to their relevance for explaining different aspects of ion transfer. We describe numerical simulations implementing different approaches for solving the differential equations associated with the mass transport and charge transfer. These numerical simulations are correlated with selected experimental results; their usefulness in designing new experiments is summarized. Finally, many practical applications can be envisaged regarding the determination of physicochemical properties, electroanalysis, drug lipophilicity, and phase-transfer catalysis.

  6. Effect of topical anaesthesia in patients with persistent dentoalveolar pain disorders: A quantitative sensory testing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP) expresses somatosensory abnormalities through quantitative sensory testing (QST), when compared to healthy controls; and that individuals with PDAP do not have somatosensory alterations after application of a topical anaesthetic gel. QST was performed in 25 subjects with PDAP (19 women and 6 men), at baseline and after topical application of benzocaine 2% (Benzotop 200mg/g, DFL) and compared to 25 matched healthy controls. After "Z" score transformation, results were analyzed using the paired "t" test and "t" test with significance level of 5%. PDAP subjects have lower pain detection thresholds confirmed through mechanical tests; and higher pain intensity report through thermal stimuli tests (heat and cold) when compared to healthy subjects. Topical anaesthesia partially reduces in 60% pain intensity of PDAP patients; and anaesthetic gel increases mechanical detection thresholds and reduces pain intensity report in dynamical mechanical allodynia tests. PDAP patients had abnormal thermal sensory and mechanical allodynia, which is indicative of central sensitization. Moreover, topical anaesthetic incited a significant reduction in pain intensity, and an increase in mechanical and pain detection thresholds, which could be also suggestive of a peripheral disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DTNSRDC Library Subject Thesaurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    ELECTRIC CHARGE CHANNEL SELECTORS TRANSFER BT ELECTRIC SWITCHES TUNING DEVICES CHARGE wEIGHT USE EXPLOSIVE CHARGES ’CHANNEL WINGS AND WEIGT UF CUSTER ...DIFFUSERS BT ESTERS RT TRAPPED VORTICES CYANIDE LIKE TOXIC EFFECTS CUSTER WINGS USE CYANIDES USE CHANNEL WINGS AND TO,, CUT OFF VALVES CYANIDE AASTESCTO...CAMOUFLAGE NT CATHODE RAf TUBE SCREENS BT COUNTERV’EASURES ELECTRONIC wARFARE ELECTRON TI!BE NT* 1*� NT BEAN! POWER TUBES ’ RADAR DECEOTION * CAMERA

  8. Once-daily topical treatment for psoriasis: calcipotriene + betamethasone two-compound topical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd J

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jonisha Shepherd,1 Arash Taheri,1 Steven R Feldman1–31Center for Dermatology Research, Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Pathology, 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USABackground: Topical treatments are usually effective in mild psoriasis. However, the complexity of their use may result in low patient adherence with treatment. Combination of a vitamin D analog and a corticosteroid into a two-compound topical formulation has increased efficacy compared with either drug administered alone. Once-daily application of such a product would likely improve adherence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether twice-daily application of a calcipotriene + betamethasone topical formulation can provide improved clinical outcomes compared with once-daily treatment with the same product.Methods: A review of the literature was performed seeking clinical trials comparing once-daily versus twice-daily application of calcipotriene + betamethasone topical formulations for the treatment of psoriasis.Results: We found only one relevant clinical trial. This study showed similar efficacy and safety with once-daily versus twice-daily application of a topical calcipotriene + betamethasone formulation in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris.Conclusion: Once-daily application of a topical calcipotriene + betamethasone formulation may offer increased patient convenience and potentially increased patient adherence with long-term treatment, compared with twice-daily use, without reducing the efficacy. In order to enhance adherence, patient preference regarding frequency of application of topical treatments should be considered when prescribing medications.Keywords: calcipotriene, betamethasone, once daily, twice daily, psoriasis, combination product

  9. Topical diltiazem for pain after closed hemorrhoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Wong, U; Ocharán-Hernández, M E; Toscano-Garibay, J

    2016-01-01

    Anal sphincter spasm contributes to the appearance of postoperative pain following hemorrhoidectomy. To determine the efficacy of topical diltiazem in the control of post-hemorrhoidectomy pain. A randomized, prospective, experimental, double-blind study was conducted on 2 groups of patients in the postoperative period of closed hemorrhoidectomy. Each group consisted of 17 patients. Group A received topical diltiazem in the anal region 3 times a day and group B received a placebo. Ketorolac was administered to both groups as rescue therapy. In group A, the mean score on the visual analog scale was 2.97±1.18cm at 24h, 1.51±1.18cm at 48h, and 0.84±0.92cm at 72h. In group B, it was 6.82±1.9cm at 24h, 5.3±1.66cm at 48h, and 4.32±2.13cm at 72h (P<.001, 95% CI). The mean number of analgesic doses in group A was 2.41±0.87 at 24h, 1.11±0.85 at 48h, and 0.94±0.96 at 72h. In group B, it was 3.82±0.52 at 24h, 3.64±0.70 at 48h, and 2.88±1.26 at 72h (P<.001, 95% CI). In this study, topical administration of diltiazem resulted in a statistically significant reduction of postoperative pain in patients that underwent closed hemorrhoidectomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Qihong Zhang,1 Carol R Flach,1 Richard Mendelsohn,1 Guangru Mao,2 Apostolos Pappas,2 M Catherine Mack,2 Russel M Walters,2 Michael D Southall2 1Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, 2Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., Skillman, NJ, USAAbstract: Ceramides (CERs, structural components of the stratum corneum (SC, impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.Keywords: stratum corneum, infrared imaging, topical delivery, oleic acid

  11. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  12. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893

  13. Metaphor and transference / Metáfora e transferência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Zanello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to point out the way that transference, in the psychoanalytical process, can be understood as a metaphor. We developed a graphic, in analogy of Searle's one, to understand transference as a dead metaphor (though yet alive, in the sense of Lakoff and Johnson which can be brought to the dimension of speech in the analytical setting, where the analyst should maintain oneself in resonance with one's neutrality and the patient between repetition and working through work. To finalize, an excerpt of a clinical case is presented to illustrate the topics that are discussed.

  14. Recent topics in differential and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 18-I: Recent Topics in Differential and Analytic Geometry presents the developments in the field of analytical and differential geometry. This book provides some generalities about bounded symmetric domains.Organized into two parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of harmonic mappings and holomorphic foliations. This text then discusses the global structures of a compact Kähler manifold that is locally decomposable as an isometric product of Ricci-positive, Ricci-negative, and Ricci-flat parts. Other chapters con

  15. Toxic Keratopathy Secondary to Topical Proparacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl Kubaloğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the clinical findings of toxic keratopathies secondary to topical proparacaine (Alcaine, Alcon abuse and the results of medical and/or surgical treatment options. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively analyzed twenty-two eyes of 25 patients who developed toxic keratopathy secondary to topical anesthetic abuse between March 2005 and December 2009. Severe pain unresponsive to medical treatment with persistent epithelial defects (PED and stromal ulcers were managed with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT. Some cases have undergone optical penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Clinical findings and complications were assessed, and visual acuities were measured before and after treatment. At the sixthmonth follow-up visit, endothelial cell densities (ECD were determined with specular microscopy in both affected and unaffected eyes for statistical comparison. Re sults: The mean time interval between the initiation of topical anesthetic use and admission to our clinic was 2.26 months. Epithelial defects, circular stromal keratitis and corneal edema were present in all eyes. Epithelial defects were healed with medical treatment in 15 eyes (60%. AMT was performed in 10 eyes, following a mean of 26.1 days after initiation of medical treatment. Visual acuity before the treatment was 0.1 or below in all eyes. At the last control visit including 3 eyes having had PK, best-corrected visual acuities were 0.5 or better in 13 eyes (52%, between 0.2 and 0.4 in 7 eyes (28% and 0.1 or worse in 5 eyes (20%. No statistically significant difference was found between ECD of affected and unaffected eyes of 13 patients in whom specular microscopy was possible. Dis cus si on: Topical anesthetic abuse may cause severe toxic keratopathy and lead to significant visual loss related to stromal opacities despite intensive treatment. AMT was found effective and successful in healing PED and stromal ulcers as well as in breaking the vicious circle of

  16. Topics in statistical and theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushin, R L; Shubin, M A

    1996-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes dedicated to the scientific heritage of F. A. Berezin (1931-1980). Before his untimely death, Berezin had an important influence on physics and mathematics, discovering new ideas in mathematical physics, representation theory, analysis, geometry, and other areas of mathematics. His crowning achievements were the introduction of a new notion of deformation quantization and Grassmannian analysis ("supermathematics"). Collected here are papers by many of his colleagues and others who worked in related areas, representing a wide spectrum of topics in statistical a

  17. Topics in radiation dosimetry radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    1972-01-01

    Radiation Dosimetry, Supplement 1: Topics in Radiation Dosimetry covers instruments and techniques in dealing with special dosimetry problems. The book discusses thermoluminescence dosimetry in archeological dating; dosimetric applications of track etching; vacuum chambers of radiation measurement. The text also describes wall-less detectors in microdosimetry; dosimetry of low-energy X-rays; and the theory and general applicability of the gamma-ray theory of track effects to various systems. Dose equivalent determinations in neutron fields by means of moderator techniques; as well as developm

  18. Topics in multivariate approximation and interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Jetter, Kurt

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of eleven articles, written by leading experts and dealing with special topics in Multivariate Approximation and Interpolation. The material discussed here has far-reaching applications in many areas of Applied Mathematics, such as in Computer Aided Geometric Design, in Mathematical Modelling, in Signal and Image Processing and in Machine Learning, to mention a few. The book aims at giving a comprehensive information leading the reader from the fundamental notions and results of each field to the forefront of research. It is an ideal and up-to-date introduction for gr

  19. Quantum mechanics new approaches to selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Lipkin, Harry Jeannot

    1973-01-01

    Acclaimed as ""excellent"" (Nature) and ""very original and refreshing"" (Physics Today), this collection of self-contained studies is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Its broad selection of topics includes the Mössbauer effect, many-body quantum mechanics, scattering theory, Feynman diagrams, and relativistic quantum mechanics.Author Harry J. Lipkin, a well-known teacher at Israel's Weizmann Institute, takes an unusual approach by introducing many interesting physical problems and mathematical techniques at a much earlier point than in conventional texts. This meth

  20. Deep Belief Nets for Topic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Lars; Arngren, Morten; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    -formative. In this paper we describe large-scale content based collaborative filtering for digital publishing. To solve the digital publishing recommender problem we compare two approaches: latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) and deep be-lief nets (DBN) that both find low-dimensional latent representations for documents....... Efficient retrieval can be carried out in the latent representation. We work both on public benchmarks and digital media content provided by Issuu, an on-line publishing platform. This article also comes with a newly developed deep belief nets toolbox for topic modeling tailored towards performance...

  1. Topical lignocaine for vaginismus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praharaj, S K; Verma, P; Arora, M

    2006-01-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual dysfunction in which spasm of vaginal musculature precludes penetrative intercourse. In many cases associated pain or fear of pain may contribute to the maintenance of vaginismus. We report a case of primary vaginismus with associated pain that benefited from topical application of lignocaine gel along with systematic desensitization resulting in successful consummation, and suggest that it may be a useful adjunct during finger dilatation in the treatment of vaginismus, specifically in patients who have associated pain or areas of hyperesthesia in the introitus.

  2. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electron holography of magnetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Murakami, Yasukazu

    2008-09-01

    Electron holography, which visualizes magnetic and/or electric fields in materials on the nanometre scale, is a powerful tool for the study of fundamental issues in physics as well as the characterization of advanced materials. This paper presents an overview of recent electron holography studies on advanced magnetic materials, which include hard magnetic materials (both nucleation-type and pinning-type magnets), soft magnetic materials (both classical alloys and recently developed nanostructured materials), magnetic recording materials (Co-CoO tape and other related topics) and magnetic functional materials (ferromagnetic shape memory alloys and colossal magnetoresistive manganites).

  3. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10%: formulation development program of a new topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, V; Pillai, R

    2015-07-01

    Transungual drug delivery of antifungals is considered highly desirable to treat common nail disorders such as onychomycosis, due to localized effects, and improved adherence resulting from minimal systemic adverse events. However, the development of effective topical therapies has been hampered by poor nail penetration. An effective topical antifungal must permeate through, and under the dense keratinized nail plate to the site of infection in the nail bed and nail matrix. We present here the formulation development program to provide effective transungual and subungual delivery of efinaconazole, the first topical broad spectrum triazole specifically developed for onychomycosis treatment. We discuss the important aspects encompassing the formulation development program for efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, focusing on its solubility in a number of solvents, in vitro penetration through the nail, and in vivo efficacy. Efinaconazole topical solution, 10% is a stable, non-lacquer, antifungal with a unique combination of ingredients added to an alcohol-based formulation to provide low surface tension and good wetting properties. This low surface tension is believed to affect effective transungual delivery of efinaconazole and believed to provide a dual mode of delivery by accessing the nail bed by wicking into the space between the nail and nail plate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  4. MetaTopics: an integration tool to analyze microbial community profile by topic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jifang; Chuai, Guohui; Qi, Tao; Shao, Fangyang; Zhou, Chi; Zhu, Chenyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Yifei; Shi, Cong; Kang, Ning; He, Yuan; Liu, Qi

    2017-01-25

    Deciphering taxonomical structures based on high dimensional sequencing data is still challenging in metagenomics study. Moreover, the common workflow processed in this field fails to identify microbial communities and their effect on a specific disease status. Even the relationships and interactions between different bacteria in a microbial community keep unknown. MetaTopics can efficiently extract the latent microbial communities which reflect the intrinsic relations or interactions among several major microbes. Furthermore, a quantitative measurement, Quetelet Index, is defined to estimate the influence of a latent sub-community on a certain disease status for given samples. An analysis of our in-house oral metagenomics data and public gut microbe data was presented to demonstrate the application and usefulness of MetaTopics. To preset a user-friendly R package, we have built a dedicated website, https://github.com/bm2-lab/MetaTopics , which includes free downloads, detailed tutorials and illustration examples. MetaTopics is the first interactive R package to integrate the state-of-arts topic model derived from statistical learning community to analyze and visualize the metagenomics taxonomy data.

  5. Optimizing topical antifungal therapy for superficial cutaneous fungal infections: focus on topical naftifine for cutaneous dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosso, James Q; Kircik, Leon H

    2013-11-01

    Superficial cutaneous fungal infections (SCFIs) are commonly encountered in clinical practice in the United States, and comprise infections of the skin by dermatophytes and yeasts. The most common organisms causing SCFI are dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton spp. With the exception of onchomycosis and tinea capitis, most cases of SCFIs are amenable to properly selected topical antifungal therapy used over an adequate period of time. A variety of topical antifungal agents are available for the treatment of SCFIs, and they encompass a few major chemical classes: the polyenes (ie, nystatin), imidazoles (ie, ketoconazole, econazole, oxiconazole, etc), allylamines (ie, naftifine, terbinafine), benzylamines (ie, butenafine), and hydroxypyridones (ie, ciclopirox). The 2 major classes that represent the majority of available topical antifungal agents are the azoles and the allylamines. Overall, the allylamines are superior to the azoles in activity against dermatophytes, although both are clinically effective. The reverse is true against yeasts such as Candida spp and Malassezia spp, although topical allylamines have proven to be efficacious in some cases of tinea versicolor and cutaneous candidiasis. Naftifine, a topical allylamine, is fungicidal in vitro against a wide spectrum of dermatophyte fungi and has been shown to be highly effective against a variety of cutaneous dermatophyte infections. Rapid onset of clinical activity and favorable data on sustained clearance of infection have been documented with naftifine. The more recent addition of naftifine 2% cream has expanded the armamentarium, with data supporting a clinically relevant therapeutic reservoir effect after completion of therapy.

  6. Heat transfer in aerospace propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, Robert J.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Gladden, Herbert J.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is an overview of heat transfer related research in support of aerospace propulsion, particularly as seen from the perspective of the NASA Lewis Research Center. Aerospace propulsion is defined to cover the full spectrum from conventional aircraft power plants through the Aerospace Plane to space propulsion. The conventional subsonic/supersonic aircraft arena, whether commercial or military, relies on the turbine engine. A key characteristic of turbine engines is that they involve fundamentally unsteady flows which must be properly treated. Space propulsion is characterized by very demanding performance requirements which frequently push systems to their limits and demand tailored designs. The hypersonic flight propulsion systems are subject to severe heat loads and the engine and airframe are truly one entity. The impact of the special demands of each of these aerospace propulsion systems on heat transfer is explored.

  7. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  8. Topical isoflavones provide effective photoprotection to skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Tournas, Joshua A; Burch, James A; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A; Zielinski, Jan

    2008-04-01

    Isoflavones, one main group of phytoestrogens, have antioxidative and photoprotective effects in cellular and mouse studies. The aim of this study is to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the isoflavone-mediated photoprotection with the pig skin model, a more human-resembling model. The pig skin was treated with five well-known isoflavone compounds (genistein, equol, daidzein, biochanin A, and formononetin) and one antioxidant combination solution of 15% vitamin C and 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid (CEF) daily for 4 days. Skin was irradiated with solar-simulated UV irradiation, 1 to 5 minimal erythema dose (MED) at 1-MED intervals. Evaluation was carried out 24 h later by colorimeter-measured erythema and sunburn cell numbers. Topical application of 0.5% solutions of three individual phytoestrogens - genistein, daidzein, biochanin A - are better than similar solutions of equol or formononetin in protecting pig skin from solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV)-induced photodamage, as measured by sunburn cell formation and/or erythema. However, the protection was less than that provided by a topical combination antioxidant standard containing 15% L-ascorbic acid, 1%alpha-tocopherol, and 0.5% ferulic acid. Isoflavones provide effective photoprotection and are good candidate ingredients for protection against ultraviolet (UV) photodamage.

  9. AAPE proliposomes for topical atopic dermatitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Alexander; Song, Chung Kil; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Ju-Hee; Chung, Suk-Jae; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory effect of advanced adipose stem cell derived protein extract (AAPE) could be improved by minimising protein degradation. To develop a proliposomal formulation of AAPE for the treatment of topical atopic dermatitis. Proliposomal powder was manufactured by evaporating a solution of soy phosphatidyl choline, AAPE and Poloxamer 407 in ethanol under vacuum on sorbitol powder. Characterisation of proliposomes (zeta potential, diameter, stability and flowability) as well as in vivo efficacy in a dermatitis mouse model was investigated. Reconstitution of the proliposomal powder formed liposomes of 589 ± 3.6 nm diameter with zeta potential of -51.33 ± 0.36 mV. Protein stability was maintained up to 90 days at 25 °C as proliposomes. In vivo studies on atopic dermatitis mouse model showed a significant reduction in IgE levels after topical AAPE proliposome treatment. AAPE proliposomes maintained protein stability and showed promising results for atopic dermatitis treatment.

  10. Holography And Related Topics In String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, D M

    2005-01-01

    This thesis covers research into the holographic entropy bound, the D-brane descent relations, and properties of AdS2 solutions in supersymmetric and nonsupersymmetric string theories. The first chapter introduces these topics and the connections between them. In chapter two, the holographic Bousso bound is studied and its modification due to quantum effects is presented. The Bousso bound requires that one quarter the area of a closed codimension two spacelike surface exceeds the entropy flux across a certain lightsheet terminating on the surface. The bound can be violated by quantum effects such as Hawking radiation. It is proposed that, at the quantum level, the bound be modified by adding to the area the quantum entanglement entropy across the surface. The validity of this quantum Bousso bound is proven in a two-dimensional large-N dilaton gravity theory. On the topic of D-branes, chapter three introduces the descent relations among branes of different dimensionality and stability. The descent relations re...

  11. Transfer of gaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteling, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the activities and results op GATE WP 4.4 entiteld Transfer of Gaming (ToG). This work package has produced the principles and methodologies concerning optimalization and measurement of transfer of training in serious gaming. In addition, true transfer of job-specific

  12. What the giant tells us about agreeing post-verbal subjects in Xhosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructions with the subject following the verb are a widely studied topic in Bantu linguistics. One such construction, in which the subject is dislocated, is considered not as core subject inversion, but generally as an afterthought construction. This study takes a spoken text, in this case a narrative, as its point of departure to ...

  13. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss during Complex Combat-Related Spine Trauma Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0177 TITLE: Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss during Complex Combat-Related Spine Trauma...Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss during Complex Combat-Related Spine Trauma Surgery 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-2-0177 5b...15. SUBJECT TERMS Spine; Tranexamic Acid; Perioperative blood loss; Trauma; Antifibrinolytic; Postoperative drain output; Allogenic transfusion

  14. Administrative Appeals in Romania and Poland - A Topical Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacian C. DRAGOŞ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issue of administrative appeal and analyzes how the appeal functions in two different jurisdictions: Poland and Romania. The authors start by providing information on the nature of the administrative appeal (mandatory or not, deadlines for exercising it, suspensive effect for the action in court etc. All these aspects are examined from a comparative perspective. The aim of the comparative perspective is to highlight that currently the European national systems are fluid and continuously changing; in addition, the goal is to identify best practices that could be transferred from one system to the other. One of the key topics addressed in the context of this theme refers to the relationship that exists between the administrative appeal and the action in court. Authors try to answer the question whether the citizens’ access to justice is breached in cases when the appeal is mandatory. The authors also discuss the fact that very often a mandatory appeal can lead to a high number of cases being solved outside the courts.

  15. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  16. Teaching innovation system applied in business management subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rosillo

    2017-06-01

    Blunder offers a fun mobile training. We can know which student learns faster, learns more or learns better a particular topic. If a student plays the subject that the teacher has explained in class the level of learning affects to the final evaluation positively.

  17. "Wrighting" the Self: New Technologies and Textual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The expression of the self through multimodal texts is a central theme in education. While it has been suggested that new technologies act as important mediators in the relationship between texts and subjectivity, the mechanisms underlying such mediation has been a neglected topic of research. This paper considers the theoretical assumptions upon…

  18. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  19. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  20. GeneTopics - interpretation of gene sets via literature-driven topic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Annotation of a set of genes is often accomplished through comparison to a library of labelled gene sets such as biological processes or canonical pathways. However, this approach might fail if the employed libraries are not up to date with the latest research, don't capture relevant biological themes or are curated at a different level of granularity than is required to appropriately analyze the input gene set. At the same time, the vast biomedical literature offers an unstructured repository of the latest research findings that can be tapped to provide thematic sub-groupings for any input gene set. Methods Our proposed method relies on a gene-specific text corpus and extracts commonalities between documents in an unsupervised manner using a topic model approach. We automatically determine the number of topics summarizing the corpus and calculate a gene relevancy score for each topic allowing us to eliminate non-specific topics. As a result we obtain a set of literature topics in which each topic is associated with a subset of the input genes providing directly interpretable keywords and corresponding documents for literature research. Results We validate our method based on labelled gene sets from the KEGG metabolic pathway collection and the genetic association database (GAD) and show that the approach is able to detect topics consistent with the labelled annotation. Furthermore, we discuss the results on three different types of experimentally derived gene sets, (1) differentially expressed genes from a cardiac hypertrophy experiment in mice, (2) altered transcript abundance in human pancreatic beta cells, and (3) genes implicated by GWA studies to be associated with metabolite levels in a healthy population. In all three cases, we are able to replicate findings from the original papers in a quick and semi-automated manner. Conclusions Our approach provides a novel way of automatically generating meaningful annotations for gene sets that are directly