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Sample records for subject terms prostate

  1. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  2. Prostate-specific antigen and long-term prediction of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, David D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Jensen, Gorm B

    2012-01-01

    It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population.......It is largely unknown whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at first date of testing predicts long-term risk of prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality in the general population....

  3. Evaluating long-term patient-centered outcomes following prostate cancer treatment: findings from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish-Yassine, May; Berenji, Manijeh; Wing, Diane; Copeland, Glenn; Demers, Raymond Y; Garlinghouse, Carol; Fagerlin, Angela; Newth, Gail E; Northouse, Laurel; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Rovner, David; Sims, Jerry; Wei, John T

    2014-03-01

    information and what factors guide which primary information source a survivor would use. Median duration between prostate cancer diagnosis and survey response was 9 years. Of the study population, 80 % was diagnosed at an early stage. Survivors had reported significant problems in the 4 weeks prior to survey. Of the survivors, 88.1 % reported having a PSA test since diagnosis of prostate cancer, with 93 % of them having it done at least once per year. Of the survivors, 82.6 % reported that a healthcare provider gave them information on prostate cancer. Of this 82.6 %, 86.4 % had this information provided by a urologist, 45.4 % by a primary care physician, and 29.2 % by an oncologist. The primary source of information for these survivors was "healthcare provider" (59.2 %). Persistent symptoms subsequent to prostate cancer treatment suggest a gap in symptom management. Future research should support long-term studies of active surveillance versus active treatment outcomes to understand the feasibility of minimizing the burden of long-term physical symptoms arising from prostate cancer treatment. Clinicians must assess post-treatment distress long after treatment has ended to identify when supportive care is needed. More informational resources should be allocated to prostate cancer survivors to ensure that they are well-educated about their prognosis. This study is needed to ensure that the post-treatment symptoms of prostate cancer survivors are properly addressed and managed by healthcare providers over the long term.

  4. Long-term Prostate-specific Antigen Velocity in Improved Classification of Prostate Cancer Risk and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E; Kamstrup, Pia R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether adding long-term prostate-specific antigen velocity (PSAV) to baseline PSA values improves classification of prostate cancer (PCa) risk and mortality in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long-term PSAV improves classification of PCa risk...... classification was assessed using the net reclassification index (NRI). RESULTS: Age-adjusted hazard ratios for PCa risk and mortality were 2.7-5.3 and 2.3-3.4, respectively, for long-term PSAV when added to models already including baseline PSA values. For PCa risk and mortality, adding long-term PSAV to models....... Correspondingly, inappropriately reclassified were 49 of 10 000 men with PCa and 1658 of 10 000 men with no PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term PSAV in addition to baseline PSA value improves classification of PCa risk and mortality. Applying long-term PSAV nationwide, the ratio of appropriately to inappropriately...

  5. Bone complications among prostate cancer survivors: long-term follow-up from the prostate cancer outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, A K; Fan, K-H; Koyama, T; Albertsen, P C; Goodman, M; Hamilton, A S; Hoffman, R M; Stanford, J L; Stroup, A M; Penson, D F

    2014-12-01

    To assess the relationship between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) exposure and self-reported bone complications among men in a population-based cohort of prostate cancer survivors followed for 15 years after diagnosis. The Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study enrolled 3533 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1994 and 1995. This analysis included participants with non-metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis who completed 15-year follow-up surveys to report development of fracture, and use of bone-related medications. The relationship between ADT duration and bone complications was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Among 961 surviving men, 157 (16.3%) received prolonged ADT (>1 year), 120 (12.5%) received short-term ADT (⩽ 1 year) and 684 (71.2%) did not receive ADT. Men receiving prolonged ADT had higher odds of fracture (OR 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-5.7), bone mineral density testing (OR 5.9; 95% CI: 3.0-12) and bone medication use (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 2.3-8.0) than untreated men. Men receiving short-term ADT reported rates of fracture similar to untreated men. Half of men treated with prolonged ADT reported bone medication use. In this population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up, prolonged ADT use was associated with substantial risks of fracture, whereas short-term use was not. This information should be considered when weighing the advantages and disadvantages of ADT in men with prostate cancer.

  6. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  7. Long-term outcome of magnetic resonance spectroscopic image–directed dose escalation for prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Martin T.; Nasser, Nicola J.; Mathur, Nitin; Cohen, Gil’ad N.; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Yuen, Jasper; Vargas, Hebert A.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Zakian, Kristen L.; Zaider, Marco; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE To report the long-term control and toxicity outcomes of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer, who underwent low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy with magnetic resonance spectroscopic image (MRSI)–directed dose escalation to intraprostatic regions. METHODS AND MATERIALS Forty-seven consecutive patients between May 2000 and December 2003 were analyzed retrospectively. Each patient underwent a preprocedural MRSI, and MRS-positive voxels suspicious for malignancy were identified. Intraoperative planning was used to determine the optimal seed distribution to deliver a standard prescription dose to the entire prostate, while escalating the dose to MRS-positive voxels to 150% of prescription. Each patient underwent transperineal implantation of radioactive seeds followed by same-day CT for postimplant dosimetry. RESULTS The median prostate D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the prostate) was 125.7% (interquartile range [IQR], 110.3–136.5%) of prescription. The median value for the MRS-positive mean dose was 229.9% (IQR, 200.0–251.9%). Median urethra D30 and rectal D30 values were 142.2% (137.5–168.2%) and 56.1% (40.1–63.4%), respectively. Median followup was 86.4 months (IQR, 49.8–117.6). The 10-year actuarial prostate-specific antigen relapse–free survival was 98% (95% confidence interval, 93–100%). Five patients (11%) experienced late Grade 3 urinary toxicity (e.g., urethral stricture), which improved after operative intervention. Four of these patients had dose-escalated voxels less than 1.0 cm from the urethra. CONCLUSIONS Low-dose-rate brachytherapy with MRSI-directed dose escalation to suspicious intraprostatic regions exhibits excellent long-term biochemical control. Patients with dose-escalated voxels close to the urethra were at higher risk of late urinary stricture. PMID:27009848

  8. Food effects on abiraterone pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kim N; Spratlin, Jennifer; Kollmannsberger, Christian; North, Scott; Pankras, Catherine; Gonzalez, Martha; Bernard, Apexa; Stieltjes, Hans; Peng, Lixian; Jiao, James; Acharya, Milin; Kheoh, Thian; Griffin, Thomas W; Yu, Margaret K; Chien, Caly; Tran, Nam Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Food effect on abiraterone pharmacokinetics and safety on abiraterone acetate coadministration with low-fat or high-fat meals was examined in healthy subjects and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients. Healthy subjects (n = 36) were randomized to abiraterone acetate (single dose, 1000 mg) + low-fat meal, + high-fat meal, and fasted state. mCRPC patients received repeated doses (abiraterone acetate 1000 mg + 5 mg prednisone twice daily; days 1-7) in a modified fasting state followed by abiraterone acetate plus prednisone within 0.5 hours post-low-fat (n = 6) or high-fat meal (n = 18; days 8-14). In healthy subjects, geometric mean (GM) abiraterone area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) increased ∼5- and ∼10-fold, respectively, with low-fat and high-fat meals versus fasted state (GM [coefficient of variation], 1942 [48] and 4077 [37] ng · h/mL vs 421 [67] ng · h/mL, respectively). In mCRPC patients, abiraterone AUC was ∼2-fold higher with a high-fat meal and similar with a low-fat meal versus modified fasting state (GM [coefficient of variation]: 1992 [34] vs 973 [58] ng · h/mL and 1264 [65] vs 1185 [90] ng · h/mL, respectively). Adverse events (all grade ≤ 3) were similar, with high-fat/low-fat meals or fasted/modified fasting state. Short-term dosing with food did not alter abiraterone acetate safety. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Negative information-seeking experiences of long-term prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Skolarus, Ted A; Hawley, Sarah T; Haggstrom, David A; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wittmann, Daniela A

    2016-12-01

    Many prostate cancer survivors have lasting symptoms and disease-related concerns for which they seek information. To understand survivors' information-seeking experiences, we examined the topics of their information searches, their overall perceptions of the search, and perceptions of their health information seeking self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in their ability to obtain information). We hypothesized that negative search experiences and lower health information seeking self-efficacy would be associated with certain survivor characteristics such as non-white race, low income, and less education. This was a retrospective study using data from the Michigan Prostate Cancer Survivor Study (state-based survey of long-term prostate cancer survivor outcomes, N = 2499, response rate = 38 %). Participants recalled their last search for information and reported the topics and overall experience. We conducted multivariable regression to examine the association between survivor characteristics and the information-seeking experience. Nearly a third (31.7 %) of prostate cancer survivors (median age of 76 years and 9 years since diagnosis) reported having negative information-seeking experiences when looking for information. However, only 13.4 % reported having low health information-seeking self-efficacy. Lower income and less education were both significantly associated with negative information-seeking experiences. Our findings suggest that many long-term prostate cancer survivors have negative experiences when searching for information, and lower income and less education were survivor factors related to negative information-seeking experiences. We advocate for ongoing, information needs assessment at the point-of-care as the survivorship experience progresses to assess and potentially improve survivors' quality of life.

  10. Long-term effects of dihydrotestosterone treatment on prostate growth in healthy, middle-aged men without prostate disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idan, Amanda; Griffiths, Kaye A; Harwood, D Tim; Seibel, Markus J; Turner, Leo; Conway, Ann J; Handelsman, David J

    2010-11-16

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy increases with age and can result in substantially decreased quality of life for older men. Surgery is often required to control symptoms. It has been hypothesized that long-term administration of a nonamplifiable pure androgen might decrease prostate growth, thereby decreasing or delaying the need for surgical intervention. To test the hypothesis that dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a nonamplifiable and nonaromatizable pure androgen, reduces late-life prostate growth in middle-aged men. Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number: ACTRN12605000358640) SETTING: Ambulatory care research center. Healthy men (n = 114) older than 50 years without known prostate disease. Transdermal DHT (70 mg) or placebo gel daily for 2 years. Prostate volume was measured by ultrasonography; bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and blood samples and questionnaires were collected every 6 months, with data analyzed by mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. Over 24 months, there was an increase in total (29% [95% CI, 23% to 34%]) and central (75% [CI, 64% to 86%]; P prostate volume and serum prostate-specific antigen level (15% [CI, 6% to 24%]) with time on study, but DHT had no effect (P > 0.2). Dihydrotestosterone treatment decreased spinal BMD (1.4% [CI, 0.6% to 2.3%]; P 0.2) and increased serum aminoterminal propeptide of type I procollagen in the second year of the study compared with placebo. Dihydrotestosterone increased serum DHT levels and its metabolites (5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol) and suppressed serum testosterone, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Dihydrotestosterone increased hemoglobin levels (7% [CI, 5% to 9%]), serum creatinine levels (9% [CI, 5% to 11%]), and lean mass (2.4% [CI, 1.6% to 3.1%) but decreased fat mass (5.2% [CI, 2.6% to 7.7%]) (P

  11. New Prostate Cancer Grading System Predicts Long-term Survival Following Surgery for Gleason Score 8-10 Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Won Sik; Chalfin, Heather J; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J; Epstein, Jonathan I; Cheung, Carling; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Partin, Alan W; Han, Misop

    2017-06-01

    The newly proposed five-tiered prostate cancer grading system (PCGS) divides Gleason score (GS) 8-10 disease into GS 8 and GS 9-10 on the basis of biochemical recurrence (BCR) following radical prostatectomy (RP) as an outcome. However, BCR does not necessarily portend worse survival outcomes. To assess the significance of distinguishing GS 8 versus 9-10 disease in terms of long-term survival outcomes for both the preoperative setting using biopsy (Bx) GS and the postoperative setting with RP GS. Of 23918 men who underwent RP between 1984 and 2014, there were 721 men with biopsy GS 8-10, and 1047 men with RP GS 8-10. Clinicopathologic characteristics were compared between men with GS 8 and those with GS 9-10. We compared all-cause mortality (ACM) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) risk between the groups using Cox regression and competing-risks analyses, adjusting for other perioperative variables and death from other causes as the competing event. Compared to men with GS 8, men with GS 9-10 had later RP year and higher pathologic stage. Among men with Bx GS 8-10, 115 died (82 due to PC) with median follow-up of 3 yr (interquartile range [IQR] 1-7) for both overall and cancer-specific survival. Of men with RP GS 8-10, 221 died (151 due to PC) with median follow-up of 4 yr (IQR 2-8) and 4 yr (IQR 2-9) for overall and cancer-specific survival, respectively. PC-specific survival rates were significantly lower for men with GS 9-10 compared to men with GS 8 for both Bx (hazard ratio [HR] 2.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.37-3.30; pGleason score 8-10 disease based on both biopsy and RP Gleason scores. There are significant differences in all-cause mortality and prostate cancer-specific mortality following surgery between men with Gleason score 8 and those with Gleason score 9-10 disease. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term Consequences of Finasteride vs Placebo in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Joseph M; Till, Cathee; Thompson, Ian M; Tangen, Catherine M; Goodman, Phyllis J; Wright, Jason D; Barlow, William E; Ramsey, Scott D; Minasian, Lori M; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride has been found to reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer but to have no impact on overall survival. The long-term adverse and beneficial consequences of finasteride have not been examined. We used a linkage between data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and Medicare claims. Patients were examined by randomized study arm (finasteride vs placebo for 7 years) for long-term consequences of the intervention, including cardiac, endocrine, and sexual dysfunction, depression, diabetes, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related events. To examine time to events, we used cumulative incidence and Cox regression, adjusting for covariates. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 13 935 of 18 880 participants (73.8%) in the PCPT were linked to Medicare claims, with median Medicare follow-up assessment time of 16 years from trial registration. There were no differences between finasteride and placebo participants with respect to important baseline factors or amount of Medicare follow-up assessment time. Finasteride patients had a 10% higher risk of new claims for depression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.19, P = .04) and a 6% lower risk of procedures for BPH-related events (primarily lower urinary tract symptoms; HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.00, P = .03). No other differences were found in rates of long-term consequences of intervention in the two study arms. Finasteride use is associated with reduced need for procedures for relief of BPH-related events and a modest increase in depression. Overall, there is little need to worry about long-term noncancer consequences of finasteride use in those who use it for treatment of symptomatic BPH, hair growth, or prevention of cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Long-Term Efficacy and Toxicity of Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Prostate Brachytherapy as Monotherapy in Low-, Intermediate-, and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, Jeffrey A.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Smith, Kristin L.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Tendulkar, Rahul D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ulchaker, James; Angermeier, Kenneth; Campbell, Steven; Stephenson, Andrew; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Cleveland Clinic Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, D. Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Ciezki, Jay P., E-mail: ciezkij@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose/Objectives: To report long-term efficacy and toxicity for a single-institution cohort of patients treated with low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy permanent implant (PI) monotherapy. Methods and Materials: From 1996 to 2007, 1989 patients with low-risk (61.3%), intermediate-risk (29.8%), high-intermediate-risk (4.5%), and high-risk prostate cancer (4.4%) were treated with PI and followed up prospectively in a registry. All patients were treated with {sup 125}I monotherapy to 144 Gy. Late toxicity was coded retrospectively according to a modified Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.0 scale. The rates of biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), overall survival (OS), and prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) were calculated. We identified factors associated with late grade ≥3 genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity, bRFS, DMFS, OS, PCSM, and incontinence. Results: The median age of the patients was 67 years, and the median overall and prostate-specific antigen follow-up times were 6.8 years and 5.8 years, respectively. The overall 5-year rates for bRFS, DMFS, OS, and PCSM were 91.9%, 97.8%, 93.7%, and 0.71%, respectively. The 10-year rates were 81.5%, 91.5%, 76.1%, and 2.5%, respectively. The overall rates of late grade ≥3 GU and GI toxicity were 7.6% and 0.8%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, age and prostate length were significantly associated with increased risk of late grade ≥3 GU toxicity. The risk of incontinence was highly correlated with both pre-PI and post-PI transurethral resection of the prostate. Conclusions: Prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy is an effective treatment for low-risk and low-intermediate-risk prostate cancer and appears promising as a treatment for high-intermediate-risk and high-risk prostate cancer. Significant long-term toxicities are rare when brachytherapy is performed as monotherapy.

  14. Long-Term Quality of Life Outcome After Proton Beam Monotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coen, John J., E-mail: jcoen@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Paly, Jonathan J.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Weyman, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Rodrigues, Anita [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Talcott, James A. [Department of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: High-dose external radiation for localized prostate cancer results in favorable clinical outcomes and low toxicity rates. Here, we report long-term quality of life (QOL) outcome for men treated with conformal protons. Methods: QOL questionnaires were sent at specified intervals to 95 men who received proton radiation. Of these, 87 men reported 3- and/or 12-month outcomes, whereas 73 also reported long-term outcomes (minimum 2 years). Symptom scores were calculated at baseline, 3 months, 12 months, and long-term follow-up. Generalized estimating equation models were constructed to assess longitudinal outcomes while accounting for correlation among repeated measures in an individual patient. Men were stratified into functional groups from their baseline questionnaires (normal, intermediate, or poor function) for each symptom domain. Long-term QOL changes were assessed overall and within functional groups using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Statistically significant changes in all four symptom scores were observed in the longitudinal analysis. For the 73 men reporting long-term outcomes, there were significant change scores for incontinence (ID), bowel (BD) and sexual dysfunction (SD), but not obstructive/irritative voiding dysfunction (OID). When stratified by baseline functional category, only men with normal function had increased scores for ID and BD. For SD, there were significant changes in men with both normal and intermediate function, but not poor function. Conclusions: Patient reported outcomes are sensitive indicators of treatment-related morbidity. These results quantitate the long-term consequences of proton monotherapy for prostate cancer. Analysis by baseline functional category provides an individualized prediction of long-term QOL scores. High dose proton radiation was associated with small increases in bowel dysfunction and incontinence, with more pronounced changes in sexual dysfunction.

  15. Experimental dosimetric evaluation in pelvis phantom, subjected to prostate radiation therapy protocol at 15 MV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Andrea Silva Dias de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dias, Humberto Galvao [Centro de Radioterapia Hospital Luxemburgo, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Among the existing malignant neoplasia, the prostate cancer is most common among male population. Due to its high incidence and morbidity, there is a need for investment in advanced technology for better treatment associated with research and social mobilization to prevent the disease. As an efficient method of treatment for such tumor, radiation teletherapy brings favorable results for the patient, particularly when the cancer is diagnosed early. There are, however, the needs to assess the absorbed doses that reach the prostate in the radiation protocols in order to certify the treatment efficacy. The present research goal is to obtain the profile of absorbed dose distributed in a synthetic prostate on male pelvis phantom following a standard radiation therapy protocol. The methodology makes use of a NRI made phantom and a 15MV Linac accelerator. This phantom has anthropomorphic and anthropometric features containing the major internal organs, including bone, prostate, intestine, and bladder. The exposition was made in a 15 MV linear accelerator taken the isocenter in four fields as a 'BOX' of opposing beams. The dosimetry was prepared using GafChromic EBT type 2 radiochromic film and calibration in a solid water phantom. The radiochromic films were digitized on the Microtek Scan Maker 6900XL model scanner operating in the transmission mode and optical density readings based on RGB mode in the computer program Imagedig. The absorbance readings were performed in the spectrophotometer SP-220 mark BIOSPECTRO obtaining calibration curves generated by the collected data. The results reproduce the dose distribution generated in two orthogonal radiochromic films positioned onto the synthetic prostate. Discussions regarding the characteristics of the phantom and methods of irradiation in relation to the achieved dose profile will be addressed. (author)

  16. Photoselective Vaporization of the Prostate: Long-Term Outcomes and Safety During 10 Years of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasushi; Furusawa, Jun; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Kuromatsu, Isao

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term outcomes and safety photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). From April 2005 to December 2015, a total of 1154 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia underwent PVP. The type of Green Light laser was an 80 W potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and later a 120 W lithium triborate laser. Before and after surgery, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), post-voiding volume of residual urine (PVR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and prostate volume were assessed regularly. After surgery, events such as second PVP, transurethral incision, and permanent urethral catheterization were defined as retreatment. The mean and median periods of follow-up after PVP were 35.4 and 24.0 months, respectively. The maximum duration of follow-up was 125 months. Compared with before surgery, the IPSS, quality of life score, and PSA concentration improved significantly, even at 10 years after PVP; however, Qmax and PVR were not improved at 10 years. The retreatment-free survival rate was 93.9% at 5 years and 79.0% at 10 years. Prostate cancer was found in 27 cases after PVP, and all patients who were found to have prostate cancer remained alive. Prostate cancer-free survival after PVP was 96.7% at 5 years and 89.4% at 10 years. Our data suggest that the efficacy of PVP was maintained for 10 years; however, it may decrease after more than 10 years. PVP also did not promote the progression of or worsen the prognosis of prostate cancer.

  17. Low-dose-rate brachytherapy for patients with transurethral resection before implantation in prostate cancer: long-term results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Pedro J.; Anchuelo, Javier; Blanco, Ana Garcia; Paya, Gema; Cardenal, Juan; Acuña, Enrique; Ferri, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain); Vazquez, Andres; Pacheco, Maite; Sanchez, Jesica [Department of Radiation Physics, Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Cantabria (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Objectives: We analyzed the long-term oncologic outcome for patients with prostate cancer and transurethral resection who were treated using low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: From January 2001 to December 2005, 57 consecutive patients were treated with clinically localized prostate cancer. No patients received external beam radiation. All of them underwent LDR prostate brachytherapy. Biochemical failure was defined according to the 'Phoenix consensus'. Patients were stratified as low and intermediate risk based on The Memorial Sloan Kettering group definition. Results: The median follow-up time for these 57 patients was 104 months. The overall survival according to Kaplan-Meier estimates was 88% (±6%) at 5 years and 77% (±6%) at 12 years. The 5 and 10 years for failure in tumour-free survival (TFS) was 96% and respectively (±2%), whereas for biochemical control was 94% and respectively (±3%) at 5 and 10 years, 98% (±1%) of patients being free of local recurrence. A patient reported incontinence after treatment (1.7%). The chronic genitourinary complains grade I were 7% and grade II, 10%. At six months 94% of patients reported no change in bowel function. Conclusions: The excellent long-term results and low morbidity presented, as well as the many advantages of prostate brachytherapy over other treatments, demonstrates that brachytherapy is an effective treatment for patients with transurethral resection and clinical organ-confined prostate cancer. (author)

  18. Prostate Cancer Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when men who are being treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) see their PSA levels begin to... ... fight against prostate cancer today. Donate Terms of use Privacy Policy © Prostate Cancer Foundation, 2018 Understanding Prostate ...

  19. Definitions of terms, processes and a minimum dataset for transperineal prostate biopsies: a standardization approach of the Ginsburg Study Group for Enhanced Prostate Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Timur H; Wadhwa, Karan; Chang, Richard Tsung Meng; Echeverria, Lina Maria Carmona; Roethke, Matthias; Polson, Alexander; Rottenberg, Giles; Koo, Brendan; Lawrence, Edward M; Seidenader, Jonas; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Axell, Richard; Roth, Wilfried; Warren, Anne; Doble, Andrew; Muir, Gordon; Popert, Rick; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Hadaschik, Boris A; Kastner, Christof

    2013-09-01

    To define terms and processes and agree on a minimum dataset in relation to transperineal prostate biopsy procedures and enhanced prostate diagnostics. To identify the need for further evaluation and establish a collaborative research practice. A 19-member multidisciplinary panel rated 66 items for their appropriateness and their definition to be incorporated into the international databank using the Research and Development/University of California Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. The item list was developed from interviews conducted with healthcare professionals from urology, radiology, pathology and engineering. The panel agreed on 56 items that were appropriate to be incorporated into a prospective database. In total, 10 items were uncertain and were omitted. These items were within the categories: definitions (n = 2), imaging (n = 1), surgical protocols (n = 2) and histology (n = 5). The components of a minimum dataset for transperineal prostate biopsy have been defined. This provides an opportunity for multicentre collaborative data analysis and technique development. The findings of the present study will facilitate prospective studies into the application and outcome of transperineal prostate biopsies. © 2013 BJU International.

  20. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  1. Radiation Therapy Did Not Induce Long-Term Changes in Rectal Mucosa: Results From the Randomized Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slagsvold, Jens Erik, E-mail: Jens.Erik.Slagsvold@stolav.no [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Viset, Trond [Department of Pathology, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Wibe, Arne [Institute of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Department of Surgery, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); Kaasa, Stein [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); European Palliative Care Research Center, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Widmark, Anders [Department of Radiation Sciences, Cancercentrum, Umeå (Sweden); Lund, Jo-Åsmund [Cancer Clinic, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim (Norway); European Palliative Care Research Center, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in the rectal mucosa after curative external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 trial, 880 men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to hormonal therapy alone versus hormonal therapy plus radiation therapy to 70 Gy. A subcohort from this trial being randomized at our center (n=178) was invited to a study on late anorectal side effects during 2003-2005, approximately 5 years after treatment, including measuring health-reported quality of life and physician-assessed toxicity score by the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force/Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic (LENT/SOMA) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group score. Sixty-seven patients had a rectal mucosa biopsy. Sixty-four biopsies were included in the final analysis, of which 33 patients were randomized to hormonal treatment and 31 to hormonal treatment plus radiation therapy. The presence of fibrosis, number of capillaries, and lymphocyte infiltration was then evaluated by light microscopy. Results: The group receiving radiation therapy had significantly higher LENT/SOMA and function/bother scale scores than the group that only received hormonal treatment, but there was no significant difference in the presence of fibrosis, ectasia, number of capillaries in the lamina propria, or lymphocyte infiltration between the groups. Conclusion: Radiation therapy to 70 Gy to the prostate does not induce long-term microscopic mucosal changes in the rectum 5 years after treatment. This is in contrast to the general assumption that structural changes, including fibrosis, seen after radiation therapy include the mucosa. We speculate that the main late effects of radiation therapy on the structure of the rectum are located in the deeper layers of the rectal wall than the mucosa.

  2. Tissue Effects in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Short-term Finasteride in Early Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeri; Davis, John W; Klein, Eric A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Lotan, Yair; Ward, John F; Pisters, Louis L; Basler, Joseph W; Pettaway, Curtis A; Stephenson, Andrew; Li Ning Tapia, Elsa M; Efstathiou, Eleni; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Lee, J Jack; Gorlov, Ivan P; Vornik, Lana A; Hoque, Ashraful M; Prokhorova, Ina N; Parnes, Howard L; Lippman, Scott M; Thompson, Ian M; Brown, Powel H; Logothetis, Christopher J; Troncoso, Patricia

    2016-05-01

    In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, finasteride selectively suppressed low-grade prostate cancer and significantly reduced the incidence of prostate cancer in men treated with finasteride compared with placebo. However, an apparent increase in high-grade disease was also observed among men randomized to finasteride. We aimed to determine why and hypothesized that there is a grade-dependent response to finasteride. From 2007 to 2012, we randomized dynamically by intranet-accessible software 183 men with localized prostate cancer to receive 5mg finasteride or placebo daily in a double-blind study during the 4-6weeks preceding prostatectomy. As the primary end point, the expression of a predefined molecular signature (ERβ, UBE2C, SRD5A2, and VEGF) differentiating high- and low-grade tumors in Gleason grade (GG) 3 areas of finasteride-exposed tumors from those in GG3 areas of placebo-exposed tumors, adjusted for Gleason score (GS) at prostatectomy, was compared. We also determined androgen receptor (AR) levels, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase 3 to evaluate the effects of finasteride on the expression of its downstream target, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, respectively. The expression of these markers was also compared across grades between and within treatment groups. Logistic regression was used to assess the expression of markers. We found that the predetermined molecular signature did not distinguish GG3 from GG4 areas in the placebo group. However, AR expression was significantly lower in the GG4 areas of the finasteride group than in those of the placebo group. Within the finasteride group, AR expression was also lower in GG4 than in GG3 areas, but not significantly. Expression of cleaved caspase 3 was significantly increased in both GG3 and GG4 areas in the finasteride group compared to the placebo group, although it was lower in GG4 than in GG3 areas in both groups. We showed that finasteride's effect on apoptosis and AR expression is tumor grade dependent

  3. Long Term Patient Reported Urinary Function Following External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, S; Hayden, A J; Gebski, V; Cross, S; Turner, S L

    2017-07-01

    This study reports long-term patient reported urinary function and urinary-related quality of life (uQoL) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for localized prostate cancer. 574 men underwent definitive prostate EBRT to 70-78 Gy±androgen deprivation therapy between 2000 and 2009. The median follow-up from EBRT was 44 months. Patients were evaluated at baseline (pre-EBRT) and at intervals post-treatment using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) instrument. Patients with mild IPSS at baseline (total 0-7) reported median total scores of 3, 4 and 3 at baseline, 6 and 48 months respectively post-EBRT. For patients with moderate IPSS at baseline (total 8-19), median total IPSS was 12 at baseline and 9 at both 6 and 48 months. For the severe IPSS group at baseline (total 20-35), the median total IPSS was 24, 12 and 14 at baseline, 6 and 48 months post-EBRT. The cumulative risk of persistent IPSS increase (greater than 5 points above baseline) at 48 months was 16%, 10% and 6% for patients with mild, moderate and severe baseline IPSS respectively. 94%, 54% and 11% of patients with mild, moderate and severe baseline IPSS reported good uQoL at baseline respectively, with these proportions increasing to 95%, 83% and 69% at 48 months. Urinary symptoms and uQoL as measured by the IPSS instrument remained stable or improved for the majority of men after definitive EBRT with or without ADT for prostate cancer. This was especially notable for the group of men with worse baseline symptoms or uQoL, with risk of persistent worsening of urinary symptoms decreasing with higher baseline IPSS category. Understanding the expected pattern of urinary symptoms and related uQoL in the months and years following EBRT taking into account baseline urinary function is highly valuable for counselling men as part of the therapeutic decision-making process. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  4. Androgen deprivation in prostate cancer and the long-term risk of fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, S; Lloret, M; Naranjo, A; Déniz, F; Chesa, N; Domínguez, C; Lara, P C

    2017-10-01

    To determine the rate of bone mass loss and the risk of fracture induced by androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer. Prospective study in 2 phases. In the first phase, demographic variables, FRAX®, bone mineral density and clinical fractures were collected, before starting the therapy and up to 1 year after ending the therapy. In the second phase, we conducted a telephone interview a mean of 8.5 years after the start of the study to assess new fractures. We included 150 patients with a mean age of 67 years and a mean therapy duration of 24 months. Before starting the treatment, 62 patients (41%) showed osteoporosis or low bone mass in the densitometry. After the first year of treatment, the bone mineral density decreased a mean of 3.7% and 2.1% in the lumbar spine and femoral neck, respectively. At the end of the second and third year, the loss rate was lower. During the first phase of the study, 4 patients (2.7%) experienced a fracture. In the telephone interviews with 80 patients (53%), only 1 had experienced a fracture. In the patients with prostate cancer and androgen deprivation therapy, greater bone loss occurred during the first year. When the treatment did not exceed 2 years, the absolute risk of fracture was low, and clinical fractures were uncommon in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial Differences in Prostate Cancer Risk Remain Among US Servicemen With Equal Access to Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    exposure; prostatic neoplasms Abbreviations: ACTUR, Automated Central Tumor Registry; BASD, Basic Active Service Date; CI, confidence interval; DoD...political, or environmental factors, such as smoking , diet, and exercise due to the limited nature of the data used for this study. CONCLUSIONS In...differences that may be important in prostate cancer etiology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostatic neoplasms , military personnel, occupational exposure

  6. Long-term results after external beam radiation therapy for T1-T2 localized prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerveld, B. W.; Laguna, M. P.; de la Rosette, J. J. M. C. H.

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of organ-confined and early-stage prostate cancer has increased. The external beam radiation therapy has proven to be a good therapeutic option in terms of biochemical survival and overall survival. It has been modified throughout the years; consequently, the available data on the

  7. Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Enzalutamide Monotherapy in Hormone-naïve Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Borre, Michael; Rathenborg, Per

    2015-01-01

    patients with metastases at baseline, 13 (50%) had a complete and four (15.4%) had a partial response as best overall tumor response up to 97 wk on treatment. There was overall maintenance of total-body bone mineral density (BMD) and moderate changes in lean and fat body mass at 49 and 97 wk. The most......BACKGROUND: Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor with a demonstrated overall survival benefit in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone-naïve prostate cancer (HNPC) showed a high response rate...... for the prespecified primary endpoint (ie, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] response at week 25), regardless of metastases at baseline, and favorable tolerability. OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term efficacy and safety of enzalutamide monotherapy at 1 and 2 yr. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Open-label, single...

  8. Long-term survival of participants in the prostate cancer prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L Silberstein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT is a seminal study in the field of urology. More than 10 years after its initial publication, updated data from this trial continue to shape our understanding of prostate cancer. Among the major findings from the PCPT has been the demonstration that prostate cancer is common in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA once thought to be in the normal range, [1] finasteride prevents the development of benign prostatic hypertrophy, [2] it increases the sensitivity of PSA [3] and digital rectal examination. [4] Furthermore the PCPT helped to establish the link between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, [5] and perhaps most importantly finasteride demonstrated a 25% relative risk reduction in the diagnosis of prostate cancer compared with placebo. [6

  9. Guided Interventions for Prostate Cancer Using 3D-Transurethral Ultrasound and MRI Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    development of image guided focal prostate therapy . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ultrasound , prostate cancer, transurethral, MRI, image fusion 16. SECURITY...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0461 TITLE: Guided Interventions for Prostate Cancer Using 3D-Transurethral Ultrasound and MRI Fusion PRINCIPAL...Sep 2014 - 28 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Guided Interventions for Prostate Cancer Using 3D- Transurethral Ultrasound and

  10. Long-term results of a randomized trial comparing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and transurethral resection of the prostate: results at 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilling, Peter J; Wilson, Liam C; King, Colleen J; Westenberg, Andre M; Frampton, Christopher M; Fraundorfer, Mark R

    2012-02-01

    To assess the durability of holmium laser enucleation of prostate in comparison to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Patients were enrolled in the present study between June 1997 and December 2000 and followed per protocol. All patients were urodynamically obstructed with a prostate volume of between 40 and 200 mL. At long-term follow-up, variables assessed included Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index (BPHII), International Continence Society Short Form Male questionnaire (ICSmale-SF) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Adverse events, including the need for retreatment, were specifically assessed. Thirty-one (14 holmium laser enucleation of the prostate [HoLEP] and 17 TURP) of the initial 61 patients were available, with 12 deceased and 18 lost to follow-up. The mean (range) follow-up was 7.6 (5.9-10.0) years and the mean (±sd) age at follow-up was 79.8 (±6.2) years. The mean (±sd) values (HoLEP vs TURP) were as follows: maximum urinary flow rate (Q(max)), 22.09 ± 15.47 vs 17.83 ± 8.61 mL/s; American Urological Association (AUA) symptom score, 8.0 ± 5.2 vs 10.3 ± 7.42; quality of life (QOL) score 1.47 ± 1.31 vs 1.31 ± 0.85; BPHII, 1.53 ± 2.9 vs 0.58 ± 0.79; IIEF-EF (erectile function), 11.6 ± 7.46 vs 9.21 ± 7.17; ICSmale Voiding Score (VS), 4.2 ± 3.76 vs 3.0 ± 2.41; ICSmale Incontinence Score (IS), 3.07 ± 3.3 vs 1.17 ± 1.4. There were no significant differences in any variable between the two groups beyond the first year. Of the assessable patients, none required re-operation for recurrent BPH in the HoLEP arm and three (of 17) required re-operation in the TURP arm . The results of this randomized trial confirm that HoLEP is at least equivalent to TURP in the long term with fewer re-operations being necessary. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. Duration of Androgen Deprivation in Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Update of NRG Oncology RTOG 9202

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A.F., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Lin, Xiaolei [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Hanks, Gerald E. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Lepor, Herbert [New York University, New York, New York (United States); Grignon, David J. [Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Brereton, Harmar D. [Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Dunmore, Pennsylvania (United States); Bedi, Meena [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Sutter General Hospital, Sacramento, California (United States); Zeitzer, Kenneth L. [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Venkatesan, Varagur M. [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Horwitz, Eric M. [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pisansky, Thomas M. [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Kim, Harold [Wayne State University-Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Parliament, Matthew B. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Rabinovitch, Rachel [University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado (United States); Roach, Mack [University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Kwok, Young [University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Dignam, James J. [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: Trial RTOG 9202 was a phase 3 randomized trial designed to determine the optimal duration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) when combined with definitive radiation therapy (RT) in the treatment of locally advanced nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Long-term follow-up results of this study now available are relevant to the management of this disease. Methods and Materials: Men (N=1554) with adenocarcinoma of the prostate (cT2c-T4, N0-Nx) with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <150 ng/mL and no evidence of distant metastasis were randomized (June 1992 to April 1995) to short-term ADT (STAD: 4 months of flutamide 250 mg 3 times per day and goserelin 3.6 mg per month) and definitive RT versus long-term ADT (LTAD: STAD with definitive RT plus an additional 24 months of monthly goserelin). Results: Among 1520 protocol-eligible and evaluable patients, the median follow-up time for this analysis was 19.6 years. In analysis adjusted for prognostic covariates, LTAD improved disease-free survival (29% relative reduction in failure rate, P<.0001), local progression (46% relative reduction, P=.02), distant metastases (36% relative reduction, P<.0001), disease-specific survival (30% relative reduction, P=.003), and overall survival (12% relative reduction, P=.03). Other-cause mortality (non–prostate cancer) did not differ (5% relative reduction, P=.48). Conclusions: LTAD and RT is superior to STAD and RT for the treatment of locally advanced nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate and should be considered the standard of care.

  12. Short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient estimated from diffusion-weighted MRI of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadinski, Meredith; Medved, Milica; Karademir, Ibrahim; Wang, Shiyang; Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Sammet, Steffen; Karczmar, Gregory; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study is to determine short-term reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) estimated from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) imaging of the prostate. Methods Fourteen patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer were studied under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol. Each patient underwent two, consecutive and identical DW-MR scans on a 3T system. ADC values were calculated from each scan and a deformable registration was performed to align corresponding images. The prostate and cancerous regions of interest (ROIs) were independently analyzed by two radiologists. The prostate volume was analyzed by sextant. Per-voxel absolute and relative percentage variations in ADC were compared between sextants. Per-voxel and per-ROI variations in ADC were calculated for cancerous ROIs. Results Per-voxel absolute difference in ADC in the prostate ranged from 0 to 1.60 × 10−3 mm2/s (per-voxel relative difference 0% to 200%, mean 10.5%). Variation in ADC was largest in the posterior apex (0% to 200%, mean 11.6%). Difference in ADC variation between sextants was not statistically significant. Cancer ROIs’ per-voxel variation in ADC ranged from 0.001 × 10−3 to 0.841 × 10−3 mm2/s (0% to 67.4%, mean 11.2%) and per-ROI variation ranged from 0 to 0.463 × 10−3 mm2/s (mean 0.122 × 10−3 mm2/s). Conclusions Variation in ADC within the human prostate is reasonably small, and is on the order of 10%. PMID:25805558

  13. Long-term complete response of antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Shinya; Uehara, Sho; Yuasa, Takeshi; Masuda, Hitoshi; Fukui, Iwao; Yonese, Junji

    2016-09-01

    Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a well-established phenomenon in prostate cancer treated with combined androgen blockade (CAB). AWS is generally defined as subjective and/or objective improvement following discontinuation of an antiandrogen. However, the duration of the AWS response is usually limited. In addition, a complete response is quite rare. We herein present the case of a patient who achieved complete response from AWS, with the duration of this response lasting for >6 years. A 72-year-old man with metastatic prostate cancer received CAB with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog and bicalutamide. In addition, for local cancer control, external beam radiation therapy (70 Gy) to the prostate was performed. Subsequently, the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level reached a nadir (undetectable level). Four years later, the patient's serum PSA level started to rise, and bicalutamide was discontinued to confirm AWS at a serum PSA level of 0.34 ng/ml. The PSA level immediately decreased again to an undetectable level (0.00 ng/ml), where it has been remained for 6 years. Bone scintigraphy and computed tomography scans have shown no evidence of bone or other metastases since the introduction of AWS. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of such a long duration of complete response from AWS. Therefore, this phenomenon should always be considered, even in patients with advanced disease.

  14. Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Epithelial Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0275 TITLE: Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic Epithelial Neoplasia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: A...5. FUNDING NUMBERS Antioxidant Prophylaxis in the Prevention of Prostatic W81XWH-04-1-0275 Epithelial Neoplasia 6. AUTHOR(S) A. Pratap Kumar, Ph.D...histological changes. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Oxidative Stress; Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia (PIN); 5 Antioxidants and Prevention

  15. Novel Immune Modulating Cellular Vaccine for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    cellular vaccine product. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dendritic cell vaccine, dendritic cells electroporated with RNA, immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA-4...dendritic cell vaccine, dendritic cells electroporated with RNA, immune checkpoint blockade, local CTLA4 modulation, prostate cancer...7: Monitor tumor burden (time to palpable tumor) and monitor survival. Harvest prostate complex/tumor and analyze tumor weight , tumor grade

  16. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Followup and Complications Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Maestroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. As it is well known, High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU is a minimally invasive procedure for prostate cancer. Many investigators reported their series of patients, demonstrating the effectiveness of the treatment. The most majority of Authors, however, do not report the side effects and the complications of the procedure, which is the aim of our study. The diagnosis and management of complications is discussed, and the oncologic outcome is reported in terms of quality of life. Materials and Methods. We report our experience in 89 patients, low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients according with D’Amico classification. All data collected along the study were analyzed, including side effects and complications of the procedure. Results. Our series demonstrates the effectiveness of the procedure, in line with larger series reported in literature by other investigators. The most important side effects are sexual function impairment and transient incontinence in a minority of cases. Minor complications are reported as well as rare cases of major complications, which can require surgical treatment.

  17. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, William, E-mail: billyding888@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Chamberlain, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States); Cunningham, James [Carson Urology, Carson City, Nevada (United States); Yang Lixi [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Tay, Jonathan [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Mary' s Regional Medical Center, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naieve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary's Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of {<=}1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at {<=}1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic

  18. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyasu Tsumura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA after high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods : Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml. The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%, T2b-2c in 48 (22%, T3a in 75 (35%, and T3b-4 in 38 (17%. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results : The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001. Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002. Conclusions : A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive

  19. 38 CFR 17.258 - Terms and conditions to which awards are subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms and conditions to which awards are subject. 17.258 Section 17.258 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Grants for Exchange of Information § 17.258 Terms and conditions to which awards...

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Long-Term Outcomes From a Prospective Trial of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Christopher R., E-mail: crking@mednet.ucla.edu [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brooks, James D.; Gill, Harcharan; Presti, Joseph C. [Department of Urology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy has an intrinsically different normal tissue and tumor radiobiology. The results of a prospective trial of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer with long-term patient-reported toxicity and tumor control rates are presented. Methods and Materials: From 2003 through 2009, 67 patients with clinically localized low-risk prostate cancer were enrolled. Treatment consisted of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions using SBRT with the CyberKnife as the delivery technology. No patient received hormone therapy. Patient self-reported bladder and rectal toxicities were graded on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale (RTOG). Results: Median follow-up was 2.7 years. There were no grade 4 toxicities. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3, 2, and 1 bladder toxicities were seen in 3% (2 patients), 5% (3 patients), and 23% (13 patients) respectively. Dysuria exacerbated by urologic instrumentation accounted for both patients with Grade 3 toxicity. Urinary incontinence, complete obstruction, or persistent hematuria was not observed. Rectal Grade 3, 2, and 1 toxicities were seen in 0, 2% (1 patient), and 12.5% (7 patients), respectively. Persistent rectal bleeding was not observed. Low-grade toxicities were substantially less frequent with QOD vs. QD dose regimen (p = 0.001 for gastrointestinal and p = 0.007 for genitourinary). There were two prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy-proven failures with negative metastatic workup. Median PSA at follow-up was 0.5 {+-} 0.72 ng/mL. The 4-year Kaplan-Meier PSA relapse-free survival was 94% (95% confidence interval, 85%-102%). Conclusion: Significant late bladder and rectal toxicities from SBRT for prostate cancer are infrequent. PSA relapse-free survival compares favorably with other definitive treatments. The current evidence supports consideration of stereotactic body radiotherapy among the therapeutic options for localized prostate cancer.

  2. Clinically relevant fatigue in men with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer on long-term androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, D J; McLaren, D B; Atkinson, M A; Butcher, I; Frew, L C; Smyth, J F; Sharpe, M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and associations of clinically relevant fatigue (CRF) in men with biochemically controlled prostate cancer on long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). One hundred and ninety-eight men were surveyed and the prevalence of CRF (Brief Fatigue Inventory score >3) determined. Associations with other measures (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; International Prostate Symptom Score; European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire; Brief Pain Inventory worst pain; clinical and demographic information) were explored in univariate and multivariate analyses. Eight-one per cent (160 of 198) of questionnaires were analysable. CRF prevalence was 43% (68 of 160). CRF associations included moderate/severe urinary symptoms, anxiety and medical co-morbidities; the strongest associations were depression [odds ratio (OR) 9.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3-22.8] and pain (OR 9.2, 95% CI 4.0-21.5). After controlling for other factors, the independent associations were depression (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6-14.0) and pain (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0-8.9). There was no association with age, disease burden or treatment duration. Two-fifths of men with biochemically controlled prostate cancer on long-term ADT report CRF that interferes with function. Management aimed at improving CRF should address depression and pain.

  3. Long-term efficacy of Serenoa repens treatment in patients with mild and moderate symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinescu, Ioanel; Geavlete, Petrisor; Multescu, Razvan; Gangu, Constantin; Miclea, Florin; Coman, Ioan; Ioiart, Ioan; Ambert, Valentin; Constantin, Traian; Petrut, Bogdan; Feciche, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of treatment with extract of Serenoa repens (Prostamol Uno) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We studied 120 patients with mild or moderate LUTS induced by BPH, maximal urinary flow (Q(max)) Serenoa repens. Statistically significant improvements in the International Prostate Symptom Score (5.5 points), quality of life (QoL; 1.8 points), Q(max) (5.6 ml/s), International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF; 6.4 points) and reduction in residual urinary volume were observed during the study period. The mean prostate volume at 24 months was 36 ml, compared to 39.8 ml at baseline. Long-term treatment with 320 mg ethanolic extract of Serenoa repens proved to be efficient in reducing urinary obstruction, improving symptomatology and QoL of BPH patients. It also had a positive effect on sexual function, demonstrated by the statistically significant increase in the IIEF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play ... to treat the condition. These include: Long-term antibiotics to make sure that the prostatitis is not ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rectum into the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 ...

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: long-term survival after combined chemo-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippi Andrea

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the prostate gland is the most frequent malignant tumour affecting male population. While the large majority of tumours is represented by adenocarcinoma, pure squamous cell carcinoma comprises only 0,5–1% of all prostate neoplastic lesions. It is characterised by a high degree of malignancy, commonly metastasising to the bone (mainly with osteolytic lesions, liver and lungs with a median survival time of 14 months. Several therapeutic approaches have been employed in the effort to treat prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, including radical surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. All of them mostly failed to gain a significant survival benefit. Case report We herein report on a case of pure squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate approached with combined-modality treatment, with the administration of 3 courses of cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 and continous infusion 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 on day 1 to 5 and, subsequently, radiotherapy, with the delivery of a total dose of 46 Gy to the whole pelvis, with additional boost doses of 20 Gy to the prostatic bed and adjunctive 6 Gy to the prostate gland (72 Gy in total. The patient remained free of disease for 5 years, finally experiencing local relapse and, subsequently, dying of acute renal failure due to bilateral uretero-hydro-nephrosis. In addition, we provide a complete overview of all reported cases available within the medical literature. Conclusion Since it remains questionable which should be the most appropriate therapeutic approach towards prostate pure squamous cell carcinoma, our report demonstrates that a prolonged disease control, with a consistent survival time, may be achieved by the combination of an effective local treatment such as radiotherapy with systemic infusion of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  7. Prostate specific antigen in patients of benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Malati, T.; Kumari, G. Rajani; Murthy, P. V. L. N.; Reddy, Ch.Ram; Prakash, B. Surya

    2006-01-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most applicable and important tumor marker for carcinoma prostate. In the present study PSA was determined in serum of healthy subjects, patients of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and Carcinoma Prostate (Ca−P) to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency in day to day management of prostate cancer patients and in differentiating patients of early prostate cancer from those with BPH. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed 2 ng/ml a...

  8. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy.

  9. [A case of leiomyosarcoma of prostate: multimodality therapy suppressed disease progression for long term].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuji; Nakai, Yasutomo; Kakuta, Youichi; Takayama, Hitoshi; Nakayama, Masashi; Nonomura, Norio; Okumi, Masayoshi; Nakao, Atsushi

    2010-09-01

    A 67-year-old man presented with macroscopic hematuria. Transrectal prostatic needle biopsy was performed because of elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) (3.85 ng/ml) and palpation of hard nodules at the prostate. Pathological diagnosis was leiomysarcoma. Computed tomography revealed several pulmonary metastases. Radical cysto-prostatectomy and construction of ileal conduct were performed. Adjuvant radiotherapy (50 Gy) was also performed. During follow-up, the size of the pulmonary metastases increased, and we decided to start systemic chemotherapy 7 months after surgery. The chemotherapy consisted of gemcitabine (900 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8), and docetaxel (100 mg/m2 on day 8). After eight courses, there was 20% reduction in the size of some pulmonary metastases. He remained alive 21 months after diagnosis.

  10. Holmium laser ablation of the prostate versus photoselective vaporization of prostate 60 cc or less: short-term results of a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzayat, Ehab A; Al-Mandil, Majid S; Khalaf, Ismail; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2009-07-01

    We report on the first randomized trial to our knowledge comparing holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization of the prostate in patients with a small to moderate size prostate. Between March 2005 and April 2007, 109 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate size 60 cc or smaller were randomized to photoselective vaporization of the prostate (52) or holmium laser ablation of the prostate (57). All patients were evaluated by preoperative and postoperative International Prostate Symptom Score, peak flow rate and post-void residual urine volume, measurement of prostate specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound prostate volume. Followup evaluations were performed during visits at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Mean +/- SD preoperative prostate volume was 33.1 +/- 14.5 and 37.3 +/- 13.6 cc in the holmium laser ablation group and the photoselective vaporization group, respectively. Holmium laser ablation of the prostate required more operating time than photoselective vaporization (69.8 vs 55.5 minutes, p = 0.008). In the holmium laser ablation group the International Prostate Symptom Score improved from 20 +/- 6.8 to 6.2 +/- 3.9 and peak urinary flow rate increased from 6.7 +/- 3.9 to 17.2 +/- 8 ml per second. In the photoselective vaporization group the International Prostate Symptom Score improved from 18.4 +/- 6.6 to 8.2 +/- 6.2 and peak urinary flow rate increased from 6.4 +/- 3.9 to 18.4 +/- 8.4 ml per second. Urethral stricture rates were 1.7% vs 5.7%, bladder neck contractures were 3.5% vs 7.7% and revaporization rates were 3.5% vs 1.9% in the holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization groups, respectively. Holmium laser ablation and photoselective vaporization of the prostate are safe and effective in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with a small to moderate size prostate. Both procedures are easy to learn but holmium laser ablation of the prostate requires a longer operating

  11. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Benin City, Nigeria. O. G. Igharo, T.L. Olawoye, H.B. Osadolor, F. A. Idomeh, O. J. Osunbor, A. O. Osagie, O.C. Iyamu ...

  12. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  13. Long-term followup of randomized transurethral microwave thermotherapy versus transurethral prostatic resection study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floratos, D. L.; Kiemeney, L. A.; Rossi, C.; Kortmann, B. B.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluate the durable effect of high-energy transurethral microwave thermotherapy and transurethral prostatic resection for treatment of patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of bladder outflow obstruction. Between January 1996 and March 1997, 155 patients with lower urinary tract

  14. Long-term outcomes of combined androgen blockade therapy in stage IV prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Taeko; Kawai, Koji; Kimura, Tomokazu; Kojima, Takahiro; Onozawa, Mizuki; Miyazaki, Jun; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Hinotsu, Shiro; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    To clarify which subset of stage IV prostate cancer patients benefit from combined androgen blockade (CAB) using Japanese nationwide database. A total of 3,752 patients with stage IV disease from the prospective nationwide cohort database of the Japan Study Group of Prostate Cancer (J-CaP) were enrolled. All patients started primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) between 2001 and 2003, and the present study was performed using the data set from December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups according to initial treatments: CAB with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRH) plus anti-androgen (AA) and non-CAB treatments such as LHRH monotherapy. The overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for each group were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 2,967 patients (79.1%) received CAB. Overall, no significant difference was observed in OS and CSS between the CAB group and the non-CAB group. However, CAB resulted in significantly better OS and CSS compared to non-CAB in patients with very high Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (J-CAPRA) scores of ten or greater (P = 0.007 and 0.013, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that CAB was an independent predictive factor for better OS (P = 0.013, hazard ratio = 0.83). Based on large-scale nationwide database, as PADT for prostate cancer patients with very high-risk disease, CAB resulted in better OS than other endocrine treatments.

  15. Leveraging output term co-occurrence frequencies and latent associations in predicting medical subject headings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Lu, Yuan

    2014-11-01

    Trained indexers at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) manually tag each biomedical abstract with the most suitable terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terminology to be indexed by their PubMed information system. MeSH has over 26,000 terms and indexers look at each article's full text while assigning the terms. Recent automated attempts focused on using the article title and abstract text to identify MeSH terms for the corresponding article. Most of these approaches used supervised machine learning techniques that use already indexed articles and the corresponding MeSH terms. In this paper, we present a new indexing approach that leverages term co-occurrence frequencies and latent term associations computed using MeSH term sets corresponding to a set of nearly 18 million articles already indexed with MeSH terms by indexers at NLM. The main goal of our study is to gauge the potential of output label co-occurrences, latent associations, and relationships extracted from free text in both unsupervised and supervised indexing approaches. In this paper, using a novel and purely unsupervised approach, we achieve a micro-F-score that is comparable to those obtained using supervised machine learning techniques. By incorporating term co-occurrence and latent association features into a supervised learning framework, we also improve over the best results published on two public datasets.

  16. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire for Subjects With COPD With Long-Term Oxygen Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; July, Johanna; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Rzehak, Peter; Windisch, Wolfram

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory insufficiency in COPD may present as hypoxic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure treated with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and/or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with LTOT. The Severe Respiratory Insufficiency Questionnaire (SRI) is a tool for the assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in subjects receiving NIV. However, it remains unclear whether the SRI is also capable of assessing and discriminating HRQOL in subjects receiving LTOT. Stable subjects with COPD receiving LTOT or NIV + LTOT (NIV) were prospectively recruited and completed the SRI, lung function tests, and blood gases. Confirmatory factor analysis for construct validity and internal consistency reliability were calculated. One hundred fifty-five subjects were included (113 LTOT, 42 NIV). The Cronbach α coefficient of the 7 subscales ranged between 0.69 and 0.89 (LTOT) and between 0.79 and 0.93 (NIV), respectively. In both groups, confirmatory factor analysis revealed a one-factor model for the SRI summary scale; in 5 subscales, one- or 2-factor models could be established. Group differences in the SRI subsets were all P <.05 (except for physical functioning) with higher scores in subjects receiving NIV. The SRI showed high reliability and validity in subjects with COPD receiving LTOT. Subjects receiving LTOT had lower SRI scores, indicating a poorer HRQOL compared with subjects with established NIV and LTOT. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Long-term tumor control after brachytherapy for base-of-prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungtaek Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients presenting with cancer at the base of the prostate after brachytherapyas monotherapy. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who had undergone transpe -ri neal ultrasound-guided implantation with 125I or 103Pd seeds as monotherapy between March 1998 and December2006, at our institution. A minimum follow-up interval of 2 years was required for inclusion in our analysis. Dosimetrywas assessed using computed tomography 30 days after the implant. Treatment failure was defined as the appearanceof biopsy-proved tumor after seed implantation, radiographic evidence of metastases, receipt of salvage therapy,or elevation of the prostate-specific antigen level beyond the nadir value plus 2 ng/mL. Results: With a median follow-up interval of 89 months (range 25-128 months, all 52 of the identified patients hadno evidence of disease progression or biochemical failure. The mean number of cores sampled at the prostate base was2.84 (median 2; Gleason scores assigned at central review were 6-8 in all patients. Of the 30 patients (58% for whomdosimetric data were available at day 30, the median V100 values of the right and left base were 92.0% and 93.5%, respectively,and the median D90 values of the right and left base were 148 Gy and 151 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Permanent prostate brachytherapy as monotherapy results in a high probability of disease-free survivalfor men with cancer at the base of the prostate.

  18. Does prostate-specific antigen nadir predict longer-term outcomes of prostate cancer after neoadjuvant and adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy in conjunction with brachytherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lucinda May; Izard, Michael Anthony; Wan, Wai-Yin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether nadir prostate-specific antigen (nPSA), time to nPSA (TnPSA), and nPSA 3-years post-treatment are prognostic for prostate cancer (PC) in patients treated with temporary brachytherapy plus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and hormonal manipulation. We retrospectively analyzed our database of 253 patients with Stage T1-T3 N0M0 PC who underwent brachytherapy with temporary brachytherapy plus EBRT. All patients received neoadjuvant androgen deprivation for a median of 6 months. Treatment consisted of three pulses of pseudo pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy to a median dose of 18Gy with 50.4Gy in 28 fractions of EBRT. Treatment took place between December 1999 and March 2006. At a median of 6-years followup, nPSA value was a predictor of biochemical control. Rising nPSA categories of 1.0 ng/mL correlated with a deteriorating 5-year biochemical control (nBED) by the Phoenix definition of 100%, 90.0%, 82.5%, 64.3%, and 10%, respectively. A highly statistically significant relationship between nPSA value and subsequent clinical failure is also demonstrated. The relationship between TnPSA and nBED was strongly significant (p<0.0001), with a significantly longer nPSA for patients who had Phoenix nBED. A PSA of <1.5 ng/mL achieved 3-year post radiation therapy was prognostic for biochemical and clinical disease control (p<0.0001). The nPSA, TnPSA, and reaching a PSA cutoff level of <1.5 ng/mL at 3 years post-treatment can provide useful prognostic information on long-term biochemical and clinical control of PC in patients treated with pseudo PDR, EBRT, and hormone manipulation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subjective memory ability and long-term forgetting in patients referred for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieberen Pieter Van Der Werf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the memory complaints of patients who are not impaired on formal memory tests may reflect accelerated forgetting. We examined this hypothesis by comparing the one-week delayed recall and recognition test performance of outpatients who were referred for neuropsychological assessment and who had normal memory performance during standard memory assessment with that of a non-patient control group. Both groups performed equally in verbal learning and delayed recall. However, after one week, the patients performed worse than controls on both recall and recognition tests. Although subjective memory ability predicted short-term memory function in patients, it did not predict long-term delayed forgetting rates in either the patients or controls. Thus, long-term delayed recall and recognition intervals provided no additional value to explain poor subjective memory ability in the absence of objective memory deficits.

  20. Effects of short-term dutasteride and Serenoa repens on perioperative bleeding and microvessel density in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Altug; Ener, Kemal; Han, Ozge; Nalcacioglu, Varol; Aydin, Omur; Seckin, Selda; Atan, Ali

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To evaluate the effects of short term use of dutasteride and Serenoarepens before transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on the amount of intraoperative blood loss and microvessel density (MVD) of prostatic stromal and suburethral tissues in the patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The study involved 75 male patients who planned to have a TURP. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The control group comprised 21 patients. Group 2 comprised 27 patients who used dutasteride 5 mg/day, and group 3 comprised 27 patients who used S. repens 160 mg/day for 5 weeks before the operation. The amount of intraoperative haemorrhage was calculated. Total blood loss, total blood loss/time, total blood loss/weight of resected tissue and total blood loss/weight/time were calculated for each patient and all were recorded. Sections from the prostatic stromal and suburethral tissues were examined for suburethral and prostatic MVD. The total amount of intraoperative blood loss, total blood loss/time, total blood loss/weight of resected tissue, total blood loss/weight/time, serum haemoglobin level change, prostatic MVD and suburethral MVD of the groups were compared. No significant statistical differences were found between the groups for any of these variables (p > 0.05). Dutasteride and S. repens therapies were not superior to control in terms of the decrease in total blood loss during TURP. Moreover, MVD showed no statistical differences in the treatment groups compared with the control group.

  1. Short- versus long-term prediction of dementia among subjects with low and high educational levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Emilie; Amieva, Hélène; Pérès, Karine; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Dartigues, Jean-François; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène

    2013-09-01

    Using simple measures of cognition and disability in a prospective community-living cohort of normal elderly persons, the main objectives of our study were to distinguish short- and long-term predictors for dementia according to educational level and to propose a tool for early detection of subjects at high risk of dementia. Data derived from the French cohort study Paquid (Personnes Agées QUID), which included 3777 subjects, older than 65 years of age, who were followed for a 20-year period. The risk of dementia at 3 years and 10 years was estimated by logistic regression for repeated measures combining data from all the 3- and 10-year windows throughout the follow-up. Predictors included disability assessed by the number of dependent items among four instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), four neuropsychological tests, five Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) subtests, and four items of subjective memory complaints. Of the 2882 included subjects, the number of IADLs remained a predictor of short- and long-term conversion to dementia for those with low educational level (combined with only one cognitive test) whereas the best predictors for more educated subjects combined subjective memory complaints and memory and executive function tests. The episodic memory subtest was the only predictive MMSE subtest. In the high-education-level group, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the selected models were 0.85 for 3-year prediction and 0.78 for 10-year prediction. Early predictors of dementia are different according to educational level. Among subjects reaching the secondary school level, early detection of those at high risk of dementia is possible with good predictive performance, with a few simple objective and subjective cognitive evaluations. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Regulation of Prostate Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis,and Integrin Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a...cells by garlic -derived S-allylmercaptocysteine. Prostate, 2000. 45(4): p. 304-14. 44. Rajasekaran, A.K., G. Anilkumar, and J.J. Christiansen, Is...S.B., et al., Prostate pathology of genetically engineered mice: definitions and classification . The consensus report from the Bar Harbor meeting

  3. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  4. Long-term follow-up after modern radical prostate cancer radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lotte

    radiotherapy is a well established treatment modality for prostate cancer. Accuracy and precision are key words with regard to optimal survival and minimal toxicity in modern radiotherapy and are fundamentals in modern radiotherapy. Modern imaging has improved the ability to define radiotherapy target volumes....... Especially treatment margins have been reduced through the use of more accurate treatment planning and image-guided technology. Increasing doses have lead to increased disease control. Aiming for minimal toxicity after radiotherapy, magnetic resonance imaging delineation could be a possible tool, knowing...... that clinical target volumes are up to 30% smaller on MRI delineation compared to computer tomography delineation. The overall aim of the thesis was to explore the use of MRI target planning and a Nicle-Titanium prostate stent as fiducial marker for both MR-CT co-registration and image guided radiotherapy....

  5. Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: long-term safety and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hamed Ahmadi, Siamak Daneshmand Institute of Urology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT constitutes the first-line treatment for patients with locally advanced tumors, recurrent or metastatic disease. Given its widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with common side effects of this treatment. This review focuses on common side effects of ADT and available treatment options to control the side effects. Also, it briefly compares continuous ADT with other therapeutic approaches for androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. Similar to hormonal medications, newer non-hormonal therapeutic options including gabapentin and acupuncture have at best moderate effect in controlling hot flashes in patients on ADT. Supervised and/or home exercise programs significantly improve ADT-related fatigue, metabolic/cardiovascular side effects, and cognitive dysfunction. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody against RANK-L, is more effective than bisphosphonates in preventing skeletal-related events in patients with metastatic or castrate-resistant prostate cancer and unlike bisphosphonates, it can also reduce the risk of vertebral fractures in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Toremifene, a selective estrogen receptor inhibitor, has dual beneficial effects on ADT-related osteoporosis and metabolic dysfunction. Metformin coupled with lifestyle modification is also a well-tolerated treatment for metabolic changes during ADT. While producing similar oncological outcomes, intermittent ADT is associated with higher quality of life in patients under ADT by improving bone health, less metabolic and hematologic complications, and fewer hot flashes and sexual dysfunction events. Keywords: prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy, adverse effects, therapy

  6. Long-term endurance training increases serum cathepsin S levels in healthy female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponder, M; Minichsdorfer, C; Campean, I-A; Emich, M; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Litschauer, B; Strametz-Juranek, J

    2017-11-27

    Circulating cathepsin S (CS) has been associated with a lower risk for breast cancer in a large Swedish cohort. Long-term physical activity has been shown to have beneficial effects on the development of various cancer subtypes, in particular breast and colorectal cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term endurance sport on CS levels in females. Thirty-six of 40 subjects completed the study. Subjects were told to increase their activity pensum for 8 months reaching 150 min/week moderate or 75 min/week intense exercise. Ergometries were performed at the beginning and the end of the study to prove/quantify the performance gain. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 2 months. Serum CS levels were measured by ELISA. To analyse the change and the progression of CS, Wilcoxon rank sum and Friedman tests were used. The sportive group (performance gain by > 4.9%) showed a significant increase of CS levels from 3.32/2.73/4.09 to 4.00/3.09/5.04 ng/ml (p = 0.008) corresponding to an increase of 20.5%. We could show a significant increase of circulating CS levels in healthy female subjects induced by long-term physical activity. CS, occurring in the tumour microenvironment, is well-known to promote tumour growth, e.g. by ameliorating angiogenesis. However, the role of circulating CS in cancer growth is not clear. As physical activity is known as preventive intervention, in particular concerning breast and colorectal cancers, and long-term physical activity leads to an increase of CS levels in female subjects, circulating CS might even be involved in this protective effect. Clinical trial registration: NCT02097199.

  7. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  8. Holmium:YAG transurethral incision versus laser photoselective vaporization for benign prostatic hyperplasia in a small prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshal, Ahmed M; Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elmansy, Hazem M; Sampalis, John; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2014-01-01

    We assess the perioperative, short-term and long-term functional outcomes of treating bladder outlet obstruction secondary to a small prostate by 1 of 2 laser techniques. A retrospective review using a prospectively maintained database was performed of patients treated for bladder outlet obstruction secondary to a prostate smaller than 40 ml. Patients who were treated with GreenLight™ photoselective vaporization of the prostate or holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate were included in the study. From January 2002 through December 2010, 191 cases of 1,682 laser prostate surgeries were described. GreenLight photoselective vaporization of the prostate was performed in 144 (75.4%) cases and holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate was performed in 47 (24.6%) cases. A significantly shorter mean operating time, hospital stay and catheter duration were observed in the holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate group (30.3 ± 16 minutes, 0.8 ± 0.8 days and 1.3 ± 1.9 days, respectively) than in the photoselective vaporization of the prostate group (45.8 ± 22 minutes, 0.3 ± 0.4 days and 0.4 ± 0.6 days, respectively, p transurethral incision of the prostate there were reductions in mean International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score and residual urine with improvement of mean maximal flow rate of 55.3% and 52.8%, 49.2% and 49%, 45% and 78.1%, and 67.4% and 35.4%, respectively. Subjective and objective urine flow parameters were comparable at different followup points. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of early and late complications (p >0.05). Reoperation rates were 10.4% and 6.4% in the photoselective vaporization of the prostate and holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate groups, respectively (p >0.05). The mean estimated cost per holmium laser transurethral incision of the prostate procedure was significantly lower than per photoselective vaporization of the prostate

  9. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

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    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  10. Partners' long-term appraisal of their caregiving experience, marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life 2 years after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet K; Sanda, Martin G; Wei, John T; Yarandi, Hossein; Hembroff, Larry; Hardy, Jill; Northouse, Laurel L

    2013-01-01

    Partners of men treated for prostate cancer report more emotional distress associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer than the men report; the duration of distress for partners is seldom examined. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of prostate cancer treatment on partners' appraisal of their caregiving experience, marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL) and factors related to these variables. This exploratory study evaluated QOL among spouses of prostate cancer survivors at 24 months after treatment. Partners completed a battery of self-report questionnaires in a computer-assisted telephone interview. The sample consisted of 121 partners with average age of 60 years. There was a significant relationship between partners' perceptions of bother about the man's treatment outcomes and negative appraisal of their caregiving experience and poorer QOL. Younger partners who had a more negative appraisal of caregiving also had significantly worse QOL. Men's treatment outcomes continued to bother the partner and resulted in more negative appraisal and lower QOL 2 years after initial prostate cancer treatment. Younger partners may be at greater risk of poorer QOL outcomes especially if they have a more negative view of their caregiving experience. Findings support prior research indicating that prostate cancer affects not only the person diagnosed with the disease but also his partner. Partners may benefit from tailored interventions designed to decrease negative appraisal and improve symptom management and QOL during the survivorship period.

  11. Use of a rectal spacer with low-dose-rate brachytherapy for treatment of prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: Initial experience and short-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Brandon A; Ziehr, David R; Hyatt, Andrew S; Neubauer-Sugar, Emily H; O'Farrell, Desmond A; O'Leary, Michael P; Steele, Graeme S; Niedermayr, Thomas R; Beard, Clair J; Martin, Neil E; Orio, Peter F; D'Amico, Anthony V; Devlin, Phillip M; Nguyen, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Salvage brachytherapy in patients with prior pelvic radiation carries a risk of rectal injury. Herein, we report our initial experience using a hydrogel spacer between the prostate and the rectum during salvage brachytherapy. A total of 11 patients with prostate cancer and prior radiotherapy (5 prostate brachytherapy, 2 prostate external beam radiation therapy [EBRT], and 4 rectal cancer EBRT) received (125)I brachytherapy after attempted placement of 10cc of a diluted hydrogel spacer between the prostate and rectum. Spacing was achieved in 8 of the 11 (73%) patients but was not possible in 3 (1 prior brachytherapy and 2 prior EBRT) owing to fibrosis and adhesions. For the 8 patients in whom spacing was accomplished, the median space between the prostate and rectum was 10.9mm (prior EBRT) vs. 7.7mm (prior brachytherapy), p=0.048. Median followup was 15.7 months. One patient developed a prostato-rectal fistula requiring a diverting colostomy. The 16-month estimate of late Grade 3 or 4 gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity was 26%. One patient developed lymph node-positive recurrence. The 16-month prostate-specific antigen failure-free survival rate was 89%. Compared with baseline, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite for Clinical Practice urinary quality of life (QoL) was significantly worse at 3 and 6 months but not significantly worse by 1 year. There were no significant changes throughout the study period in bowel or sexual QoL. Hydrogel spacer placements may be feasible in most patients with prior pelvic radiation. Further followup is needed to determine whether spacer placement will produce long-term improvements in toxicity or QoL. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: Histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate: Histological pattern of prostatic diseases seen in Sokoto Northwest Nigeria. ... Thirty subjects had prostatitis associated with their histological diagnosis (28 subjects with BPH, 2 subjects with cancer of the prostate), while 2 patients had schistosomiasis of the prostate with ...

  13. Prostate Enlargement: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Prostate Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) Prostate Enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia) What is benign prostatic ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. What is the prostate? The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that ...

  14. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  15. Evaluation of short term outcomes of patients undergone transurethral resection with plasmakinetic energy for benign prostate hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Baris Kartal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate short term outcomes of patients undergone transurethral resection with plasmakinetic energy for benign prostate hyperplasia and to present safety and efficacy of the procedure. Material and Method:86 patients applied to our clinic between March 2011 and February 2012 were enrolled into the study. PSS scores, uroflowmetry, post voiding residual urine, prostate volumes of the patients were recorded. Post operative urethral stricture, bladder neck stricture, incontinance rates were noted. Data assessed after six months were compared to peroperative data. After the operations, the surgeons evaluated their comfort of surgery with visual analog scale from 0 to 10. Results: 24 of 86 patients were hospitalized for acute urinary retention. One patient was hospitalized because of hematuria. Peroperative IPSS was 22.2. at post operative sixth month, mean IPSS was 6.8. VAS scores of surgeons was; to assess visual comfort was 7.41, to assess coagulation was 7.62. Conclusion:After evaluating the data and literature, we believe bipolar plasmakinetik TUR is a safe and comforting method to treat bladder outlet obstruction with goog hemodynamic stability. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 696-675

  16. Long-Term PSA Control with Repeated Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in a Patient with Oligometastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualetti, Francesco; Cocuzza, Paola; Coraggio, Gabriele; Ferrazza, Patrizia; Derosa, Lisa; Galli, Luca; Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Locantore, Luisa; Boni, Roberto; Fabrini, Maria G; Erba, Paola A

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies and main causes of cancer death in Western countries. In the presence of metastatic disease, systemic treatment remains the main clinical option. However, since the introduction of highly sensitive imaging techniques, a new clinical 'entity' of metastatic patients with a limited number of lesions has been defined: oligometastatic patients. In this patient group, the use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) or other local therapies against all active sites of disease revealed by 18F-choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) could achieve sufficient prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control. However, a clear benefit of this procedure in terms of significant endpoints is yet to be demonstrated. This case report describes our experience with treating a castration-resistant PCa patient with 18F-choline PET/CT-guided SBRT. Because of the occurrence of 5 metachronous lesions over 4 years, the pattern of recurrence was defined by the local multidisciplinary team as oligometastatic disease, and the patient was treated with 5 courses of SBRT which yielded good PSA control. He started systemic therapy with abiraterone acetate almost 5 years after the diagnosis of recurrent PCa. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  17. Short-term interval training alters brain glucose metabolism in subjects with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Johansson, Jarkko; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Knuuti, Juhani; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-01-01

    Brain insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (GU) is increased in obese and insulin resistant subjects but normalizes after weight loss along with improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to study whether short-term exercise training (moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) or sprint interval training (SIT)) alters substrates for brain energy metabolism in insulin resistance. Sedentary subjects ( n = 21, BMI 23.7-34.3 kg/m2, age 43-55 y) with insulin resistance were randomized into MICT ( n = 11, intensity≥60% of VO2peak) or SIT ( n = 10, all-out) groups for a two-week training intervention. Brain GU during insulin stimulation and fasting brain free fatty acid uptake (FAU) was measured using PET. At baseline, brain GU was positively associated with the fasting insulin level and negatively with the whole-body insulin sensitivity. The whole-body insulin sensitivity improved with both training modes (20%, p = 0.007), while only SIT led to an increase in aerobic capacity (5%, p = 0.03). SIT also reduced insulin-stimulated brain GU both in global cortical grey matter uptake (12%, p = 0.03) and in specific regions ( p Brain FAU remained unchanged after the training in both groups. These findings show that short-term SIT effectively decreases insulin-stimulated brain GU in sedentary subjects with insulin resistance.

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption predicts long-term mortality in elderly subjects with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, G; Testa, G; Cacciatore, F; Mazzella, F; Galizia, G; Della-Morte, D; Langellotto, A; Pirozzi, G; Ferro, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, F; Abete, P

    2013-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is related to a reduction of mortality. However, this phenomenon is not well established in the elderly, especially in the presence of chronic heart failure (CHF). The aim of the study was to verify the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on 12-year mortality in elderly community-dwelling with and without CHF. community-dwelling from 5 regions of Italy. A cohort of 1332 subjects aged 65 and older. Mortality after 12-year follow-up in elderly subjects (≥65 years old) with and without CHF was studied. Moderate alcohol consumption was considered ≤250 ml/day (drinkers). In the absence of CHF (n=947), mortality was 42.2% in drinkers vs. 53.7% in non-drinker elderly subjects (p=0.021). In contrast, in the presence of CHF (n=117), mortality was 86.5% in drinkers vs. 69.7% in non-drinker elderly subjects (p=0.004). Accordingly, Cox regression analysis shows that a moderate alcohol consumption is protective of mortality in the absence (HR=0.79; CI 95% 0.66-0.95; pmoderate alcohol consumption is associated with an increased long-term mortality risk in the elderly in the presence of CHF.

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the prostate is enlarged, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any ... size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- ...

  20. A phase I dose escalation trial of vaccine replicon particles (VRP) expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in subjects with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Susan F; Kehoe, Marissa; Durso, Robert; Fernandez, Celina; Olson, William; Gao, Jian P; Israel, Robert; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Stephen

    2013-01-30

    PSMA-VRP is a propagation defective, viral replicon vector system encoding PSMA under phase I evaluation for patients with castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC). The product is derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and incorporates multiple redundant safety features. In this first in human trial, two cohorts of 3 patients with CRPC metastatic to bone were treated with up to five doses of either 0.9×10(7)IU or 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18, followed by an expansion cohort of 6 patients treated with 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18. No toxicities were observed. In the first dose cohort, no PSMA specific cellular immune responses were seen but weak PSMA-specific signals were observed by ELISA. The remaining 9 patients, which included the higher cohort and the extension cohort, had no PSMA specific cellular responses. PSMA-VRP was well-tolerated at both doses. While there did not appear to be clinical benefit nor robust immune signals at the two doses studied, neutralizing antibodies were produced by both cohorts suggesting that dosing was suboptimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term Psychological and Quality-of-life Effects of Active Surveillance and Watchful Waiting After Diagnosis of Low-risk Localised Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Sam J; Calopedos, Ross J; O'Connell, Dianne L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Woo, Henry H; Smith, David P

    2017-08-26

    Long-term psychological well-being and quality-of-life are important considerations when deciding whether to undergo active treatment for low-risk localised prostate cancer. To assess the long-term effects of active surveillance (AS) and/or watchful waiting (WW) on psychological and quality-of-life outcomes for low-risk localised prostate cancer patients. The Prostate Cancer Care and Outcome Study is a population-based prospective cohort study in New South Wales, Australia. Participants for these analyses were low-risk localised prostate cancer patients aged prostate cancer patients. Adjusted mean differences (AMDs) in outcome scores between prostate cancer treatment groups were estimated using linear regression. At 9-11 yr after diagnosis, patients who started AS/WW initially had (1) higher levels of distress and hyperarousal than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.9; 95% confidence interval or CI [0.5, 11.3] and AMD=5.4; 95% CI [0.2, 10.5], respectively), (2) higher levels of distress and avoidance than initial low-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=5.3; 95% CI [0.2, 10.3] and AMD=7.0; 95% CI [0.5, 13.5], respectively), (3) better urinary incontinence scores than initial radical prostatectomy patients (AMD=-9.1; 95% CI [-16.3, -2.0]), and (4) less bowel bother than initial radiation/high-dose-rate brachytherapy patients (AMD=-16.8; 95% CI [-27.6, -6.0]). No other significant differences were found. Limitations include participant attrition, inability to assess urinary voiding and storage symptoms, and nonrandom treatment allocation. Notwithstanding some long-term differences between AS/WW and various active treatment groups in terms of distress, hyperarousal, avoidance, urinary incontinence, and bowel bother, most long-term outcomes were similar between these groups. This study assessed the long-term psychological and quality-of-life impacts of initially monitoring rather than actively treating low-risk prostate cancer. The results

  2. Health status and health resource use among long-term survivors of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Tàrsila; Aliste, Luisa; Valverde, Montserrat; Fernández, M Paz; Ballano, Concepción; Borràs, Josep M

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of long-term cancer survivors poses a new challenge to health care systems. In Spain, follow-up is usually carried out in oncology services, but knowledge of cancer survivors' health care needs in this context is limited. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the health status of long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and to characterize their use of health care services. Retrospective multicenter cohort study. We collected data from patients' clinical histories and through telephone interviews, using a specially designed questionnaire that included the SF-36v2 Quality of Life and Nottingham Health Profile scales. The questionnaire was completed by 51.2% (n= 583) of the potential sample. No significant differences were observed between 5-year and 10-year survivors. Overall, more than 80% of respondents were undergoing drug treatment for morbidity related to advanced age. Quality of life was good in most patients, and cancer-related morbidity was low and of little complexity. For the most part, participants reported using primary care services for care of chronic diseases and opportunistic treatment of sequelae related to the cancer treatment. Oncological follow-up was centralized at the hospital. Survivors of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer with tumoral detection at an early stage and without recurrences or second neoplasms experienced little morbidity and enjoyed good quality of life. This study proposes exploration of a follow-up model in the Spanish health system in which primary care plays a more important role than is customary in cancer survivors in Spain. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term results in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer at moderate dose (66 Gy)

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    Goldner, G.; Wachter, S.; Wachter-Gerstner, N.; Dieckmann, K.; Poetter, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiobiology, Univ. of Vienna, Medical School, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: biochemical control (bNED), disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and late gastrointestinal (GI) and urogenital (UG) side effects (EORTC/RTOG) of patients with long-term follow-up were evaluated. Patients and methods: three-dimensional radiotherapy up to 66 Gy with/without additional hormonal therapy was performed in 154 prostate cancer (T1-3 NO MO) patients. According to T-stage, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and grading, patients were divided into a low-, intermediate-, and high-risk group. The 5-, 8-, and 10-year actuarial rates of bNED, DSS and OS and late side effects were calculated. Results: median follow-up was 80 months. Additional hormonal therapy was given in 57% of patients. Distribution concerning risk groups (low, intermediate, high) showed 15%, 49%, and 36% of patients, respectively. bNED 5-, 8-, and 10-year actuarial rates were 46%, 44%, and 44%. DSS 5-, 8- and 10-year rates amounted to 96%, 90%, and 82%. OS 5-, 8- and 10-year rates were 81%, 64%, and 56%. In uni- and multivariate analysis, only pretreatment PSA (< 10 vs. {>=} 10 ng/ml; p < 0.05) and PSA nadir (< 0.5 vs. {>=} 0.5 ng/ml; p < 0.0001) affected bNED significantly. Age, risk group, T-stage, grading, and hormonal therapy had no significant influence on bNED, DSS, and OS. Rates of late GI and UG side effects grade {>=} 2 at 5 years were 17% and 15%. Conclusion: current dose escalation studies with better bNED rates may be able to further increase long-term clinical outcome. (orig.)

  4. Long-term quality of life among localised prostate cancer survivors: QALIPRO population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerleau, Clarisse; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Daubisse-Marliac, Laetitia; Heutte, Natacha; Mercier, Mariette; Grosclaude, Pascale; Joly, Florence

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate quality of life (QoL) 10 years after treatments for localised prostate cancer (LPCa) patients in comparison with aged-matched healthy controls. LPCa patients diagnosed in 2001 were obtained from 11 French cancer registries. Controls were recruited among the general population and were matched to patients on age and geographic area. EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire - Core 30 items, Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory self-reported questionnaires were used to measure QoL, anxiety and fatigue. Patients were classified in three groups according to previous treatments: radical prostatectomy (RP), radiotherapy (RT) and radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy (RP+RT). The differences in QoL between patients and controls and according to treatment groups were evaluated. There were 287 patients and 287 controls. There was no socio-demographic difference between patients and controls. Treatments were: RP (143), RT (78), PR+RT (33), baseline hormone therapy (49) and hormone therapy at the time of the study (34). Patients had similar levels of global QoL, anxiety, depression and fatigue as controls. They reported more urinary troubles (urinary function and incontinence) (p < 0.0001) and more sexual dysfunctions (p < 0.0001) than controls, whatever the treatment group. Worse bowel dysfunction was reported in patients treated by RT and RP+RT (p < 0.002). According to the treatments, RP groups had the worst urinary function and incontinence (p < 0.01), and reported more bowel bother when the treatment was combined with RT. Even though patients reported similar global QoL as control 10 years after treatment, patients reported numerous urinary and sexual dysfunctions. Patients treated with RP+RT reported cumulative sequelae of both treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term clinical and biologic effects of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytel, Y A; Vinarov, A; Lopatkin, N; Sivkov, A; Gorilovsky, L; Raynaud, J P

    2002-01-01

    Permixon, the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens, is widely used for the treatment of symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This open study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of Permixon 160 mg twice daily administered for 2 years. One hundred fifty-five men with clinically diagnosed BPH and complaints of prostatic symptoms were enrolled in the study. At 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), quality of life, and sexual function score were recorded, and urodynamics and biologic values were measured. Adverse events were recorded every 3 months. I-PSS and quality of life improved significantly from baseline at each evaluation time point. At the end of the study and at each evaluation, maximum urinary flow also improved significantly. Prostate size decreased. Sexual function remained stable during the first year of treatment and significantly improved (P = .001) during the second year. Prostate-specific antigen was not affected, and no changes in plasma hormone levels were observed. Nine patients reported 10 adverse events, none related to treatment. Improvements in efficacy parameters began at 6 months and were maintained up to 24 months. These data demonstrate the long-term efficacy and tolerability of Permixon and support its use as a first-line medical therapy for uncomplicated symptomatic BPH.

  6. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  7. Long-term wheat germ intake beneficially affects plasma lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, L; Armand, M; Borel, P; Senft, M; Portugal, H; Pauli, A M; Lafont, H; Lairon, D

    1992-02-01

    In previous short-term studies in rats and humans, the ingestion of raw wheat germ lowered plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the possible long-term effects of wheat germ intake. Diet supplementation with raw wheat germ or partially defatted wheat germ was tested in two separate groups of 10 and 9 free-living human subjects, respectively. They all exhibited hypercholesterolemia (6.14-9.67 mmol/L cholesterol) and 11 had hypertriglyceridemia. None was diabetic. Fasting blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study, after 4 wk of 20 g/d wheat germ intake, after 14 additional weeks of 30 g/d wheat germ intake and after 12 wk without any supplementation. Dietary records were kept for seven and three consecutive days, before and during the wheat germ intake periods, respectively. Raw wheat germ intake significantly decreased plasma cholesterol (-8.7%) and tended to reduce VLDL cholesterol (-19.6%) after 4 wk. After 14 additional weeks, plasma cholesterol (-7.2%) and LDL cholesterol (-15.4%) remained lower and plasma triglycerides (-11.3%) tended to be lower. The apo B:apo A1 ratio significantly decreased after both periods. Partially defatted wheat germ transiently decreased plasma triglycerides and cholesterol after a 4-wk intake. The present data indicate that wheat germ reduces cholesterolemia in the long term and could play a beneficial role in the dietary management of type IIa and IIb hyperlipidemia.

  8. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate ... physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ...

  10. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  11. Partners’ Long-term Appraisal of Their Caregiving Experience, Marital Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction, and Quality of Life 2 Years After Prostate Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet K.; Sanda, Martin G.; Wei, John T.; Yarandi, Hossein; Hembroff, Larry; Hardy, Jill; Northouse, Laurel L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Partners of men treated for prostate cancer report more emotional distress associated with a diagnosis of prostate cancer than the men report; the duration of distress for partners is seldom examined. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term effects of prostate cancer treatment on partners’ appraisal of their caregiving experience, marital satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL) and factors related to these variables. Methods This exploratory study evaluated QOL among spouses of prostate cancer survivors at 24 months after treatment. Partners completed a battery of self-report questionnaires in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Results The sample consisted of 121 partners with average age of 60 years. There was a significant relationship between partners’ perceptions of bother about the man’s treatment outcomes and negative appraisal of their caregiving experience and poorer QOL. Younger partners who had a more negative appraisal of caregiving also had significantly worse QOL. Conclusions Men’s treatment outcomes continued to bother the partner and resulted in more negative appraisal and lower QOL 2 years after initial prostate cancer treatment. Younger partners may be at greater risk of poorer QOL outcomes especially if they have a more negative view of their caregiving experience. Implications for Practice Findings support prior research indicating that prostate cancer affects not only the person diagnosed with the disease but also his partner. Partners may benefit from tailored interventions designed to decrease negative appraisal and improve symptom management and QOL during the survivorship period. PMID:22728952

  12. Prostate carcinomas; Cancer de la prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledano, A.; Chauveinc, L.; Flam, T.; Thiounn, N.; Solignac, S.; Timbert, M.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Ammor, A.; Bonnetain, F.; Brenier, J.P.; Maingon, P.; Peignaux, K.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Crevoisier, R. de; Tucker, S.; Dong, L.; Cheung, R.; Kuban, D.; Azria, D.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Ailleres, N.; Allaw, A.; Serre, A.; Fenoglietto, P.; Hay, M.H.; Thezenas, S.; Dubois, J.B.; Pommier, P.; Perol, D.; Lagrange, J.L.; Richaud, P.; Brune, D.; Le Prise, E.; Azria, D.; Beckendorf, V.; Chabaud, S.; Carrie, C.; Bosset, M.; Bosset, J.F.; Maingon, P.; Ammor, A.; Crehangen, G.; Truc, G.; Peignaux, K.; Bonnetain, F.; Keros, L.; Bernier, V.; Aletti, P.; Wolf, D.; Marchesia, V.; Noel, A.; Artignan, X.; Fourneret, P.; Bacconier, M.; Shestaeva, O.; Pasquier, D.; Descotes, J.L.; Balosso, J.; Bolla, M.; Burette, R.; Corbusier, A.; Germeau, F.; Crevoisier, R. de; Dong, L.; Bonnen, M.; Cheung, R.; Tucker, S.; Kuban, D.; Crevoisier, R. de; Melancon, A.; Kuban, D.; Cheung, R.; Dong, L.; Peignaux, K.; Brenier, J.P.; Truc, G.; Bosset, M.; Ammor, A.; Barillot, I.; Maingon, P.; Molines, J.C.; Berland, E.; Cornulier, J. de; Coulet-Parpillon, A.; Cohard, C.; Picone, M.; Fourneret, P.; Artignan, X.; Daanen, V.; Gastaldo, J.; Bolla, M.; Collomb, D.; Dusserre, A.; Descotes, J.L.; Troccaz, J.; Giraud, J.Y.; Quero, L.; Hennequin, C.; Ravery, V.; Desgrandschamps, F.; Maylin, C.; Boccon-Gibod, L.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Tallet, A.; Simonian, M.; Serment, G.; Salem, N.; Bladou, F.; Gravis, G.; Simonian, M.; Rosello, R.; Serment, G

    2005-11-15

    Some short communications on the prostate carcinoma are given here. The impact of pelvic irradiation, conformation with intensity modulation, association of radiotherapy and chemotherapy reduction of side effects, imaging, doses escalation are such subjects studied and reported. (N.C.)

  13. Prostatic leiomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csata, S; Orosz, Z; Iványi, A; Répássy, D

    1998-02-15

    The histopathological findings from the third prostate operation of a 63-year-old patient proved that his leiomysarcoma was malignant. Leiomyosarcoma is a disease of low incidence. Of 1000 cases of a carcinoma of prostate one proves to be this disease. Its clinical distinction from benign prostate disease meets difficulties. A survey of literature has shown that even multiple aggressive therapy fails when the process has overpassed the limits of the organ. Early diagnosis followed be radical pre- and postoperative X-irradiation may lead to long-term survival. Neither cytostatic nor hormonal therapy is successful. The course of the illness of our patients merits interest because of the rarity of the disease and the diagnostic difficulties.

  14. Health-related quality of life measurement in long-term survivors and outcome following radical radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galalae, R.M.; Riemer, B.; Kimmig, B.; Kovacs, G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy (Radiooncology), Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Loch, T. [Dept. of Urology, Univ. of Homburg/Saar, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rzehak, P. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Univ. of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Kuechler, T. [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Purpose: to report long-term outcomes in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and survival of a dose-escalating radiotherapy protocol and to validate a new disease-specific HRQoL instrument. Patients and methods: 189 consecutive men with prostate cancer were analyzed; 127 patients had T1-2 (1% T1, 66% T2) and 62 patients (33%) T3 tumors. The pelvic lymphatics were treated to a dose of 50 Gy by external-beam irradiation. The prostate dose was limited to 40 Gy using compensators. The prostate was treated to the total nominal dose of 70 Gy using high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The fraction dose was 15 Gy in the McNeal zone (planning target volume [PTV] 1), while 8-9 Gy were applied in the entire prostate (PTV 2). The HRQoL of the 145 long-term survivors was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and a new prostate-specific instrument (PSM-G 1.0). The reliability of the instruments used and HRQoL scale scores were calculated. Uni-/multivariate analyses of variance were performed. Results: at a mean follow-up of 6.5 years 86.3% of the patients were disease-free, and 78% were biochemically controlled. The mean Cronbach's {alpha}-values were 0.81 for the QLQ-C30, and 0.74 for the prostate-specific module. Univariate analyses of variance by T-stage, grading, prostata-specific antigen (PSA) status after therapy and adjuvant androgen suppression (AS) revealed that PSA elevation after irradiation and AS were associated with significantly diminished HRQoL. In multivariate analyses AS significantly lowered the HRQoL without survival benefit. Conclusion: the described radiotherapy regimen represents a curative and well-tolerated treatment for localized prostate cancer. The HRQoL assessment with both instruments used was reliable. Adjuvant AS and PSA elevation were associated with diminished HRQoL. (orig.)

  15. Long-term results of ultrasonically guided implantation of 125-I seeds combined with external irradiation in localized prostatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Holm, H H

    1991-01-01

    Transperineal 125-iodine seed implantation guided by transrectal ultrasonography and subsequent external beam irradiation was employed in the treatment of 32 patients with localized prostatic carcinoma (16 poorly differentiated). Follow-up is currently 35-98 months with a median of 65 months. Dis....... The future role of ultrasonically guided implantation in the management of prostatic cancer is discussed....

  16. Volume effects of late term normal tissue toxicity in prostate cancer radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonta, Dacian Viorel

    Modeling of volume effects for treatment toxicity is paramount for optimization of radiation therapy. This thesis proposes a new model for calculating volume effects in gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) following radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. The radiobiological and the pathological basis for this model and its relationship to other models are detailed. A review of the radiobiological experiments and published clinical data identified salient features and specific properties a biologically adequate model has to conform to. The new model was fit to a set of actual clinical data. In order to verify the goodness of fit, two established NTCP models and a non-NTCP measure for complication risk were fitted to the same clinical data. The method of fit for the model parameters was maximum likelihood estimation. Within the framework of the maximum likelihood approach I estimated the parameter uncertainties for each complication prediction model. The quality-of-fit was determined using the Aikaike Information Criterion. Based on the model that provided the best fit, I identified the volume effects for both types of toxicities. Computer-based bootstrap resampling of the original dataset was used to estimate the bias and variance for the fitted parameter values. Computer simulation was also used to estimate the population size that generates a specific uncertainty level (3%) in the value of predicted complication probability. The same method was used to estimate the size of the patient population needed for accurate choice of the model underlying the NTCP. The results indicate that, depending on the number of parameters of a specific NTCP model, 100 (for two parameter models) and 500 patients (for three parameter models) are needed for accurate parameter fit. Correlation of complication occurrence in patients was also investigated. The results suggest that complication outcomes are correlated in a patient, although

  17. Serenoa repens extract additionally to quinolones in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The preliminary results of a long term observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatiou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic prostatitis displays a variety of symptoms (mainly local pain exhibiting variability in origin and intensity. The purpose of this article is to briefly present the preliminary results of our study examining the role of phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic prostatitis patients. Materials and methods: The study included in total fifty-six consecutive patients who visited the outpatient department. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects in the first group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days, while subjects in the second group (28 patients received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days and Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks. The response was tested using laboratory and clinical criteria. Results: We found statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding pain regression and no statistically significant regarding bacterial eradication. Moreover however while sexual dysfunction improvement was equally achieved in both groups, improvement of urinary symptoms was more evident in the 2nd group especially after the completion of the antibiotic treatment. Conclusions: Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks seems to improve prostatitis related pain. Further randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to substantiate safer conclusions.

  18. Serenoa repens extract additionally to quinolones in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. The preliminary results of a long term observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Pierris, Nikolaos

    2013-12-31

    Chronic prostatitis displays a variety of symptoms (mainly local pain exhibiting variability in origin and intensity). The purpose of this article is to briefly present the preliminary results of our study examining the role of phytotherapeutic agents in the treatment of chronic prostatitis patients. The study included in total fifty-six consecutive patients who visited the outpatient department. Subjects were randomized into two groups. Subjects in the first group (28 patients) received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days, while subjects in the second group (28 patients) received prulifloxacin 600 mg for 15 days and Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks. The response was tested using laboratory and clinical criteria. We found statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding pain regression and no statistically significant regarding bacterial eradication. Moreover however while sexual dysfunction improvement was equally achieved in both groups, improvement of urinary symptoms was more evident in the 2nd group especially after the completion of the antibiotic treatment. Serenoa repens extract for 8 weeks seems to improve prostatitis related pain. Further randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to substantiate safer conclusions.

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves ... the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as detailed as with the transrectal probe. An MRI of the pelvis may be obtained as an ... Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate ...

  1. Change in sexual function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with long-term treatment with doxazosin, finasteride and combined therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul W; Kirkali, Ziya; McVary, Kevin T; Burrows, Pamela K; Kusek, John W

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of doxazosin, finasteride and combined therapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function, as assessed by the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory during 4 years. The MTOPS (Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms) study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with a primary outcome of time to benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. Change in sexual function was a secondary outcome. We analyzed the records of 2,783 men enrolled in the study who completed the inventory at baseline and at least once during followup. In men enrolled in MTOPS sexual function decreased with time. Men assigned to finasteride and combined therapy experienced overall statistically significant but slight worsening of ejaculatory function compared with men on placebo. Men assigned to combined therapy also experienced significant worsening in erectile function and sexual problem assessment. There was no significant difference in changes in any inventory domain in men assigned to doxazosin alone compared to placebo. This study significantly extends understanding of the effects of long-term treatment with these drugs on sexual function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Treatment with finasteride or combined therapy was associated with worsening sexual function while treatment with doxazosin alone was associated with minimal negative impact, if any. Physicians should discuss with their patients the possible long-term effects of these drugs for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term Results of Active Surveillance in the Göteborg Randomized, Population-based Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtman, Rebecka Arnsrud; Holmberg, Erik; Khatami, Ali; Pihl, Carl-Gustaf; Stranne, Johan; Hugosson, Jonas

    2016-11-01

    Active surveillance (AS) has become a well-accepted and widely used treatment strategy. To assess the long-term safety of AS for men with screen-detected prostate cancer (PCa). All men with screen-detected PCa who had very low-, low-, or intermediate-risk PCa and were managed with AS (January 1, 1995 to December 31, 2014) in the Göteborg screening trial. Prostate-specific antigen tests every 3-12 mo, rebiopsies in cases of clinical progression, and every 2-3 yr in men with stable disease. Triggers for intervention were disease progression (prostate-specific antigen, grade, and/or stage) or patient initiative. Treatment-free, failure-free, PCa-specific, and overall survival. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four-hundred and seventy-four men were managed with AS (median age at diagnosis 66.0 yr, median follow-up 8.0 yr). Two-hundred and two men discontinued AS and initiated treatment. The 10-yr and 15-yr treatment-free survival was 47% and 34%, respectively. The hazard ratio for the treatment for low- and intermediate-risk PCa, compared with very low risk, was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.94) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.13-2.25). Fifty-four men failed AS. The 10-yr and 15-year failure-free survival was 87% and 72%, respectively. These estimates were 94% and 88% for the very low-risk group, 85% and 77% for the low-risk group, and 73% and 40% for the intermediate-risk group. The hazard ratio for failure for low- and intermediate-risk PCa, compared with very low-risk, was 2.2 (95% CI 1.05-4.47) and 4.8 (95% CI 2.44-9.33). Six men died from PCa and none had very low-risk PCa. The 10-yr and 15-yr PCa-specific survival was 99.5% and 96%, respectively. These estimates were 100% for the very low-risk group, 100% and 94% for the low-risk group, and 98% and 90% for the intermediate-risk group. No predefined protocol was used. AS is safe for men with very low-risk PCa, but for men with low- and intermediate-risk PCa, AS carries a risk of

  3. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  4. Validation of the 2015 prostate cancer grade groups for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes in a shared equal-access health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ariel A; Howard, Lauren E; Tay, Kae Jack; Tsivian, Efrat; Sze, Christina; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Freedland, Stephen J; Polascik, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    A 5-tier prognostic grade group (GG) system was enacted to simplify the risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in which Gleason scores of ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9 or 10 are considered GG 1 through 5, respectively. The authors investigated the utility of biopsy GG for predicting long-term oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy in an equal-access health system. Men who underwent prostatectomy at 1 of 6 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital database between 2005 and 2015 were reviewed. The prognostic ability of biopsy GG was examined using Cox models. Interactions between GG and race also were tested. In total, 2509 men were identified who had data available on biopsy Gleason scores, covariates, and follow-up. The cohort included men with GG 1 (909 patients; 36.2%), GG 2 (813 patients; 32.4%), GG 3 (398 patients; 15.9%), GG 4 (279 patients; 11.1%), and GG 5 (110 patients; 4.4%) prostate cancer. The cohort included 1002 African American men (41%). The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 33-90 months). Higher GG was associated with higher clinical stage, older age, more recent surgery, and surgical center (P prostate cancer, metastases, and prostate cancer-specific mortality (all P Cancer 2017;123:4122-4129. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Inverse probability of treatment-weighted competing risks analysis: an application on long-term risk of urinary adverse events after prostate cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Charlotte A; Chu, Haitao; Jarosek, Stephanie; Cole, Stephen R; Elliott, Sean; Virnig, Beth

    2017-07-10

    To illustrate the 10-year risks of urinary adverse events (UAEs) among men diagnosed with prostate cancer and treated with different types of therapy, accounting for the competing risk of death. Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy among adult males in the United States. Few studies have reported the long-term post-treatment risk of UAEs and those that have, have not appropriately accounted for competing deaths. This paper conducts an inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighted competing risks analysis to estimate the effects of different prostate cancer treatments on the risk of UAE, using a matched-cohort of prostate cancer/non-cancer control patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database. Study dataset included men age 66 years or older that are 83% white and had a median follow-up time of 4.14 years. Patients that underwent combination radical prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy experienced the highest risk of UAE (IPT-weighted competing risks: HR 3.65 with 95% CI (3.28, 4.07); 10-yr. cumulative incidence = 36.5%). Findings suggest that IPT-weighted competing risks analysis provides an accurate estimator of the cumulative incidence of UAE taking into account the competing deaths as well as measured confounding bias.

  6. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alvarez Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO. End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival.

  7. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbregt, H.J.; Keeser, D.; van Eijk, L.; Suiker, E.M.; Eichhorn, D.; Karch, S.; Deijen, J.B.; Pogarell, O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance.

  9. The Akt-inhibitor Erufosine induces apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells and increases the short term effects of ionizing radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eibl Hans-Jörg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is frequently deregulated in prostate cancer and associated with neoplastic transformation, malignant progression, and enhanced resistance to classical chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, it is a promising target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, the cytotoxic action of the Akt inhibitor Erufosine (ErPC3 was analyzed in prostate cancer cells and compared to the cytotoxicity of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the efficacy of combined treatment with Akt inhibitors and ionizing radiation in prostate cancer cells was examined. Materials and methods Prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, and LNCaP were treated with ErPC3 (1-100 µM, LY294002 (25-100 µM, irradiated (0-10 Gy, or subjected to combined treatments. Cell viability was determined by the WST-1 assay. Apoptosis induction was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide in a hypotonic citrate buffer, and by Western blotting using antibodies against caspase-3 and its substrate PARP. Akt activity and regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family members and key downstream effectors involved in apoptosis regulation were examined by Western blot analysis. Results The Akt inhibitor ErPC3 exerted anti-neoplastic effects in prostate cancer cells, however with different potency. The anti-neoplastic action of ErPC3 was associated with reduced phosphoserine 473-Akt levels and induction of apoptosis. PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were also sensitive to treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. However, the ErPC3-sensitive PC3-cells were less susceptible to LY294002 than the ErPC3-refractory LNCaP cells. Although both cell lines were largely resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis, both cell lines showed higher levels of apoptotic cell death when ErPC3 was combined with radiotherapy. Conclusions Our data suggest that constitutive Akt activation and survival are

  10. Management of large prostatic adenoma: Lasers versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmada P Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP has long been the most commonly performed surgical procedure for the management of benign prostate enlargement (BPE, but has several associated limitations. Over the years, laser techniques have developed as major contenders as alternative therapies for BPE. However, simultaneously, TURP has also flourished and with relatively recent development of resection in saline (bipolar TURP, the tussle between laser techniques and TURP has further gained momentum. A systematic search was performed on Medline using the various Medical subject headings related to the surgical management of BPE including TURP, bipolar, lasers, holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP, photo-selective vaporization of prostate (PVP, etc., All articles types including meta-analysis randomized controlled trials, review articles, guidelines from various urological associations, single center studies from 2002 onward were considered for review. Bipolar TURP, HoLEP, and PVP provide equivalent outcomes for large prostate adenoma (>60 g. For extremely large glands (>150 g, HoLEP is a very efficacious endoscopic alternative to open prostatectomy and has proven long-term results over more than a decade. Bipolar TURP and PVP are attractive with a minimal learning curves and equivalent short term durability. Surgical management of large prostate should be individualized based upon patient′s comorbidities and surgeon′s expertise.

  11. Management of large prostatic adenoma: Lasers versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Narmada P; Nayyar, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) has long been the most commonly performed surgical procedure for the management of benign prostate enlargement (BPE), but has several associated limitations. Over the years, laser techniques have developed as major contenders as alternative therapies for BPE. However, simultaneously, TURP has also flourished and with relatively recent development of resection in saline (bipolar TURP), the tussle between laser techniques and TURP has further gained momentum. A systematic search was performed on Medline using the various Medical subject headings related to the surgical management of BPE including TURP, bipolar, lasers, holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP), photo-selective vaporization of prostate (PVP), etc., All articles types including meta-analysis randomized controlled trials, review articles, guidelines from various urological associations, single center studies from 2002 onward were considered for review. Bipolar TURP, HoLEP, and PVP provide equivalent outcomes for large prostate adenoma (<60 g). For extremely large glands (<150 g), HoLEP is a very efficacious endoscopic alternative to open prostatectomy and has proven long-term results over more than a decade. Bipolar TURP and PVP are attractive with a minimal learning curves and equivalent short term durability. Surgical management of large prostate should be individualized based upon patient's comorbidities and surgeon's expertise. PMID:24082445

  12. Prostate cancer incidence in Australia correlates inversely with solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Tim W; Seyfi, Doruk; Sevfi, Doruk; Khadra, Mohamed

    2011-11-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Increased sun exposure and blood levels of vitamin D have been postulated to be protective against prostate cancer. This is controversial. We investigated the relationship between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation in non-urban Australia, and found a lower incidence in regions receiving more sunlight. In landmark ecological studies, prostate cancer mortality rates have been shown to be inversely related to ultraviolet radiation exposure. Investigators have hypothesised that ultraviolet radiation acts by increasing production of vitamin D, which inhibits prostate cancer cells in vitro. However, analyses of serum levels of vitamin D in men with prostate cancer have failed to support this hypothesis. This study has found an inverse correlation between solar radiation and prostate cancer incidence in Australia. Our population (previously unstudied) represents the third group to exhibit this correlation. Significantly, the demographics and climate of Australia differ markedly from those of previous studies conducted on men in the United Kingdom and the United States. • To ascertain if prostate cancer incidence rates correlate with solar radiation among non-urban populations of men in Australia. • Local government areas from each state and territory were selected using explicit criteria. Urban areas were excluded from analysis. • For each local government area, prostate cancer incidence rates and averaged long-term solar radiation were obtained. • The strength of the association between prostate cancer incidence and solar radiation was determined. • Among 70 local government areas of Australia, age-standardized prostate cancer incidence rates for the period 1998-2007 correlated inversely with daily solar radiation averaged over the last two decades. •  There exists an association between less solar radiation and higher prostate cancer incidence in Australia. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU

  13. Long-Term Antitumor Activity and Safety of Enzalutamide Monotherapy in Hormone Naïve Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tombal, Bertrand; Borre, Michael; Rathenborg, Per

    2018-01-01

    evaluated enzalutamide antitumor activity and safety at 3 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a single arm analysis 67 patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer and noncastrate testosterone (230 ng/dl or greater) received enzalutamide 160 mg per day orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity....... CONCLUSIONS: Enzalutamide antitumor activity was maintained in patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer at 3 years. Overall bone mineral density, global health status and safety results were similar to those at 2 years.......PURPOSE: A phase 2 study of enzalutamide monotherapy in patients with hormone naïve prostate cancer demonstrated high prostate specific antigen response rates at 25 weeks, 1 year and 2 years with minimal effects on total body bone mineral density and favorable safety. In this followup analysis we...

  14. Effect of Whole Pelvic Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy and Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantini, Giovanna [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Tagliaferri, Luca, E-mail: luca.tagliaferri@rm.unicatt.it [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Balducci, Mario; Frascino, Vincenzo; Dinapoli, Nicola [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy); Di Gesu, Cinzia; Ippolito, Edy; Morganti, Alessio G. [Department of Radiotherapy, John Paul II Center for High Technology Research and Education in Biomedical Sciences, Catholic University, Campobasso (Italy); Cellini, Numa [Department of Radiotherapy, Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Catholic University, Rome (Italy)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) in prostate cancer patients treated with RT and long-term (>1 year) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Methods and materials: Prostate cancer patients with high-risk features (Stage T3-T4 and/or Gleason score {>=}7 and/or prostate-specific antigen level {>=}20 ng/mL) who had undergone RT and long-term ADT were included in the present analysis. Patients with bowel inflammatory disease, colon diverticula, and colon diverticulitis were excluded from WPRT and treated with prostate-only radiotherapy (PORT). Patients were grouped according to nodal risk involvement as assessed by the Roach formula using different cutoff levels (15%, 20%, 25%, and 30%). Biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) was analyzed in each group according to the RT type (WPRT or PORT). Results: A total of 358 patients treated between 1994 and 2007 were included in the analysis (46.9% with WPRT and 53.1% with PORT). The median duration of ADT was 24 months (range, 12-38). With a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 20-150), the overall 4-year bDFS rate was 90.5%. The 4-year bDFS rate was similar between the patients who had undergone WPRT or PORT (90.4% vs. 90.5%; p = NS). However, in the group of patients with the greatest nodal risk (>30%), a significant bDFS improvement was recorded for the patients who had undergone WPRT (p = .03). No differences were seen in acute toxicity among the patients treated with WPRT or PORT. The late gastrointestinal toxicity was similar in patients treated with PORT or WPRT (p = NS). Conclusions: Our analysis has supported the use of WPRT in association with long-term ADT for patients with high-risk nodal involvement (>30%), although a definitive recommendation should be confirmed by a randomized trial.

  15. High-power thulium laser vaporization of the prostate: short-term outcomes of safety and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariser, Joseph J; Famakinwa, Olufenwa J; Pearce, Shane M; Chung, Doreen E

    2014-11-01

    The thulium laser was introduced in 2005 for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Enucleation studies from outside North America show comparable efficacy and lower morbidity to transurethral resection of the prostate. A few studies exist describing outcomes of vaporization, the most commonly used technique for urologists. We present our 3-month outcomes of thulium laser vaporization of the prostate (ThuVP). From December 2010 to October 2013, 68 men underwent ThuVP using the 150 W CyberTM(®). Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative measures, complications, serum parameters, maximum flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual (PVR), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality-of-life (QoL) score, and prostate-specific antigen. Patients were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Nine patients were excluded for known prostate cancer. The mean age was 66±10 years, with a mean prostate size of 57±30 mL. At baseline, the mean IPSS was 19.9±8.0, QoL score was 4.5±1.1, Qmax was 5.2±4.5 mL/sec, and PVR was 220±397 mL. The mean laser time was 35±18 minutes, and energy used was 234±139 kJ. Forty-seven (78%) patients were discharged the day of surgery. No blood transfusions were administered with a mean drop in hemoglobin of 0.7±0.8 g/dL (pvaporization of the prostate appears to be a safe and effective outpatient technique for the treatment of BPH with durable outcomes at 3 months.

  16. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Prospective Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Incorporating a Simultaneous Integrated Boost for Prostate Cancer: Long-term Outcomes Compared With Standard Image Guided IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Michael H. [Midwestern University, Glendale, Arizona (United States); Schild, Steven E., E-mail: sschild@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Wong, William W.; Vora, Sujay A.; Keole, Sameer R.; Vargas, Carlos E.; Daniels, Thomas B.; Ezzell, Gary A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Nguyen, Ba D.; Roarke, Michael C. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This report describes the long-term outcomes of a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), integrating a {sup 111}In capromab pendetide (ProstaScint) scan-directed simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-one patients with T1N0M0 to T4N0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled, and their ProstaScint and pelvic computed tomography scans were coregistered for treatment planning. The entire prostate received 75.6 Gy in 42 fractions with IMRT, whereas regions of increased uptake on ProstaScint scans received 82 Gy as an SIB. Patients with intermediate- and high-risk disease also received 6 months and 12 months of adjuvant hormonal therapy, respectively. Results: The study enrolled 31 low-, 30 intermediate-, and 10 high-risk patients. The median follow-up was 120 months (range, 24-150 months). The 10-year biochemical control rates were 85% for the entire cohort and 84%, 84%, and 90% for patients with low-, intermediate-, and high-risk disease, respectively. The 10-year survival rate of the entire cohort was 69%. Pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL and boost volume of >10% of the prostate volume were significantly associated with poorer biochemical control and survival. The outcomes were compared with those of a cohort of 302 patients treated similarly but without the SIB and followed up for a median of 91 months (range, 6-138 months). The 5- and 10-year biochemical control rates were 86% and 61%, respectively, in patients without the SIB compared with 94% and 85%, respectively, in patients in this trial who received the SIB (P=.02). The cohort that received an SIB did not have increased toxicity. Conclusions: The described IMRT strategy, integrating multiple imaging modalities to administer 75.6 Gy to the entire prostate with a boost dose of 82 Gy, was feasible. The addition of the SIB was associated with greater biochemical control but not toxicity. Modern

  18. Danish Prostate Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, J Thomas; Klemann, Nina; Røder, Martin Andreas

    2016-01-01

    of the prostate (TUR-Ps), and the remaining 22,028 (13.6%) specimens were derived from radical prostatectomies, bladder interventions, etc. A total of 48,078 (42.2%) males had histopathologically verified prostate cancer, and of these, 78.8% and 16.8% were diagnosed on prostate biopsies and TUR-Ps, respectively....... FUTURE PERSPECTIVES: A validated algorithm was successfully developed to convert complex prostate SNOMED codes into clinical useful data. A unique database, including males with both normal and cancerous histopathological data, was created to form the most comprehensive national prostate database to date......BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED) codes are computer-processable medical terms used to describe histopathological evaluations. SNOMED codes are not readily usable for analysis. We invented an algorithm that converts prostate SNOMED codes into an analyzable format. We...

  19. The Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Prostate Cancer This booklet is about prostate cancer. Learning about medical care for your cancer ... ePub This booklet covers: The anatomy of the prostate and basics about prostate cancer Treatments for prostate ...

  20. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  1. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  2. Increased mortality in prostate carcinoma and smoking-related disease after parietal cell vagotomy: a long-term follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsberg, Kristina; Olsson, Håkan; Staël von Holstein, Christer

    2009-01-01

    There is an increased risk of gastrointestinal carcinoma and smoking-related diseases after partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term cancer incidence and mortality after parietal cell vagotomy (PCV), a surgical method with a low rate of side effects, but creating hypochlorhydria in the stomach mimicking long-term treatment with antisecretory drugs. Data on 383 ulcer patients operated on with PCV during 1971-80 at Lund University Hospital were compared with the national registers for cause of death and cancer incidence for selected diagnoses. Median follow-up was 28 years and 31 years, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated. An increased incidence of cancer in the respiratory organs (SIR 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08-3.31) and prostate carcinoma (SIR 1.85, 95% CI: 1.22-2.69) was found, and among men also an increased mortality in prostate carcinoma (SMR 3.85, 95% CI: 1.41-8.38) and chronic respiratory disease (SMR 2.76, 95% CI: 1.01-6.02). Overall mortality was similar to that of the background population and no increased risk of gastrointestinal malignancies was observed. Patients with peptic ulcer operated on with PCV have a long-term increased risk of smoking-related diseases, but PCV does not seem to increase the risk of gastrointestinal carcinoma. An increased risk of, and mortality in prostate carcinoma was found, a cancer previously not found to be related to smoking. This might be the result of surgery-induced hypochlorhydria, which warrants further investigation in patients on long-term proton-pump inhibitors.

  3. Long-term clinical impact of PSA surge in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conteduca, Vincenza; Caffo, Orazio; Lolli, Cristian; Aieta, Michele; Scarpi, Emanuela; Bianchi, Emanuela; Maines, Francesca; Schepisi, Giuseppe; Salvi, Samanta; Massari, Francesco; Carrozza, Francesco; Veccia, Antonello; Chiuri, Vincenzo E; Campadelli, Enrico; Facchini, Gaetano; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2017-06-01

    Early changes in PSA have been evaluated in association to treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to assess PSA surge phenomenon in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients treated with abiraterone and to correlate those variations with long-term treatment outcome. We retrospectively evaluated 330 CRPC patients in 11 Italian hospitals, monitoring PSA levels at baseline and every 4 weeks. Other clinical, biochemical and molecular parameters were determined at baseline. We considered PSA surge as PSA increase within the first 8 weeks from starting abiraterone more than 1% from baseline followed by a PSA decline. The log-rank test was applied to compare survival between groups of patients according to PSA surge. The impact of PSA surge on survival was evaluated by Cox regression analyses. A total of 330 patients with CRPC, median age 74 years (range, 45-90), received abiraterone (281 chemotherapy-treated and 49 chemotherapy-naïve). PSA surge was observed in 20 (7%) post-chemotherapy and 2 (4%) chemotherapy-naïve patients. For overall patients presenting PSA surge, timing of PSA peak from baseline was 5 ± 1.8 weeks and PSA rise from baseline was 21 ± 18.4%. The overall median follow-up was 23 months (range 1-62). No significant differences in progression-free survival and overall survival were observed between patients with and without PSA surge (P = 0.16 and =0.86, respectively). In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses showed no baseline factors related to PSA surge. PSA surge occurs in both chemotherapy-treated and chemotherapy-naïve patients treated with abiraterone resulting, however, in no long-term impact on outcome. Physicians and patients should be aware of PSA surge challenge to prevent a premature discontinuation of potentially effective therapy with abiraterone. Further larger and prospective studies are warranted to investigate this not infrequent phenomenon. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to ... Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures ...

  6. Prostate brachytherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with needles or special ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help ... Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using sound ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of the prostate uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ...

  12. Long-term outcomes from dose-escalated image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy with androgen deprivation: encouraging results for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox SW

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Shea W Wilcox,1,4 Noel J Aherne,2,4 Linus C Benjamin,1 Bosco Wu,1 Thomaz de Campos Silva,3 Craig S McLachlan,4 Michael J McKay,3,5 Andrew J Last,1 Thomas P Shakespeare1–4 1North Coast Cancer Institute, Port Macquarie, NSW, Australia; 2North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia; 3North Coast Cancer Institute, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 4The University of New South Wales, Rural Clinical School, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Dose-escalated (DE radiotherapy in the setting of localized prostate cancer has been shown to improve biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS in several studies. In the same group of patients, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been shown to confer a survival benefit when combined with radiotherapy doses of up to 70 Gy; however, there is currently little long-term data on patients who have received high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT with ADT. We report the long-term outcomes in a large cohort of patients treated with the combination of DE image-guided IMRT (IG-IMRT and ADT. Methods and materials: Patients with localized prostate cancer were identified from a centralized database across an integrated cancer center. All patients received DE IG-IMRT, combined with ADT, and had a minimum follow up of 12 months post-radiotherapy. All relapse and toxicity data were collected prospectively. Actuarial bDFS, metastasis-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and multivariate analyses were calculated using the SPSS v20.0 statistical package. Results: Seven hundred and eighty-two eligible patients were identified with a median follow up of 46 months. Overall, 4.3% of patients relapsed, 2.0% developed distant metastases, and 0.6% died from metastatic prostate cancer. At 5-years, bDFS was 88%, metastasis-free survival was 95%, and prostate cancer-specific survival was 98%. Five-year grade 2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity was 2

  13. The long-term effects of chronic recreational ketamine use on cognition and subjective experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Grayer, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: A review of the chronic recreational ketamine research is needed because of (i) increases in recreational ketamine use in the past five years, and (ii) its application to the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Receptor ('NMDA-R') hypofunction model of psychosis.;Method: PsychInfo and Pubmed databases were searched using the following terms: 'ketamine', 'frequent', 'regular*, 'repeated', 'chronic', and 'long-term'. The search was limited to human populations and English language journals. Relevan...

  14. Global Judgments of Subjective Well-Being: Situational Variability and Long-Term Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Michael; Diener, Ed

    2004-01-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) is an important indicator of quality of life. SWB can be conceptualized as a momentary state (e.g., mood) as well as a relatively stable trait (e.g., life satisfaction). The validity of self-reported trait aspects of SWB has been questioned by experimental studies showing that SWB judgments seem to be strongly context…

  15. Dyslipidemia in HIV-1 Infected Subjects with Short Term Usage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michaelis

    ultimately leads to gluconeogenesis, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, increased fat synthesis as well as, fatty liver development and weight gain are biochemical abnormalities that can directly alter liver enzymes and lipid profiles in HAART using. HIV subjects. Occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction is listed as part of ...

  16. Macrophage Efferocytosis and Prostate Cancer Bone Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mass and alter bone remodeling. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Macrophages, Efferocytosis, Prostate Cancer, Bone 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...cytokines, interfering with HIF-1 also promotes the generation of a specialized tumor- killing class of T cells - the so-called “cytotoxic T lymphocytes...cells possess higher killing capacity compared to WT cells (data not shown). 6 Summary: In summary, we have made considerable progress in our

  17. [Long-term outcome after endoscopic enucleation of the prostate : From monopolar enucleation to HoLEP and from HoLEP to EEP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, T R W

    2016-11-01

    In the last 20 years various transurethral endoscopic enucleation techniques (EEP) have been established as a substitute for open prostatectomy (OP) and TURP. Since the 2016 update of the "EAU Guidelines on Management of Non-Neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS), including Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO)", Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and bipolar enucleation being summarized as anatomical enucleating techniques are proposed as first choice for the surgical management of BPO of large volume prostates. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the available data on long-term outcomes of current EEP techniques. PubMed/Medline and Scopus were searched using the terms: long term, HoLEP, ThuLEP, ThuVEP, DiLEP, ELEP, GreenlEP, Greenlight enucleation, bipolar enucleation, plasmakinetic enucleation, monopolar enucleation, and transurethral enucleation. Studies with a follow-up ≥48 months were selected. In all, 5 randomized controlled trials (2 HoLEP, 2 bipolar enucleation, 1 Thulium laser resection of the prostate in tangerine technique [TmLR-TT]), 3 prospective cohort studies (2 thulium vapoenucleation [ThuVEP], 1 TmLRP-TT), and 2 retrospective studies with large patient cohorts were selected. All EEP were equivalent to OP with regard to effectivity and durability of results. The rate of secondary surgical procedures in HolEP, ThuVEP, bipolar enucleation and tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT) was 0-1.2 % for reTURP, 1.9-3.75 % for urethrotomy, and 0.9-4 % for bladder neck resection. No significant difference in the individual studies was found when compared to OP. For bipolar enucleation vs. TURP long-term results for uroflow, residual urine, and IPSS were significantly better at 60 months for bipolar enucleation. One RCT TmLRP-TT vs. TURP at the 48-month follow-up found no significant difference. Various transurethral EEP can be considered as equally safe and effective anatomical enucleation techniques. All

  18. COPING STRATEGIES IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Gardanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of psycho-emotional disorders of patients with malignant diseases of the prostate is not doubt, because timely correction contributes to the shortening of rehabilitation period and restoration of the quality of life of patients after treatment. Detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer for many patients is stressful and causes changes in the affective sphere, and manifests itself in increased levels of anxiety and depression in men. To cope with stress is possible due to the used coping strategies.Purpose. Studying the coping mechanisms in prostate cancer patients.Materials and methods. 56 men treated in FGBU "LRTS" Russian Ministry of Health. The average age was 65.7 ± 6.1 years. The average duration of the disease prostate cancer is 3 ± 2 months. All men were subjected to the standard algorithm for the evaluation of hormonal status, the PSA, taking a history, inspection and physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy of bones of a skeleton. All the patients underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Psychological testing with the use of the method of "Coping test" the scale of reactive and personal anxiety for the differentiated evaluation of anxiety. Results. The most common for prostate cancer revealed constructive coping strategies are "planning solve", "selfcontrol" and "search of social support". According to the scale Spielberg–Hanin a high level of situational anxiety was revealed.Conclusion. According to the results of the research, patients with prostate cancer are likely to use constructive coping strategies, that leads to stabilization of psycho-emotional state of men and promotes more effective adaptation in the terms of stress, that is caused by treatment of prostate cancer.

  19. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... of expertise (e.g. Dall, et al., 2016). We will present a paradigm testing the proposed distinction using specific isolation of attentional components (see Bundesen, 1990; Sørensen, Vangkilde, & Bundesen, 2015). We propose that objective complexity can be manipulated through the number of strokes in Chinese...

  20. Understanding and Targeting Tumor Microenvironment in Prostate Cancer to Inhibit Tumor Progression and Castration Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), Pten, Smad4, genetically engineered mouse model, Gr-1, peptide-Fc fusion protein...KEYWORDS Prostate cancer, myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC), Pten, Smad4, genetically engineered mouse model, Gr-1, peptide-Fc fusion protein 3...which should provide a genetic method for MDSC functional evaluation. Currently, the compound mouse Ptenpc-/- Smad4pc-/- CD11b-DTR+ are still in

  1. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Albert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Methods Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR for various prognostic factors. Results The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.03–1.11, males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13, older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC/small cell carcinoma (SCC, and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3% than females (23.6%. Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Conclusion Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality play important roles in determining lung cancer survival.

  2. The salivary microbiome is consistent between subjects and resistant to impacts of short-term hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Damien J; Wurster, Jenna I; Flokas, Myrto E; Alevizakos, Michail; Zabat, Michelle; Korry, Benjamin J; Rowan, Aislinn D; Sano, William H; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Ducharme, R Bobby; Chan, Philip A; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Belenky, Peter

    2017-09-08

    In recent years, a growing amount of research has begun to focus on the oral microbiome due to its links with health and systemic disease. The oral microbiome has numerous advantages that make it particularly useful for clinical studies, including non-invasive collection, temporal stability, and lower complexity relative to other niches, such as the gut. Despite recent discoveries made in this area, it is unknown how the oral microbiome responds to short-term hospitalization. Previous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome is extremely sensitive to short-term hospitalization and that these changes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Here, we present a comprehensive pipeline for reliable bedside collection, sequencing, and analysis of the human salivary microbiome. We also develop a novel oral-specific mock community for pipeline validation. Using our methodology, we analyzed the salivary microbiomes of patients before and during hospitalization or azithromycin treatment to profile impacts on this community. Our findings indicate that azithromycin alters the diversity and taxonomic composition of the salivary microbiome; however, we also found that short-term hospitalization does not impact the richness or structure of this community, suggesting that the oral cavity may be less susceptible to dysbiosis during short-term hospitalization.

  3. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  4. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal

  5. Phase II Study of Long-Term Androgen Suppression With Bevacizumab and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuky, Jacqueline, E-mail: vukyja@ohsu.edu [Section of Community Hematology/Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, OR (United States); Pham, Huong T. [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Warren, Sarah; Douglass, Erika [Benaroya Research Institute, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Badiozamani, Kasra [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Madsen, Berit; Hsi, Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, WA (United States); Song Guobin [Section of Hematology/Oncology and Radiation Oncology, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We report a Phase II trial assessing the acute and late toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), long-term androgen suppression (LTAS), and bevacizumab in patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We treated 18 patients with LTAS with bicalutamide and goserelin in combination with bevacizumab and IMRT. Bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) was administered for the first 16 weeks, and 15 mg/kg was then given every 3 weeks for 12 additional weeks, with an IMRT dose of 77.9 Gy to the prostate, 64.6 Gy to the seminal vesicles, and 57 Gy to the pelvic lymph nodes. Patients were eligible if they had clinical stage T2b to T4, a Gleason sum score of 8 to 10, or a prostate- specific antigen level of 20ng/mL or greater. The primary endpoint of the study was evaluation of acute and late toxicities. Results: The median age was 69 years, with a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of 12.5 ng/mL and Gleason score of 8. The pretreatment clinical stage was T1c in 4 patients, T2 in 11, and T3 in 3. All patients completed IMRT with median follow-up of 34 months (range, 28-40 months) The most common Grade 2 or higher toxicities were hypertension (61% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), proteinuria (28% with Grade 2 and 6% with Grade 3), and leucopenia (28% with Grade 2). No Grade 4 or higher acute toxicities were reported. Late toxicities included proctitis (6% of patients with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), rectal bleeding (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3), hematuria (6% with Grade 2), proteinuria (17% with Grade 2), hyponatremia (6% with Grade 3), cystitis (6% with Grade 3), and urinary retention (6% with Grade 2 and 11% with Grade 3). Grade 4 prostatitis occurred in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions: Bevacizumab does not appear to exacerbate the acute effects of IMRT. Late toxicities may have been worsened with this regimen. Further investigations of bevacizumab with LTAS and IMRT should be

  6. Nodal Clearance Rate and Long-Term Efficacy of Individualized Sentinel Node–Based Pelvic Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Arndt-Christian, E-mail: arndt-christian.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Eckert, Franziska; Paulsen, Frank; Zips, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Stenzl, Arnulf; Schilling, David [Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Alber, Markus [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Bares, Roland [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Molecular Imaging, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Martus, Peter [Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Applied Biometry, Eberhard Karls University, Tübingen (Germany); Weckermann, Dorothea [Department of Urology, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of individual sentinel node (SN)-guided pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) by determining nodal clearance rate [(n expected nodal involvement − n observed regional recurrences)/n expected nodal involvement] in comparison with surgically staged patients. Methods and Materials: Data on 475 high-risk prostate cancer patients were examined. Sixty-one consecutive patients received pelvic SN-based IMRT (5 × 1.8 Gy/wk to 50.4 Gy [pelvic nodes + individual SN] and an integrated boost with 5 × 2.0 Gy/wk to 70.0 Gy to prostate + [base of] seminal vesicles) and neo-/adjuvant long-term androgen deprivation therapy; 414 patients after SN–pelvic lymph node dissection were used to calculate the expected nodal involvement rate for the radiation therapy sample. Biochemical control and overall survival were estimated for the SN-IMRT patients using the Kaplan-Meier method. The expected frequency of nodal involvement in the radiation therapy group was estimated by imputing frequencies of node-positive patients in the surgical sample to the pattern of Gleason, prostate-specific antigen, and T category in the radiation therapy sample. Results: After a median follow-up of 61 months, 5-year OS after SN-guided IMRT reached 84.4%. Biochemical control according to the Phoenix definition was 73.8%. The nodal clearance rate of SN-IMRT reached 94%. Retrospective follow-up evaluation is the main limitation. Conclusions: Radiation treatment of pelvic nodes individualized by inclusion of SNs is an effective regional treatment modality in high-risk prostate cancer patients. The pattern of relapse indicates that the SN-based target volume concept correctly covers individual pelvic nodes. Thus, this SN-based approach justifies further evaluation, including current dose-escalation strategies to the prostate in a larger prospective series.

  7. Effect of Long-Term Hormonal Therapy (vs Short-Term Hormonal Therapy): A Secondary Analysis of Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on NRG Oncology RTOG 9202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhadi, Amin J; Zhang, Qiang; Hanks, Gerald E; Lepor, Herbert; Grignon, David J; Peters, Christopher A; Rosenthal, Seth A; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Radwan, John S; Lawton, Colleen; Parliament, Matthew B; Reznik, Robert S; Sandler, Howard M

    2017-03-01

    NRG Oncology RTOG 9202 was a randomized trial testing long-term adjuvant androgen deprivation (LTAD) versus initial androgen deprivation only (STAD) with external beam radiation therapy (RT) in mostly high-risk and some intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. RTOG 9408 found an overall survival (OS) advantage in patients with cT1b-T2b disease and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) risk patients. It was still unknown whether intermediate-risk patients would experience an additional survival benefit with LTAD; thus, we performed a secondary analysis to explore whether LTAD had any incremental benefit beyond STAD among the intermediate-risk subset of RTOG 9202. The study endpoints were OS, disease-specific survival (DSS), and PSA failure (PSAF). An analysis was performed for all patients enrolled in RTOG 9202 defined as intermediate-risk (cT2 disease, PSArisk subset in this study. Whereas the subset was relatively small, treatment assignment was randomly applied, and a trend in favor of LTAD would have been of interest. Given the small number of disease-specific deaths observed and lack of benefit with respect to our endpoints, this secondary analysis does not suggest that exploration of longer hormonal therapy is worth testing in the intermediate-risk prostate cancer subset. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    VL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL.We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL. The third...... drug in the previous regimen was ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) in 79 (28%), and another ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) in 29 (10%). Ninety (32%) had previously failed with a PI. Proportions of people with virological success at 48/96/144 weeks were 90%/87%/88% (TLOVR) and 74...

  9. Prostate specific antigen in patients of benign prostate hypertrophy and carcinoma prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malati, T; Kumari, G Rajani; Murthy, P V L N; Reddy, Ch Ram; Prakash, B Surya

    2006-03-01

    Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) has emerged as the most applicable and important tumor marker for carcinoma prostate. In the present study PSA was determined in serum of healthy subjects, patients of benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and Carcinoma Prostate (Ca-P) to evaluate its diagnostic efficiency in day to day management of prostate cancer patients and in differentiating patients of early prostate cancer from those with BPH. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) revealed 2 ng/ml and 10 ng/ml cut off serum PSA level for BPH and untreated carcinoma prostate patients (Ca-P). An extremely significant increase (Pprostate patients when compared to healthy males. Clinical relevance of PSA was highlighted by a case study of cancer patient prior to any therapy till death.

  10. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  11. Effects of pregabalin on subjective sleep disturbance symptoms during withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Gabriel; Bobes, Julio; Cervera, Gaspar; Terán, Antonio; Pérez, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Rejas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of pregabalin as a tapering therapy on the subjective sleep quality of patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program in routine medical practice. Secondary analysis of a 12-week prospective, open noncontrolled study carried out in patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for benzodiazepine dependence. Sleep was evaluated with the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep Scale). 282 patients were included in the analysis. Mean (±SD) pregabalin dose was 315 ± 166 mg/day at the end of the trial. We observed a significant and clinically relevant improvement in sleep outcomes at the endpoint, with a total score reduction from 55.8 ± 18.9 to 25.1 ± 18.0 at week 12 (i.e. a 55% reduction). Similar findings were apparent using the six dimensions of the MOS Sleep Scale. Moderate correlations were observed between the MOS Sleep summary index and sleep domains, and there were improvements in anxiety symptoms and disease severity. These findings suggest that pregabalin may improve subjective sleep quality in patients who underwent a benzodiazepine withdrawal program. This effect appears to be partly independent of improvements in symptoms of anxiety or withdrawal. However, controlled studies are needed to establish the magnitude of the effect of pregabalin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy of clinical high-risk patients with prostate cancer: a controlled study of operative and short-term postoperative events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennhovd, Bjørn; Axcrona, Karol; Fosså, Sophie D; Giercksky, Karl-Erik; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Dahl, Alv A

    2013-12-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) has increasingly become a treatment alternative for patients with high-risk prostate cancer. Few papers focus on the prevalence of operative and short-term postoperative (prostate volume and less nerve-sparing than the contrast groups. No between-group differences were observed for reoperation, catheter time, bleeding volume or transfusions. Significantly more Clavien complications were observed in the high-risk than in the low-risk group. A positive adverse effect index score was associated with positive margins, no nerve-sparing surgery and no preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, and negatively associated with the second and third of three 2-year study periods. High-risk patients had a significantly higher risk of some operative and short-term postoperative adverse events than the control groups. This was not the case for the seven-items adverse event index. This study does not support any restricted attitude towards RALP in high-risk patients, except for general surgical contraindications.

  13. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brossa, Ricard; Pint?-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; L?pez-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus ac...

  14. Long-term effects of perinatal exposure to low doses of cadmium on the prostate of adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Viviane P; Salles, Évila S; Correa, Deborah E; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G; Justulin, Luiz A; Godinho, Antonio F; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-08-01

    Developmental toxicity caused by environmental exposure to heavy metals during the perinatal period has raised questions about offspring health. Cadmium (Cd) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical with the potential to interfere with morphogenesis and susceptibility to diseases in reproductive organs. Taking into account that in the rat prostate morphogenesis occurs during the perinatal period, and that pregnant females absorb and retain more dietary Cd than their non-pregnant counterparts, it is important to understand the effects of perinatal Cd exposure on the adult rat prostate. Therefore this study investigated the effects of gestational and lactational Cd exposure on adult offspring rat prostate histopathology. Pregnant rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups: Control (treated with aqueous solution of sodium acetate 10 mg/l) and treated (treated with aqueous solution of cadmium acetate 10 mg/l) administered in the drinking water. After weaning, male offspring from different litters (n = 10) received food and water 'ad libitum'. The animals were euthanized at postnatal day 90 (PND90), the ventral prostates (VPs) were removed, weighed and examined histopathologically. Blood was collected for the measurement of testosterone (T) levels. Immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor (AR) and Ki67, and a TUNEL assay were performed. There were no differences in T levels, cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes, or AR immunostaining between the experimental groups. Stromal inflammatory foci and multifocal inflammation increased significantly in the treated group. These changes were associated with inflammatory reactive epithelial atypia and stromal fibrillar rearrangement. In conclusion, VP was permanently affected by perinatal Cd exposition, with increased incidence of inflammatory disorders with ageing. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  15. Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Long-term Denitrification Processes and Kinetics in a Crystalline Aquifer subject to Pumping from 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clement; Aquilina, Luc; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Boisson, Alexandre; Labasque, Thierry; Longuevergne, Laurent; Ben Maamar, Sarah; Dufresne, Alexis; Bour, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    The kinetic of denitrification associated to long-term mixing processes in heterogeneous aquifers is particularly challenging to constrain. Specifically, chemical evolutions related to groundwater exploitation are cases that are poorly known. It remains particularly unclear if long-term pumping whether enhances or slows-down the nitrate reducing processes and what is the source of electron donor sustaining the reaction. The aim of this study is to investigate the dynamic of denitrification processes induced by long-term pumping in the Ploemeur aquifer (Britany, France) which has been operated for water supply since 1991. Several batch experiments have been carried out in order to fully characterize the kinetics of the denitrification reaction involved. Batches consisted in crushed rock: more or less weathered granite and schists, and water sampled from the site. Denitrification always developed except in sterilized batchs. Denitrification rate was independent on the rock type but more on the state of the bacterial community. Inorganic dissolved carbon only showed moderate variations while organic carbon remained at low concentrations. Both observations make heterotrophic denitrification unlikely. A silicate dissolution was observed and detailed analysis of the cations quantified a main biotite contribution. The iron produced by biotite dissolution accounts for the denitrification processes observed. Long term time-series analysis of the conservative elements recorded at the pumped well were used to determine mixing fractions from different compartments of the aquifer based on a Principal Component Analysis approach coupled with an end-member mixing analysis. Discharge fractions were then used to quantify the denitrification kinetic linked to pumping. With increasing concentration of Nitrate entering in the groundwater system since the beginning of the operations, computations confirm that i) autotrophic denitrification processes are dominant and ii) biotite plays a

  17. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Mathôt, Ron A A; Romijn, Johannes A

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), S-warfarin (CYP2C9) and caffeine (CYP1A2). In 9 healthy volunteers, pharmacokinetics of the five drugs were assessed after an overnight fast at two separate occasions: after a regular diet and after 3 days of a hypercaloric high fat diet (i.e. regular diet supplemented with 500 mL cream [1715 kcal, 35% fat]). Pharmacokinetic parameters (mean [SEM]) were estimated by non-compartmental analysis. The high fat diet increased exposure to midazolam by 19% from 24.7 (2.6) to 29.5 (3.6) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.04) and exposure to omeprazole by 31% from 726 (104) to 951 (168) ng ml-1h-1 (p=0.05). Exposure to metoprolol, caffeine and S-warfarin was not affected by the high fat diet. A short-term hypercaloric high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole, possibly reflecting modulation of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19.

  18. Change in hydraulic traits of Mediterranean Quercus ilex subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Longepierre, Damien; Huc, Roland; Rambal, Serge

    2010-08-01

    Mediterranean tree species experience unpredictable climate environments and severe summer droughts and they may be impaired by the trend of decline in precipitation projected as a consequence of global climate change. The response of Quercus ilex to drought was studied by measuring hydraulic traits of trees growing in a mature forest subjected to partial throughfall exclusion for 6 years. We measured hydraulic conductivity, xylem vulnerability to embolism, and anatomical features in branches and roots. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was higher in the dry treatment than in the control treatment, P₅₀ of branches was on average -3.88 +/- 0.80 MPa for the control treatment compared with -3.41 +/- 0.80 MPa for the dry treatment, but the difference was not statistically significant. A similar difference between treatments was observed for roots, which exhibited lower P₅₀ values. This change of xylem vulnerability to embolism was not linked to modification of the hydraulic conductivity or vessel anatomy, which remained unaffected by the throughfall exclusion treatment. The xylem density of branches was lower in the dry treatment. The hydraulic conductivity was correlated with the mean vessel diameter of xylem, but the P₅₀ was not. The main response of trees from the dry treatment to reduced water availability appeared to be a reduction in the transpiring leaf area, which resulted in significantly increased leaf-specific conductivity.

  19. Short-term triglyceride lowering with fenofibrate improves vasodilator function in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Warren H; DeSouza, Christopher A; Poirier, Paul; Bell, Melanie L; Stauffer, Brian L; Weil, Kathleen M; Hernandez, Teri L; Eckel, Robert H

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of lowering plasma triglycerides (TGs) on endothelial function and gain insight into the role played by free fatty acids (FFAs) in hypertriglyceridemia-associated vascular dysfunction. Eleven hypertriglyceridemic subjects without coronary artery disease, diabetes, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, tobacco use, or hypertension were studied using a randomized, double-blinded, crossover design (fenofibrate and placebo, 14 days). After each regimen, forearm blood flow was assessed by plethysmography in response to arterial acetylcholine, nitroprusside, and verapamil infusion. Hourly plasma TGs, FFA, glucose, and insulin were measured during a 24-hour feeding cycle to characterize the metabolic environment. Changes in plasma FFA after intravenous heparin were used to estimate typical FFA accumulation in the luminal endothelial microenvironment. Fenofibrate lowered plasma TG (P<0.001), total cholesterol (P<0.01), and apolipoprotein B (P<0.01) without altering high-density lipoprotein or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Forearm blood flow in response to acetylcholine (P<0.0001), nitroprusside (P<0.001), and verapamil (P<0.0001) improved after fenofibrate. Fenofibrate lowered 24-hour (P<0.0001) and post-heparin (P<0.001) TG and tended to lower 24-hour (P=0.054) and post-heparin (P=0.028) FFA. Vascular smooth muscle function significantly improves after lowering plasma TG without changes in confounding lipoproteins or insulin resistance. The data raise additional questions regarding the role of FFA in hypertriglyceridemia-associated vascular dysfunction.

  20. Short-Term Effect of Gabapentin on Subjective Tinnitus in Acoustic Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Goljanian Tabrizi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Although several treatment approaches have been proposed for tinnitus, there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved agents available to treat this condition. In this study, we evaluated the effect of gabapentin on the sensation of subjective tinnitus in patients with acoustic trauma referring to the ear, nose and throat (ENT clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014. Materials and Methods:In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 103 patients with tinnitus due to acoustic trauma who were referred to the ENT clinic of Taleghani Hospital during 2014 were randomized to the gabapentin (300 mg bid, n=55 or control (n=48 groups. The two groups were then compared before and after 6 weeks of treatment using a visual analog scale (VAS. At least a 30% reduction in VAS was considered a response to treatment. Results:Differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, duration of disease, and audiometry results was not significant (P>0.05. After 6 weeks’ treatment, the VAS significantly decreased in both groups (P

  1. Single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer - long term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Fabio L; Duclos, Marie; Aprikian, Armen; Patrocinio, Horacio; Kassouf, Wassim; Shenouda, George; Faria, Sergio; David, Marc; Souhami, Luis

    2012-03-15

    We present the long-term results of a cohort of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) treated with single-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) combined with hypofractionated external beam radiation therapy (HypoRT). Patients were treated exclusively with HDRB and HypoRT. HDRB delivered a dose of 10 Gy to the prostate surface and HypoRT consisted of 50 Gy delivered in 20 daily fractions. The first 121 consecutive patients with a minimum of 2 years posttreatment follow-up were assessed for toxicity and disease control. The median follow-up was 65.2 months. No acute Grade III or higher toxicity was seen. Late Grade II gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 9 patients (7.4%) and Grade III in 2 (1.6%). Late Grade III genitourinary toxicity was seen in 2 patients (1.6%). After a 24-month follow-up, a rebiopsy was offered to the first 58 consecutively treated patients, and 44 patients agreed with the procedure. Negative biopsies were found in 40 patients (91%). The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival rate was 90.7% (95% CI, 84.5-96.9%), with 13 patients presenting biochemical failure. Among them, 9 were diagnosed with distant metastasis. Prostate cancer-specific and overall survival rates at 5 years were 100% and 98.8% (95% CI, 96.4-100%), respectively. The combination of HDRB and HypoRT is well tolerated, with acceptable toxicity rates. Furthermore, results from rebiopsies revealed an encouraging rate of local control. These results confirm that the use of conformal RT techniques, adapted to specific biological tumor characteristics, have the potential to improve the therapeutic ratio in intermediate-risk PC patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and correlates International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak/maximum flow rate (Qmax), quality of life (QoL) score and prostate volume (PV) amongst male adults in a rural setting in Nigeria. Subjects and methods: This is a ...

  3. Hypofractionated helical tomotherapy (75 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction for localized prostate cancer: long-term analysis of gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moonkyoo Kong,1 Seong Eon Hong,1 Sung-Goo Chang21Department of Radiation Oncology, 2Department of Urology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: This study is a report on the long-term analysis of acute and late toxicities for patients with localized prostate cancer treated with hypofractionated helical tomotherapy.Methods: From January 2008 through August 2013, 70 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated definitively with hypofractionated helical tomotherapy. The helical tomotherapy was designed to deliver 75 Gy in 2.5 Gy per fraction to the prostate gland, 63 Gy in 2.1 Gy per fraction to the seminal vesicles, and 54 Gy in 1.8 Gy per fraction to the pelvic lymph nodes. Incidence rates and predictive factors for radiation toxicities were analyzed retrospectively.Results: The incidences of grades 0, 1, and 2 acute gastrointestinal (GI toxicity were 51.4%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, and those of acute genitourinary (GU toxicity were 7.1%, 64.3%, and 28.6%, respectively. The maximum dose of rectum and bladder V40 and V50 were significant predictive factors for acute GI and GU toxicity. The cutoff value of rectum maximum dose and bladder V40 and V50 by receiver-operating characteristic curves analysis were 76.5 Gy, 17.3%, and 10.2%, respectively. The incidences of grades 0, 1, and 2 late GI toxicity were 82.0%, 14.0%, and 4.0%, and those of late GU toxicity were 18.0%, 56.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Rectum V70 and bladder V70 and V75 were significant predictive factors for late GI and GU toxicity. The cutoff value of rectum V70 and bladder V70 and V75 by receiver-operating characteristic curves analysis was 2.8%, 2.8%, and 1.0%, respectively.Conclusion: Hypofractionated helical tomotherapy using a schedule of 75 Gy at 2.5 Gy per fraction had favorable acute and late toxicity rates and no serious complication, such as grade 3 or worse toxicity. To minimize radiation

  4. Epidural analgesia during open radical prostatectomy does not improve long-term cancer-related outcome: a retrospective study in patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Y Wuethrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A beneficial effect of regional anesthesia on cancer related outcome in various solid tumors has been proposed. The data on prostate cancer is conflicting and reports on long-term cancer specific survival are lacking. METHODS: In a retrospective, single-center study, outcomes of 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced prostate cancer pT3/4 who underwent retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP with general anesthesia combined with intra- and postoperative epidural analgesia (n=67 or with postoperative ketorolac-morphine analgesia (n=81 were reviewed. The median observation time was 14.00 years (range 10.87-17.75 yrs. Biochemical recurrence (BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier technique. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to analyze clinicopathologic variables associated with disease progression and death. RESULTS: The survival estimates for BCR-free, local and distant recurrence-free, cancer-specific survival and overall survival did not differ between the two groups (P=0.64, P=0.75, P=0.18, P=0.32 and P=0.07. For both groups, higher preoperative PSA (hazard ratio (HR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.01-1.02, P<0.0001, increased specimen Gleason score (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.46, P=0.007 and positive nodal status (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03-2.67, P=0.04 were associated with higher risk of BCR. Increased specimen Gleason score predicted death from prostate cancer (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.65-3.68, P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: General anaesthesia combined with epidural analgesia did not reduce the risk of cancer progression or improve survival after RRP for prostate cancer in this group of patients at high risk for disease progression with a median observation time of 14.00 yrs.

  5. Long-term Survival and Toxicity in Patients Treated With High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Josh; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To report long-term survival and toxicity outcomes with the use of high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 86.4 Gy for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between August 1997 and December 2008, 1002 patients were treated to a dose of 86.4 Gy using a 5-7 field IMRT technique. Patients were stratified by prognostic risk group based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification criteria. A total of 587 patients (59%) were treated with neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 5.5 years (range, 1-14 years). Results: For low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, 7-year biochemical relapse-free survival outcomes were 98.8%, 85.6%, and 67.9%, respectively (P<.001), and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 99.4%, 94.1%, and 82.0% (P<.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, T stage (P<.001), Gleason score (P<.001), and >50% of initial biopsy positive core (P=.001) were predictive for distant mestastases. No prostate cancer-related deaths were observed in the low-risk group. The 7-year prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) rates, using competing risk analysis for intermediate- and high-risk groups, were 3.3% and 8.1%, respectively (P=.008). On multivariate analysis, Gleason score (P=.004), percentage of biopsy core positivity (P=.003), and T-stage (P=.033) were predictive for PCSM. Actuarial 7-year grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were 4.4% and 21.1%, respectively. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was experienced by 7 patients (0.7%) and 22 patients (2.2%), respectively. Of the 427 men with full potency at baseline, 317 men (74%) retained sexual function at time of last follow-up. Conclusions: This study represents the largest cohort of patients treated with high-dose radiation to 86.4 Gy, using IMRT for localized prostate cancer, with the longest follow-up to date

  6. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedia, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bedia@idaea.csic.es; Dalmau, Núria, E-mail: nuria.dalmau@idaea.csic.es; Jaumot, Joaquim, E-mail: joaquim.jaumot@idaea.csic.es; Tauler, Romà, E-mail: roma.tauler@idaea.csic.es

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  7. Subjective socioeconomic status as a predictor of long-term care staff burnout and positive caregiving experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2008-06-01

    The potentially negative consequences associated with providing care to older adults are well documented. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the positive aspects associated with caregiving. Both aspects are believed to represent a continuum of caregiving experiences. Long-term care (LTC) staff members often report high levels of burnout associated with their work. Whereas several job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status have been identified as potential predictors of LTC staff caregiving experiences, the role of subjective socioeconomic status (i.e. one's view of one's place in society) has not yet been evaluated. A cross-sectional design of 122 LTC staff members. LTC staff completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Positive Aspects of Caregiving questionnaire. They also completed questions about job characteristics (i.e. staff-to-resident ratio, number of hours worked per day, and years of experience working with older adults), objective sociodemographic variables (i.e. level of education, professional affiliation), and subjective socioeconomic indicator (i.e. MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to identify the unique contribution of job characteristics, objective socioeconomic status, and subjective socioeconomic status to LTC staff caregiving experiences. Subjective socioeconomic status remained a significant predictor of LTC staff experience even once job characteristics and objective indicators of socioeconomic status were entered into the model. Those who placed themselves higher on the subjective social ladder reported higher levels of positive caregiving experiences and lower levels of burnout. Building a sense of community identity and improving one's status within the community might result in lower levels of burnout and better caregiving experiences among LTC staff.

  8. Metronomic Treatment with Low-Dose Trofosfamide Leads to a Long-Term Remission in a Patient with Docetaxel-Refractory Advanced Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic prostate cancer patients refractory to androgen withdrawal and docetaxel therapy is currently discouraging and new therapeutic approaches are vastly needed. Here, we report a long-term remission over one year in a 68-year-old patient with metastatic docetaxel-refractory prostate cancer employing low-dose trofosfamide. The patient suffered from distant failure with several bone lesions and lymph node metastases depicted by a (11 C-Choline positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT. After initiation of trofosfamide 100 mg taken orally once a day we observed a steadily decreasing PSA value from initial 46.6 down to 2.1 g/l. The Choline-PET/CT was repeated after 10 months of continuous therapy and demonstrated a partial remission of the bone lesions and a regression of all involved lymph nodes but one. Taken together we found an astonishing and durable activity of the alkylating agent trofosfamide given in a metronomic fashion. We rate the side effects as low and state an excellent therapeutic ratio of this drug in our patient.

  9. Long-term effect of bariatric surgery on liver enzymes in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonella Burza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obesity is associated with elevated serum transaminase levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and weight loss is a recommended therapeutic strategy. Bariatric surgery is effective in obtaining and maintaining weight loss. Aim of the present study was to examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on transaminase levels in obese individuals. METHODS: The Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study is a prospective controlled intervention study designed to compare the long-term effects of bariatric surgery and usual care in obese subjects. A total of 3,570 obese participants with no excess of alcohol consumption at baseline (1,795 and 1,775 in the control and surgery group, respectively were included in the analyses. Changes in transaminase levels during follow-up were compared in the surgery and control groups. RESULTS: Compared to usual care, bariatric surgery was associated with lower serum ALT and AST levels at 2- and 10- year follow up. The reduction in ALT levels was proportional to the degree of weight loss. Both the incidence of and the remission from high transaminase levels were more favorable in the surgery group compared to the control group. Similarly, the prevalence of ALT/AST ratio <1 was lower in the surgery compared to the control group at both 2- and 10-year follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery results in a sustained reduction in transaminase levels and a long-term benefit in obese individuals.

  10. Empirical estimates of prostate cancer overdiagnosis by age and prostate-specific antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Vickers (Andrew); D. Sjoberg (Daniel); D. Ulmert (David); E. Vertosick (Emily); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); I.M. Thompson (Ian); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); H.J. de Koning (Harry); C. Atoria-Swartz (Coral); P.T. Scardino (Peter); H. Lilja (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Prostate cancer screening depends on a careful balance of benefits, in terms of reduced prostate cancer mortality, and harms, in terms of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. We aimed to estimate the effect on overdiagnosis of restricting prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing

  11. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  12. Moderate- to long-term periodontal outcomes of subjects failing to complete a course of periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, V; Hackmack, P P; Corbet, E F; Leung, W K

    2017-06-01

    The current retrospective cross-sectional study investigated 5-18-year treatment outcomes in subjects who did not complete a recommended course of periodontal therapy. Sixty-five subjects who voluntarily discontinued therapy were recalled. The subjects' demographic data and dental history since discontinuation of periodontal treatment were collected via questionnaires. The subjects' periodontal condition, radiographic data and individual tooth-based prognosis at pre-discontinuation and recall were compared. A total of 229 teeth had been lost over time, mainly due to periodontal reasons. Upper and lower molars were most frequently lost. Rate of tooth loss (0.38/patient per year) was comparable to untreated patients. Deterioration in periodontal health in terms of increased percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) and sites with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6 mm or more at re-examination was observed. Positive correlations were found between tooth loss and: (i) years since therapy discontinued; (ii) percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at pre-discontinuation; and (iii) at re-examination. Percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at recall was positively correlated with periodontal tooth loss and negatively correlated with percentage of sites without BOP. Patients not completing a course of periodontal therapy are at risk of further tooth loss and deterioration in periodontal conditions over time. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  13. The effect, moderators, and mediators of resistance and aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Newton, Robert U; Chinapaw, Mai J; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel A; Denham, James W; Joseph, David J; Lamb, David S; Brug, Johannes; Galvão, Daniel A

    2015-08-15

    The current study examined effects, moderators (for whom), and mediators (working mechanisms) of 12 months of exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer. In total, 100 men aged 71.7 years (standard deviation, 6.4 years) were randomly assigned to 6 months of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise followed by 6 months of a home-based exercise maintenance program (EX group) or printed education material regarding physical activity for 12 months (PA group). Assessments took place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the effects of EX versus PA on HRQoL at 6 and 12 months, adjusting for baseline HRQoL. The authors examined potential sociodemographic and clinical moderators by adding interaction terms, and potential physical and psychological mediators using the product-of-coefficients test. At 6 months, significant beneficial effects were found for global QoL, physical function, and social function in the EX group compared with the PA group. For physical function, beneficial effects were sustained at 12 months. Moderation analyses demonstrated larger effects of EX versus PA for patients who were married, started exercising sooner after their diagnosis, and previously used bisphosphonates. Changes in lower body functional performance significantly mediated the effect of EX on global QoL, physical function, and social function. No mediating effects on HRQoL were found for aerobic fitness, physical activity, fatigue, distress, or falls self-efficacy. Aerobic and resistance exercise appears to have beneficial effects on HRQoL among older, long-term survivors of prostate cancer. Effects were moderated by marital status, time since diagnosis, and use of bisphosphonates, and were mediated by lower body functional performance. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  14. A new prostate segmentation approach using multispectral magnetic resonance imaging and a statistical pattern classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Bianca; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Fütterer, Jurgen J.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate segmentation is essential for calculating prostate volume, creating patient-specific prostate anatomical models and image fusion. Automatic segmentation methods are preferable because manual segmentation is timeconsuming and highly subjective. Most of the currently available segmentation

  15. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... contribution of gluconeogenesis to EGR (P = 0.33) did not differ on the two study days. During the prandial glucose infusion, the integrated glycemic response above baseline was higher in the presence of hydrocortisone than during saline infusion (P .... In conclusion, short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy individuals with normal beta-cell function decreases insulin action but does not alter rates of EGR and gluconeogenesis. In addition, cortisol impairs the ability of glucose to suppress its own production, which due to accumulation of glucose in the glucose...

  16. Effect of endocrine treatment on voiding and prostate size in men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Louise L; Klarskov, Peter; Mommsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up.......The aim of this study was to assess and quantify changes in voiding parameters and prostate size in men with prostate cancer from before the start of endocrine treatment and during long-term follow-up....

  17. Accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: comparison with prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Takei, Toshiki; Shiga, Tohru; Nakada, Kunihiro; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita 15, Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Kuge, Yuji; Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Shinohara, Nobuo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    Carbon-11 acetate positron emission tomography (PET) has been reported to be of clinical value for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. However, no detailed analysis has yet been carried out on the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological accumulation of [{sup 11}C]acetate in the prostate using dynamic PET. The study included 30 subjects without prostate cancer [21 with normal prostate and nine with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)] and six patients with prostate cancer. A dynamic PET study was performed for 20 min after intravenous administration of 555 MBq of [{sup 11}C]acetate. The standardised uptake value (SUV) at 16-20 min post tracer administration and the early-to-late-activity ratio of the SUV (E/L ratio), which was determined by dividing the SUV{sub 6-10} {sub min} by the SUV {sub 16-20min}, were calculated to evaluate the accumulation of [ {sup 11}C]acetate. The prostate was clearly visualised and distinguished from adjacent organs in PET images in most of the cases. The SUV of the prostate (2.6 {+-}0.8) was significantly higher than that of the rectum (1.7 {+-}0.4) or bone marrow (1.3 {+-}0.3) (P <0.0001 in each case). The SUV of the normal prostate of subjects aged <50 years (3.4 {+-}0.7) was significantly higher than both the SUV for the normal prostate of subjects aged {>=}50 years (2.3 {+-}0.7) and that of subjects with BPH (2.1 {+-}0.6) (P <0.01 in each case). The primary prostate cancer in six cases was visualised by [ {sup 11}C]acetate PET. However, the difference in the SUV between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate or with BPH and the patients with prostate cancer (1.9 {+-}0.6) was not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the E/L ratio between subjects aged {>=}50 with normal prostate (0.98 {+-}0.04) or BPH (0.96 {+-}0.08) and patients with prostate cancer (1.02 {+-}0.12). In conclusion, a normal prostate exhibits age

  18. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  19. Two laser ablation techniques for a prostate less than 60 mL: lessons learned 70 months after a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshal, Ahmed M; Elmansy, Hazem M; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2013-08-01

    To report lessons learned and predictors of long-term outcome after a randomized trial comparing 2 widely available lasers (2123 nm and 532 nm) in prostate ablation as treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. Between March 2005 and April 2007, 109 patients with a prostate volume of less than 60 mL were recruited and randomized to treatment: 57 underwent holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HOLAP) and 52 underwent photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using an 80-W potassium titanyl phosphate laser. The changes in subjective (International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life and International Index of Erectile Function-15) and objective (postvoid residual urine maximal flow rate) outcome parameters were compared. The long-term outcome, timing, and predictors of negative outcome were assessed. Cost analysis was included. After a median of 71.3 months, significant comparable improvement was documented in all subjective and objective urinary parameters from baseline measures at different points of follow-up. Retreatment for infravesical obstruction was 19.2% in HOLAP and 25% in PVP (P >.05). Smaller prostate volume was significantly associated with bladder neck contracture (BNC) after laser ablation, regardless the type of laser used. BNC and de novo urethral stricture seem to be the main causes for an early (first-year) reintervention. Redo treatment for recurring prostate adenoma was associated with less postoperative prostate-specific antigen reduction (.05). PVP and HOLAP seem to be equally effective and safe, with similar long-term outcome data, including cost. Regardless the laser wavelength, at least 1 of 5 patients will need retreatment. BNC is a more prevalent cause of early retreatment in smaller glands with both lasers. Postoperative prostate-specific antigen reduction of less than 20% warrants careful follow-up for recurrent symptoms secondary to residual prostate tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of long-term soft contact lens wear on the corneal thickness and corneal epithelial thickness of myopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yulin; Zheng, Xiuyun; Hou, Jie; Xu, Baozeng; Mu, Guoying

    2015-03-01

    To perform safe and successful corneal refractive surgery on myopic patients, corneal thickness (CT) and corneal epithelial thickness (CET) must be accurately measured. Numerous individuals with myopia wear soft contact lenses (SCLs) for the correction of visual acuity but may subsequently undergo corneal refractive surgery. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of long-term SCL wear on the CT and the CET of myopic subjects in order to guarantee the safety and accuracy of subsequent corneal refractive surgeries. Fifty-six subjects prepared to receive refractive surgery at Jinan Mingshui Eye Hospital (Zhangqiu, China) from April to July 2013 were included in the study. CT and CET were measured in subjects immediately following discontinued SCL wear (group I, 56 eyes), and subsequently following >two weeks of discontinued SCL wear (group II, 56 eyes). Ninety-four subjects with no history of corneal contact lens wear were enrolled as a control group. The CT and CET were measured at positions with a radius of 0.0‑1.0, 1.0-2.5 (divided into eight quadrants) and 2.5-3.0 mm (divided into eight quadrants) away from the corneal center using the RTVue-100 Fourier-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography system. A significant decrease in the CT of the subjects in group II was observed, compared with that of group I and the control group (P<0.05). A significant decrease was observed in the CET of groups I and II compared with that of the control group (P<0.05). Following discontinuation of SCL wear, CET increased. However, the increased CET was unable to reach the normal range exhibited by the control group. Edema and thinning of the corneal stroma, as well as thinning of the corneal epithelium were observed in groups I and II. In conclusion, it was proposed that in clinical practice, for myopic patients following long-term SCL wear, CT and CET should be determined ≥ two weeks following discontinuation of SCL wear, once a stable

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of ... Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page ...

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    Full Text Available ... a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  5. Prostate Cancer

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    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... uses sound waves to produce pictures of a man’s prostate gland and to help diagnose symptoms such ... also called transrectal ultrasound, provides images of a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically ...

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    Full Text Available ... the prostate gland which is situated right in front of the rectum. top of page What are ... men, the prostate gland is located directly in front of the rectum, so the ultrasound exam is ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is ... in front of the rectum. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) ...

  11. Prostate biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from the prostate through the scope. Perineal - through perineum (the skin between the anus and the scrotum). ... pain. A small cut is made in the perineum. A needle is inserted to collect prostate tissue. ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How is the procedure performed? In men, the prostate gland is located directly in front ... What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... of the prostate gland is performed to: detect disorders within the prostate. determine whether the prostate is ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood, may be administered to determine if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Hyperplasia (BPH) (Enlargement of the Prostate) Prostate Cancer Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Images related ...

  15. Prostate Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? What is Ultrasound Imaging of the Prostate? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate ...

  17. Short- and long-term subjective medical treatment outcome of trauma surgery patients: the importance of physician empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhausen S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simone Steinhausen,1 Oliver Ommen,2 Sunya-Lee Antoine,1 Thorsten Koehler,3 Holger Pfaff,4 Edmund Neugebauer11Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM, Witten/Herdecke University, Campus Cologne-Merheim, Germany; 2Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA, Cologne, Germany; 3Institute for Applied Social Sciences (infas, Bonn, Germany; 4Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR, Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany Purpose: To investigate accident casualties’ long-term subjective evaluation of treatment outcome 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge and its relation to the experienced surgeon’s empathy during hospital treatment after trauma in consideration of patient-, injury-, and health-related factors. The long-term results are compared to the 6-week follow-up outcomes.Patients and methods: Two hundred and seventeen surgery patients were surveyed at 6 weeks, and 206 patients at 12 months after discharge from the trauma surgical general ward. The subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was measured 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge with the respective scale from the Cologne Patient Questionnaire. Physician Empathy was assessed with the Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. The correlation between physician empathy and control variables with the subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome 12 months after discharge was identified by means of logistic regression analysis under control of sociodemographic and injury-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients were included within the logistic regression analysis at the 12-month follow-up. Compared to the 6-week follow-up, the level of subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was slightly lower and the association with physician empathy was weaker. Compared to patients who rated the empathy of their surgeon lower than 31 points, patients

  18. Long-term oral exposure to safe dose of bisphenol A in association with high-fat diet stimulate the prostatic lesions in a rodent model for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facina, Camila H; Campos, Silvana G P; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2018-02-01

    Studies have shown that exposure to environmental chemicals known as endocrine disruptors can cause permanent changes in genital organs, such as the prostate. Among these environmental chemicals stands out bisphenol A (BPA). Another factor associated with prostate changes is the consumption of a high-fat diet. Although the relationship between the consumption of a high-fat diet and an increased risk of prostate cancer is well established, the mechanisms that lead to the establishment of this disease are not completely understood, nor the simultaneous action of BPA and high-fat diet. Adult gerbils (100 days old) were divided in four groups (n = 6 per group): Control (C): animals that received a control diet and filtered water; Diet (D): animals that received a high-fat diet and filtered water; BPA: animals that received a control diet and BPA - 50 µg kg -1 day -1 in drinking water; BPA + Diet (BPA + D): animals that received a high-fat diet + BPA - 50 µg kg -1 day -1 in drinking water. After the experimental period (6 months), the dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes were removed, and analyzed by several methods. Histological analysis indicated premalignant and malignant lesions in both prostatic lobes. However, animals of the D, BPA, and BPA + D groups showed a higher incidence and larger number of prostatic lesions; inflammatory foci were also common. Markers to assess prostate lesions, such as increased activation of the DNA repair system (PCNA-positive cells), androgen receptor (AR), and number of basal cells, confirmed the histology. However, serum levels of testosterone did not change under the experimental conditions. The results indicated that the methodology used was effective in generating metabolic changes, which directly compromised prostatic homeostasis. Diet and BPA appear to modulate the activation of the AR pathway and thereby optimize tumor establishment in the gerbil prostate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS A SUBJECT OF ADAPTATION OF RURAL STUDENTS TO THE TERMS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyona Aleksandrovna Antipova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of rural students to the various spheres of life of the modern city. These difficulties are considered as a field of activity of higher educational institution, acting as the subject of adaptation of students coming to study from rural areas to the terms of the city. The authors ' point of view on this issue is substantiated by the analysis of data of several sociological surveys conducted in various regions of theRussian Federation. Also the experience of assistance in adaptation of the Mordovia state University named after N. P. Ogarev of the city ofSaransk, which is the largest in the Republic of Mordovia University and which accommodates a large number of rural youth. The relevance and scientific novelty of research consists in allocation of areas of adaptation support of students from rural areas by the higher educational institution.

  20. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  1. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... castrate-resistant prostate cancer or CRPC) Metastatic prostate cancer Prostate cancer is metastatic if it has spread to: • ... first diagnosis, but it does happen. Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is when ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  3. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  4. Life satisfaction in subjects with long-term musculoskeletal pain in relation to pain intensity, pain distribution and coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anke, Audny; Damsgård, Elin; Røe, Cecilie

    2013-03-01

    To investigate levels of life satisfaction in subjects with long-term musculoskeletal pain in relation to pain characteristics and coping. Cross-sectional study. A total of 232 (42%) respondents answered self--report questionnaires regarding life satisfaction, self-efficacy, sense of coherence, pain distribution and pain intensity at rest and during activity. Levels of life satisfaction and scores for sense of coherence were low. Pain intensity at rest was negatively correlated with global life satisfaction. This result was also obtained in multiple regression analyses together with the coping factors. The life satisfaction domains activities of daily living/contacts were negatively correlated with pain intensity during activity, and the domains work/economy were negatively correlated with pain distribution. Pain was not associated with satisfaction with family life, partner relationship or sexual life. Younger age, being married/cohabitant and being female were protective for some domains. Clinically meaningful subgroups with regard to adaptation were identified by cluster analysis, and the highest level of coping was found in the adaptive cluster with high life satisfaction/low pain intensity at rest. Long-term pain is related to low levels of life satisfaction, and pain intensity and distribution influence satisfaction in different domains. Pain intensity is negatively associated with coping. The results support efforts to reduce pain, together with strengthening active coping processes and addressing individual needs.

  5. Adaptive cone-beam CT planning improves long-term biochemical disease-free survival for (125)I prostate brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M; Smit Duijzentkunst, D A; Westendorp, H; van de Pol, S M G; Kattevilder, R; Schellekens, A; van der Voort van Zyp, J R N; Moerland, M A; van Vulpen, M; Hoekstra, C J

    Determining the independent effect of additional intraoperative adaptive C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) planning vs. transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided interactive planning alone in (125)I brachytherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) on biochemical disease-free survival (BDFS). T1/T2-stage PCa patients receiving TRUS-guided brachytherapy from 2000 to 2014 were analyzed. From October 2006, patients received additional intraoperative adaptive CBCT planning for dosimetric evaluation and subsequent remedial seed placement in underdosed areas. Patients were stratified according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate BDFS (primary outcome), overall survival, and PCa-specific survival (secondary outcomes). Cox regression was used to assess the relation between CBCT use and biochemical failure (BF) and overall mortality. In all, 1623 patients were included. Median followup was 99 months (interquartile range 70-115) for TRUS patients (n = 613) and 51 months (interquartile range 29-70) for CBCT patients (n = 1010). BF occurred 203 times and 206 patients died, 26 from PCa. For TRUS and CBCT patients, 7-year BDFS was 87.2% vs. 93.5% (log rank: p = 0.04) for low, 75.9% vs. 88.5% (p brachytherapy leads to a significant increase in BDFS in all NCCN risk groups. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term Treatment with Finasteride Resulted in a Significant Improvement Relative to Placebo in Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Men with Enlarged Prostates (≥30 mL), But Not in Those with Smaller Prostates (<30 mL): Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Steven A.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Meehan, Alan G.; Kusek, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This post hoc analysis of the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial examined the effect of finasteride alone compared to placebo on clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with baseline prostate volume (PV) finasteride alone (5 mg) (n=768), or doxazosin plus finasteride (n=786) (average duration of follow-up was 4.5 yrs); ~50% of patients had a baseline PV ≥30 mL. The present analysis was based on the finasteride alone and placebo arms only and included patients for whom baseline and end of study data were available. We examined the effect of treatment on the cumulative percentage of men who did not experience clinical progression of BPH by study end. Results In men with baseline PV ≥30 mL, treatment with finasteride produced a significant (pfinasteride, 88.1%, versus placebo, 77.8%). There was no significant (p=0.441) between-group difference in men with baseline PV finasteride led to a significant beneficial effect compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with enlarged prostates (baseline PV ≥30 mL). Finasteride had no significant effect, compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with smaller prostates (baseline PV <30 mL). PMID:21334655

  7. Comparison of fluid absorption between transurethral enucleation and transurethral resection for benign prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Longfei; He, Weiyang; Zhu, Xin; Zhou, Qingsong; Gou, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Although transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) remains the reference standard for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), the concern about complications promotes researchers to develop alternative surgical methods with fewer complications. In this study, we compared the safety and efficacy between the transurethral plasma kinetic enucleation of prostate (TUPKEP) and transurethral plasma kinetic resection of prostate (TUPKRP), mainly including absorption of irrigation fluid, the operation time, the weight of prostate tissue removed and severe complications. Sixty BPH patients were randomly and evenly assigned to the TUPKEP or TUPKRP group. The irrigation fluid used in both groups was 1% ethanol-containing saline solution. The ethanol concentrations in the subjects' end expiration were measured during operation. The volume of irrigation fluid absorbed was calculated accordingly. No significant difference was found in operation time between two groups, whereas the weight of prostate tissue resection was significantly higher in the TUPKEP than that in the TUPKRP group. The study provides evidence for the safety, feasibility and effectiveness of both bipolar transurethral techniques. Further, compared to the TUPKRP group, the TUPKEP group has more efficient for resection of prostatic hyperplasia tissue, even though in terms of fluid absorption, no difference has been found in both groups. Ethanol monitoring is simple, safe and effective, which is beneficial for enhancing safety procedures. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The prognostic influence of neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer: Results of a long-term follow-up study with patients treated by radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Noordzij (Marinus); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe distribution of immunohistochemically defined neuroen-docrine (NE) cells in benign, pre-cancerous and neoplastic prostatic tissues and the prognostic value of these cells in prostate cancer were studied in the radical prostatectomy specimens of 90 patients from whom complete

  9. Effect of green tea catechins in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: Results of a short-term double-blind placebo controlled phase II clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Micali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and study objective: Several studies suggest a protective role of green tea catechins against prostate cancer (PCa. In order to evaluate the efficacy of green tea catechins for chemoprevention of PCa in patients with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN we performed a phase II clinical trial. Methods: Sixty volunteers with HG-PIN were enrolled to carry out a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial. Treated group took daily 600 mg of green tea catechins (Categ Plus® for 1 year. Patients were screened at 6 and 12 months through prostatic biopsy and measurements of prostate-specific antigen (PSA. Results: Despite the statistically significant reduction of PSA observed in subjects who received green tea catechins for 6 and 12 months, we did not find any statistical difference in PCa incidence between the experimental groups neither after 6 nor after 12 months. However, throughout the one-year follow- up we observed very limited adverse effects induced by green tea catechins and a not significant improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Conclusions: Although the small number of patients enrolled in our study and the relatively short duration of intervention, our findings seems to deny the efficacy of green tea catechins. However, results of our clinical study, mainly for its low statistical strength, suggest that the effectiveness of green tea catechins should be evaluated in both a larger cohort of men and longer trial.

  10. Laparoscopic simple prostatectomy: A reasonable option for large prostatic adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Aown

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: In this work, surgical technique followed by two academic departments on laparoscopic simple prostatectomy (LSP of large prostatic adenomas is being described. Materials and Methods: The initial cumulative experience from 11 patients with lower urinary tract symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia origin subjected to LSP is being presented. Results: All cases had prostatic adenomas greater than 80 ml. Mean operation time was 99.5 min (values from 70 to 150 min and mean blood loss was 205 ml (values from 100 to 300 ml. Blood transfusion was deemed necessary in one case. Bladder catheter was removed successfully on postoperative day 5 in all cases. No significant postoperative complication was noted. At a 3 months follow-up a significant decrease in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS was evident in all patients (mean IPSS 27.7 vs. 15.3 preoperative vs. postoperative accordingly. Conclusions: According to our data and similarly to the rest of the LSP literature, laparoscopic excision of voluminous prostatic adenomas is a feasible and safe procedure. Nevertheless, further investigation including a larger number of patients and long-term follow-up is deemed necessary before making definite conclusions regarding the approach.

  11. Brief Report: Conveying Subjective Experience in Conversation: Production of Mental State Terms and Personal Narratives in Individuals with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Janet; Burns, Jesse; Nadig, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    Mental state terms and personal narratives are conversational devices used to communicate subjective experience in conversation. Pre-adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA, n = 20) were compared with language-matched typically-developing peers (TYP, n = 17) on production of mental state terms (i.e., perception, physiology, desire, emotion,…

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Prostate ultrasound, also called transrectal ultrasound, provides ...

  13. Diet and exercise intervention adherence and health-related outcomes among older long-term breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Joseph G; Mosher, Catherine E; Rand, Kevin L; Morey, Miriam C; Snyder, Denise C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors result in health benefits; however, few studies have examined health outcomes in relation to adherence. We examined associations between adherence to components of a diet-exercise intervention and survivors' physical and mental health. A randomized controlled trial tested a telephone and mailed print intervention among 641 older, overweight, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Dietary and exercise behaviors were assessed at 14 time points throughout the year-long intervention; health outcomes were examined postintervention. Telephone session attendance had significant indirect relationships with health outcomes through intervention-period exercise and dietary behavior. Attendance showed positive indirect relationships with physical function (β = 0.11, p < 0.05), basic and advanced lower extremity function (β = 0.10, p < 0.05/β = 0.09, p < 0.05), and mental health (β = 0.05, p < 0.05), and a negative indirect relationship with body mass index (β = -0.06, p < 0.05). Session attendance is vital in facilitating improvement in health behaviors and attendant outcomes (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00303875).

  14. Short- and Long-Term Effects in Prostate Cancer Survival: Analysis of Treatment Efficacy and Risk Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    short-term proportional hazard model with (a) no censoring, (b) 20% censoring and (c) 40% censoring. e-() efl , efý- 1 LR PPW SLT-PH SLT ST LT PL (a... adolescents .5,12,17,2°󈧣 RR and P values are adjusted for confounding using a multivariate survival model. The proposed explanation for this observation is...but not to the degree observed for adolescents . carcinomas whose latency period has partially Unlike several other studies, the long-term risk of de

  15. Updated interim efficacy analysis and long-term safety of abiraterone acetate in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients without prior chemotherapy (COU-AA-302).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathkopf, Dana E; Smith, Matthew R; de Bono, Johann S; Logothetis, Christopher J; Shore, Neal D; de Souza, Paul; Fizazi, Karim; Mulders, Peter F A; Mainwaring, Paul; Hainsworth, John D; Beer, Tomasz M; North, Scott; Fradet, Yves; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Carles, Joan; Flaig, Thomas W; Efstathiou, Eleni; Yu, Evan Y; Higano, Celestia S; Taplin, Mary-Ellen; Griffin, Thomas W; Todd, Mary B; Yu, Margaret K; Park, Youn C; Kheoh, Thian; Small, Eric J; Scher, Howard I; Molina, Arturo; Ryan, Charles J; Saad, Fred

    2014-11-01

    Abiraterone acetate (an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor) plus prednisone is approved for treating patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Study COU-AA-302 evaluated abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in mildly symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with progressive mCRPC without prior chemotherapy. Report the prespecified third interim analysis (IA) of efficacy and safety outcomes in study COU-AA-302. Study COU-AA-302, a double-blind placebo-controlled study, enrolled patients with mCRPC from April 2009 to June 2010. A total of 1088 patients were stratified by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (0 vs 1). Patients were randomised 1:1 to abiraterone 1000mg plus prednisone 5mg twice daily by mouth versus prednisone. Co-primary end points were radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and overall survival (OS). Median times to event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using the Cox model, and treatment comparison used the log-rank test. The O'Brien-Fleming Lan-DeMets α-spending function was used for OS. Adverse events were summarised descriptively. With a median follow-up duration of 27.1 mo, improvement in rPFS was statistically significant with abiraterone treatment versus prednisone (median: 16.5 vs 8.2 mo; HR: 0.52 [95% CI, 0.45-0.61]; ppatient-reported outcomes improved. While the post hoc nature of the long-term safety analysis is a limitation, the safety profile with longer treatment exposure was consistent with prior reports. The updated IA of study COU-AA-302 in patients with mCRPC without prior chemotherapy confirms that abiraterone delays disease progression, pain, and functional deterioration and has clinical benefit with a favourable safety profile, including in patients treated for ≥24 mo. Study COU-AA-302, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00887198. The updated results of this ongoing study

  16. Cadmium concentrations in the testes, sperm, and spermatids of mice subjected to long-term cadmium chloride exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench, G; Corzett, M H; Martinelli, R; Balhorn, R

    1999-01-01

    Exposures to cadmium have been reported to reduce male fertility and there are several hypotheses that suggest how reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mice subjected to long-term intraperitoneal cadmium exposure incorporated cadmium into their sperm chromatin. Male mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/kg body weight cadmium in the form of CdCl2 via intraperitoneal injection once per week for 4, 10, 26, and 52 weeks and then sacrificed. The cadmium contents of the liver, testes, pooled sperm, and pooled spermatids from dosed and control animals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Cadmium and zinc contents in individual sperm and spermatid heads were determined by particle-induced x-ray emission. Atomic absorption spectroscopy revealed that although cadmium accumulated in the liver and testes, cadmium was not detected in pooled sperm or spermatid samples down to minimum detectable limits of 0.02 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses did not show the presence of cadmium in any sperm or spermatid head down to minimum detectable limits of 15 microg/g dry weight. Particle-induced x-ray emission analyses also demonstrated that phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc concentrations in individual sperm and spermatid heads were not altered by exposure to CdCl2. Because cadmium was not incorporated into sperm chromatin at levels above 0.02 microg/g dry weight, the data cast doubt on hypotheses that suggest that reduced male fertility may result from incorporation of cadmium into sperm chromatin.

  17. Long-term subjective benefit with a bone conduction implant sound processor in 44 patients with single-sided deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Jolien; Wouters, Kristien; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Studies that investigate the subjective benefit from a bone conduction implant (BCI) sound processor in patients with single-sided sensorineural deafness (SSD) have been limited to examining short- and mid-term benefit. In the current study, we performed a survey among 44 SSD BCI users with a median follow-up time of 50 months. Forty-four experienced SSD BCI users participated in the survey, which consisted of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit, the Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire, the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults, and a self-made user questionnaire. For patients with tinnitus, the Tinnitus Questionnaire was also completed. The results of the survey were correlated with contralateral hearing loss, age at implantation, duration of the hearing loss at the time of implantation, duration of BCI use, and the presence and burden of tinnitus. In total, 86% of the patients still used their sound processor. The Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit and the Short Hearing Handicap Inventory for Adults show a statistically significant overall improvement with the BCI. The Single-Sided Deafness Questionnaire and the user questionnaire showed that almost 40% of the patients reported daily use of the sound processor. However, the survey of daily use reveals benefit only in certain circumstances. Speech understanding in noisy situations is rated rather low, and 58% of all patients reported that their BCI benefit was less than expected. The majority of the patients reported an overall improvement from using their BCI. However, the number of users decreases during a longer follow-up time and patients get less enthusiastic about the device after an extended period of use, especially in noisy situations. However, diminished satisfaction because of time-related reductions in processor function could not be ruled out.

  18. Osteoporosis and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads Hvid; Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of osteoporosis and risk factors of osteoporotic fractures before androgen deprivation in Danish men. Treatment and prognosis of prostate cancer necessitate management of long-term consequences of androgen deprivation therapy...... (ADT), including accelerated bone loss resulting in osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Material and methods. Patients with prostate cancer awaiting initiation of ADT were consecutively included. Half of the patients had localized disease and were...... level was 30.5 g/l (1-5714 g/l). The average Gleason score was 7.8 (range 5-10, SD 1.1). Fifty patients had localized prostate cancer and the other 55 patients had disseminated disease. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10% and the prevalence of osteopenia was 58% before ADT. There was no significant...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... BPH) , with measurements acquired as needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of the prostate gland is typically used to help diagnose symptoms such as: a nodule felt by a physician ...

  20. The Effect, Moderators, and Mediators of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Survivors of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buffart, L.M; Newton, R.U; Chin A Paw, M.J.M; Taaffe, D.R; Spry, N.A; Denham, J.W; Joseph, D.J; Lamb, D.S; Brug, J; Galvao, D.A

    2015-01-01

    American Cancer Society The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cancer-specific health-related quality of life appear to be stronger for older survivors of prostate cancer who are married...

  1. Association between EHBP1 rs721048(A>G polymorphism and prostate cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 17 studies involving 150,678 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao X

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Ao,1,* Ying Liu,1,* Xiao-Yan Bai,1 Xinjian Qu,2 Zhaowei Xu,1 Gaolei Hu,1 Min Chen,1 Huijian Wu1,21Laboratory of Molecular Medicine & Pharmacy, School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 2Laboratory of Molecular Medicine & Pharmacy, School of Life Science and Medicine, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workBackground: EHBP1 rs721048(A was first identified as a prostate cancer (PCa risk in Caucasians by genome-wide association study, but subsequent replication studies involving Caucasian and other ethnicities did not produce consistent results. The aim of this study was to obtain a more definite association between rs721048(A and PCa risk.Methods: We comprehensively searched several databases updated to September 2014, including PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Google Scholar. Two authors independently screened and reviewed the eligibility of each study. The quality of the included studies was assessed by the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The association of rs721048(A and PCa risk was assessed by pooling odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: A total of 17 studies, including 48,135 cases and 102,543 controls, published between 2008 and 2014 were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, the pooled analysis demonstrated that rs721048(A was significantly associated with the risk of PCa under the allele model (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.11–1.17, P=0.000. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity revealed a ­significant association between rs721048(A and PCa in Caucasian (OR=1.14, 95% CI=1.11–1.16, P=0.000, African descent (OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01–1.23, P=0.025, and Asian (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.12–1.64, P=0.002.Conclusion: Our results provided strong evidence that rs721048(A could be a risk factor for PCa.Keywords: EHBP1, rs721048, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

  2. Long-term outcomes of dynamic conformal arc irradiation combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy in Japanese patients with T1c-T2N0M0 prostate cancer: case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Itaru; Mizowaki, Takashi; Norihisa, Yoshiki; Takayama, Kenji; Kamba, Tomomi; Inoue, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eijiro; Kamoto, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Osamu; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    There are few reports of the outcomes of external beam radiotherapy in Asian males with localized prostate cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term outcomes of external beam irradiation using three-dimensional two-dynamic conformal arc therapy, combined with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, in patients with T1c-T2N0M0 prostate cancer. Between March 2003 and August 2007, 150 Japanese patients with T1c-T2N0M0 prostate cancer were definitively treated with three-dimensional two-dynamic conformal arc therapy. The median age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen values and neoadjuvant hormonal therapy period were 73 years, 9.4 ng/ml and 6 months, respectively. In principle, 74 Gy was delivered to the planning target volume, although the total dose was reduced to 70 Gy in patients with unfavorable risk factors, such as severe diabetes mellitus or anticoagulant therapy. No adjuvant hormonal therapy was given to any patient. Salvage hormonal therapy was started when the prostate-specific antigen value exceeded 4 ng/ml in a monotonically increasing manner. The median follow-up period was 79 months. Salvage hormonal therapy was initiated in 10 patients and the median prostate-specific antigen value at the initiation was 4.7 ng/ml. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of the biochemical relapse-free survival rate, the salvage hormonal therapy -free rate and the overall survival rate were 83.3% (95% confidence interval = 77.1-89.6%), 94.3% (95% confidence interval = 90.4-98.1%) and 96.3% (95% confidence interval = 93.1-99.5%), respectively. The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of developing more than Grade 2 late rectal and urinary toxicities were 5.5 and 2.9%, respectively. Three-dimensional two-dynamic conformal arc therapy, with up to 74 Gy, in patients with T1c-T2N0M0 prostate cancer with neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was well tolerated and achieved good biochemical control and survival outcomes.

  3. Chronic prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, G Richard D; Doble, Andrew; Batstone, D

    2003-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the classification, epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of patients diagnosed with chronic prostatitis (NIH classification types II, IIIa/IIIb and IV prostatitis) in the period of review (2001-2002). Recent studies highlight some of the problems with the 1995 NIH classification. Epidemiological studies have confirmed that "prostatitis" is common, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Associations of prostatitis include benign prostatic hyperplasia, sexually transmitted disease, lower urinary tract symptoms, stress, and reduced sunlight exposure. Elevated levels of cytokines in the seminal plasma and prostatic secretions have been detected in men with chronic prostatitis compared with normal individuals, suggesting an active inflammatory process in the male genital tract. This inflammatory reaction may be mediated by an adaptive immune response directed against a genital tract antigen(s) (autoimmunity). Increased levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA in the prostates of men with chronic prostatitis compared with controls are compatible with the notion that a bacterial inflammatory event initiates an auto-immune process; however, the role of bacteria in the continuation of symptoms is unknown. The aetiology of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is still not certain, although an auto-immune process is favoured. Further research is required to determine the putative auto-antigen, the immune responses of patients, the role of bacteria in the inflammatory process, and the patients' pain response to genitourinary insults. As yet no diagnostic tests (other than to eliminate other pathology) and few treatments for chronic prostatitis can be recommended on the basis of scientific evidence.

  4. MRI of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Prostate Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate ... limitations of MRI of the Prostate? What is MRI of the Prostate? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is ...

  5. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryosurgery-prostate cancer; Cryoablation-prostate cancer ... Prostate Cancer. American Cancer Society. www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-treating-cryosurgery. Accessed August 31, 2015. Horwich ...

  6. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the ... in front of the rectum. Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  7. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... procedures with your doctor. How common is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer ... prostate cancer detected? What are the symptoms of prostate cancer? If the cancer is caught at its earliest ...

  8. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate cancer overview? What are my treatment options? What ... any new developments in treating my disease? Prostate cancer overview Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer ...

  9. Mediterranean diet adherence and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Guarnido, Olga; Álvarez-Cubero, María Jesus; Saiz, Maria; Lozano, David; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Pascual, Manrique; Cozar, Jose Manuel; Rivas, Ana

    2014-10-31

    Countries following the traditional Mediterranean Diet, particularly Southern European countries, have lower prostate cancer incidence and mortality compared to other European regions. The beneficial effect has been attributed to a specific eating pattern. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence to date on the effects of adherence to a Mediterranean Diet on prostate cancer risk; and to identify which elements of the Mediterranean diet are likely to protect against prostate cancer. The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet", "adherence", "fruit and vegetable", "olive oil", "fish" "legume", "cereal" "alcohol" "milk", "dairy product","prostate cancer", and combinations, such as "Mediterranean diet and prostate cancer" or "Olive oil and prostate cancer". There is strong evidence supporting associations between foods that are typical of a Mediterranean eating pattern and reduced prostate cancer risk. However, there are few studies that have assessed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on cancer prostate incidence. Recent data do not support associations to adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and risk of prostate cancer or disease progression. However, Mediterranean eating pattern after diagnosis of nonmetastatatic cancer was associated with lower overall mortality. Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of Mediterranean diet on prostate health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of prostate cancer. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Short term outcomes of GreenLight vapor incision technique (VIT) of the prostate: comparison of outcomes to standard GreenLight 120W HPS vaporization in prostate volumes greater than 80 cc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Tal; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Abdollah, Firas; Liberman, Daniel; Bhojani, Naeem; Gautam, Gagan; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate a hybrid technique involving GreenLight 120W HPS vapor incision tissue removal in prostate glands > 80 cc. Vapor incision technique (VIT) was performed in 25 consecutive men with a prostate > 80 cc by a single surgeon from May 2010 until September 2010. VIT involved adenoma incisions at 5 and 7-o'clock positions followed by 3, 9 and 12 o'clock down to the surgical capsule. Side-fire vaporization along the capsule excised transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) like tissue strips for later retrieval. Functional evaluations were performed at 1 and 3 months. Outcomes and complications were compared retrospectively to baseline and a size matched- cohort of 25 men who previously underwent standard vaporization-only photoselective vaporization prostatectomy (PVP). The VIT and control subgroups were comparable. Mean laser time, operative time and energy usage were reduced in the VIT group compared to controls (35 min versus 48 min; 63 min versus 80 min; and 227 k versus 325 kJ respectively; all p 80 cc. VIT appears to be more time-efficient, consumes less energy and obtains tissue for pathological evaluation. Further follow up is required to assess the durability of GreenLight HPS-VIT to PVP vaporization-only for large prostate glands.

  11. Importance to include the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system in medical subject headings and in the international anatomical nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Lydia Massako; Locali, Rafael Fagionato; Lapin, Guilherme Abbud Franco; Hochman, Bernardo

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the relevance of the term superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) and demonstrate that this term is important enough to be added to the MeSH database and listed in International Anatomical Nomenclature. Terms related to SMAS were selected from original articles retrieved from the ISI Web of Science and MEDLINE (PubMed) databases. Groups of terms were created to define a search strategy with high-sensitivity and restricted to scientific periodicals devoted to plastic surgery. This study included articles between January 1996 and May 2009, whose titles, abstracts, and keywords were searched for SMAS-related terms and all occurrences were recorded. A total of 126 original articles were retrieved from the main periodicals related to plastic surgery in the referred databases. Of these articles, 51.6% had SMAS-related terms in the abstract only, and 25.4% had SMAS-related terms in both the title and abstract. The term 'superficial musculoaponeurotic system' was present as a keyword in 19.8% of the articles. The most frequent terms were 'SMAS' (71.4%) and superficial musculoaponeurotic system (62.7%). The term SMAS refers to a structure relevant enough to start a discussion about indexing it as a keyword and as an official term in Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology.

  12. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- ...

  13. Football training in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy: activity profile and short-term skeletal and postural balance adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uth, Jacob; Hornstrup, Therese; Christensen, Jesper F; Christensen, Karl B; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Helge, Eva W; Schmidt, Jakob F; Brasso, Klaus; Helge, Jørn W; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L; Rørth, Mikael; Midtgaard, Julie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the activity profile of football training and its short-term effects on bone mass, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and postural balance in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This was a randomised 12-week study in which men with PCa undergoing ADT were assigned to a football intervention group [FTG, n = 29, 67 ± 7 (±SD) years] training 2‒3 times per week for 45‒60 min or to a control group (n = 28, 66 ± 5 years). The activity profile was measured using a 5-Hz GPS. The outcomes were total body and leg bone mineral content (BMC) and density, BTMs and postural balance. In the last part of the 12 weeks, FTG performed 194 ± 41 accelerations and 296 ± 65 decelerations at >0.6 m/s/s and covered a distance of 905 ± 297 m at speeds >6 km/h and 2646 ± 705 m per training session. Analysis of baseline-to-12-week change scores showed between-group differences in favour of FTG in total body BMC [26.4 g, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 5.8-46.9 g, p = 0.013], leg BMC (13.8 g, 95 % CI: 7.0‒20.5 g, p Football training involves numerous runs, accelerations and decelerations, which may be linked to marked increases in bone formation markers and preserved bone mass in middle-aged and elderly men with PCa undergoing ADT. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01711892.

  14. Patient positioning during digital rectal examination of the prostate: preferences, tolerability, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Frederico R; Romero, Antonio W; Tambara Filho, Renato; Brenny Filho, Thadeu; de Oliveira Júnior, Fernando Cesar

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the preferred position used by Brazilian Urologists to perform DRE, the position that Brazilian patients prefer or think it is less embarrassing to have a DRE, and to evaluate the results of DRE with patients in left lateral decubitus, modified lithotomy, standing-up, or the physician will have them place their elbows on the table and squat down slightly. Brazilian Urologists were contacted by e-mail, and 200 patients answered a questionnaire while undergoing prostate cancer screening. The preferred position was modified lithotomy position reported by 63.4% of Urologists, and left lateral position reported by 42.7% of the patients. Total DRE time was lower in the standing-up position. Pain and urinary urgency scores were similar regardless of the position used, and bowel urgency score was higher in patients squatting down. Patients were similar in terms of age and PSA level, but there was a significant difference between the standard deviations of estimated prostate weight in left lateral position. There were no differences in prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, or incomplete palpation of the prostate rates among different examination positions. Despite individual subjective preferences, a faster examination time in the standing-up position, and higher bowel urgency scores in patients with their elbows placed on the table and squatting down slightly, there were similar rates of prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, and incomplete palpation of the prostate, and comparable patient tolerability among different examination techniques.

  15. Patient positioning during digital rectal examination of the prostate: preferences, tolerability, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico R. Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the preferred position used by Brazilian Urologists to perform DRE, the position that Brazilian patients prefer or think it is less embarrassing to have a DRE, and to evaluate the results of DRE with patients in left lateral decubitus, modified lithotomy, standing-up, or the physician will have them place their elbows on the table and squat down slightly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Urologists were contacted by e-mail, and 200 patients answered a questionnaire while undergoing prostate cancer screening. RESULTS: The preferred position was modified lithotomy position reported by 63.4% of Urologists, and left lateral position reported by 42.7% of the patients. Total DRE time was lower in the standing-up position. Pain and urinary urgency scores were similar regardless of the position used, and bowel urgency score was higher in patients squatting down. Patients were similar in terms of age and PSA level, but there was a significant difference between the standard deviations of estimated prostate weight in left lateral position. There were no differences in prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, or incomplete palpation of the prostate rates among different examination positions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite individual subjective preferences, a faster examination time in the standing-up position, and higher bowel urgency scores in patients with their elbows placed on the table and squatting down slightly, there were similar rates of prostate asymmetry, positive DRE, and incomplete palpation of the prostate, and comparable patient tolerability among different examination techniques.

  16. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  17. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  18. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Noyola

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  19. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ... show up well on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top ... here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your physician with specific medical ...

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... if a patient is at high risk for cancer. In this case, a biopsy is performed and ...

  4. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... less than 20 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Ultrasound ... in the region of the prostate. A biopsy will add time to the procedure. Rarely, a small ...

  5. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe, noninvasive, and does not use ionizing radiation. This procedure requires little to no special preparation. Leave ... examination, an ultrasound-guided biopsy can be performed. This procedure involves advancing a needle into the prostate ...

  6. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time images, it also can be used to guide ...

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? ... object is solid or filled with fluid). In medicine, ultrasound is used to detect changes in appearance, ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... used to sample cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. ... to remove all clothing and jewelry in the area to be examined. You may be asked to ...

  9. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... a nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an ... you should be able to resume your normal activities immediately. top of page Who interprets the results ...

  10. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  11. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... The image is created based on the amplitude (loudness), frequency (pitch) and time it takes for the ... for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your ...

  12. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... to investigate a nodule found during a rectal exam, detect abnormalities, and determine whether the gland is ... a man's prostate gland and surrounding tissue. The exam typically requires insertion of an ultrasound probe into ...

  13. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biopsy is planned, you may be told to avoid aspirin and other blood thinners for seven to ... abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of a man's infertility. A transrectal ultrasound of ...

  14. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... nodule felt by a physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... information you were looking for? Yes No Please type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: ... Images related to Ultrasound - Prostate Sponsored by Please ...

  16. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... needed for any treatment planning. detect an abnormal growth within the prostate. help diagnose the cause of ... requested the exam. Usually, the referring physician or health care provider will share the results with you. ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... physician during a routine physical exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty ... vessels or to detect abnormal masses, such as tumors. In an ultrasound examination, a transducer both sends ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... prostate gland while the radiologist watches the needle placement with ultrasound. A small amount of tissue is ... on x-ray images. Ultrasound causes no health problems and may be repeated as often as is ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are obtained from different angles to get the best view of the prostate gland. If a suspicious ... over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way to see if treatment is working or ...

  20. Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... semen Discomfort in the pelvic area Bone pain Erectile dysfunction When to see a doctor Make an appointment ... Treatment options may include medications, catheters and surgery. Erectile dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction can result from prostate cancer or ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ... and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  2. Prostate Ultrasound

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    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound provides real-time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as ... bowel (rectum) removed during prior surgery are not good candidates for ultrasound of the prostate gland because ...

  3. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  4. Multilingual Self-Management Resources for Prostate Cancer Survivors and Their Partners: Results of a Long-Term Academic-State Health Department Partnership to Promote Survivorship Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Ragnoni, Jennifer A; Garlinghouse, Carol; Schafenacker, Ann; Webster, Debbie; Hager, Polly; Wittmann, Daniela; Northouse, Laurel

    2017-12-01

    To provide innovative, evidence-based self management information and supportive care for prostate cancer survivors and their partners. We describe how an academic-public partnership facilitated the broad dissemination of evidence-based, multilingual survivorship educational materials via a state-managed prostate cancer website. We outline the steps of an academic-public partnership leading to dissemination of online, survivorship materials as a resource for prostate cancer survivors and their partners. We examined the 5-year utilization of the materials from January 2011 to December 2015 according to 14 content areas (e.g., urinary, bowel, and sexual problems, fatigue, communication, cancer stress) and across 3 languages (English, Spanish, Arabic). The total number of prostate cancer survivorship materials downloaded from January 2011 to December 2015 was 89,348. The number of downloaded materials increased over time from 6,421 in 2011 to 17,496 in 2015. The most commonly downloaded content area was urine problems (27.5%), followed by bowel problems (23.4%) and sexual side effects (16.2%). The majority of downloaded materials was in English (86.3%), followed by Spanish (9.8%) and Arabic (3.9%). The academic-public partnership facilitated broad dissemination of evidence-based informational materials for prostate cancer survivors and their partners through a state-managed website from 2011 to 2015. Given the increasing role of academic-public partnerships in funding and development of robust, sustainable prostate cancer survivorship resources, this work serves as an introduction to these evidence-based materials and highlights a successful model of engagement between practitioners, research scientists, and public health administration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  6. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...

  7. Do subjects with whiplash-associated disorders respond differently in the short-term to manual therapy and exercise than those with mechanical neck pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. METHODS : Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28...... with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after...... the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. RESULTS : Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability (P = 0...

  8. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms before diagnosing prostatitis. Personal and Family Medical History Taking a personal and family medical history is ... anti-inflammatory drugs—also called NSAIDs—such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen sodium glycosaminogly cans such as ...

  9. Prostatic Carcinosarcoma with Lung Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie R. Furlan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinosarcoma of the prostate is an uncommon malignancy with poor long-term prognosis. The cancer is typically discovered at an advanced stage, and with less than 100 reported cases, there is limited literature concerning treatment options. Our patient presented with a history of benign prostatic hypertrophy, erectile dysfunction, and nocturia. Biopsy of his prostate indicated that the patient had prostatic adenocarcinoma, but histopathology after prostatectomy revealed carcinosarcoma. It has been over six years since this patient’s diagnosis of carcinosarcoma. Over this span of time, he has received a radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, and androgen ablative therapy. The patient also developed multiple lung metastases that have been treated with video-assisted thoracic surgery and stereotactic body radiosurgery. Overall, he has remained unimpaired and in good condition despite his aggressive form of cancer.

  10. Title Epidemic Model of a Concept within the Subject Classes of Patents: A Case Study on the Term RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tavakolizade Ravari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims at studying the epidemic model of the term RFID within the classes of patents. Methodology: The research is descriptive and has been conducted based on the mathematical models of diseases. Research population consists of 35,627 granted patents from the USPTO database those which the terms RFID or Radio Frequency Identification occur in their titles or abstracts. Data analysis was performed through software like Excel, SPSS, and Ravar-Matrix. Findings show that the cumulative growth of sub-classes with the term RFID follows an S-logistic model. This is an evidence of natural growth rate for assigning the term RFID to the USPTO sub-classes over the years.  Other finding reveals that the term RFID has been entered into and exited from the sub-classes of patents like the SIS epidemic model of diseases. As a final conclusion, the most technical fields those that are susceptible for RFID technology, have been met this technology. On the base of SIS model, the epidemic of RFID technology has been reached a balance.

  11. Extreme Hypofractionated Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Greco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of data suggests that hypofractionated radiation schedules, where a higher dose per fraction is delivered in a smaller number of sessions, may be superior to conventional fractionation schemes in terms of both tumour control and toxicity profile in the management of adenocarcinoma of the prostate. However, the optimal hypofractionation scheme is still the subject of scientific debate. Modern computer-driven technology enables the safe implementation of extreme hypo fractionation (often referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy [SBRT]. Several studies are currently being conducted to clarify the yet unresolved issues regarding treatment techniques and fractionation regimens. Recently, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO issued a model policy indicating that data supporting the use of SBRT for prostate cancer have matured to a point where SBRT could be considered an appropriate alternative for select patients with low-to-intermediate risk disease. The present article reviews some of the currently available data and examines the impact of tracking technology to mitigate intra-fraction target motion, thus, potentially further improving the clinical outcomes of extreme hypofractionated radiation therapy in appropriately selected prostate cancer patients. The Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown (CCU’s currently ongoing Phase I feasibility study is described; it delivers 45 Gy in five fractions using prostate fixation via a rectal balloon, and urethral sparing via catheter placement with on-line intra-fractional motion tracking through beacon transponder technology.

  12. The Effect, Moderators, and Mediators of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Survivors of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Newton, R.U.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Taaffe, D.R.; Spry, N.A.; Denham, J.W.; Joseph, D.J.; Lamb, D.S.; Brug, J.; Galvao, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    American Cancer Society The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cancer-specific health-related quality of life appear to be stronger for older survivors of prostate cancer who are married, started exercising sooner after their diagnosis, and previously used bisphosphonates. The effects of

  13. THE SHORT-TERM EFFECT OF A HOME-BASED PROGRAM TO CORRECT FORWARD HEAD POSTURE IN ASYMPTOMATIC SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Omar Abdelnaeem

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain and dysfunction may be the consequence of adopting sustained non-neutral spinal postures. Such postures are associated with increased activation of the neck-shoulder stabilizer muscles, which eventually increase the loading of cervical spine. Forward head posture is a common postural dysfunction that has been associated with many musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of deep cervical flexor muscles training on the severity of forward head posture in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: Forty-one asymptomatic subjects volunteered in this study. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n= 20that received a home-based training of deep cervical flexor muscles for 6-weeks, and a control group(n= 21 that received only the assessment procedure. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 6weeks later with regards to the severity of forward head as indicated by the cranio-vertebral angle. Also, the strength and endurance of the deep flexor muscles were assessed. Results: After six weeks, participants in the intervention group showed significant improvement in all measured variables compared to the control group. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group showed significant difference in all measured variables after 6-weeks of training compared to baseline, whereas those in the control group remained the same. Conclusion: Six-weeks of deep cervical training improves forward head posture and deep flexors strength and endurance in asymptomatic subjects. Thus, this exercise could be used as a preventive measure against the development of neck dysfunction in at risk population even before the onset of any symptoms.

  14. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  15. Comparison of Subjective Sleep Quality of Long-Term Residents at Low and High Altitudes: SARAHA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Ulfberg, Jan; Allen, Richard P; Goel, Deepak

    2018-01-15

    To study the effect of altitude on subjective sleep quality in populations living at high and low altitudes after excluding cases of restless legs syndrome (RLS). This population-based study was conducted at three different altitudes (400 m, 1,900-2,000 m, and 3,200 m above sea level). All consenting subjects available from random stratified sampling in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India were included in the study (ages 18 to 84 years). Sleep quality and RLS status were assessed using validated translations of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cambridge Hopkins RLS diagnostic questionnaire. Recent medical records were screened to gather data for medical morbidities. In the total sample of 1,689 participants included, 55.2% were women and average age of included subjects was 35.2 (± 10.9) years. In this sample, overall 18.4% reported poor quality of sleep (PSQI ≥ 5). Poor quality of sleep was reported more commonly at high altitude compared to low altitude (odds ratio [OR] = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.9-3.7; P quality of sleep were male sex, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and varicose veins. Binary logistic regression indicated that COPD (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.36-2.86; P quality of sleep. This study showed that poor quality of sleep was approximately twice as prevalent at high altitudes compared to low altitudes even after removing the potential confounders such as RLS and COPD.

  16. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  17. Psychomotor and Memory Effects of Haloperidol, Olanzapine, and Paroxetine in Healthy Subjects After Short-Term Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  18. Psychomotor and memory effects of haloperidol, olanzapine, and paroxetine in healthy subjects after short-term administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  19. Short- and Long-Term Effectiveness of a Subject's Specific Novel Brain and Vestibular Rehabilitation Treatment Modality in Combat Veterans Suffering from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Frederick Robert; Pagnacco, Guido; McLellan, Kate; Solis, Ross; Shores, Jacob; Fredieu, Andre; Brock, Joel Brandon; Randall, Cagan; Wright, Cameron; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study, we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores after a 2-week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study. We studied the short- and long-term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre- and post-treatment (1 week and 3 months) using our subjects as their matched controls. The generalized least squares (GLS) technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R (2) within groups was 0.000, R (2) between groups was 0.000, and overall the R (2) was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests. Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (2 weeks) is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability, and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  20. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  1. The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Naughton, L; Bentley, D; Koeppel, P

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ergogenic effects of a nucleotide supplement on the metabolic and immune responses to short term high intensity exercise in volunteer, trained, male subjects. Thirty moderately trained male subjects were randomly divided into 3 equal sized groups, control (C), placebo (P) or experimental (E). Each subject undertook a 2 min maximal exercise test prior to, and after 60 days, on either a nucleotide (E) or placebo supplement. Prior to exercise testing unstimulated saliva samples and blood samples were taken. Saliva was analysed for cortisol and IgA, while blood was analysed for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. The postexercise C value was significantly higher than the pre-exercise concentration (Pchanges in blood lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, or creatine kinase concentrations post supplementation. We concluded that a chronically ingested nucleotide supplement blunts the response of the hormones associated with physiological stress.

  2. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Mehta, Nalin; Mahapatra, Sushil Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90) included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45) not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items), subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items), and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items) at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (Panxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases. PMID:22869998

  3. The effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in 9 to 14 year old boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencharz Paul B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of exercise on subjective appetite and short-term food intake has received little investigation in children. Despite a lack of reported evaluation of short-duration activity programs, they are currently being implemented in schools as a means to benefit energy balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of duration of exercise at the ventilation threshold (VeT on subjective appetite and short-term food intake in normal weight boys and girls aged 9 to 14 years. Methods On 4 separate mornings and in random order, boys (n = 14 and girls (n = 15 completed 2 rest or 2 exercise treatments for 15 (short-duration; SD or 45 min (long-duration; LD at their previously measured VeT, 2 h after a standardized breakfast. Subjective appetite was measured at regular intervals during the study sessions and food intake from a pizza meal was measured 30 min after rest or exercise. Results An increase in average appetite, desire to eat, and hunger (p Conclusion Neither SD nor LD exercise at the VeT increased short-term food intake and SD exercise attenuated increases in appetite. Thus, SD exercise programs in schools may be an effective strategy for maintaining healthier body weights in children.

  4. A Phase I/II Study of Combination Neoadjuvant Hormone Therapy and Weekly OGX-011 Prior to Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer, Clusterin, Antisense Oligonucleotide, Mthoxyethyl Gapmer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...alkaline phosphatase- Fab fragment (Roche Ap- plied Science, Penzberg, Germany) diluted 1:100 was applied, and after two 10-minute washes and...PerkinElmer Applied Biosystems, Branchburg, NJ) and 20 units of Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The

  5. Distribution of the lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Hideo; Takenaka, Atsushi; Murakami, Gen; Haraguchi, Takahiro; Miyake, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kazushi; Fujisawa, Masato

    2011-09-01

    The prostatic fascia-preserving procedure is effective for the early recovery of erectile function after radical prostatectomy; however, the long-term influence of on cancer control was unknown. This study clarified the distribution of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia. The lymphatic vessels were analyzed in 10 prostates obtained from fixed Japanese cadavers (aged, 71-90 years old). Specimens were taken from the apex, the middle part, and the base of the right-hand side of the prostate. Lymphatic vessels were detected by immunohistochemical stain using an antibody specific for the lymphatic endothelial cells (clone D2-40). The lymphatic vessels were counted in the prostate capsule and the prostatic fascia of each section by light microscopy at low power (100×). The median number of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic capsule per prostatic half was 21.0, 14.0, and 21.0 in the apex, middle, and base part of the prostate, respectively. In the prostatic facia the median number of lymphatic vessels per prostatic half was 8.0, 3.0, and 13.0 in the apex, middle, and the base part of the prostate, respectively. In the apex and the middle part the lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia were fewer than those in the prostatic capsule. However, in the base part the number of lymphatic vessels in the prostatic fascia was similar to that in the prostatic capsule. The present study suggested the surgeon to pay more attention for the dissection of the fascia at the base of the prostate. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About the ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early warning ...

  7. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this ... a combination of drugs is recommended. References National Cancer Institute. Prostate cancer treatment (PDQ): Stages of prostate cancer. Updated ...

  8. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundraise for PCF: Many vs Cancer Contact Us Prostate Cancer Symptoms and Signs Prostate Cancer Basics About ... earlier. So what are the warning signs of prostate cancer? Unfortunately, there usually aren’t any early ...

  9. prevalence and association of asymptomatic prostatitis with urinary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-30

    Sep 30, 2014 ... fever, dysuria, increased frequency and perineal pain while severe benign prostatic hypertrophy has been implicated as a risk for recurrent UTI (Manisha, 2007; 2009), therefore this group of subjects should always be screened for prostatitis and bacteriuria. Furthermore, the observation that subjects within ...

  10. Safety of I.V. Nonnitrogen bisphosphonates on the occurrence of osteonecrosis of the jaw: long-term follow-up on prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo; Hering, Flávio; Imperio, Marcio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to disclose information about the recently incorporated bisphosphonates therapies used to treat prostate cancer patients and their potential risks because the chemical nature and nitrogen content varies among the available drugs on the market. Three hundred twenty-four consecutive prostate cancer patients were submitted to bisphosphonates therapy after antiandrogen treatment was started. Zoledronic acid was administered monthly (n = 45), bimonthly (n = 15), trimonthly (n = 19), and semestrally (n = 15), and monthly intravenous clodronate was administered in an additional 156 cases. Fourteen additional cases switched the drugs during the course of the treatment. After a median follow-up of 54 ± 24 (control), 63 ± 7 (clodronate), and 54 ± 6 months (zoledronic acid), the only 2 patients (0.6%) who developed osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) occurred in those who switched the drug. This study is the longest and the largest ever reported on bisphosphonates usage in prostate cancer patients. ONJ seems to be exclusively related to nitrogen content bisphosphonates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Short-term objective and subjective evaluation of small-diameter implants used to support and retain mandibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Robert; Hollis, Scott; Ahuja, Swati; Adatrow, Pradeep; Balanoff, William

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of small-diameter implants has provided dentists the means of providing edentulous and partially edentulous patients with immediate functioning transitional prostheses while definitive restorations are being fabricated. The successful use of these small-diameter implants for temporary stabilization of prostheses has led many clinicians to explore the option of using them as a definitive alternative, especially as the technique requires minimal time and also is economical for the patients. To date, there has been no study with multiple patients looking at both the subjective and objective outcomes of these small-diameter implants. Twenty-seven edentulous patients were enrolled in this study, seven of them were smokers. One-hundred and eight small-diameter (2.0 mm, MDL) implants were surgically placed in 24 edentulous mandibles. All implants were immediately loaded. The patients filled out a screening questionnaire and four subsequent questionnaires to test their satisfaction with the altered prosthesis at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. The survival of the implants was also noted. Smokers had an implant survival of 79%. Non-smokers had an implant survival of 100%. The results of the questionnaire indicated an overall satisfaction with the implant-supported prosthesis.

  12. External-Beam Radiation Therapy and High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Combined With Long-Term Androgen Deprivation Therapy in High and Very High Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Data on Clinical Outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael, E-mail: rmartinezm@unav.es [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Moreno, Marta; Ciervide, Raquel; Cambeiro, Mauricio [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis; Gil-Bazo, Ignacio [Department of Medical Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Gaztanaga, Miren; Arbea, Leire [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Pascual, Ignacio [Department of Urology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain); Aristu, Javier [Department of Radiation Oncology, Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarre (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of combined long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and dose escalation with high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2001 and 2007, 200 patients with high-risk prostate cancer (32.5%) or very high-risk prostate cancer (67.5%) were prospectively enrolled in this Phase II trial. Tumor characteristics included a median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen of 15.2 ng/mL, a clinical stage of T2c, and a Gleason score of 7. Treatment consisted of 54 Gy of external irradiation (three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [3DCRT]) followed by 19 Gy of HDR brachytherapy in four twice-daily treatments. ADT started 0-3 months before 3DCRT and continued for 2 years. Results: One hundred and ninety patients (95%) received 2 years of ADT. After a median follow-up of 3.7 years (range, 2-9), late Grade {>=}2 urinary toxicity was observed in 18% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 was observed in 5%. Prior transurethral resection of the prostate (p = 0.013) and bladder D{sub 50} {>=}1.19 Gy (p = 0.014) were associated with increased Grade {>=}2 urinary complications; age {>=}70 (p = 0.05) was associated with Grade {>=}3 urinary complications. Late Grade {>=}2 gastrointestinal toxicity was observed in 9% of the patients and Grade {>=}3 in 1.5%. CTV size {>=}35.8 cc (p = 0.007) and D{sub 100} {>=}3.05 Gy (p = 0.01) were significant for increased Grade {>=}2 complications. The 5-year and 9-year biochemical relapse-free survival (nadir + 2) rates were 85.1% and 75.7%, respectively. Patients with Gleason score of 7-10 had a decreased biochemical relapse-free survival (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Intermediate-term results at the 5-year time point indicate a favorable outcome without an increase in the rate of late complications.

  13. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Post Prostatic Massage Urine Cytology in Diagnosis of Various Prostatic Lesions with Cytohistological and Clinical Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monisha; Agarwal, Savita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elderly men are at high risk of various prostatic diseases carrying high morbidity and mortality rates. For screening large populations, there is a need for a simple, reliable, and noninvasive test with high sensitivity and specificity. Exfoliated prostatic cancer cells can be harvested by prostatic massage and subjected to cytologic examination and molecular tests. Aims: This study was undertaken to evaluate the morphology of various prostatic lesions on post prostatic massage urine cytology and correlate cytologic, histologic, and clinical findings. It was further proposed to establish the diagnostic accuracy of post prostatic massage urine cytology in different prostatic lesions. Materials and Methods: Totally, 100 cases including 50 cases each from study group and control group were subjected to post prostatic massage urine cytology and correlated with clinical and histological findings. Results: Five out of 50 cases were diagnosed as prostatic carcinoma, of which 60% were clinically detected. Diagnostic accuracy by histology and cytology independently was 80%, and 20% remained false negative by each technique. On combining both the techniques, diagnostic accuracy was 100%. For nine cases each of prostatitis and nodular hyperplasia diagnosed clinically, the diagnostic accuracy by cytology was 100 and 66.6%, respectively. 62% (31) cases were diagnosed as nodular hyperplasia including 22 (44%) cases of nodular hyperplasia with prostatitis. Conclusion: Collection of urinary specimens after prostatic massage provides adequate samples for cytological examination and carries great importance in establishing the preoperative morphologic diagnosis in cases of malignancy, prostatitis, and prostatic calculi. PMID:29118477

  14. Effects of short-term very low-calorie diet on intramyocellular lipid and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Newcomer, Bradley R; Rowell, Jennifer; Wallace, Penny; Shaughnessy, Sara M; Munoz, A Julian; Shiflett, Alanna M; Rigsby, Dana Y; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bohning, Daryl E; Buchthal, Steven; Garvey, W Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects of a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD) on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), total body fat, and insulin sensitivity in a group of obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Seven untreated type 2 diabetic and 5 obese nondiabetic individuals were studied before and after a 6-day VLCD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify IMCL, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess body fat, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity. In both groups, decrements in total body fat mass and body mass index were small but statistically significant. In contrast, the diet resulted in a pronounced reduction in IMCL compared with baseline values in nondiabetic subjects (56% decrease) and type 2 diabetic subjects (40% decrease) (P increase in maximally stimulated glucose disposal rate (P lipid was significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.69, P insulin sensitivity was related to measures of general adiposity such as body mass index, percentage of body fat, or total body fat (P = not significant). In conclusion, short-term VLCD is accompanied by small decrements in general adiposity, marked decrease in IMCL, and an increase in insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, rapid amelioration of insulin resistance by VLCD can be partially explained by loss of IMCL both in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects in the absence of substantial changes in total body fat. These observations are consistent with the idea that insulin resistance is more directly related to IMCL rather than to body fat per se.

  15. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cells (tissue) from an abnormal area in the prostate gland for later laboratory testing. top of page How should I prepare? You should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing for your ultrasound exam. You may need to remove all clothing and jewelry in the area to be ...

  16. Prostatitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prostatitis at home : Urinate often and completely. Take warm baths to relieve pain. Take stool softeners to make bowel movements more comfortable. Avoid substances that irritate your bladder, such as alcohol, caffeinated foods and drinks, citrus juices, and hot or spicy foods. Drink more fluid (64 to ...

  17. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have ...

  18. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of Prostate Ultrasound Imaging? Men who have had the tail end of their bowel ( ...

  19. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound - Prostate Ultrasound of ...

  20. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the pelvis may be obtained as an alternative imaging test, because it may be obtained with an external (phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms such as difficulty urinating or an elevated blood test result. It’s also used to investigate a nodule ... exam or prostate cancer screening exam. an elevated blood test result. difficulty urinating. Because ultrasound provides real-time ...

  2. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  3. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosilov, Kirill Vladimirovich; Loparev, Sergay Alexandrovich; Kuzina, Irina Gennadyevna; Geltser, Boris Izrailevich; Shakirova, Olga Viktorovna; Zhuravskaya, Natalya Sergeevna; Lobodenko, Alexandra

    2017-03-01

    Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736) patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years) who took antimuscarinic (AM) drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients' medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Fifty-two point six percent (52.6%) of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% - during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time). The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2%) was significantly lower (p≤0.05), than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%). A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  4. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  5. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  6. A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 21 N. Park Street, Suite 6401 Wisconsin, University of, Madison Madison, WI...from iPSC of Caucasian and African-American foreskin fibroblasts and 3) compare and establish methods to transform differentiated prostate epithelial...cells to identify differences in susceptibility to transformation . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  7. Development of Personalized Cancer Therapy for Men with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    which will help select patients for FGFR blockade. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bone metastases, targeted therapy, prostate cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...experiments involving in vivo manipulation of animals and will order supplies. Funding Support: Funding support is provided from this award. The...data, with a focus on presenting the results to the cancer research community in an easily accessible, highly visual form. 3. UM- PGDAC will engage

  8. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  9. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  10. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  11. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  12. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Changes in total energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery predict long-term weight outcome: findings from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Noora; Larsson, Ingrid; Peltonen, Markku; Lindroos, Anna-Karin; Carlsson, Lena M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Approximately 20-30% of obese patients do not achieve successful weight outcomes after bariatric surgery.Objective: We examined whether short-term changes (≤0.5 y postsurgery) in energy intake and macronutrient composition after bariatric surgery could predict 10-y weight change.Design: Participants were recruited from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study, which was a matched (nonrandomized) prospective trial that compared bariatric surgery with usual care for obese patients. A total of 2010 patients who underwent bariatric surgery were included in the study. Physical examinations (e.g., weight) and questionnaires (e.g., dietary questionnaire) were completed before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 y after surgery. For the main analytic strategy, a linear mixed model was implemented, which included repeated measures with a random intercept and an unstructured covariance matrix.Results: Short-term changes in energy intake (P bariatric surgery. At the 10-y follow-up, men and women with the largest reductions in energy intake had lost 7.3% and 3.9% more weight, respectively, compared with that of subjects with the smallest intake reductions (P bariatric surgery predicts long-term weight loss. Weight loss is also associated with a changing dietary macronutrient composition. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01479452. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Comparison of Dietary Macro and Micro Nutrient Intake between Iranian Patients with Long-term Complications of Sulphur Mustard Poisoning and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    -Mood, Mahdi Balali; Zilaee, Marzie; -Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Sheikh-Andalibi, Mohammad Sobhan; Mohades-Ardabili, Hossein; Dehghani, Hamideh; Ferns, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Patients with long-term complications of sulfur mustard (SM) poisoning are often less able to undertake optimum levels of physical activity and adequately control their dietary intake. The aim of present study was to investigate the dietary intake of patients with SM poisoning in comparison to a control group Methods: The study was undertaken on 55 Iranian male veterans, who had > 25% disabilities due to long-term complications of SM poisoning and 55 men age-matched healthy subjects. A previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used for measuring dietary macro/micro nutrient intake for both groups; and the results were analysed using Dietplan6 software. Analysis of macro/micro nutrients in dietary intakes of the patients versus the controls showed a significantly lower intake of several nutrients including selenium and carbohydrate. On the other hand, the dietary intake of trans-fatty acids and iodine were significantly higher in these patients. Long-term complications of SM poisoning in the Iranian veterans induce both chemical and physical disabilities. Macro/micro nutrient intake in these patients was significantly different in comparison with matched, healthy subjects. Dietary advice for these patients should be strongly recommended to these patients in order to prevent other chronic diseases.

  15. Reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory short-term heart rate variability in healthy subjects during a self-selected rest period and during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Jesper; Olsen, Annemarie; Skotte, Jørgen H; Garde, Anne Helene

    2009-01-01

    Although ambulatory measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) are widely used, the reproducibility and seasonal variation of ambulatory sampled short-term HRV measurements in healthy participants has not been investigated before. In the present study we collected ambulatory ECGs from 19 healthy participants monthly for 12 months, and for a sub-group of 12 participants weekly for one month. Frequency-domain HRV-metrics were calculated for 5 min ECG segments during (i) a 15-min self-selected rest period (awake period), and (ii) a 30-min sleep period starting 45 min after estimated sleep onset. Total, within- and between-subject coefficient of variation (CV) and seasonal variation were estimated for ln (TP), ln (LFP), ln (HFP), ln (LF/HF), LFnu, HFnu, the mean heart period and the ECG derived respiratory frequency.The within- and between-subject CV varied considerably between different variables, from 100% for ln (LF/HF). Within- and between-subject CV of ln (HFP), LFnu and HFnu were 10-40%. A weak, but significant, seasonal variation was found for ln (TP) (p = 0.05), ln (LFP) (p<0.05) and the respiratory frequency (p<0.01), but the seasonal variation did not affect the within-subject CV. Furthermore, sample size calculations demonstrated that the reproducibility was sufficient for ambulatory HRV measurements to be used to study autonomic cardiac regulation in healthy populations.

  16. Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Brondino, Margherita; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigates students' representation of achievement emotions, focusing in context-specific situations in terms of settings and subject-domains, as a function of grade level. We involved 527 fourth-, seventh-, and eleventh-graders, who evaluated ten discrete emotions through questionnaires, with reference to verbal language and mathematics, and different settings (class, homework, tests). Confirmatory multitrait-multimethod analyses indicated higher salience of subject-domains rather than settings for all the emotions; however, complexity of reality was best explained when also settings were accounted for. Analyses of variance revealed higher intensity of positive emotions for younger students, and the opposite pattern for older students; significant differences for most of the emotions based on the evaluative nature of settings, moderated by class levels; more intense positive emotions for mathematics and more intense negative emotions for Italian. Results are discussed considering their theoretical and applied relevance, corroborating previous literature on domain-specificity. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. [Contribution of the study of singing in tune in musically non-expert subjects: importance of short term memory of the pitch (19 to 28 year-old subjects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, S; Peuvergne, A; Sarfati, J

    2005-01-01

    In the singing, which requires precise knowledge of the relevant musical code in use, accuracy of intonation plays a central role. Singing in tune requires to perceive pitch precisely and to memorize it before planning and executing the accurate vocal motion, which allows the exact emission of the correct pitch. Our work investigated the role of short term memory of pitch on singing accuracy. For that purpose, the experimental protocol of Deutsch (1970) was adapted for a perception and a production task. Participants were selected for their singing accuracy and separated into two groups of ten singing in tune and ten out-of-tune. All participants perceived pitch height exactly and were musically non-experts. For the perception and the production tasks, participants had to either compare or reproduce single pitches or two-pitch-sets. For the perception task, participants had to compare either single pitches or two-pitch patterns, all separated by a five seconds delay. For the production task, participants had to reproduce either single pitches or two-pitch patterns after a five seconds delay. The five seconds delay was either filled with intervening numbers, or with intervening tones, or without any disturbing sound. In perception and production task, the presence of intervening tones disturbs deeply the success of the subjects for every trial. Performance of the in-tune singing group is better for all the exercises while the other group had difficulties on single pitches and two-pitch patterns and was more disturbed by the effect of the intervening material. The outcome suggests that short term memory of pitch and accuracy of intonation would be closely linked. Further research needs to specify if that would mean that troubles in singing in tune are a consequence of a low-efficient short term memory of pitch, or if that troubles would hold up the right construction of the short term memory of pitch.

  18. Feasibility of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for recurrent/residual benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshal, Ahmed M; Elmansy, Hazem M; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The major advantage of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) depends on the ability to use the native anatomical plane between the prostate adenoma and surgical capsule, peeling each prostatic lobe from the capsule. HoLEP is associated with less catheterisation time, hospital stay and blood loss than transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) or open prostatectomy. Urodynamic relief of obstruction has been reported to be better with HoLEP than TURP. However, surgical treatment of recurrent prostatic obstruction after previous transurethral surgery for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is more challenging because of loss of anatomical landmarks resulting in either incomplete removal or incontinence. HoLEP for recurrent symptoms due to residual or re-growing prostatic adenoma seems to be as safe, feasible and efficient as HoLEP for de novo cases. The surgical plane between the adenoma and the surgical capsule was still accessible resulting in a durable long-term outcome with minimal side-effects. Previous transurethral prostatic surgery is not a contraindication for HoLEP. • To assess the technical feasibility, functional outcome and morbidity of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients with previous transurethral prostate surgery. 'Redo' surgery for recurrent or residual BPH poses a technical challenge with uncertain outcome as a result of disturbed anatomical landmarks with no clear surgical limits. • We retrospectively reviewed 1054 patients who underwent HoLEP for symptomatic BPH. • Patients were stratified into two groups, group-I with no previous prostate surgery or primary-HoLEP (978 patients) and group-II with history of previous prostate surgery or secondary-HoLEP (76). • All patients' variables as well as follow-up data were assessed and

  19. Associations among benign prostate hypertrophy, atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and latent carcinoma of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatiou, Konstantinos; Alevizos, Alevizos; Natzar, Mohamed; Mihas, Constantinos; Mariolis, Anargiros; Michalodimitrakis, Emmanouel; Sofras, Fragiskos

    2007-03-01

    To investigate the frequency of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) and its associations with benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) and latent histological carcinoma of the prostate (LPC) in autopsy material. Two hundred and twelve prostate specimens obtained from autopsy material were subjected to whole mount analysis in an attempt to investigate the associations among BPH, AAH and LPC. Most histological carcinomas and AAH lesions were found in enlarged prostates with intense hypertrophy. No statistically significant relation was found between BPH and the main characteristics of LPC, such as tumor volume, histological differentiation and biological behavior. Our data regarding multi-focal tumors showed a tendency for multi-focal carcinomas to develop in larger prostates, and a tendency of AAH lesions to develop in larger prostates. No statistically significant relation was found between AAH and LPC. There seems not any causative aetiopathogenetical or topographical relation between AAH lesions and prostate adenocarcinoma. AAH lesion seems to be a well-defined mimicker of prostatic adenocarcinoma, and the reported association of AAH with prostatic carcinoma could probably be an epiphenomenon.

  20. Iodine 125 prostate brachytherapy: prognostic factors for long-term urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities;Curietherapie de prostate par iode 125: facteurs pronostiques de longue duree de toxicite urinaire, digestive et sexuelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J.; Mohammed Ali, A.; Ginot, A.; Ferre, M.; Castelli, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Dept. de Radiotherapie Oncologique, 06 - Nice (France); Chamorey, E. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Unite de Statistiques Medicales, 06 - Nice (France); Mohammed Ali, A. [Faculte de Medecine, SOHAG (Egypt); Quintens, H.; Amiel, J. [CHU Pasteur, Service d' Urologie, 06 - Nice (France)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose For patients with good urinary function and presenting with a low risk prostate cancer, prostate brachytherapy using iodine implants represents one of the techniques of reference. This retrospective analysis investigates urinary (U), digestive (D) and sexual (S) toxicities and their prognostic factors of duration. Material and methods From August 2000 to November 2007, 176 patients presenting with prostate adenocarcinoma underwent interstitial brachytherapy. Urinary, digestive and sexual toxicities were classified according to Common toxicities criteria for adverse events, version 3.0 (C.T.C.A.E. V 3.0). For each toxicity (U, D, S), the number of complications U (dysuria, nicturia), D (proctitis, diarrhea) and S (sexual dysfunction, loss of libido) was listed and analyzed according to criteria related to the patient, implant, dosimetric data and characteristics of the toxicity. Prognostic factors identified in univariate analysis (U.V.A.) (Log Rank) were further analyzed in multivariate analysis (M.V.A.) (Cox model). Results With a median follow-up of 26 months (1-87), 147 patients (83.5 %) presented urinary toxicities. Among them, 29.5 % (86 patients) and 2.4 % (seven patients) presented grade 2 and 3 U toxicity respectively. In U.V.A., urinary grade toxicity greater than or equal to 2 (p = 0.037), the presence of initial U symptoms (p = 0.027) and more than two urinary toxicities (p 0.00032) were recognized as prognostic factors. The number of U toxicities was the only prognostic factor in M.V.A. (p = 0.04). D toxicity accounted for 40.6 % (71 patients). Among them, 3 % (six patients) were grade 2. None were grade 3. Two factors were identified as prognostic factors either in U.V.A. and M.V.A.: the number of D toxicities greater than or equal to 2 (univariate analysis: p = 0,00129, multivariate analysis: p = 0,002) and age less than or equal to 65 years (univariate analysis: p = 0,004, multivariate analysis: p 0,007). Eighty-three patients (47

  1. Contact laser vaporization of the prostate for benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomella, Leonard G.; Lotfi, M. A.; Milam, Douglas F.; Albala, David; Reagan, Gary

    1994-05-01

    The contact laser applications for the removal of the enlarged prostate are distinctly different than the majority of non-contact Nd:YAG lasers that rely on coagulation necrosis and delayed sloughing. Contact Nd:YAG laser allows cutting, coagulation and vaporization of tissue with minimal penetration beyond the contact surface. Using the contact laser prostatectomy technique, the contact laser probe directly touches and immediately vaporizes the prostatic tissue under the probe. The net result is the immediate removal of the obstructing tissue, in a manner similar to the standard electrosurgical TURP. This immediate removal of tissue offers the patient treated with the contact laser the potential for decreased catheter time and a more rapid resolution of symptoms. Our initial experience suggests that the contact technique may be better suited for the smaller prostate gland (i.e. less than 30 gm). The contact laser may also be used for a procedure termed the `laser assisted TURP': a standard electrosurgical TURP is performed and the contact laser is used for hemostasis. Several investigators have reported non-randomized results of the contact technique with good outcomes. A prospective randomized trial of the contact laser prostatectomy vrs the electrosurgical TURP is underway. The contact laser vaporization of the prostate holds great promise for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hypertrophy: it is virtually bloodless and allows immediate visualization of the TUR defect.

  2. gene polymorphisms in Iranian prostate cancer subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor DE, Malaysia. 2Department of Genetics ... Glutathione S-transferase enzymes are active in detoxifying a wide number of endogenous and exogenous .... product for GSTP1 gene was digested by Alw26I restriction enzyme.

  3. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on March 17, 2016 Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? ... questions or for a referral to a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search ...

  4. The psychosocial aspects of sexual recovery after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, D; Northouse, L; Foley, S; Gilbert, S; Wood, D P; Balon, R; Montie, J E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects one in six American men. Erectile and sexual dysfunctions are long-term side effects of prostate cancer treatment. PubMed database was searched for papers on prostate cancer-related sexual recovery for men and couples. The search yielded articles on (1) the treatment of erectile dysfunction, (2) men's psychological and culturally diverse adaptation to the sexual side effects; (3) the impact of prostate cancer on couples' relationships; and (4) interventions to promote sexual function. Erectile dysfunction after prostate cancer treatment has been widely studied. Research on the sexual recovery of men and couples or understanding it in a cultural context is scarce. Greater focus on the impact of sexual sequelae of prostate cancer treatment on men as well as couples in diverse groups is needed. Clinical implications for treating sexual dysfunction and promoting sexual recovery for prostate cancer survivors and their partners are discussed. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  5. Objective and subjective sleep quality: Melatonin versus placebo add-on treatment in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder withdrawing from long-term benzodiazepine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepines are frequently long-term prescribed for the treatment of patients with severe mental illness. This prescribing practice is problematic because of well-described side effects including risk of dependence. We examined the efficacy of prolonged-release melatonin on objective and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination with antipsychotics. All participants gradually tapered the use of benzodiazepines after randomization to add-on treatment with melatonin versus placebo. Here we report a subsample of 23 patients undergoing sleep recordings (one-night polysomnography) and 55 patients participating in subjective sleep quality ratings. Melatonin had no effect on objective sleep efficiency, but significantly improved self-reported sleep quality. Reduced benzodiazepine dosage at the 24-week follow-up was associated with a significantly decreased proportion of stage 2 sleep. These results indicate that prolonged-release melatonin has some efficacy for self-reported sleep quality after gradual benzodiazepine dose reduction, and that benzodiazepine discontinuation is not associated with rebound insomnia in medicated patients with severe mental illness. However, these findings were limited by a small sample size and a low retention rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001. Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  7. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (Ppalatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  8. Saw palmetto for prostate disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Andrea E; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2003-03-15

    Saw palmetto is an herbal product used in the treatment of symptoms related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active component is found in the fruit of the American dwarf palm tree. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of saw palmetto in reducing symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Saw palmetto appears to have efficacy similar to that of medications like finasteride, but it is better tolerated and less expensive. There are no known drug interactions with saw palmetto, and reported side effects are minor and rare. No data on its long-term usage are available. The herbal product also has been used to treat chronic prostatitis, but currently there is no evidence of its efficacy.

  9. Weight change, obesity and risk of prostate cancer progression among men with clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerman, Barbra A; Ahearn, Thomas U; Giovannucci, Edward; Stampfer, Meir J; Nguyen, Paul L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Wilson, Kathryn M

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  11. Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod 0.024% in Japanese Subjects with Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: The JUPITER Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Kazuhide; Vittitow, Jason L; Weinreb, Robert N; Araie, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    Latanoprostene bunod (LBN) is a novel nitric oxide (NO)-donating prostaglandin F2α analog. We evaluated the long-term safety and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% over 1 year in Japanese subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). This was a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, clinical study. Subjects aged 20 years and older with a diagnosis of OAG or OHT instilled 1 drop of LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% in the affected eye(s) once daily in the evening for 52 weeks and were evaluated every 4 weeks. Safety assessments included vital signs, comprehensive ophthalmic exams, and treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). Absolute and percent reductions from baseline in IOP were also determined. Of 130 subjects enrolled, 121 (93.1%) completed the study. Mean age was 62.5 years, and mean (standard deviation) baseline IOP was 19.6 (2.9) and 18.7 (2.6) mmHg in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. Overall, 76/130 (58.5%) and 78/126 (61.9%) subjects experienced ≥1 AEs in study eyes and treated fellow eyes, respectively. In both study eyes and treated fellow eyes, the most common AEs were conjunctival hyperemia, growth of eyelashes, eye irritation, and eye pain. At 52 weeks, 9% of treated eyes had an increase in iris pigmentation compared with baseline based on iris photographs. No safety concerns emerged based on vital signs or other ocular assessments. Mean reductions from baseline in IOP of 22.0% and 19.5% were achieved by week 4 in study and treated fellow eyes, respectively. These reductions were maintained through week 52 (P < 0.001 vs. baseline at all visits). Once daily LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% was safe and well-tolerated in Japanese subjects with OAG or OHT when used for up to 1 year. Long-term treatment with LBN ophthalmic solution 0.024% provided significant and sustained IOP reduction. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01895972. Bausch & Lomb, Inc. a division of

  12. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  13. Gastric bypass surgery is followed by lowered blood pressure and increased diuresis - long term results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallersund

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare two bariatric surgical principles with regard to effects on blood pressure and salt intake. BACKGROUND: In most patients bariatric surgery induces a sustained weight loss and a reduced cardiovascular risk profile but the long-term effect on blood pressure is uncertain. METHODS: Cohort study with data from the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS study involving 480 primary health care centres and 25 surgical departments in Sweden. Obese patients treated with non-surgical methods (Controls, n = 1636 and n = 1132 at 2 y and 10 y follow up, respectively were compared to patients treated with gastric bypass (GBP, n = 245 and n = 277, respectively or purely restrictive procedures (vertical banded gastroplasty or gastric banding; VBG/B, n = 1534 and n = 1064, respectively. RESULTS: At long-term follow-up (median 10 y GBP was associated with lowered systolic (mean: -5.1 mm Hg and diastolic pressure (-5.6 mmHg differing significantly from both VBG/B (-1.5 and -2.1 mmHg, respectively; p<0.001 and Controls (+1.2 and -3.8 mmHg, respectively; p<0.01. Diurnal urinary output was +100 ml (P<0.05 and +170 ml (P<0.001 higher in GBP subjects than in weight-loss matched VBG/B subjects at the 2 y and 10 y follow-ups, respectively. Urinary output was linearly associated with blood pressure only after GBP and these patients consumed approximately 1 g salt per day more at the follow-ups than did VBG/B (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: The purely restrictive techniques VBG/B exerted a transient blood pressure lowering effect, whereas gastric bypass was associated with a sustained blood pressure reduction and an increased diuresis. The daily salt consumption was higher after gastric bypass than after restrictive bariatric surgery.

  14. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  15. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Utilizing time-driven activity-based costing to understand the short- and long-term costs of treating localized, low-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviana, Aaron A; Ilg, Annette M; Veruttipong, Darlene; Tan, Hung-Jui; Burke, Michael A; Niedzwiecki, Douglas R; Kupelian, Patrick A; King, Chris R; Steinberg, Michael L; Kundavaram, Chandan R; Kamrava, Mitchell; Kaplan, Alan L; Moriarity, Andrew K; Hsu, William; Margolis, Daniel J A; Hu, Jim C; Saigal, Christopher S

    2016-02-01

    Given the costs of delivering care for men with prostate cancer remain poorly described, this article reports the results of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) for competing treatments of low-risk prostate cancer. Process maps were developed for each phase of care from the initial urologic visit through 12 years of follow-up for robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), cryotherapy, high-dose rate (HDR) and low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and active surveillance (AS). The last modality incorporated both traditional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) biopsy and multiparametric-MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy. The costs of materials, equipment, personnel, and space were calculated per unit of time and based on the relative proportion of capacity used. TDABC for each treatment was defined as the sum of its resources. Substantial cost variation was observed at 5 years, with costs ranging from $7,298 for AS to $23,565 for IMRT, and they remained consistent through 12 years of follow-up. LDR brachytherapy ($8,978) was notably cheaper than HDR brachytherapy ($11,448), and SBRT ($11,665) was notably cheaper than IMRT, with the cost savings attributable to shorter procedure times and fewer visits required for treatment. Both equipment costs and an inpatient stay ($2,306) contributed to the high cost of RALP ($16,946). Cryotherapy ($11,215) was more costly than LDR brachytherapy, largely because of increased single-use equipment costs ($6,292 vs $1,921). AS reached cost equivalence with LDR brachytherapy after 7 years of follow-up. The use of TDABC is feasible for analyzing cancer services and provides insights into cost-reduction tactics in an era focused on emphasizing value. By detailing all steps from diagnosis and treatment through 12 years of follow-up for low-risk prostate cancer, this study has demonstrated significant cost variation between competing treatments. © 2015

  17. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  18. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    TURP; Prostate resection - transurethral ... used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity. ... if you have benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). The prostate gland often grows larger as men get older. ...

  19. Medical Tests for Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... male urinary tract What are some common prostate problems? The most common prostate problem in men younger ... than BPH. What are the symptoms of prostate problems? The symptoms of prostate problems may include urinary ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  1. Unusual Giant Prostatic Urethral Calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatic cancer.[1] Primary prostatic urethral calculi are ... Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, ... Prostatic calculi associated with hypertrophy of the gland. Group III. Prostatic calculi that ...

  2. NEEDLE BIOPSY IN DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATIC CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Milton; Goodwin, Willard E.

    1954-01-01

    Four methods available for the diagnosis of carcinoma of the prostate—digital rectal evaluation, prostatic smear, needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy—were studied and correlated. One hundred ten patients with clinical indications of cancer of the prostate were subjected to needle biopsy and open perineal or transurethral biopsy. Seventy of the same patients had prostatic smear examination. Using the open perineal biopsy or the positive transurethral biopsy as the standard, the accuracy of prostatic palpation, prostatic smear and needle biopsy were obtained. A high degree of correlation (74 per cent) was demonstrated between digital rectal evaluation and positive surgical biopsies in both early and late cases. There were 17 false positive clinical diagnoses. The prostatic smear showed an overall correlation of 45 per cent when compared with the results of positive surgical biopsy. The overall accuracy of needle biopsy was 73 per cent. However, in the last 39 cases, including eight in which the carcinomas were of groups A and B (curable), the needle accuracy was 100 per cent. When there is clinical indication of malignant disease of the prostate, needle biopsy of the lesion is warranted and should be done before definitive or palliative treatment is undertaken. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:13209358

  3. Short-term effect of spinal manipulation on pain perception, spinal mobility, and full height recovery in male subjects with degenerative disk disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Pellenz, Felipe; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect on spinal mobility, pain perception, neural mechanosensitivity, and full height recovery after high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal manipulation (SM) in the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial with evaluations at baseline and after intervention. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Men (N=40; mean age ± SD, 38 ± 9.14 y) with diagnosed degenerative lumbar disease at L5-S1 were randomly divided into 2 groups: a treatment group (TG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 39 ± 9.12 y) and a control group (CG) (n=20; mean age ± SD, 37 ± 9.31 y). All participants completed the intervention and follow-up evaluations. A single L5-S1 SM technique (pull-move) was performed in the TG, whereas the CG received a single placebo intervention. Measures included assessing the subject's height using a stadiometer. The secondary outcome measures included perceived low back pain, evaluated using a visual analog scale; neural mechanosensitivity, as assessed using the passive straight-leg raise (SLR) test; and amount of spinal mobility in flexion, as measured using the finger-to-floor distance (FFD) test. The intragroup comparison indicated a significant improvement in all variables in the TG (Pperceived pain, spinal mobility in flexion, hip flexion during the passive SLR test, and subjects' full height. Future studies should include women and should evaluate the long-term results. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Middle-Term Dietary Supplementation with Red Yeast Rice Plus Coenzyme Q10 Improves Lipid Pattern, Endothelial Reactivity and Arterial Stiffness in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Rosticci, Martina; D''Addato, Sergio; Grandi, Elisa; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether treatment with red yeast rice added with Coenzyme Q10 is associated with changes in endothelial function and arterial stiffness. This double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 non-smoker moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects (ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT02492464). After 4 weeks of diet and physical activity, patients were allocated to treatment with placebo or with an active product containing 10 mg monacolins and 30 mg Coenzyme Q10, to be assumed for 6 months. Endothelial reactivity and arterial stiffness have been measured through the validated Vicorder® device. During monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (after monacolin treatment: -26.3%; after placebo treatment: +3.4%, p < 0.05). Endothelial reactivity (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment: +6.0%; after placebo treatment: -0.3%, p < 0.05), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV) after monacolin treatment: -4.7%; after placebo: +1.1%, p < 0.05) also significantly improved only after monacolin treatment. The long-term assumption of the tested dietary supplement is associated with an improvement in LDL-cholesterolemia, endothelial reactivity and PWV in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  7. [Radiation therapy of locally advanced prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hegemann, N-S; Li, M; Eze, C; Belka, C; Ganswindt, U

    2017-11-01

    The risk classification for localized prostate cancer is based on the groups "low", "intermediate", and "high-risk" prostate cancer. Following this established risk group definition, locally advanced prostate cancer (cT3/4N0M0) has to be classified as "high-risk" prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy or high-dose radiotherapy, which is combined with androgen deprivation, are the only curative standard treatments for locally advanced prostate cancer. Particularly adequate radiation doses, modern radiotherapy techniques like IMRT/IGRT, as well as long-term androgen suppression are essential for an optimal treatment outcome. In combination with definitive radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be started neoadjuvant/simultaneous to radiotherapy and is recommended to be continued after radiotherapy. Previous data suggest that 2‑year long-term androgen deprivation in this setting may not be inferior to 3‑year long-term androgen deprivation in high-risk patients. An additional radiation therapy of the lymphatic pathways in men with cN0 locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer is still a matter of research. Ongoing trials may define selected subgroups with a suggested benefit at its best.

  8. No biological evidence of XMRV in blood or prostatic fluid from prostate cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Mendoza

    Full Text Available XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus was initially discovered in association with prostate cancer and later with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Its association with CFS is now largely discredited, and current results support a laboratory origin for XMRV with no reproducible evidence for infection of humans. However, some results indicating the presence of XMRV in prostate cancer are difficult to attribute to sample contamination. Here we have sought biological evidence that might confirm the presence of XMRV in prostate cancer samples previously having tested positive.We have tested for infectious XMRV and neutralizing antibodies against XMRV in blood plasma from 29 subjects with prostate cancer, and for infectious XMRV in prostate secretions from another five prostate cancer subjects. Nine of these subjects had previously tested positive for XMRV by PCR or by virus assay. We did not detect XMRV or related retroviruses in any sample, and the neutralizing activities of the plasma samples were all very low, a result inconsistent with XMRV infection of the plasma donors.We find no evidence for XMRV infection of any human subject tested, either by assay for infectious virus or for neutralizing antibodies. Our results are consistent with the majority of published studies on XMRV, which find that XMRV is not present in humans. The observed low to undetectable XMRV neutralization by human plasma indicates a lack of innate restriction of XMRV replication by soluble factors in human blood.

  9. The Stromal Contribution to the Development of Resistance to New Generation Drugs by Castrate Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    backdoor pathway , which bypasses testosterone (T) as an intermediate for dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (3, 9-11). 4 After ADT, recurrence as castration... pathway agonists. Testosterone levels were measured by ELISA, normalized to cell number, and expressed as fold change + SE. Figure 1: Effect of 1nM Ag1.5... pathway . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer, Hedgehog signaling, Hormone Therapy, Intratumoral, Steroidogenesis, Androgens, Smoothened Agonists

  10. The AVOCAT study: Bicalutamide monotherapy versus combined bicalutamide plus dutasteride therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma of the prostate-a long-term follow-up comparison and quality of life analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dijkstra, S; Witjes, W.P.J; Roos, E.P; Vijverberg, P.L; Geboers, A.D; Bruins, J.L; Smits, G.A; Vergunst, H; Mulders, P.F.A

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Compare the efficacy and tolerability of dutasteride in combination with bicalutamide to bicalutamide monotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS...

  11. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2009-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is expressed in the male reproductive organs in pigs. To examine whether the human prostate also expresses the CNP gene, we measured CNP and N-terminal proCNP in prostate cancer tissue extracts and performed immunohistochemical biopsy staining. Additionally, pro......CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1...... demonstrated the presence of the peptides in prostatic epithelial cells. The N-terminal proCNP concentrations in plasma were marginally lower in patients with localized prostate cancer compared with control subjects [13.8 pmol/l (11.0-17.2) vs. 15.1 pmol/l (10.4-23.2), p=0.002] but not enough to justify...

  13. Impact of Dose to the Bladder Trigone on Long-Term Urinary Function After High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Oh, Jung Hun; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dose–volume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dose–volume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ≥10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ≥10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ≥10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ≥10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically the

  14. Vaccine Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    suddenly prior to study treatment. And one patient previously reported as a screen failure became eligible a nd was trea ted. This subject was not...of three study injections on the 08/12/10. Had a history of periodontal disease, ear pain, a bunion, ankle pain, kidn ey stones and prostate cancer...did not infor m the research unit nursing staff in the inpatient unit about this, but instead revealed this to the study team in the morning prior

  15. IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of prostate cells is associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveu B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Neveu*, Xavier Moreel*, Marie-Pier Deschênes-Rompré, Alain Bergeron, Hélène LaRue, Cherifa Ayari, Yves Fradet, Vincent FradetDepartment of Surgery, Laval University Cancer Research Centre, CHU de Quebec Research Centre, Quebec, QC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Chronic inflammation is believed to be a major factor in prostate cancer initiation and promotion and has been studied using prostate cancer cells and immortalized cell lines. However, little is known about the contribution of normal cells to the prostatic microenvironment and inflammation. We aim to study the contribution of normal prostate epithelial cells to prostate inflammation and to link the inflammatory status of normal cells to prostate cancer aggressiveness.Materials and methods: Short-term primary cell cultures of normal epithelial prostate cells were derived from prostate biopsies from 25 men undergoing radical prostatectomy, cystoprostatectomy, or organ donation. Cells were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, a mimic of double-stranded viral RNA and a potent inducer of the inflammatory response. Secretion of interleukin (IL-8 in the cell culture medium by untreated and treated cells was measured and we determined the association between IL-8 levels in these primary cell cultures and prostate cancer characteristics. The Fligner–Policello test was used to compare the groups.Results: Baseline and induced IL-8 secretion were highly variable between cultured cells from different patients. This variation was not related to drug use, past medical history, age, or preoperative prostate-specific antigen value. Nonetheless, an elevated secretion of IL-8 from normal cultured epithelial cells was associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness (P=0.0005.Conclusion: The baseline secretion of IL-8 from normal prostate epithelial cells in culture is strongly correlated with cancer aggressiveness and may drive prostate cancer

  16. Alternative treatment of prostatic urethral obstruction secondary to benign prostatic hypertrophy. Non-surgical balloon catheter prostatic dilatation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, F.; Letourneau, J.G.; Reddy, P.; Hulbert, J.; Hunter, D.W.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.R.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-10-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) produces symptoms that currently can only be treated surgically either by open or endoscopic prostatectomy. We have undertaken animal (1) and human studies to determine if invasive radiologic techniques utilizing balloon catheters could be applied to the treatment of this common ailment. We report a series of twelve patients treated by retrograde transurethral balloon catheter prostatic dilatation. The procedure is performed using topical anesthesia with a specially designed balloon catheter (Medi-Tech, Inc.). The procedure is done on an outpatient basis and is completed within approximately 15 minutes. Relatively long-term results have resulted in persistent relief of symptoms. No complications have been encountered. We anticipate that balloon dilatation of the prostatic urethra will have a major impact on the treatment of BPH based on the promising preliminary results. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is associated with moderate morbidity and significant cost which can be reduced by the proposed procedure.

  17. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  18. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population: the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Li, Yu-Lin; Wu, Shan; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhang, Ling; Tateno, Hiroo; Sato, Ikuro; Kuwahara, Masaaki; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). A total of 12027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen tPSA test (by Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was > 4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Of the 12027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were 4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  19. Molecular Characterization of KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR Genes in Cases with Prostatic Adenocarcinoma; Reporting Bioinformatics Description and Recurrent Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaninejad, Arash; Ghadami, Shirin; Dizaji, Majid Zaki; Golchehre, Zahra; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Zamani, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimzadeh-Vesal, Reza; Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza; Shakoori, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers which develops by mutations and/or other genetic alterations in specific genes. Regarding the previous studies in literature predominant mutations take place in KRAS, BRAF, and EGFR genes in special types of cancers. In this research, we attempt to identify the prevalence and significant role of the possible mutations in EGFR exons 18-21, KRAS codon 12, 13, and 61, and BRAF codon 600 mutations in tumoral tissue specimens from patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, in this research, it has been attempted to investigate the molecular characteristics of these genes in terms of bioinformatic aspects. A total of 35 prostatic adenocarcinoma fresh tissue samples, enriched in neoplastic cells, were obtained from the Cancer Institute of Iran. The presence of mutations at codons 12, 13 and 61 of KRAS, codon 600 of BRAF and EGFR exons 18-21 were determined by direct Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the molecular features, structure, and post-translation modification of those genes, a bioinformatics survey was performed using the SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org) and NetPhos 2.0 (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetPhos/) Server. Also, using bioinformatics software, the phylogeny tree of the mutations was drawn. Mutations of codons 12 and 13 of KRAS were found in 2 of the 35 prostatic adenocarcinomas. Two cases carried homozygous mutations on exon 2 in codon 12 (G12V) and codon 13 (G13D). Also, no mutation was detected at BRAF codon 600 and EGFR exons 18-21 in any of the samples. Based on the group of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma, our research shows that the mutations in codons 12 and 13 of KRAS are the most common in prostate carcinomas. Noting these results and the molecular pathway of this gene, there is a possible more perceptible role for this gene in the pathogenesis of prostatic carcinoma. However, according to our finding, as in previous studies, the role of BRAF and EGFR gene mutations in

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  1. Prostate cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000397.htm Prostate cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... trials you may be able to join How Prostate Cancer Staging is Done Initial staging is based on ...

  2. Enlarged prostate - after care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000398.htm Enlarged prostate - after care To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The prostate is a gland that produces the fluid that ...

  3. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS. ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS.

  4. Prostate cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Friis, S; Kjaer, S K

    1998-01-01

    To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period.......To review the trends in prostate cancer (PC) incidence and mortality rates in Denmark during a 50-year period....

  5. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as heart disease and use of beta blockers, might increase the risk of BPH. Lifestyle. Obesity ... believed to increase your risk of developing prostate cancer. By Mayo Clinic Staff Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) ...

  6. The effects of long-term daily folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dieuwertje E G; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Lute, Carolien; Heil, Sandra G; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van Schoor, Natasja M; Hooiveld, Guido J E J; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Kampman, Ellen; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Folate and its synthetic form folic acid function as donor of one-carbon units and have been, together with other B-vitamins, implicated in programming of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation during early development. To what extent regulation of DNA methylation can be altered via B-vitamins later in life, and how this relates to health and disease, is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to identify effects of long-term supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B12 on genome-wide DNA methylation in elderly subjects. This project was part of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial on effects of supplemental intake of folic acid and vitamin B12 on bone fracture incidence (B-vitamins for the PRevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures (B-PROOF) study). Participants with mildly elevated homocysteine levels, aged 65-75 years, were randomly assigned to take 400 μg folic acid and 500 μg vitamin B12 per day or a placebo during an intervention period of 2 years. DNA was isolated from buffy coats, collected before and after intervention, and genome-wide DNA methylation was determined in 87 participants (n = 44 folic acid/vitamin B12, n = 43 placebo) using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. After intervention with folic acid and vitamin B12, 162 (versus 14 in the placebo group) of the 431,312 positions were differentially methylated as compared to baseline. Comparisons of the DNA methylation changes in the participants receiving folic acid and vitamin B12 versus placebo revealed one single differentially methylated position (cg19380919) with a borderline statistical significance. However, based on the analyses of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) consisting of multiple positions, we identified 6 regions that differed statistically significantly between the intervention and placebo group. Pronounced changes were found for regions in the DIRAS3, ARMC8, and NODAL genes, implicated in carcinogenesis and early embryonic development

  7. Long-term incidence of female-specific cancer after bariatric surgery or usual care in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anveden, Åsa; Taube, Magdalena; Peltonen, Markku; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Svensson, Per-Arne; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on female-specific cancer in women with obesity. The prospective, matched Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study was designed to examine outcomes after bariatric surgery. This study includes 1420 women from the SOS cohort that underwent bariatric surgery and 1447 contemporaneously matched controls who received conventional obesity treatment. Age was 37-60years and BMI was ≥38kg/m2. Information on cancer events was obtained from the Swedish National Cancer Registry. Median follow-up time was 18.1years (interquartile range 14.8-20.9years, maximum 26years). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01479452. Bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of overall cancer (hazard ratio=0.71; 95% CI 0.59-0.85; pbariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio=0.56: 95% CI 0.35-0.89; p=0.014). In this long-term study, bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of female-specific cancer, especially in women with hyperinsulinemia at baseline. This project was supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DK105948 (the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health), the Swedish Research Council K2013-99X-22279-01, K2013-54X-11285-19, Sahlgrenska University Hospital ALF research grant and Swedish Diabetes Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of Blood Pressure and Other Clinical Variables on Long-Term Mortality in a Cohort of Elderly Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Daniel M; Meneilly, Graydon S; Moleski, Luc; Trottier, Lise; Lanthier, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus and high blood pressure (HBP) are commonly associated conditions in the elderly population. An effect of treatments, biologic and anthropometric variables on long-term mortality is unknown in this population. To determine the prevalence of HBP control in a sample of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes with office blood pressure (BP) readings and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and evaluate the influence of BP, anthropometric and laboratory variables on long term mortality. Cohort study in patients living at home in the area of Sherbrooke, ≥65 years old, receiving reimbursement for antidiabetic medication. The study included medical history, 2 sets of BP measurements, 2 24-hour urinary collections for microalbuminuria, 1 24-hour ABPM, blood level of creatinine and glycosylated hemoglobin. Charts were reanalyzed 8 years later for analysis of cardiovascular and total mortality cases. 198 patients were initially recruited. By history, 83% of the subjects had diagnoses and treatments for high blood pressure. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an 8-year increased risk for cardiovascular mortality were creatinine ≥84 µmol/L, office seated systolic blood pressure ≤130 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Factors associated with total mortality were lower waist circumference, serum creatinine ≥84 and diastolic BP ≤67.6 over 24 hours. Lower systolic and diastolic BP (office and ABPM), lower waist circumference and higher creatinine values are associated with an increased mortality risk. This suggests that a lower BP, declining kidney function and frailty are factors associated with this observation. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Aspects of Holmium Laser Enucleation of the Prostate for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn-Ey

    2013-01-01

    Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) is a minimally invasive procedure and a size-independent treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia with excellent long-term surgical outcome. HoLEP has become an alternative to conventional transurethral resection of the prostate or open prostatectomy owing to its efficacy and safety. Although HoLEP is known to have a steep learning curve, very few articles have addressed the technical aspects of HoLEP. Herein, we described detailed techniques and tips for HoLEP as performed at Seoul National University Hospital in a step-by-step manner with extensive review of the literature. PMID:24044089

  10. Enlarged Prostate (BPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine out of the body. As men age, their prostate grows bigger. If it gets too large, it ...

  11. Transurethral enucleation and resection of prostate in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia by plasma kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiao; Zheng, Shaobo; Li, Hulin; Xu, Kai

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate in patients with urinary symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia using the Plasmakinetic™ system. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1,100 patients who underwent transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate between January 2003 and February 2009 at our institution. We assessed the International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, peak flow rate and post-void residual urine volume preoperatively, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, and yearly thereafter. Enucleation and resection time, enucleated tissue weight, catheterization time, hospital stay and long-term complications were recorded. No patient had significant blood loss or signs of the transurethral resection syndrome. Mean±SD patient age was 66.7±7.3 years and mean followup was 4.3 years. Mean preoperative prostate weight was 67.7±12 gm (range 35 to 256), mean enucleation time was 15.5 minutes (range 10 to 38), mean resection time was 46 minutes (range 20 to 65) and mean resected tissue weight was 42.8±7.7 gm (range 23 to 219). Mean catheter time was 1.8±0.4 days and mean hospital stay was 5.3±2.3 days. Transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate induced significant, pronounced, immediate and lasting improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life, maximum urinary flow and post-void residual urine volume. Postoperative complications included meatal stenosis in 9 cases, incontinence in 56, urethral stricture in 12 and bladder neck contracture in 10. Transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate appears to be the modern alternative to transurethral resection of the prostate and open prostatectomy for bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. It may be done in glands up to 250 gm. Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    117. 117-123. Original article The Relationship Between Prostate Volume, Prostate-. Specific Antigen and Age in Saudi Men with Benign. Prostatic Conditions. H. A. Mosli1 and ... Methods: Medical records of 447 Saudi men aged 20-89 years with benign prostatic conditions .... widely used to identify an enlarged prostate,.

  13. Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Ultrasound- and MRI-Guided Prostate Biopsy Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ... MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? What is Ultrasound- and MRI-guided Prostate Biopsy? Ultrasound- and MRI-guided prostate ...

  14. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test On This Page What ... the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? Detecting prostate cancer early may not reduce the chance of ...

  15. Monosodium glutamate: Potentials at inducing prostate pathologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... either MSG or DW. Key words: Monosodium glutamate, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate cancer, prostatitis, benign prostate hyperplasia, infertility. INTRODUCTION. Elevated total acid phosphatase (TAP) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) activities are among the main.

  16. Travel distance and stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahal, Brandon A; Chen, Yu-Wei; Sethi, Roshan V; Padilla, Oscar A; Yang, David D; Chavez, Janice; Muralidhar, Vinayak; Hu, Jim C; Feng, Felix Y; Hoffman, Karen E; Martin, Neil E; Spratt, Daniel E; Yu, James B; Orio, Peter F; Nguyen, Paul L

    2017-12-12

    Definitive stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) represents an emerging and debated treatment option for patients with prostate cancer, with potential economic savings and reports of short-term efficacy since 2006. The current study sought to define national trends in definitive prostate SBRT use and determine whether patterns vary by travel distance for treatment. The National Cancer Data Base identified 181,544 men with localized prostate cancer who were treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy from 2004 through 2012. Joinpoint regression analyzed definitive prostate SBRT trends over time, whereas multivariable logistic regression defined the odds for its receipt by travel distance for treatment. Definitive prostate SBRT use increased from 1.8% in 2004 to 5.9% in 2012 (P for trend 50 miles were associated with increasing adjusted odds of receipt of definitive prostate SBRT (1.63 [95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.76] and 2.35 [95% confidence interval, 2.14-2.57], respectively; both P < .0001). Definitive prostate SBRT use increased more than 3-fold since 2004, with a significant increase in use coinciding with early reports of short-term efficacy. Long-distance travel for treatment was associated with greater than twice the odds of receipt of definitive prostate SBRT compared with short-distance travel, suggesting that treatment decisions with unknown long-term clinical implications may be strongly driven by sociodemographic factors. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. A supervoxel-based segmentation method for prostate MR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhiqiang; Liu, LiZhi; Fei, Baowei

    2015-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of the prostate has many applications in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we propose a "Supervoxel" based method for prostate segmentation. The prostate segmentation problem is considered as assigning a label to each supervoxel. An energy function with data and smoothness terms is used to model the labeling process. The data term estimates the likelihood of a supervoxel belongs to the prostate according to a shape feature. The geometric relationship between two neighboring supervoxels is used to construct a smoothness term. A threedimensional (3D) graph cut method is used to minimize the energy function in order to segment the prostate. A 3D level set is then used to get a smooth surface based on the output of the graph cut. The performance of the proposed segmentation algorithm was evaluated with respect to the manual segmentation ground truth. The experimental results on 12 prostate volumes showed that the proposed algorithm yields a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 86.9%+/-3.2%. The segmentation method can be used not only for the prostate but also for other organs.

  18. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis with prostato-rectal fistula: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Liyong; Liu, Zhifei; Deng, Gang; Wang, Huan; Zhu, Yanfeng; Shi, Peng; Huo, Bingyue; Li, Yindong

    2016-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis (XP) is a rare form of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis that can clinically mimic high-grade prostatic carcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose it definitely in clinical settings. We report a case of XP with prostate-rectal fistula and review the relevant literatures. A 75-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding when he urinated. A locally advanced carcinoma of prostate was suspected initially following the physical, imaging, and hematologic examinations. Subsequently on histopathological and immunohistochemical staining after needle biopsy of the prostate, a diagnosis of XP was made definitely. The patient was catheterized temporarily and treated with tamsulosin and estrogen. The patient underwent uneventful recovery after this conservative therapy. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses are valuable in differentially diagnosing XP from high-grade prostate carcinoma. Treatment strategy of XP in principle is recommended to be the conservative method. Long-term follow-up earns are highly regarded considering the possibility of coexisting prostate cancer.

  20. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Naim Terai, Matthias Müller-Holz, Eberhard Spoerl, Lutz E PillunatDepartment of Ophthalmology, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Dresden, GermanyBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.Methods: In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer.Results: Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21, -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03 and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003, which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P< 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001, followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002, latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001 and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004 at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion: Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.Keywords: tear-film, tear secretion, corneal sensitivity, antiglaucoma medication

  1. Effects of short-term exercise in the heat on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and sweat composition of tropic-dwelling subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saat, Mohamed; Sirisinghe, Roland Gamini; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of a short-term aerobic training program in a hot environment on thermoregulation, blood parameters, sweat secretion and composition in tropic-dwellers who have been exposed to passive heat. Sixteen healthy Malaysian-Malay male volunteers underwent heat acclimation (HA) by exercising on a bicycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max for 60 min each day in a hot environment (Ta: 31.1+/-0.1 degrees C, rh: 70.0+/-4.4%) for 14 days. All parameters mentioned above were recorded on Day 1 and at the end of HA (Day 16). On these two days, subjects rested for 10 min, then cycled at 60% of VO2max for 60 min and rested again for 20 min (recovery) in an improvised heat chamber. Rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature (Tsk) heart rate (HR), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation (TS), local sweat rate and percent dehydration were recorded during the test. Sweat concentration was analysed for sodium [Na+]sweat and potassium. Blood samples were analysed for biochemical changes, electrolytes and hematologic indices. Urine samples were collected before and after each test and analysed for electrolytes.After the period of acclimation the percent dehydration during exercise significantly increased from 1.77+/-0.09% (Day 1) to 2.14+/-0.07% (Day 16). Resting levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells decreased significantly while [Na+]sweat increased significantly. For Tre and Tsk there were no differences at rest. Tre, HR, RPE, TS, plasma lactate concentration, hemoglobin and hematocrit at the 40th min of exercise were significantly lower after the period of acclimation but mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum osmolality were significantly higher while no difference was seen in [Na+]sweat and Tsk. It can be concluded that tropic-dwelling subjects, although exposed to prolonged passive heat exposure, were not fully heat acclimatized. To achieve further HA, they should gradually expose themselves to exercise-heat stress in a

  2. Long-term safety of oral nucleos(t)ide analogs for patients with chronic hepatitis B: A cohort study of 53,500 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Tse, Yee-Kit; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Yip, Terry Cheuk-Fung; Tsoi, Kelvin Kam-Fai; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-09-01

    Widespread and long-term use of oral nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) to treat chronic hepatitis B (CHB) brings about safety data in a real-life setting. We aimed to determine the risks of renal and bone side effects in patients receiving or who have received NAs as CHB treatment. A territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority, the major provider of medical services in Hong Kong, was conducted. We identified CHB patients by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes, diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. The primary events were renal (incident renal failure and renal replacement therapy [RRT]) and bone events (incident hip, vertebral, and all fractures). A 3-year landmark analysis was used to evaluate the relative risk of primary outcome in patients with or without NA treatment. A total of 53,500 CHB patients (46,454 untreated and 7,046 treated), who were event free for 3 years, were included in the analysis. At a median follow-up of 4.9 years, chronic renal failure, RRT, all fractures, hip fractures, and vertebral fractures occurred in 0.6%, 0.2%, 0.7%, 0.1%, and 0.1% of untreated subjects and 1.4%, 0.7%, 1.3%, 0.2%, and 0.2% of treated subjects. After propensity score weighting, NA therapy did not increase the risk of any of the events (hazard ratios [HRs] ranged from 0.79 to 1.31; P = 0.225-0.887). Exposure to nucleotide analogues, compared with nucleoside analogs, increased the risk of hip fracture (HR = 5.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.98-16.39; P = 0.001), but not other events (HR = 0.58-1.44; P = 0.202-0.823). NA treatment does not increase the risk of renal and bone events in general. Nucleotide analogs may increase the risk of hip fracture, but the overall event rate is low. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. FOXP3+regulatory T cells in normal prostate tissue, postatrophic hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and tumor histological lesions in men with and without prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Sabina; Andren, Ove; Ohlson, Anna-Lena; Carlsson, Jessica; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Giunchi, Francesca; Rider, Jennifer R; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2018-01-01

    The tumor promoting or counteracting effects of the immune response to cancer development are thought to be mediated to some extent by the infiltration of regulatory T cells (T regs ). In the present study we evaluated the prevalence of T reg populations in stromal and epithelial compartments of normal, post atrophic hyperplasia (PAH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and tumor lesions in men with and without prostate cancer. Study subjects were 102 men consecutively diagnosed with localized prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy and 38 men diagnosed with bladder cancer undergoing cystoprostatectomy without prostate cancer at the pathological examination. Whole mount sections from all patients were evaluated for the epithelial and stromal expression of CD4 + T regs and CD8 + T regs in normal, PAH, PIN, and tumor lesions. A Friedmańs test was used to investigate differences in the mean number of T regs across histological lesions. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for prostate cancer for each histological area. In men with prostate cancer, similarly high numbers of stromal CD4 + T regs were identified in PAH and tumor, but CD4 + T regs were less common in PIN. Greater numbers of epithelial CD4+ T regs in normal prostatic tissue were positively associated with both Gleason score and pT-stage. We observed a fourfold increased risk of prostate cancer in men with epithelial CD4 + T regs in the normal prostatic tissue counterpart. Our results may suggest a possible pathway through which PAH develops directly into prostate cancer in the presence of CD4 + T regs and indicate that transformation of the anti-tumor immune response may be initiated even before the primary tumor is established. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  4. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Maria Carlsen; Andersen, Morten Heebøll; Høyer, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical...... lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22......% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able...

  5. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienberg, Sara G; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma; Astrup, Arne; Vaag, Allan; Andersen, Birgitte

    2012-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies respectively. Five days of HF overfeeding diet significantly (Pincreased fasting serum FGF21 levels in both the groups (Pinsulin infusion additionally increased serum FGF21 levels to a similar extent in both the groups. Basal mRNA expression of FGF21 in muscle was near the detection limit and not present in fat in both the groups before and after the dietary challenge. However, insulin significantly (Pincreased FGF21 mRNA in both muscle and fat in both the groups during both diets. Short-term HF overfeeding markedly increased serum FGF21 levels in healthy young men with and without LBW but failed to increase muscle or fat FGF21 mRNA levels. This suggests that the liver may be responsible for the rise of serum FGF21 levels during overfeeding. In contrast, the increase in serum FGF21 levels during insulin infusion may arise from increased transcription in muscle and fat. We speculate that increased serum FGF21 levels during HF overfeeding may be a compensatory response to increase fatty acid oxidation and energy expenditure.

  6. Long-term test-retest reliability of resting-state networks in healthy elderly subjects and with amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blautzik, Janusch; Keeser, Daniel; Berman, Albert; Paolini, Marco; Kirsch, Valerie; Mueller, Sophia; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian; Teipel, Stefan J; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of cerebral resting-state networks (RSNs) by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising tool for the early diagnosis and follow-up of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this context, the determination of inter-session reliability of these networks is crucial. However, data on network reliability in healthy elderly subjects is rare and does not exist for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of AD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the long-term test-retest reliability of RSNs in both groups. Twelve healthy controls (HC) and 13 aMCI patients underwent resting-state fMRI and neuropsychological testing (CERAD test battery) twice, at baseline and after 13-16 months. Resting-state fMRI data was decomposed into independent components using independent component analysis. Inter-session test-retest reliability of the resulting RSNs was determined by calculating voxel-wise intra-class correlation coefficients. Overall test-retest reliability of corresponding RSNs was moderate to high in both groups, but significantly higher in the HC group compared to the aMCI group (p < 0.001), while the cognitive performance within the CERAD test battery remained stable over time in either group. Most reliable RSNs derived from the HC group and were associated with sensory and motor as well as higher order cognitive and the default-mode function. Particularly low reliability was found in basal frontal regions, which are known to be prone to susceptibility-induced noise. We conclude that stable RSNs may represent healthy aging, whereas decreased RSN reliability may indicate progressive neuro-functional alterations before the actual manifestation of clinical symptoms.

  7. The effect of exogenous spermidine concentration on polyamine metabolism and salt tolerance in zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud subjected to short-term salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress, and particularly short-term salinity stress, is one of the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd stimulats tolerance to salt stress in plants. In the present study, two cultivars that are typically grown in China were used. The two zoysiagrass cultivars, exhibiting a sensitive ( cv. Z081 or tolerant ( cv. Z057 salt stress adaptation ability, were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine (Put, Spd and Spm contents and polyamine metabolic enzyme (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO and DAO, malondialdehyde (MDA, H2O2 and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and diamine oxidase (DAO in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not compromise polyamine contents through the regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in PA synthesis enzymes was observed during the experiment. The application resulted in a tendency for the Spd and Spm contents and the activities of ODC, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzymes to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars with an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration. H2O2 and MDA significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. With an increase in the exogenous Spd concentration, the Spd + Spm level scores showed positive correlations with polyamine synthesis enzymes (ADC, SAMDC, DAO, antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT, while showing negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA in both cultivars.

  8. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M Llibre

    2014-11-01

    (3. Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinical routine however are scant. Methods: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c/mL and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. Results: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68% male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53 y, 225 (87.2% white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700, time with VL≤ 50 c/mL 45 (24, 69 months. The median calendar year of switching was 2008 (2006, 2010. The 3rd drug in previous regimen was ATV/r in 70 (27.1%, other PI/r in 25 (9.7%, and other 163 (63.2%; 85 (32.9% had previously failed with a PI. The virological response at 48/96/144 weeks was, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0.8/1.9/3.5% discontinued due to adverse events. There was a high rate of discontinuations due to other reasons or with VL missing in window. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we observed an association between VF and nadir CD4 count (RH 0.60 [0.39, 0.93] per 100 cells higher, time with VL≤50 c/mL (RH 0.89 [0.81, 0.98] per 6 months longer and previous failure with a PI (3.04 [1.36, 6.80]. There was no association with gender, age, hepatitis virus co-infection, CD4 count at time of switching or third drug used in the previous regimen. Conclusions: A switch to ATV400+ABC/3TC in selected subjects with HIV-RNA below 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use

  9. Night shift work, chronotype and prostate cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Burgos, Javier; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Llorca, Javier; Peiró, Rosana; Jimenez-Moleón, Jose Juan; Arredondo, Francisco; Tardón, Adonina; Pollan, Marina; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-09-01

    Night shift work has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on experimental studies and limited human evidence on breast cancer. Evidence on other common cancers, such as prostate cancer, is scarce. Chronotype is an individual characteristic that may relate to night work adaptation. We evaluated night shift work with relation to prostate cancer, taking into account chronotype and disease severity in a population based case-control study in Spain. We included 1,095 prostate cancer cases and 1,388 randomly selected population controls. We collected detailed information on shift schedules (permanent vs. rotating, time schedules, duration, frequency), using lifetime occupational history. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and chronotype through a validated questionnaire. We used unconditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounders. Subjects who had worked at least for one year in night shift work had a slightly higher prostate cancer risk [Odds Ratio (OR) 1.14; 95%CI 0.94, 1.37] compared with never night workers; this risk increased with longer duration of exposure (≥ 28 years: OR 1.37; 95%CI 1.05, 1.81; p-trend = 0.047). Risks were more pronounced for high risk tumors [D'Amico classification, Relative Risk Ratio (RRR) 1.40; 95%CI 1.05, 1.86], particularly among subjects with longer duration of exposure (≥28 years: RRR 1.63; 95%CI 1.08, 2.45; p-trend = 0.027). Overall risk was higher among subjects with an evening chronotype, but also increased in morning chronotypes after long-term night work. In this large population based study, we found an association between night shift work and prostate cancer particularly for tumors with worse prognosis. © 2014 UICC.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Altok

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results: The mean (±standard deviation age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%. Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%. There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions: Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process.

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağcı, Özkan; Umul, Mehmet; Güneş, Mustafa; Akyüz, Mehmet; Uruç, Fatih; Uz, Efkan; Soyupek, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the chromosomal changes in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods A total of 54 patients diagnosed with clinical BPH underwent transurethral prostate resection to address their primary urological problem. All patients were evaluated by use of a comprehensive medical history and rectal digital examination. The preoperative evaluation also included serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement and ultrasonographic measurement of prostate volume. Prostate cancer was detected in one patient, who was then excluded from the study. We performed conventional cytogenetic analyses of short-term cultures of 53 peripheral blood samples obtained from the BPH patients. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 53 patients was 67.8±9.4 years. The mean PSA value of the patients was 5.8±7.0 ng/mL. The mean prostate volume was 53.6±22.9 mL. Chromosomal abnormalities were noted in 5 of the 53 cases (9.4%). Loss of the Y chromosome was the most frequent chromosomal abnormality and was observed in three patients (5.7%). There was no statistically significant relationship among age, PSA, prostate volume, and chromosomal changes. Conclusions Loss of the Y chromosome was the main chromosomal abnormality found in our study. However, this coexistence did not reach a significant level. Our study concluded that loss of the Y chromosome cannot be considered relevant for the diagnosis of BPH as it is for prostate cancer. Because BPH usually occurs in aging men, loss of the Y chromosome in BPH patients may instead be related to the aging process. PMID:26966725

  12. High-dose rate brachytherapy of prostatic adenocarcinoma in combination with external beam radiotherapy. A long-term follow-up of the first 50 patients at one center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennernaes, B. [Dept. of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Holmaeng, S. [Dept. of Urology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital (Sweden); Hedelin, H. [Kaernsjukhuset, Skoevde (Sweden)

    2002-10-01

    Aim: To report the long-term follow-up of 50 patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) by high-dose rate brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy. Patients and methods: Between 1988 and 1995, 50 patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy delivered in 2 Gy fractions to a total dose of 50 Gy. Brachytherapy was delivered in two 10 Gy fractions. The mean follow-up time was 7.2 years. Results: 42 patients are alive and four patients have deceased of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Of the remaining patients, 40 have a PSA<1 ng/l. 41 patients were interviewed during the year 2000 and 91% of these were satisfied with the treatment. Four (8%) patients reported grade III/IV side effects. Ten of the 41 patients reported that they still had an erection allowing intercourse. Half of those who developed an erectile dysfunction did so in direct connection with the treatment. In the others erectile dysfunction developed gradually during the first 48 months after the treatment. Conclusion: The combined treatment gave an exceptionally good local control (86%). The method represents a promising curative treatment, but the effect can be double edged. The small number of patients in this study restricts a more conclusive statement concerning this treatment modality. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Monoinstitutioneller Erfahrungsbericht zur Behandlung des Prostatakarzinoms mit kombinierter externer und HDR-Brachytherapie. Patienten und Methoden: Von 1988 bis 1995 wurden 50 Patienten mit einem Prostataadenokarzinom kombiniert extern und interstitiell behandelt. Die perkutane Radiotherapie erfolgte bei einer Einzeldosis von 2 Gy bis zu einer Gesamtreferenzdosis von 50 Gy. Die Brachtherapie folgte mittels zweier HDR-Fraktionen von je 10 Gy. Die mediane Nachbeobachtungszeit betrug 7,2 Jahre. Ergebnisse: 42 Patienten sind am Leben, vier starben am Prostataadenokarzinom. Von den ueberlebenden Patienten haben 40 einen PSA-Wert <1 ng/l. 41 Patienten wurden waehrend des Jahres

  13. Salvage radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer and biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy. Long-term follow-up of a single-center survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohm, Gunnar; Luetcke, Joerg; Hinkelbein, Wolfgang [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiation Oncology, Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Klinikum Frankfurt Oder, Praxis fuer Strahlentherapie, Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Hoecht, Stefan [X-Care Praxis fuer Strahlentherapie Saarlouis, Saarlouis (Germany); Neumann, Konrad [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Berlin (Germany); Wiegel, Thomas; Bottke, Dirk [University Hospital Ulm, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ulm (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    In patients with prostate cancer (PC) and biochemical relapse after radical prostatectomy, salvage radiotherapy (SRT) could improve PC-specific survival (PCSS) but the timing for initiation is still under discussion. We have demonstrated a low rate of biochemical relapses in a patient series with very low pre-SRT PSA levels after a median follow-up of 42 months. Here, we present an update of that study. Overall, 151 patients were analyzed. A biochemical relapse after SRT was diagnosed when the PSA exceeded the post-SRT nadir by 0.2 ng/ml with subsequent increase. Parameters with significant impact on biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), PCSS, and overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis were included in a multiple Cox regression analysis. After a median follow-up of 82 months, 18 patients (12 %) had died with 10 (6.6 %) deaths being PC-related. A biochemical progression was diagnosed in 83 patients (55 %). Univariate analysis revealed a significant impact of pre-SRT PSA level, Gleason score, and PSA doubling time (PSADT) on BPFS and for initial tumor stage and Gleason score on OS. Multivariate analysis confirmed the impact of pre-SRT PSA level, Gleason score, and PSADT on BPFS and tumor stage on OS. In this update, the rate of biochemical relapses increased compared with our previous data. Compared to similar studies, we found a remarkably low rate of PC-related deaths. Our data support early initiation of SRT. However, this treatment strategy, triggered by very low PSA levels, could carry the risk of overtreatment in at least a subset of patients. (orig.) [German] Bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom und biochemischem Rezidiv nach radikaler Prostatektomie kann eine Salvage-Strahlentherapie das tumorspezifische Ueberleben verbessern. Der Zeitpunkt des Therapiebeginns wird kontrovers diskutiert. Wir haben in unserer Serie eine geringe Rate biochemischer Rezidive bei Patienten mit sehr niedrigen praeradiotherapeutischen PSA-Werten gezeigt. Die vorliegende

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that makes ...

  15. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSTICS OF PROSTATE TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Brizhatyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate tuberculosis is difficult to be diagnosed, especially if lesions are limited only by this organ. The article analyses the experience of differential diagnostics of prostate tuberculosis based on the data of examination of 84 patients. 45 of them were diagnosed with prostate tuberculosis, and 39 patients were diagnosed with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Pathognomonic diagnostics criteria of prostate tuberculosis were the following: detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in the prostatic fluid or ejaculate, signs of granulomatous prostatitis with areas of cavernous necrosis in prostate biopsy samples, and prostate cavities visualized by X-ray or ultrasound examinations. Should the above criteria be absent, the disease can be diagnosed based on the combination of indirect signs: symptoms of prostate inflammation with active tuberculosis of the other localization; large prostate calcification, extensive hyperechoic area of the prostate, spermatocystic lesions, leucospermia and hemospermia, failure of the adequate non-specific anti-bacterial therapy.

  17. Prostatic Disease and Sexual Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Woong

    2011-01-01

    Prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common prostatic diseases. Furthermore, the incidence of prostate cancer has recently shown a rapid increase, even in Korea. Pain caused by prostatitis may induce sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disturbance. And BPH itself, or treatments for BPH, may affect sexual function. In addition, with increased detection of localized prostate cancer, surgical treatments and radiation therapy have also increased, a...

  18. Linking CHHiP prostate cancer RCT with GP records: A study proposal to investigate the effect of co-morbidities and medications on long-term symptoms and radiotherapy-related toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lemanska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients receiving cancer treatment often have one or more co-morbid conditions that are treated pharmacologically. Co-morbidities are recorded in clinical trials usually only at baseline. However, co-morbidities evolve and new ones emerge during cancer treatment. The interaction between multi-morbidity and cancer recovery is significant but poorly understood. Purpose: To investigate the effect of co-morbidities (e.g. cardiovascular and diabetes and medications (e.g. statins, antihypertensives, metformin on radiotherapy-related toxicity and long-term symptoms in order to identify potential risk factors. The possible protective effect of medications such as statins or antihypertensives in reducing radiotherapy-related toxicity will also be explored. Methods: Two datasets will be linked. (1 CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High Dose Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer randomised control trial. CHHiP contains pelvic symptoms and radiation-related toxicity reported by patients and clinicians. (2 GP (General Practice data from RCGP RSC (Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre. The GP records of CHHiP patients will be extracted, including cardiovascular co-morbidities, diabetes and prescription medications. Statistical analysis of the combined dataset will be performed in order to investigate the effect. Conclusions: Linking two sources of healthcare data is an exciting area of big healthcare data research. With limited data in clinical trials (not all clinical trials collect information on co-morbidities or medications and limited lengths of follow-up, linking different sources of information is increasingly needed to investigate long-term outcomes. With increasing pressures to collect detailed information in clinical trials (e.g. co-morbidities, medications, linkage to routinely collected data offers the potential to support efficient conduct of clinical trials. Keywords: Data

  19. Long noncoding RNA in prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens-Uzunova, Elena S; Böttcher, René; Croce, Carlo M; Jenster, Guido; Visakorpi, Tapio; Calin, George A

    2014-06-01

    Genomic regions without protein-coding potential give rise to millions of protein-noncoding RNA transcripts (noncoding RNA) that participate in virtually all cellular processes. Research over the last 10 yr has accumulated evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in human urologic cancers. To review current progress in the biology and implication of lncRNAs associated with prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles in the English language with combinations of the Medical Subject Headings terms long non coding RNA, long noncoding RNA, long untranslated RNA, cancer, neoplasms, prostate, bladder, and kidney. We summarise existing knowledge on the systematics, biology, and function of lncRNAs, particularly these involved in prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. We also discuss the possible utilisation of lncRNAs as novel biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in urologic malignancies and portray the major challenges and future perspectives of ongoing lncRNA research. LncRNAs are important regulators of gene expression interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Alterations in the function of lncRNAs promote tumour formation, progression, and metastasis of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. LncRNAs can be used as noninvasive tumour markers in urologic malignancies. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs perform their function in the normal and malignant cell will lead to a better understanding of tumour biology and could provide novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of urologic cancers. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) for the detection and treatment of urologic cancers. We conclude that lncRNAs can be used as novel biomarkers in prostate, kidney, or bladder cancer. LncRNAs hold promise as future therapeutic targets, but more research is needed to gain a better

  20. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  1. PET/CT with 18F-choline: Physiological whole bio-distribution in male and female subjects and diagnostic pitfalls on 1000 prostate cancer patients: 18F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and pitfalls. A southern Italian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Ferdinando; Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Cicciò, Carmelo; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Gullà, Domenico; Rocca, Federico; Gallo, Gianpasquale; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-08-01

    The 11C/18F-choline is a PET/CT radiopharmaceutical useful in detecting tumors with high lipogenesis. 11C/18F-choline uptake can occur in physiological conditions or tumors. The knowledge of its bio-distribution is essential to recognize physiologic variants or diagnostic pitfalls. Moreover, few information are available on the bio-distribution of this tracer in female patients. Our aim was to discuss some documented 18F-choline PET/CT pitfalls in prostate cancer patients. Our secondary aim was to describe the 18F-choline bio-distribution in the female body. We collected diagnostic pitfalls in three PET centers examining 1000 prostate cancer by 18F-choline PET/CT. All pitfalls were ensured by follow-up, imaging and/or histology. We also performed whole body 18F-choline PET/CT in 5 female patients. 169/1000 (16.9%) patients showed pitfalls not owing to prostate cancer. These findings were due to inflammation, benign tumors while, in 1% of examined patients, a concomitant neoplasm was found. In the female body, the breast showed low physiological uptake. The accurate knowledge of 18F-choline PET/CT bio-distribution and diagnostic pitfalls is essential. Correlative imaging and histological exam are often necessary to depict pitfalls. In women, the uptake in the breast is due to the physiological gradient of 18F-choline uptake in the exocrine glands. Our results confirm the possibility of 18F-choline uptake in several diseases other than prostate cancer. However, our experience was acquired on a large population and shows that a conspicuous amount of 18F-choline diagnostic pitfalls are easily recognizable and attributable to inflammation. A new advance in knowledge is the minimal difference in terms of physiological tracer bio-distribution between male and female patients. The knowledge of the physiological bio-distribution and of the potential pitfalls linked of a tracer could help physicians to choose the best diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for a better

  2. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...... cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  3. Acute and long-term effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on glucose metabolism in subjects with Type 2 diabetes and normal glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N B; Jacobsen, S H; Dirksen, C

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to study the potential mechanisms responsible for the improvement in glucose control in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) within days after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Thirteen obese subjects with T2D and twelve matched subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) were examined during a liqu...

  4. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  5. Early outcome of transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate versus transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, Sundaram; Kuo, Tricia Li Chuen; Cheng, Christopher Wai Sam; Foo, Keong Tatt

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent prostate adenoma is a long-term complication following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Transurethral enucleation and resection of the prostate (TUERP) is more appealing, since the nodular adenoma can be completely removed through endoscopy. TUERP is also hypothesised to result in a lower frequency of recurrent adenoma. This study aimed to compare the early outcomes of TUERP and TURP, and assess the feasibility and safety of TUERP. We compared the outcome of 81 patients who underwent TUERP with that of 85 patients who underwent TURP. International prostate symptom score, quality of life score, prostate volume, degree of intravesical prostatic protrusion, maximum flow rate, post-void residual volume and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level were obtained pre- and postoperatively. Complications (e.g. transfusion rate, incontinence, infection and urethral stricture) were analysed. Operative time was significantly longer in the TUERP group compared to the TURP group (85.3 minutes vs. 51.6 minutes). After TUERP, the maximum flow rate was significantly higher (21.1 mL/s vs. 17.1 mL/s) and PSA level was significantly lower (1.2 ng/mL vs. 1.9 ng/mL) than after TURP. The rates of infection, transfusion and urethral stricture were similar for both groups, but the TUERP group had a higher rate of temporary incontinence (13.6% vs. 4.7%). The lower PSA level and better maximum flow rate achieved following TUERP suggest that prostate adenoma removal was more complete with TUERP. Long-term follow-up is required to establish whether TUERP results in fewer resections for recurrent adenoma.

  6. [Epigenetics of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Wen-Quan

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in males, and its etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Epigenesis is involved in prostate cancer at all stages of the process, and closely related with its growth and metastasis. DNA methylation and histone modification are the most important manifestations of epigenetics in prostate cancer. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis of DNA methylation include whole-genome hypomethylation, aberrant local hypermethylation of promoters and genomic instability. DNA methylation is closely related to the process of prostate cancer, as in DNA damage repair, hormone response, tumor cell invasion/metastasis, cell cycle regulation, and so on. Histone modification causes corresponding changes in chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription, and it may affect the cycle, differentiation and apoptosis of cells, resulting in prostate cancer. Some therapies have been developed targeting the epigenetic changes in prostate cancer, including DNA methyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors, and have achieved certain desirable results.

  7. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at these links. About Us | Contact Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 ... message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here will not be used for ...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging tests, treatments and procedures may vary by geographic region. Discuss the fees associated with your prescribed ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2018 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  9. Population based comparative effectiveness of transurethral resection of the prostate and laser therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strope, Seth A; Yang, Liu; Nepple, Kenneth G; Andriole, Gerald L; Owens, Pamela L

    2012-04-01

    As the American population ages, benign prostatic hyperplasia and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms have become increasingly important causes of chronic morbidity. We assessed the comparative effectiveness of 2 common forms of surgical therapy, transurethral prostate resection and laser therapy, for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Using patient level discharge data and revisit files from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality we evaluated a cohort of patients who underwent transurethral prostate resection or laser therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia in 2005 in California. Short-term outcomes, including in hospital complications, length of stay, 30-day rehospitalization, 30-day repeat surgery and 30-day emergency room visits, were compared between the therapies by regression analysis. Long-term re-treatment, defined as the absence of secondary procedures for benign prostatic hyperplasia or complications of therapy, was assessed by survival analysis. Analysis was adjusted for medical comorbidity, race, age and insurance status. Data on 11,645 hospital discharges showed that mean length of stay was shorter for laser therapy than for transurethral prostate resection (0.70 vs 2.03 days, plaser therapy (plaser therapy (HR 0.64, p<0.0001). Laser procedures and transurethral prostate resection provide effective management of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms. Laser procedures are associated with less need for hospitalization than transurethral prostate resection but appear to involve a trade-off in long-term efficacy. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Are strict vegetarians protected against prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantamango-Bartley, Yessenia; Knutsen, Synnove F; Knutsen, Raymond; Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Fan, Jing; Beeson, W Lawrence; Sabate, Joan; Hadley, David; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Penniecook, Jason; Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Bennett, Hanni; Fraser, Gary

    2016-01-01

    According to the American Cancer Society, prostate cancer accounts for ∼27% of all incident cancer cases among men and is the second most common (noncutaneous) cancer among men. The relation between diet and prostate cancer is still unclear. Because people do not consume individual foods but rather foods in combination, the assessment of dietary patterns may offer valuable information when determining associations between diet and prostate cancer risk. This study aimed to examine the association between dietary patterns (nonvegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, vegan, and semi-vegetarian) and prostate cancer incidence among 26,346 male participants of the Adventist Health Study-2. In this prospective cohort study, cancer cases were identified by matching to cancer registries. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate HRs by using age as the time variable. In total, 1079 incident prostate cancer cases were identified. Around 8% of the study population reported adherence to the vegan diet. Vegan diets showed a statistically significant protective association with prostate cancer risk (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.85). After stratifying by race, the statistically significant association with a vegan diet remained only for the whites (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.86), but the multivariate HR for black vegans showed a similar but nonsignificant point estimate (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.18). Vegan diets may confer a lower risk of prostate cancer. This lower estimated risk is seen in both white and black vegan subjects, although in the latter, the CI is wider and includes the null. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Correlation of transrectal ultrasonographic findings with histo pathology in prostatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Farooq Ahmad; Wanie, Mohd Saleem; Ganie, Shabir Ahmad; Lone, Hafezulla; Gani, Masaratul; Mir, Mohd Farooq; Khan, Naseer Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the incidence of hyperechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, prostatic cancer in TRUS (transrectal ultrasound guided) guided prostatic specimens. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and ninety three patients with raised serum prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and abnormal DRE findings were subjected to TRUS-Guided prostate biopsy. Lateralized sextant biopsy plus prostatic cores from suspicious areas were obtained. Results: Out of 493 patients who were enrolled in the study, 65 (13.18) patients showed hyperechoic lesions on TRUS and 211 (42.79) patients had hypoechoic lesions on TRUS. Conclusion: Our study has revealed that hyperechoic lesions on transrectal ultrasonography have more chances of prostatic cancer as reported in previous literature, so we suggest that we should take additional biopsy of hyperechoic lesions and perhaps it should be part of the standard protocol in patients suspected cancer prostate. PMID:25013831

  12. Long-term outcomes of bronchial thermoplasty in subjects with severe asthma: a comparison of 3-year follow-up results from two prospective multicentre studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviolette, Michel; Cohn, Lauren; McEvoy, Charlene; Bansal, Sandeep; Shifren, Adrian; Khatri, Sumita; Grubb, G. Mark; McMullen, Edmund; Strauven, Racho; Kline, Joel N.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is an endoscopic therapy for severe asthma. The previously reported, randomised sham-controlled AIR2 (Asthma Intervention Research 2) trial showed a significant reduction in severe asthma exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations after bronchial thermoplasty. More “real-world” clinical outcome data is needed. This article compares outcomes in bronchial thermoplasty subjects with 3 years of follow-up from the ongoing, post-market PAS2 (Post-FDA Approval Clinical Trial Evaluating Bronchial Thermoplasty in Severe Persistent Asthma) study with those from the AIR2 trial. 279 subjects were treated with bronchial thermoplasty in the PAS2 study. We compared the first 190 PAS2 subjects with the 190 bronchial thermoplasty-treated subjects in the AIR2 trial at 3 years of follow-up. The PAS2 subjects were older (mean age 45.9 versus 40.7 years) and more obese (mean body mass index 32.5 versus 29.3 kg·m−2) and took higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids (mean dose 2301 versus 1961 μg·day−1). More PAS2 subjects had experienced severe exacerbations (74% versus 52%) and hospitalisations (15.3% versus 4.2%) in the 12 months prior to bronchial thermoplasty. At year 3 after bronchial thermoplasty, the percentage of PAS2 subjects with severe exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalisations significantly decreased by 45%, 55% and 40%, respectively, echoing the AIR2 results. The PAS2 study demonstrates similar improvements in asthma control after bronchial thermoplasty compared with the AIR2 trial despite enrolling subjects who may have had poorer asthma control. PMID:28860266

  13. Psychosocial Intervention In Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočníková Jana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fifth most common cancer overall. Using of autogenic training could reduce the influence of ADT and raise quality of prostate cancer patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of autogenic training in patients with prostate cancer. Patients were divided to experimental and control group. Experimental group participated in fourteen weeks long autogenic training program. Control group performed usual daily activities. Every subject of research performed input and output diagnostics which monitored psychical states of patients by psychological standardized tests - Differential questionnaire of depression (DDF and Questionnaire of anxiety (STAI X1. Our data showed autogenic training program significant improved depressions symptoms and anxiety in experimental research group (p ≤ 0.05, however there was no main change of depression symptoms and anxiety values for control group (p = n.s..

  14. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a

  15. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.A. Lammers (Laureen); Achterbergh, R. (Roos); R.H.N. van Schaik (Ron); J.A. Romijn (Johannes); R.A. Mathot (Ron)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and Objective: Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic

  16. Social participation and subjective well-being of long-term unemployed : why is paid work so hard to substitute for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR

    2000-01-01

    In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of

  17. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  18. Prostate specific antigen: a useful but limited marker for prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    238 CME July 2012 Vol. 30 No. 7. Prostate specific antigen: a useful but limited marker for prostate cancer. Prostate specific antigen is widely used as a tumour marker for prostate cancer. K B Sedumedi, BSc, MB ChB, MMed (Chem Path). Senior Specialist/Lecturer, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Limpopo, ...

  19. Conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma arising in a multilocular prostatic cystadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas K; Chuang, Shang-Tian; Netto, George J

    2010-05-01

    Multilocular prostatic cystadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm located between the bladder and the rectum. These are prostatic tissue and have been shown to harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and likely susceptible to the same disease processes seen in the prostate gland. We report the first case of conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma involving a multilocular cystadenoma. Distinction from cystadenocarcinoma is also made.

  20. Transurethral enucleation of large benign prostatic hyperplasia in sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Shvarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transurethral resection is a generally recognized treatment for small to medium-sized benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Numerous original tools are proposed for surgery of large BPH. These include laser (holmium laser enucleation of the prostate and transurethral (transurethral enucleation with bipolar (TUEB enucleation in 0.9 % NaCl solution, which are accompanied by removal of the maximum adenoma tissue volume, short-term recovery, and a substantially fewer early and late complications.Objective: to evaluate the safety and efficiency of TUEB in patients with large BPH.Subjects and methods. TUEB was carried out in 58 patients with large BPH. Their mean age was 64 years. The gland size was ≥ 102 сm3. The residual urine volume in all the patients was more than 100 ml. One year later, the results of treatment were analyzed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS, Quality of Life (QoL Questionnaire, as well as from residual urine volume and remaining prostate tissue.Results. The mean time of surgery and enucleation was 90 and 55 min, respectively. The mean volume of removed adenoma tissue was 99 ml. By the end of month 2 following TUEB, there was a progressive reduction in the total IPSS and QoL scores from 35 to 7 and from 5 to 1, respectively, which preserved this trend by the end of a 1-year follow-up. study. The residual urine amount was less than 30 ml. The mean volume of the prostate tissue left was 8.5 сm3 and less than 11.0 сm3. The ultrasound anatomy of the prostatic urethra (transformation of thin-walled spherical TUR defect that is characteristic slit-like one resembles the inverted letter Y eventually formed by the end of the 1-year follow-up. Stricture of the urethra and contracture of the bladder neck were noted in none of the cases. Conclusion. TUEB is an alternative to open surgery in patients with the enlarged prostate. The use of isotonic NaCl solution as washing fluid allows one to plan

  1. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  2. Male pattern baldness and the risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, M; Saliou, M; De Rycke, Y; Hemery, C; Henni, M; Bachaud, J M; Thiounn, N; Cosset, J M; Giraud, P

    2011-08-01

    Androgens play a role in the development of both androgenic alopecia, commonly known as male pattern baldness, and prostate cancer. We set out to study if early-onset androgenic alopecia was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer later in life. A total of 669 subjects (388 with a history of prostate cancer and 281 without) were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked to score their balding pattern at ages 20, 30 and 40. Statistical comparison was subsequently done between both groups of patients. Our study revealed that patients with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have androgenic alopecia at age 20 [odds ratio (OR) 2.01, P = 0.0285]. The pattern of hair loss was not a predictive factor for the development of cancer. There was no association between early-onset alopecia and an earlier diagnosis of prostate cancer or with the development of more aggressive tumors. This study shows an association between early-onset androgenic alopecia and the development of prostate cancer. Whether this population can benefit from routine prostate cancer screening or systematic use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as primary prevention remains to be determined.

  3. Mass screening for prostatic cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hideki; Minami, Yuzo; Matsuya, Fukuzo; Yamashita, Syuji; Yushita, Yoshiaki; Sakuragi, Tsutomu; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-03-01

    Men exposed to the atomic bomb were screened for prostatic cancer in Nagasaki City, Japan. From 1983 to 1988, 2,421 subjects were examined. Of the 2,421 men, 12 (0.5%) prostatic cancer patients and 268 (11.1%) patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy requiring treatment were detected. Of the 12 prostatic cancer patients (stage B: 8, stage C: 3, and stage D: 1), 8 (67%) were suffering from early stage cancer. The measurement of serum acid phosphatase was not useful as a screening test for early stage prostatic cancer, since no patient with stage B disease had elevated acid phosphatase activity. The results of our study suggest that the following examination system would be useful for detecting early stage prostatic cancer; a digital rectal examination performed as an initial screening examination and when subjects are judged as needing further examinations, a second screening examination including digital palpation of the prostate, transrectal ultrasonography and an aspiration biopsy for cytological evaluation. (author).

  4. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is

  5. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However, no p...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  6. A short-term evaluation of the relationship between plasma ascorbic acid levels and periodontal disease in systemically healthy and type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Neeraja H; Acharya, Anirudh B; Patil, Vidya S; Trivedi, Dheeraj J; Thakur, Srinath L

    2013-06-01

    Deficient ascorbic acid levels (AALs) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with periodontal disease. This study evaluated the relationship between plasma AAL and periodontitis in systemically healthy and T2DM subjects, which to the best of our knowledge is being reported for the first time. One hundred twenty subjects were categorized into four groups of 30 each as group 1: without periodontal disease; group 2: chronic gingivitis; group 3: chronic periodontitis, and group 4: chronic periodontitis and freshly diagnosed T2DM. Plaque index (PlI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and probing pocket depths (PPDs) were evaluated. Venous blood was evaluated for plasma AAL spectrophotometrically. Randomized subjects were subgrouped within groups 2-4, to receive either scaling and root planing (SRP) with dietary supplementation (450 mg) of ascorbic acid (AA) for two weeks or only SRP. After two weeks, the clinical parameters were reassessed. Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures and paired t test were used with the level of statistical significance adjusted to p ≤ .05. AAL plasma levels were significantly greater in group 1 than in group 2 (p = .0007) and in group 4 (p = .0003). A significant reduction in the SBI was seen in the subgroups that received dietary supplementation of vitamin C within group 2 (p = .0012) and group 4 (p = .036). Plasma AAL is below the normal range in systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis. Dietary AA supplementation with SRP improves the SBI in subjects with gingivitis and diabetics with periodontitis.

  7. Estrogen receptors in the human male prostatic urethra and prostate in prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Bruun, J; Balslev, E

    1999-01-01

    demonstrated in the prostatic stroma and/or prostatic urethra in 6 out of 11 cases. In both BPH and PC patients, immunoreactivity was weak and confined to few cells, indicating low ER content in the prostate as well as in the prostatic urethra. Dextran-coated charcoal (DCC) analysis was used for detection...

  8. Prostate Ultrasound

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... Us | FAQ | Privacy | Terms of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. ( ...

  9. Determining When to Stop Prostate Specific Antigen Monitoring after Radical Prostatectomy: the Role of Ultrasensitive Prostate Specific Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Komatsuda, Akari; Yanai, Yoshinori; Niwa, Naoya; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Eiji; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed long-term followup data after radical prostatectomy to determine how long we should follow patients in whom the serum prostate specific antigen level measured by an ultrasensitive assay was consistently low. We retrospectively reviewed clinicopathological data for 582 consecutive patients who underwent open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between 1995 and 2004, excluding 4 patients who received adjuvant therapy. We stratified the patients according to prostate specific antigen at 3 and 5 years after surgery, and examined subsequent biochemical recurrence (elevation of prostate specific antigen to greater than 0.2 ng/ml) during followup. Mean followup was 9.7 years. At 3 years after surgery prostate specific antigen levels were measured by an ultrasensitive assay in 323 patients who had not experienced biochemical recurrence. In 187 patients with undetectable prostate specific antigen levels (less than 0.01 ng/ml) the 10 and 15-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were 99% and 96%, respectively. At 5 years after surgery prostate specific antigen was measured in 315 patients by the ultrasensitive assay. In 162 patients with undetectable prostate specific antigen levels the 10 and 15-year biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were both 100%. In this group the prostate specific antigen level at last followup was less than 0.01 ng/ml in 132 patients, 0.01 to 0.03 ng/ml in 27 patients, and 0.06 ng/ml, 0.07 ng/ml and 0.11 ng/ml in 1 patient each. This long-term review indicates that if patients have continuously undetectable prostate specific antigen levels by an ultrasensitive assay for 5 years, prostate specific antigen monitoring can be stopped with an extremely low risk of subsequent biochemical recurrence. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tumor volume improves the long-term prediction of biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer with positive surgical margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christian P; Hansen, Jens; Boehm, Katharina; Tilki, Derya; Abdollah, Firas; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Fisch, Margit; Sauter, Guido; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Chun, Felix K H; Ahyai, Sascha A

    2017-02-01

    To develop a novel application evaluating the effect of tumor volume (TV) and percentage of high-grade tumor volume (%HGTV) on long-term biochemical recurrence-free survival rate (BCRFS) after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with pT2 PCa. Retrospective analysis of 903 men with pT2 PCa between 1992 and 2004 at a single European tertiary care center was performed. Cox regression models identified risk factors for BCR. A nomogram was developed to predict the BCRFS at 5, 10 and 15 years after RP. Decision curve analyses were performed to identify the net increase in cases identified by the full model. BCR-free survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years were 94, 90 and 86 %. In Cox regression analyses, TV, %HGTV and positive surgical margin status (SM) were independent predictors of BCR. Predictive accuracies (PA) at 5, 10 and 15 years of the base model (PSA, Gleason score, SM) were 76.8 % (95 % CI 67.9-78.2 %), 70.5 % (95 % CI 64.9-75.0 %) and 68.1 % (95 % CI 60.6-73.5 %). The full model, including TV and %HGTV, achieved 76.9, 72.4 and 70.7 %. These PA differences were statistically significant at 10 and 15 years (p < 0.001). TV and %HGTV could potentially serve as valuable measures to stratify patients at high risk of BCR. The use of our nomogram should be considered to counsel patients with pT2 disease and SM and to design appropriate follow-up or treatment regimens.

  11. Studies of a novel photosensitizer palladium-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad) for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Brun, Pierre-Herve; Wilson, Brian C.; Scherz, Avigdor; Salomon, Yoram; Luck, David L.; Beckers, Jill; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2003-06-01

    In this study, photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a novel, second generation photosensitizer Tookad (palladium-bacteriopheophorbide, WST09, STEBA Biotech, France), is investigated as an alternative modality in the treatment of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate and spontaneous advanced prostate cancer are used as the animal model. PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the i.v. infused photosensitizer. The effects of drug concentration, drug-light interval, and light fluence rate on the PDT efficacy were studied. The prostates and adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. During the one-week to 3-month period post PDT treatment, the dogs recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. Light irradiation delivered during drug infusion or within 15 min post drug infusion induced the similar extend of damages. PDT induced prostate lesions in both normal and cancerous prostate were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis and atrophy. Maximum lesion size of over 3 cm in dimension could be achieved with a single 1-cm interstitial treatment, suggesting the therapy is very effective in ablating cancerous prostatic tissue. In conclusion, the second generation photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat prostate cancer.

  12. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  13. The Prostate Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  14. [Transrectal prostatic sonography (TPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B; Schwartz, J; Aurich, B

    1982-06-01

    A new imaging method of the prostate is described. After the introduction of a sonographic transducer into the rectum, the prostate, the urinary bladder and the seminal vesicles are scanned. Typical transverse sonograms of benign hypertrophy, abscess, calculous disease and carcinomas are presented. The value of this method and its indications are discussed.

  15. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A. Sherer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immuno-suppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs.

  16. Prostate cancer in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Warrior, Krishnan; Godlewski, Karl; Hertl, Martin; Olaitan, Oyedolamu; Nehra, Ajay; Deane, Leslie Allan

    2017-01-01

    As patients with end-stage renal disease are receiving renal allografts at older ages, the number of male renal transplant recipients (RTRs) being diagnosed with prostate cancer (CaP) is increasing. Historically, the literature regarding the management of CaP in RTR's is limited to case reports and small case series. To date, there are no standardized guidelines for screening or management of CaP in these complex patients. To better understand the unique characteristics of CaP in the renal transplant population, we performed a literature review of PubMed, without date limitations, using a combination of search terms including prostate cancer, end stage renal disease, renal transplantation, prostate cancer screening, prostate specific antigen kinetics, immunosuppression, prostatectomy, and radiation therapy. Of special note, teams facilitating the care of these complex patients must carefully and meticulously consider the altered anatomy for surgical and radiotherapeutic planning. Active surveillance, though gaining popularity in the general low risk prostate cancer population, needs further study in this group, as does the management of advance disease. This review provides a comprehensive and contemporary understanding of the incidence, screening measures, risk stratification, and treatment options for CaP in RTRs. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  17. Bone health in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana, B; Cózar, J M; Alcaraz, A; Morote, J; Gómez-Veiga, F J; Solsona, E; Rodríguez-Antolín, A; Carballido, J

    2014-12-01

    In patients with prostate cancer, bone health is compromised by advanced age at diagnosis, androgen suppression treatments and the developmentofbone metastases. In this paper the medical literature is reviewed in order to update the state of the art on their incidence, prevention and management. A literature review about bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer in different clinical settings is performed. Decreased bone mineral density is higher in patients diagnosed of prostate cancer before starting treatment than in healthy men with the same age. During the first year of treatment, a severe loss bone density is reported due to androgen suppression therapy. From then on, loss bone density seems to slow down, persisting at long-term. It is important to know the starting point and the dynamics of loss bone in order to prevent its progression. The skeletal events have an important impact on quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Both Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid have proven effective in reducing loss bone. The prevention and management of bone involvement in patients with prostate cancer is critical to quality of life in these patients and requires an individualized approach. Before starting a prolonged androgen deprivation, baseline risk of fracture should be evaluated in order to adopt the proper protective measures. In patients with metastases, early treatments reducing the risk of bone events should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Slowing down the rate of irreversible age-related atrophy of the thymus gland by atopic autotransplantation of its tissue, subjected to long-term cryoconservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, A V; Arkhipova, L V; Smirnova, G N; Novoselova, E G; Shpurova, N A; Shishova, N V; Sukhikh, G T

    2010-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed enabling to slow down the rate of irreversible atrophy of the thymus gland. The atopic autotransplantation of its tissue subjected to prolonged cryoconservation enables one to inhibit the aging of the organism with respect to several biochemical and immunological indicators.

  19. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Bipolar Versus Monopolar Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Patients with Large Prostates or Severe Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Post Hoc Analysis of a European Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarikos, A; Rassweiler, J; de la Rosette, J J; Alivizatos, G; Scoffone, C; Scarpa, R M; Schulze, M; Mamoulakis, C

    2016-03-01

    We compare bipolar vs monopolar transurethral prostate resection safety/secondary outcomes including efficacy in patients with large prostate volume or severe lower urinary tract symptoms. From July 2006 to June 2009 candidates for transurethral prostate resection were recruited at 4 centers, randomized 1:1 into monopolar/bipolar transurethral prostate resection arms and followed up to 36 months. Post hoc data analysis from patients with large prostate volume or severe lower urinary tract symptoms is presented. Patients with large prostate volume or severe lower urinary tract symptoms were defined as those with transrectal ultrasound based prostate volume greater than 80 ml or International Prostate Symptom Score greater than 19. Safety was estimated using sodium/hemoglobin changes immediately after surgery, complications during the early postoperative period (up to 6 weeks), and short-term (up to 12 months) and midterm (up to 36 months) followup. Secondary outcomes included, among others, efficacy quantified by changes in maximum urine flow rate, post-void residual urine volume and International Prostate Symptom Score compared with baseline. A total of 279 patients were randomized. Post hoc analysis of data from patients with a large prostate volume or severe lower urinary tract symptoms was based on analysis A-in 62 of 279 participants (22.3%) (monopolar transurethral prostate resection 32, bipolar transurethral prostate resection 30) or analysis B-in 126 of 279 participants (45.2%) (monopolar transurethral prostate resection 57, bipolar transurethral prostate resection 69). Mean (SD) prostate volume was 108.0 (25.9) ml for monopolar transurethral prostate resection and 108.9 (23.4) ml for bipolar transurethral prostate resection (p=0.756). Mean International Prostate Symptom Score was 25.0 (4.2) for monopolar transurethral prostate resection and 25.3 (3.7) for bipolar transurethral prostate resection (p=0.402). Neither safety nor any secondary outcome differed

  1. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Prostate Cancer ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  2. Do racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M'Liss A; Luo, Suhong; Chrusciel, Timothy; Yan, Yan; Grubb, Robert L; Carson, Kenneth; Scherrer, Jeffrey F

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans. Administrative data were obtained from the Corporate Data Warehouse on a national cohort of 275,831 veterans (21% African American [AA]) between the ages of 40 and 70 years who were free of heart disease, did not have an elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) level (>4 ng/ml), did not have other clinical signs of prostate cancer, had not been diagnosed with prostate cancer, and had not received treatment for prostate cancer between January 10, 1998 and September 30, 2000. Subjects were followed up until September 30, 2007. Regular users were defined as those with at least 1 annual visit to the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) between October 1, 1998 and September 30, 2000. We sought to determine if race was significantly associated with PSA testing, the time to elevated PSA detection, the time to prostate biopsy, and the time to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to test for associations between race and prostate cancer variables. Eighty-four percent of the veterans between the ages 40 and 70 years undergo PSA testing. AA veterans are as likely as white veterans to undergo PSA testing. Screened AA veterans are more likely to have a PSA>4 ng/ml, undergo prostate biopsy, and be diagnosed with prostate cancer than screened white veterans. The time intervals between undergoing a prostate biopsy and being diagnosed with prostate cancer were statistically significantly shorter (although unlikely of clinical significance) for AA veterans with a PSA level>4 ng/ml than that for white veterans with a PSA level>4 ng/ml. When routine care in regular VHA users was compared with that of participants in major screening trials such as Prostate, Lung, Ovarian and Colon Cancer Trial and European Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer, prostate biopsy rates were lower (30% vs. 40

  3. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The ability to develop muscle force rapidly may be a very important factor to prevent a fall and to perform other tasks of daily life. However, information is still lacking on the range of training-induced neuromuscular adaptations in elderly humans recovering from a period of disuse. Therefore......, the present study examined the effect of three types of training regimes after unilateral prolonged disuse and subsequent hip-replacement surgery on maximal muscle strength, rapid muscle force [rate of force development (RFD)], muscle activation, and muscle size. Thirty-six subjects (60-86 yr) were randomized...... to a 12-wk rehabilitation program consisting of either 1) strength training (3 times/wk for 12 wk), 2) electrical muscle stimulation (1 h/day for 12 wk), or 3) standard rehabilitation (1 h/day for 12 wk). The nonoperated side did not receive any intervention and thereby served as a within-subject control...

  4. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all pcontact lens wear (all plens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. A prostate MRI atlas of biochemical failures following cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Kurhanewicz, John; Tewari, Ashutosh; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-03-01

    enables the mapping of MR images from all subjects into the same canonical space, while constructing both an imaging and a morphological statistical atlas. Such co-registration allowed us to perform voxel-by-voxel comparisons of MRI intensities and capsule and central gland morphology to identify statistically significant differences between the BcR and non-BcR patient populations. To assess whether the morphological differences are valid, we performed an additional experiment where we constructed sub-population atlases by randomly sampling RT patients to construct the BcR and non-BcR atlases. Following these experiments we observed that: (1) statistically significant MRI intensity differences exist between BcR and non-BcR patients, specifically on the border of the central gland; (2) statistically significant morphological differences are visible in the prostate and central gland, specifically in the proximity of the apex, and (3) the differences between the BcR and non-BcR cohorts in terms of shape appeared to be consistent across these sub-population atlases as observed in our RT atlases.

  6. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  7. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  8. [Treatment of prostate cancer using cryoablation: a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govorov, A V; Vasil'ev, A O; Ivanov, V Iu; Kovylina, M V; Prilepskaia, E A; Pushkar', D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the choice of tactics of treatment of the patient with prostate cancer (PCa) requires to take into account the degree of differentiation and stage of tumor, age of the patient and his somatic diseases, the risk of complications, as well as the patient's desire and physician's experience. Due to the progressive development of medical technology, interest in minimally invasive treatments for prostate cancer, such as cryoablation, interstitial brachytherapy and HIFU-therapy, has grown. Cryoablation of the prostate gland is a tissue ablation by local effects of very low temperatures and is minimally invasive, highly effective treatment for prostate cancer that can be used as the primary treatment, and in the case of tumor recurrence after radiotherapy. Focal cryoablation of the prostate allows to selectively destroy the known tumor with preservation of organ function and without reducing the quality of life of the patient. Focal therapy for prostate cancer is an alternative to radical treatment and active surveillance, occupying an intermediate position between them. Due to the lack of long-term results, focal cryoablation is an experimental type of treatment. First cryoablation of the prostate using modern equipment was carried out in Russia in March 2010, at the Department of Urology MSMSU. Since that time, we performed this procedure in 122 patients with prostate cancer; cryoablation was primary treatment in 110 patients and was used as salvage treatment in 12 patients. In most cases, the operation was performed under epidural or spinal anesthesia. According to the protocol, all the patients underwent 2 cycles of freezing and thawing under transrectal ultrasound guidance. A significant improvement of equipment for cryosurgery, the use of cryoneedles with smaller diameter, and the use of temperature sensors and catheters to warm the urethral mucosa have allowed to minimize the number of complications in comparison with other methods of treatment of

  9. Transurethral vapor enucleation and resection of the prostate with plasma vaporization button electrode for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liping; Mao, Qiqi; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiangyi; Lin, Yiwei; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Various improvements and modifications to the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia have emerged over the last decade. Most techniques often initially claimed superiority only to turn out to be mediocre with time. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate has been associated with superior outcomes compared with transurethral resection of the prostate and demonstrated improvement in long-term outcomes, while its clinical use has limitations. We describe the first use of plasma vaporization button electrode combined with loop electrode for transurethral vapor enucleation and resection of the prostate.

  10. The AVOCAT study: Bicalutamide monotherapy versus combined bicalutamide plus dutasteride therapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma of the prostate-a long-term follow-up comparison and quality of life analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, S.; Witjes, W.P.J.; Roos, E.P.; Vijverberg, P.L.; Geboers, A.D.; Bruins, J.L.; Smits, G.A.; Vergunst, H.; Mulders, P.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Compare the efficacy and tolerability of dutasteride in combination with bicalutamide to bicalutamide monotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS: One-hundred-fifty PCa patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease were prospectively

  11. Prostate cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa

    2012-06-01

    Stem cells have long been implicated in prostate gland formation. The prostate undergoes regression after androgen deprivation and regeneration after testosterone replacement. Regenerative studies suggest that these cells are found in the proximal ducts and basal layer of the prostate. Many characteristics of prostate cancer indicate that it originates from stem cells. For example, the putative androgen receptor-negative (AR(-)) status of prostate stem cells renders them inherently insensitive to androgen blockade therapy. The androgen-regulated gene fusion TMPRSS2-ERG could be used to clarify both the cells of origin and the evolution of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we show that the hypothesis that distinct subtypes of cancer result from abnormalities within specific cell types-the stem cell theory of cancer-may instigate a major paradigm shift in cancer research and therapy. Ultimately, the stem cell theory of cancers will affect how we practice clinical oncology: our diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy of prostate and other cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging 3T and prostate cancer: correlation with transperineal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, Roberto; Altieri, Vincenzo Maria; Marchioni, Michele; Castellan, Pietro; Pellegrini, Maurizio; Álvarez-Maestro, Mario; Sánchez-Gómez, Javier; De Francesco, Piergustavo; Ingrosso, Manuela; Tartaro, Armando; Tenaglia, Raffaele Lanfranco

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to correlate the results obtained by 3T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI3T) with those obtained by histological examination of samples of the trans-perineal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TPUS-B). 34 patients were enrolled in the study. All patients had a clinical suspicion of cancer due to increased PSA and/or positive digital rectal examination. Patients were subjected to an MRSI 3T examination and subsequently to TPUS-B. Of the 22 (22/34) patients who presented abnormalities MRSI at 3T, 9 had a histological diagnosis of Prostate adenocarcinoma. Of the remaining 13 patients, 6 were found to be histologically positive for Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy and 7 Chronic Interstitial Inflammation or High Grade Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia. 12 (12/34) patients found to have no peripheral alterations in their prostate on 3T MRSI, none were positive for ADK or inflammation on histology. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100%, 48%, 40% and 100% respectively. In this study, we correlated the values obtained from 3T MRSI with the results of histologically examined prostate biopsies. Our work shows that 72.8% of the voxels in which there was a change in ratio of Cit/(Cho + Cr), corresponded to areas of prostate tissue disease. Of these, 73.2% were positive for ADK and 26.8% for CII or HG PIN. In literature, it is noted that PCa can be distinguished from areas of benign tissue, in the peripheral zone, on the basis of the values of the ratio Cit/(Cho + Cr) (17), although some benign conditions, such as prostatitis or PINHG, can alter these values (18-19). In conclusion, the use of MRSI 3T before performing prostate biopsies may represent a valid aid for the urologist in the diagnosis of PCa, allowing them to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies that may be negative. Furthermore, it would also be possible to reduce the total number of biopsies, thus decreasing patient exposure

  13. Microenvironment -Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    mPCSCs)” PI : Dean Tang 1. INTRODUCTION: The main goal of this IDEA project is to help elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying...metastatic prostate cancer stem cells 3. ACCOMPLISHMENTS: Dr. Tang, the PI of this grant, together with most lab members, moved from the M.D...repressing CD44. Nat Med 17, 211-215 (2011). 5. Qin, J. et al. The PSA -/lo prostate cancer cell population harbors self-renewing long-term tumor

  14. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The termsubjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  15. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  16. Methods for Prostate Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghafoori

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is currently the most prevalent form of cancer in men and the second leading cause of can-cer death in the United States, and the third most common cancer in men worldwide. Increasing mor-tality rates due to prostate carcinoma have been ob-served worldwide. This disease usually progresses im-perceptibly; thus, patients are unlikely to seek medi-cal help during the early stages. For these reasons, screening programs aimed at early detection have been developed. The prostate-spe...

  17. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia

    2014-01-01

    routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c....../mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. RESULTS: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68%) male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53) y, 225 (87.2%) white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700......, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason) and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0...

  18. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  19. The value of touch imprint cytology of prostate core needle biopsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) is a reliable, cost-effective technique for the diagnosis of cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value and accuracy of TIC of prostate core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens in predicting the final histology in patients with suspected prostate cancer. Subjects and ...

  20. Prostate-specific antigen patterns in US and European populations : Comparison of six diverse cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Tilling, Kate; Athene Lane, J.; Martin, Richard M.; Albertsen, Peter C.; Bill-Axelson, Anna; Ballentine Carter, H.; Bosch, J. L H Ruud; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Holmberg, Lars; Jeffrey Metter, E.; Neal, David E.; Parker, Christopher C.; Metcalfe, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether there are differences in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at diagnosis or changes in PSA levels between US and European populations of men with and without prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We analysed repeated measures of PSA from six clinically and

  1. Do Racial Disparities Exist in the Use of Prostate Cancer Screening and Detection Tools in Veterans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M’Liss A.; Luo, Suhong; Chrusciel, Timothy; Yan, Yan; Grubb, Robert L.; Carson, Kenneth; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether racial disparities exist in the use of prostate cancer screening and detection tools in veterans. Methods and Materials Administrative data was obtained from the Corporate Data Warehouse on a national cohort of 275,831 veterans (21% AA) ages 40–70 years who were free of heart disease, an elevated PSA level (> 4.0 ng/mL), other clinical signs of prostate cancer, prostate cancer diagnosis, and treatment for prostate cancer between 10/1/1998 – 9/30/2000. Subjects were followed until 9/30/2007. Regular users were defined as those with at least one annual visit to the Veterans Healthcare Administration (VHA) between 10/1/1998 and 9/30/2000. We sought to determine if race was significantly associated with PSA testing, time to elevated PSA detection, time to prostate biopsy and time to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Chi square tests, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used to test for associations between race and prostate cancer variables. Results 84% of veterans ages 40–70 years undergo PSA testing. AA veterans are as likely as white veterans to undergo PSA testing. Screened AA veterans are more likely to have a PSA > 4 ng/mL, undergo prostate biopsy and be diagnosed with prostate cancer than screened white veterans. The time intervals to undergoing a prostate biopsy and being diagnosed with prostate cancer were statistically significantly shorter (although unlikely of clinical significance) for AA veterans with a PSA level > 4 ng/mL than that for white veterans with a PSA level > 4 ng/mL. When routine care in regular VHA users was compared to that of participants in major screening trials such as Prostate, Lung, Ovarian and Colon Cancer (PLCO) Trial and European Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), prostate biopsy rates were lower (30% versus 40–86%), prostate cancer detection rates/person biopsied were higher (49% versus 31–45%), and incidence of prostate cancer was 1.1% versus 4.9–8

  2. Ablative fractional CO2laser for burn scar reconstruction: An extensive subjective and objective short-term outcome analysis of a prospective treatment cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issler-Fisher, Andrea C; Fisher, Oliver M; Smialkowski, Ania O; Li, Frank; van Schalkwyk, Constant P; Haertsch, Peter; Maitz, Peter K M

    2017-05-01

    The introduction of ablative fractional CO 2 lasers (CO 2 -AFL) for burn scar management shows promising results. Whilst recent studies have focused on objective scar outcomes following CO 2 -AFL treatment, to date no data on patient subjective factors such as quality of life are available. A prospective study was initiated to analyze the safety and efficacy of the CO 2 -AFL. Various objective and subjective outcome parameters were prospectively collected from the date of first consultation and follow-up following treatment. Objective factors include the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), and ultrasound measurements of the thickness of the scar. Subjective parameters included the assessment of neuropathic pain and pruritus, as well as the evaluation of improvement of quality of life following CO 2 -AFL with the Burns Specific Health Scale (BSHS-B). For treatment effect analysis, patients were stratified according to scar maturation status (> or <2 years after injury). 47 patients with 118 burn scars completed at least one treatment cycle. At a median of 55 days (IQR 32-74) after CO 2 -AFL treatment all analyzed objective parameters decreased significantly: intra-patient normalized scar thickness decreased from a median of 2.4mm to 1.9mm (p<0.001) with a concomitant VSS-drop from a median of 7 to 6 (p<0.001). The overall POSAS patient scale decreased from a median of 9 to 5 (p<0.001) with similar effects documented in POSAS observer scales. Both pain and pruritus showed significant reduction. Quality of life increased significantly by 15 points (median 120 to 135; p<0.001). All of the identified changes following CO 2 -AFL were equally significant irrespective of scar maturation status. Our preliminary results confirm significant improvement in thickness, texture, colour, and symptoms following treatment with CO 2 -AFL. Foremost, quality of life of patients with both immature and mature scars (up to 23 years after

  3. Increased hippocampal, thalamus and amygdala volume in long-term lithium-treated bipolar I disorder patients compared with unmedicated patients and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana M; Palacio, Juan David; Castrillón, Gabriel; Bearden, Carrie; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) suggest that lithium is associated with increased volumes of cortico-limbic structures. However, more rigorous control of confounding factors is needed to obtain further support for this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in brain volumes among long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, unmedicated BD-I patients, and healthy controls. This was a cross-sectional study with 32 euthymic BD-I patients (16 on lithium monotherapy for a mean of 180 months, and 16 receiving no medication for at least the 2 months prior to the study) and 20 healthy controls. Patients were euthymic (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] lithium for at least 6 months. Brain images were acquired on a 1.5 Tesla MRI (Phillips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and segmented to generate volumetric measures of cortical and subcortical brain areas, ventricles and global brain. Significant differences were found in the volumes of the left amygdala (P=.0003), right amygdala (P=.030), left hippocampus (P=.022), left thalamus (P=.022), and right thalamus (P=.019) in long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, compared to unmedicated patients and controls, after multivariable adjustment. No differences were observed in global brain volume or in ventricular size among the three groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between serum lithium levels and the increase in size in the described brain areas. The structural differences found among the three groups, and specifically those between long-term lithium-treated and unmedicated BD-I patients, indicate increased limbic structure volumes in lithium-treated patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoremba Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45 undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de

  5. Sexually transmitted diseases and other urogenital conditions as risk factors for prostate cancer: a case--control study in Wayne County, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Bock, Cathryn H; Schwartz, Kendra; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Demers, Raymond Y; Severson, Richard K

    2005-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate associations between prostate cancer and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and vasectomy in a population-based case-control study in Wayne County, Michigan, among African American and white men aged 50--74 years. Incident prostate cancer cases (n=700) from 1996--1998 were identified from the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. Controls (n=604) were identified through random digit dialing and Medicare recipient lists, and frequency matched to cases on age and race. History of potential prostate cancer risk factors was ascertained through in-person interview. Prostate cancer was not associated with STD or vasectomy history. History of prostatitis was associated with prostate cancer among all subjects (odds ratio [OR]=1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 2.9) and in African American men (OR=2.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.6). History of BPH was associated with prostate cancer among all subjects (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.3); significant associations were observed in both African American (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.4) and white (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.4) men. Among all subjects, prostate cancer was associated with prostatitis and BPH history, but not with STD or vasectomy history. Prevention efforts could be enhanced if inflammatory or infectious etiologies are found to be of importance in the subsequent development of prostate cancer.

  6. Preclinical studies of vascular acting photosensitizer bacteriopheophorbide for the treatment of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Huang, Zheng

    2004-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer pd-bacteriopheophorbide (Tookad), is investigated as an alternative modality for the total ablation of prostate cancer. In vivo normal canine prostate is used as the animal model. Interstitial PDT was performed by irradiating the surgically exposed prostates with a diode laser (763 nm, 150 mW/cm) to activate the IV infused photosensitizer drug. The prostate and its adjacent tissues were harvested and subjected to histopathological examination. At one-week post PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. Prostatic urethra and prostate adjacent tissues (bladder and underlying colon) were well preserved. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. Prostate lesions could be detected by MRI scan as early as 48 h post PDT. Maximum lesion size of 1.5 cm3 and 2.9 cm3 could be achieved at 50 J/cm and 100 J/cm, respectively, with interstitial treatment using a single 1-cm diffuser fiber, suggesting the Tookad-PDT is very effective in ablating prostatic tissue. Pharmacokinetic studies show that the photosensitizer is cleared rapidly from the circulation. In conclusion, the novel photosensitizer Tookad mediated PDT may provide an effective alternative to treat localized prostate cancer.

  7. Nutri-metabolomics: subtle serum metabolic differences in healthy subjects by NMR-based metabolomics after a short-term nutritional intervention with two tomato sauces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Cañellas, Nicolau; Abete, Itziar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Zulet, M Ángeles; Correig, Xavier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Postgenomics research and development is witnessing novel intersections of omics data intensive technology and applications in health and personalized nutrition. Chief among these is the nascent field of nutri-metabolomics that harnesses metabolomics platforms to discern person-to-person variations in nutritional responses. To this end, differences in the origin and ripening stage of fruits might have a strong impact on their phytochemical composition, and consequently, on their potential nutri-metabolomics effects on health. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 4-week cross-over nutritional intervention on the metabolic status of 24 young healthy subjects. The intervention was carried out with two tomato sauces differing in their natural lycopene content, which was achieved by using tomatoes harvested at different times. Blood samples were drawn from each subject before and after each intervention period. Aqueous and lipid extracts from serum samples were analyzed by 1H-NMR metabolic profiling combined with analysis of variance simultaneous component analysis (ASCA) and multilevel simultaneous component analysis (MSCA). These methods allowed the interpretation of the variation induced by the main factors of the study design (sauce treatment and time). The levels of creatine, creatinine, leucine, choline, methionine, and acetate in aqueous extracts were increased after the intervention with the high-lycopene content sauce, while those of ascorbic acid, lactate, pyruvate, isoleucine, alanine were increased after the normal-lycopene content sauce. In conclusion, NMR-based metabolomics of aqueous and lipid extracts allowed the detection of different metabolic changes after the nutritional intervention. This outcome might partly be due to the different ripening state of the fruits used in production of the tomato sauces. The findings presented herein collectively attest to the emergence of the field of nutri-metabolomics as a novel

  8. Is it necessary to cure prostate cancer when it is possible? (Understanding the role of prostate inflammation resolution to prostate cancer evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald E Wheeler

    2007-04-01

    -seven percent of men (n = 20 noted a 58% reduction (range of improvement: 13%–90% in PSA over an average of 38.5 months (range: 13–84 months. The remaining 13% of men included three men who experienced a mild elevation in PSA of 0.3 ng/ml, 0.7 ng/ml, and 0.9 ng/ml over 14 months, 42 months, and 34 months, respectively. Fifteen men had completed an initial and secondary IPSS-Index while 14 men had undergone an initial and secondary EPS. The mean percentage reduction in IPSS-Index was 61% (range: 20%–100% with a median of 55%, while men evaluated with EPS examinations noted a mean percentage reduction in white blood cells of 77.5% (range: 33%–99% with a median of 82%. These results were evaluated using the t-test, Wilcoxon Analysis and the Null Hypothesis and found to be statistically significant.Conclusion: Clearly there is a need to develop effective alternative conservative therapies for the increasing numbers of prostate cancer patients who will not tolerate definitive curative measures or simply choose a conservative approach. Although this prospective study had no control arm, was of limited duration and included only 23 participants, it did appear to show significant benefit to the majority of prostate cancer patients treated with selective nutritional and dietary therapy alone. Such treatments may provide a safe and effective long-term treatment alternative for some patients. Further study is encouraged.Keywords: Prostate cancer, prostatitis, prostate cancer nutrition, PSA, EPS, Gleason score, voiding symptoms, Mediterranean diet

  9. Variability in the intraspecific response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings subjected to long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anschel, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Pushnik, J.C. [California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Anderson, P.D. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors are investigating the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and intraspecific variability on Pinus ponderosa. To analyze intraspecific variability, they included seedling source (family) as an additional treatment, using a split-plot experimental design. The three elevated CO{sub 2} treatments were ambient (approx. 350 ppm CO{sub 2}), ambient + 175 ppm CO{sub 2} and ambient +350 ppm CO{sub 2}. Their study uses the source/sink control framework at several key integrating steps, incorporating the long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (insuring sufficient time for the expression of any long-term physiological and biochemical acclimation to occur) and genetics (using multiple species and multiple known genetic sources) in an attempt to ascertain the extent of overall regulation contributed by selected independent regulatory process at the physiological, biochemical and structural level. In order to assess intraspecific variability, this paper reports on the integration of measurements of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigmentation, RuBPCase, SPSase to quantify the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the growth response of various families of the same species.

  10. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI......, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. METHODS: Subjects were a cohort of 125208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at 7-13 years. Cases were identified through linkage...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  11. Role of antibodies to human papillomavirus 16 in prostate cancer: A seroscreening by peptide microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Zhou, Zheng; Chen, Ye; Chen, Wen; Ma, Hongwei; Pu, Jinxian

    2017-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating in estimating the potential role of human papillomavirus infection in prostate carcinogenesis. However, the results remain inconclusive. We measured the serostatus of antibodies to one of the high-risk human papillomaviruses, human papillomavirus 16, with a newly developed peptide microarray. Serum samples were collected from 75 untreated prostate cancer patients, along with 80 control subjects. We identified 12 peptides with significant differences in prostate cancer samples from all 241 peptides derived from human papillomavirus 16. Our results showed human papillomavirus 16 infection in 64.0% of prostate cancer serum samples, which is significantly different compared with the controls ( p human papillomavirus 16 infection and risk of prostate cancer. The different serostatus of antibodies in the two subgroups indicated that human papillomavirus 16 infection might occur and play a potential role of progression in a minority of prostate cancer.

  12. Transurethral bipolar plasmakinetic resection combined with 2 μm continuous wave laser vaporization: a new method for the treatment of large volume benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Naikai; Yu, JianJun

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transurethral bipolar plasmakinetic resection of the prostate (PKRP) combined with 2 μm laser vaporization in the management of large prostates (>80 mL). The safety and efficiency of transurethral vaporesection of the prostate with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), using a 2 μm laser system, have been verified. However, this method does still not manage large volume prostates efficiently. From October 2009 to June 2010, 120 BPH patients with a median prostatic volume of 106.7 (±16.7) mL (range, 82.5-156.8 mL) were randomized for surgical treatment with PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization (n=58) or PKRP only (n=62). All patients were preoperatively assessed with subjective symptoms score. Preoperative and perioperative parameters at 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up were also evaluated. All complications were recorded. PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization was significantly superior to PKRP alone in terms of operative time, irrigation time, catheterization time, hospital stay, and hemoglobin decrease. The blood transfusion and urinary tract infection observed in the PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization group was significantly less than that of the groups that received PKRP only. Both groups were similar with respect to resected tissue weight, transient incontinence, urethral stricture and retrograde ejaculation in the postoperative period. Both groups showed a significant improvement from baseline in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QOL), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and pulmonary vascular resistance unit (PVRU) values. However, no significant difference was found between them. PKRP combined with 2 μm laser vaporization, which combines the advantages of both PKRP and 2 μm laser, is superior for its shorter operation time, less bleeding, and better efficiency. It may be a safer and more effective method for the

  13. Computational imaging reveals shape differences between normal and malignant prostates on MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Purysko, Andrei S.; Verma, Sadhna; Kiechle, Jonathan; Gollamudi, Jay; Ghose, Soumya; Herrmann, Karin; Gulani, Vikas; Paspulati, Raj; Ponsky, Lee; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Moses, Daniel; Shnier, Ron; Delprado, Warick; Thompson, James; Stricker, Phillip; Madabhushi, Anant

    2017-01-01

    We seek to characterize differences in the shape of the prostate and the central gland (combined central and transitional zones) between men with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer and men who were identified as not having prostate cancer either on account of a negative biopsy or had pelvic imaging done for a non-prostate malignancy. T2w MRI from 70 men were acquired at three institutions. The cancer positive group (PCa+) comprised 35 biopsy positive (Bx+) subjects from three institutions (Gleason scores: 6–9, Stage: T1–T3). The negative group (PCa−) combined 24 biopsy negative (Bx−) from two institutions and 11 subjects diagnosed with rectal cancer but with no clinical or MRI indications of prostate cancer (Cl−). The boundaries of the prostate and central gland were delineated on T2w MRI by two expert raters and were used to construct statistical shape atlases for the PCa+, Bx− and Cl− prostates. An atlas comparison was performed via per-voxel statistical tests to localize shape differences (significance assessed at p hypertrophy in the Bx− subpopulation, resulting in significant volume and posterior side shape differences relative to PCa+ group. Significant differences in the corresponding prostate shapes were noted at the apex when comparing the Cl− and PCa+ prostates. PMID:28145532

  14. Targeting Neuromimicry in Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    validate MAOA/NRP1- manipulated PCa cells with stable labeling of fluorescence protein and Luc for subsequently visualizing MAOA/NRP1-mediated PCa-nerve...prostate cancer cells which were further subjected to stable labeling of fluorescence protein and luciferase for subsequent visualization of MAOA...followed by genetic manipulation of MAOA and NRP1 expression by either plasmid-based overexpression or shRNA-mediated silencing. Months 1-4 Dr. Wu

  15. About the Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Text: Please leave this field empty Normal Physiology The prostate is not essential for life, but is important for reproduction. It supplies substances that facilitate fertilization and sperm ...

  16. Epigenetics in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantine Albany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed nonskin malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death among men in the United States. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequences. Two common epigenetic mechanisms, DNA methylation and histone modification, have demonstrated critical roles in prostate cancer growth and metastasis. DNA hypermethylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG rich sequence islands within gene promoter regions is widespread during neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, suggesting that treatment-induced restoration of a “normal” epigenome could be clinically beneficial. Histone modification leads to altered tumor gene function by changing chromosome structure and the level of gene transcription. The reversibility of epigenetic aberrations and restoration of tumor suppression gene function have made them attractive targets for prostate cancer treatment with modulators that demethylate DNA and inhibit histone deacetylases.

  17. Learning about Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov] There are companies that will soon be marketing and selling genetic tests that will predict a ... enzyme made by the prostate gland, and a digital rectal examination (DRE) are two tests that are ...

  18. Sarcoidosis of the prostate

    OpenAIRE

    Furusato, Bungo; Koff, Stacey; McLeod, David G; Sesterhenn, Isabell A

    2007-01-01

    A 55‐year‐old African‐American man with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer underwent prostatectomy. Non‐caseating, epithelioid granulomata adjacent to the anterior fibromuscular stroma were found incidentally. The granulomata included Langhans giant cells with rare conchoidal bodies. The distribution of the granulomata was not that of non‐specific granulomatous prostatitis centred around ducts and glands. By immunohistochemistry, the epithelioid cells were positive for angiotensin‐converting ...

  19. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  20. Long-term follow-up of hepatic ultrasound findings in subjects with magnetic resonance imaging defined hepatic steatosis following clinical islet transplantation: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephanie; Mager, Diana R; Bhargava, Ravi; Ackerman, Thomas; Imes, Sharleen; Hubert, Grace; Koh, Angela; Shapiro, A M James; Senior, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one complication patients may experience following clinical islet transplantation (CIT), yet the cause and consequences of this are poorly understood. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between hepatic steatosis, metabolic parameters and graft function in an Albertan cohort of CIT recipients. Hepatic steatosis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 10 cases age-matched with n=10 MRI-negative controls. Progression/regression of steatosis was determined by ultrasound (US) in cases. Hepatic steatosis first appeared 2.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) years post-CIT, and lasted approximately 4.6 ± 2.0 years. In five cases steatosis resolved, with recurrence in two cases during the follow-up period (8.5 ± 3.2 years). No evidence of CIT causing deleterious effects on long-term liver function or graft outcome was observed.

  1. Long-term follow-up of hepatic ultrasound findings in subjects with magnetic resonance imaging defined hepatic steatosis following clinical islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stephanie; Mager, Diana R.; Bhargava, Ravi; Ackerman, Thomas; Imes, Sharleen; Hubert, Grace; Koh, Angela; Shapiro, A.M. James; Senior, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is one complication patients may experience following clinical islet transplantation (CIT), yet the cause and consequences of this are poorly understood. The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the relationship between hepatic steatosis, metabolic parameters and graft function in an Albertan cohort of CIT recipients. Hepatic steatosis was detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 10 cases age-matched with n=10 MRI-negative controls. Progression/regression of steatosis was determined by ultrasound (US) in cases. Hepatic steatosis first appeared 2.8 ± 2.2 (mean ± SD) years post-CIT, and lasted approximately 4.6 ± 2.0 years. In five cases steatosis resolved, with recurrence in two cases during the follow-up period (8.5 ± 3.2 years). No evidence of CIT causing deleterious effects on long-term liver function or graft outcome was observed. PMID:23514958

  2. Long-term use of oral nucleos(t)ide analogues for chronic hepatitis B does not increase cancer risk - a cohort study of 44 494 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G L-H; Tse, Y-K; Yip, T C-F; Chan, H L-Y; Tsoi, K K-F; Wong, V W-S

    2017-05-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) need long-term antiviral treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). Animal studies suggest that some NA may increase cancer risk, but human data are lacking. To investigate cancer risks in patients with or without NA treatment. We conducted a territory-wide cohort study using the database from Hospital Authority in Hong Kong. The diagnosis of CHB and various malignancies was based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes between 2000 and 2012. Patients exposed to any of the oral NA for CHB were included. The primary outcome was incident cancers. A 3-year landmark analysis, with follow-up up to 7 years, was used to evaluate the relative risk of cancers in treated and untreated patients. A total of 44 494 patients (39 712 untreated and 4782 treated) were included in the analysis. During 194 890 patient-years of follow-up, hepatocellular carcinoma developed in 402 (1.0%) untreated patients and 179 (3.7%) treated patients, while other cancers developed in 528 (1.3%) and 128 (2.7%) patients respectively. After propensity score weighting, treated patients had similar risks of all malignancies [weighted hazard ratio (wHR): 1.01, 95% CI: 0.82-1.25, P = 0.899], lung/pleural cancers (wHR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.52-1.31, P = 0.409) and urinary/renal malignancies (wHR: 1.04, 95% CI: 0.38-2.81, P = 0.944) when compared with untreated patients. Oral nucleos(t)ide analogue treatment does not appear to increase cancer risk in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Given the beneficial effect on liver outcomes, our data support the current practice of long-term anti-viral therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Identification of low-molecular weight prostate-specific antigen(PSA) and lactoferrin in the prostatic secretion of benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke-xin; Wang, Xiao-feng

    2006-12-18

    To investigate the expression of low-molecular-weight PSA(lw-PSA) and lactoferrin in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) from both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and normal prostate. Forty human EPS samples obtained from 20 BPH patients and 20 normal males were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was performed to confirm the nature of the secreted proteins in EPS. One uniquely expressed protein in BPH was detected and mass spectrometry determined its nature as lw-PSA (molecular weight 10x10(3), pI 8.5-9.3). More importantly, Western blotting analysis also revealed that lw-PSA detected in BPH-EPS, but was undetectable in BPH-free EPS. In addition, up-regulation of Lactoferrin (molecular weight 35x10(3), pI 7-7.5) in BPH-EPS, as compared with BPH-free EPS, was also observed. More interestingly, lactoferrin was absent in prostate cancer tissues. Our results indicate lw-PSA may be produced specifically by BPH epithelium and it has a potential to be used as a specific biological marker for the diagnosis of BPH. In addition, benign prostatic epithelium can produce more lactoferrin while prostate cancer tissues go without its lactoferrin secretion.

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  5. Injectables in the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemi, Arash M; Plante, Mark K

    2008-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia with associated symptoms and morbidity is increasingly common among aging men. Medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms is the mainstay of therapy with progressive disease requiring more invasive intervention. Transurethral resection of the prostate remains a widely applied gold standard therapy. Numerous minimally invasive surgical therapy options have arisen and subsequently faded over recent years. Those remaining in use are largely positioned between pharmacological treatment and transurethral resection of the prostate. Intraprostatic injection therapy, the oldest minimally invasive surgical therapy, has been investigated for over 100 years with renewed interest recently. This review will provide some history of intraprostatic injection for benign prostatic hyperplasia including the most recent reports using transperineal, transrectal and transurethral routes with different injectables. For benign prostatic hyperplasia, transperineal and transurethral injection routes have received the most systematic evaluation. Intraprostatic injection of botulinum toxin type A has received much recent attention with regards to mechanism of action and efficacy. Anhydrous ethanol remains the most extensively studied injectable to date. Injection therapy remains a very promising minimally invasive surgical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia with increased attention from the urologic community in recent years. Further experience both with systematic laboratory and clinical trials investigation will be necessary before widespread clinical adoption.

  6. Obesity and prostate cancer: gene expression signature of human periprostatic adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprostatic (PP adipose tissue surrounds the prostate, an organ with a high predisposition to become malignant. Frequently, growing prostatic tumor cells extend beyond the prostatic organ towards this fat depot. This study aimed to determine the genome-wide expression of genes in PP adipose tissue in obesity/overweight (OB/OW and prostate cancer patients. Methods Differentially expressed genes in human PP adipose tissue were identified using microarrays. Analyses were conducted according to the donors' body mass index characteristics (OB/OW versus lean and prostate disease (extra prostatic cancer versus organ confined prostate cancer versus benign prostatic hyperplasia. Selected genes with altered expression were validated by real-time PCR. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA was used to investigate gene ontology, canonical pathways and functional networks. Results In the PP adipose tissue of OB/OW subjects, we found altered expression of genes encoding molecules involved in adipogenic/anti-lipolytic, proliferative/anti-apoptotic, and mild immunoinflammatory processes (for example, FADS1, down-regulated, and LEP and ANGPT1, both up-regulated. Conversely, in the PP adipose tissue of subjects with prostate cancer, altered genes were related to adipose tissue cellular activity (increased cell proliferation/differentiation, cell cycle activation and anti-apoptosis, whereas a downward impact on immunity and inflammation was also observed, mostly related to the complement (down-regulation of CFH. Interestingly, we found that the microRNA MIRLET7A2 was overexpressed in the PP adipose tissue of prostate cancer patients. Conclusions Obesity and excess adiposity modified the expression of PP adipose tissue genes to ultimately foster fat mass growth. In patients with prostate cancer the expression profile of PP adipose tissue accounted for hypercellularity and reduced immunosurveillance. Both findings may be liable to promote a favorable

  7. Focal Therapy in the Management of Prostate Cancer: An Emerging Approach for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Nomura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A widespread screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA has led increased diagnosis of localized prostate cancer along with a reduction in the proportion of advanced-stage disease at diagnosis. Over the past decade, interest in focal therapy as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk prostate cancer has recently been renewed due to downward stage migration. Focal therapy stands midway between active surveillance and radical treatments, combining minimal morbidity with cancer control. Several techniques of focal therapy have potential for isolated ablation of a tumor focus with sparing of uninvolved surround tissue demonstrating excellent short-term cancer control and a favorable patient’s quality of life. However, to date, tissue ablation has mostly used for near-whole prostate gland ablation without taking advantage of accompanying the technological capabilities. The available ablative technologies include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU, and vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP. Despite the interest in focal therapy, this technology has not yet been a well-established procedure nor provided sufficient data, because of the lack of randomized trial comparing the efficacy and morbidity of the standard treatment options. In this paper we briefly summarize the recent data regarding focal therapy for prostate cancer and these new therapeutic modalities.

  8. Age-related racial disparities in prostate cancer patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ting; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Prostate cancer mortality rates have decreased over recent decades, but racial disparities in prostate cancer survival still present as a serious challenge. These disparities may be impacted by age; in fact, African-American men younger than age 65 have prostate cancer mortality rates nearly three times greater than that of White men. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted in Medline and EMBASE databases focusing on articles comparing survival and mortality rates for prostate cancer patients across age and race. Articles included were based on the following criteria: (1) included African-American and White prostate cancer patients residing in the US; (2) measured racial disparities across distinct age categories with at least one category below and one above age 65; and (3) addressed racial disparities in terms of overall survival or mortality. Twenty eight articles compared survival and mortality disparities between African-American and White prostate cancer patients across different age categories. Of the 28 articles, 19 articles (68%) showed disparities decreased with age, 8 articles (29%) showed disparities constant with age, and 1 article (3%) showed disparities increased with age. More often the survival and mortality gap between African-American and White prostate cancer patients decreases with age. Additional studies are needed to elucidate other factors that may influence racial disparities in prostate cancer patients. These results provide insight into the racial disparities in prostate cancer and suggest more resources should be directed towards decreasing the disparity gap in younger prostate cancer patients.

  9. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis with prostato-rectal fistula: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liyong Xing, Zhifei Liu, Gang Deng, Huan Wang, Yanfeng Zhu, Peng Shi, Bingyue Huo, Yindong Li Department of Urology, Tangshan People’s Hospital, Tangshan, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis (XP is a rare form of nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis that can clinically mimic high-grade prostatic carcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose it definitely in clinical settings. Methods: We report a case of XP with prostate-rectal fistula and review the relevant literatures. Result: A 75-year-old man presented with rectal bleeding when he urinated. A locally advanced carcinoma of prostate was suspected initially following the physical, imaging, and hematologic examinations. Subsequently on histopathological and immunohistochemical staining after needle biopsy of the prostate, a diagnosis of XP was made definitely. The patient was catheterized temporarily and treated with tamsulosin and estrogen. The patient underwent uneventful recovery after this conservative therapy. Conclusion: Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses are valuable in differentially diagnosing XP from high-grade prostate carcinoma. Treatment strategy of XP in principle is recommended to be the conservative method. Long-term follow-up earns are highly regarded considering the possibility of coexisting prostate cancer. Keywords: xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, prostate-rectal fistula

  10. Two-micrometer thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2-μm thulium laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT has been introduced as a minimally invasive treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of TmLRP-TT for the treatment of BPH patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy. A prospective analysis of 51 patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy who underwent surgical treatment using TmLRP-TT was performed from December 2011 to December 2013. Preoperative status, surgical details, and perioperative complications were recorded. The follow-up outcome was evaluated with subjective and objective tests at 1 and 6 months. TmLRP-TT was successfully completed in all patients. Mean prostate volume, operative duration, and catheterization time were 93.3 ± 37.9 ml, 69.5 ± 39.5 min, and 6.5 ± 1.3 days, respectively. The mean International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life score, maximum urinary flow rate, and post-void residual urine volume changed notably at 6-month follow-up (22.5 ± 6.9 vs 6.1 ± 3.2, 4.8 ± 1.3 vs 1.1 ± 0.9, 7.3 ± 4.5 vs 18.9 ± 7.1 ml s−1 , and 148.7 ± 168.7 vs 28.4 ± 17.9 ml. Two (3.9% patients required blood transfusion perioperatively, while 3 (5.9% patients experienced transient hematuria postoperatively, and 2 (3.9% patients received 3 days recatheterization due to clot retention. TmLRP-TT is a safe and effective minimally invasive technique for patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy during the 6-month follow-up. This promising technology may be a feasible surgical method for previously negative transrectal prostate biopsy in the future.

  11. The link between benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, David Dynnes; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer are among the most common diseases of the prostate gland and represent significant burdens for patients and health-care systems in many countries. The two diseases share traits such as hormone-dependent growth and response to antiandrogen...

  12. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  13. Hyaluronan Biosynthesis in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, James B

    2006-01-01

    Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the last several years metastasis represents the major cause of frustration and failure in the successful treatment of prostate cancer patients. Hyaluronan (HA...

  14. Center for Prostate Disease Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Prostate Disease Research is the only free-standing prostate cancer research center in the U.S. This 20,000 square foot state-of-the-art basic science...

  15. Paracrine Regulation of Prostatic Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayward, Simon

    2003-01-01

    .... The objective of the proposed research is to establish immortalized stromal cell lines derived from normal human prostate and from human prostate cancer and to use these cells to investigate the role...

  16. What is the adequacy of biopsies for prostate sampling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Hasan Serkan; Aytac, Berna; Kordan, Yakup; Gasanov, Feyzullah; Yavascaoglu, İsmet

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the adequacy of the samples obtained by prostate biopsies and the factors those could affect this adequacy. Three hundred seventy-eight patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy have been included into the study. The biopsy samples have been retrospectively reviewed in terms of presence of prostatic glandular elements and prostatic tissue. Factors which may affect the presence of glandular elements have been investigated. The mean age, PSA level, and prostate volume were 65 ± 8.1 years, 13.6 ± 17.8 ng/ml, and 52.5 ± 29.8 ml, respectively. Overall cancer detection rate was 25.3%. The highest incidence of absence of prostatic glandular elements was detected at apical (21.8%) and far lateral (21.5%) biopsy samples. The overall rate of absence of glandular elements was 0.16. Absence of glandular elements in at least 1 sample of the biopsy set was detected in 50% of patients. This figure was 27.8% and 16.1% for the absence of glands in at least 3 and 5 samples of the biopsy set, respectively. These results have also been found to be operator-dependent. For patients with PSA between 4 and 10 ng/ml, we found that cancer detection rate was lower in patients with absence of glandular elements. When the possible factors were analyzed, age, PSA, prostate volume, findings of prostate examination, and presence of cancer were not found to be effective on these parameters, whereas the most important factor was the biopsy localization. Our study showed that prostatic glandular elements, which are keys for histological diagnosis, were absent in a significant number of prostatic biopsy samples and patients. This inadequacy was most prominent in apical and far lateral biopsy specimens and found to be operator-dependent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of long-term stability of mesiodistal axial inclinations of maxillary molars through panoramic radiographs in subjects treated with Pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Caroline Andrade; Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the stability of mesiodistal inclination of maxillary molars produced by a pendulum appliance, five years after completion of orthodontic treatment. Angulation changes were compared to an untreated sample. The sample consisted of 20 patients (14 females and 6 males) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion that was treated through molar distalization with a pendulum appliance followed by cervical headgear and full fixed appliances. Maxillary molar inclination was evaluated through panoramic radiograph. The mean age at pretreatment was 14.3 ± 1.6 years, whereas at immediate post-treatment it was 18.6 ± 1.8 years, and at long-term post-treatment it was 23.8 ± 2.0 years. A control group of 16 untreated individuals with untreated normocclusion ranging in age from 12 to 17 years old were used as comparison group. Data were statistically analyzed with independent t-tests and ANOVA test followed by Tukey post-hoc tests. Statistically significant differences were found between T1(94.50) and T2 (98.80) as well as between T2 and T3 (94.70) for maxillary first molars. Maxillary second molars did not show any statistically significant positional changes during the evaluated time periods T1 (107.50), T2 (109.30) and T3 (106.90). Although maxillary first molars underwent distal crown inclination immediately after treatment, approximately five years thereafter their roots tended to upright close to the pretreatment positions.

  18. A comparison of the nutritional status between adult celiac patients on a long-term, strictly gluten-free diet and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, M; Della Valle, N; Rosania, R; Facciorusso, A; Trotta, A; Cantatore, F P; Falco, S; Pignatiello, S; Viggiani, M T; Amoruso, A; De Filippis, R; Di Leo, A; Francavilla, R

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data on the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on the nutritional status of celiac patients. In the present study, we evaluated, in adult celiac patients, the influence of a long-term, strictly GFD on their nutritional status and compared it with matched healthy volunteers. Our study included 39 celiac patients and 39 healthy volunteers. The body mass index (BMI) of patients and controls was evaluated at enrollment, while the patients' BMI before the GFD was retrieved from clinical records. In addition, at enrollment, in both groups, we compared BMI, fat mass (FM), bone mineral density (BMD), as well as their dietary intake, recorded on a 7-day diary. At the time of diagnosis, the majority of celiac patients (82.0%) had a normal BMI or were overweight, while 10.3% were malnourished. After the GFD, patients with a normal BMI showed a significant weight increase (P=0.002), but none of them switched in the overweight or obese category. Two (50%) of the four malnourished patients achieved a normal BMI. Controls and patients on a GFD had a similar BMI, FM, BMD and total calorie intake, but the amount of lipids and fiber intake was significantly different in the two groups (P=0.003 and Pnutritional status of celiac patients without inducing overweight or obesity. Our findings are related to a celiac population adopting a GFD based on a Mediterranean-type diet.

  19. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  20. An unusual case of primary prostatic extragastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Feng Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs originate from several anatomic sites, except the digestive system. We describe an early prostatic EGIST case with lower urinary tract symptoms and a palpable lesion on digital examination. The patient received transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy of the prostate, and the pathological finding demonstrated positive staining for DOG-1 and CD117. Treatment included only imatinib, which shrank the tumor and led to complete remission. Because of enlarged prostate volume with tumor progression, the initial common manifestations are lower urinary tract symptoms. Surgical resection is the recommended management, particularly in bulky lesions. However, imatinib still plays an important role in long-term therapy. We also review the associated reported cases of prostatic EGISTs.