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Sample records for subject terms magnetic

  1. Retrieval of long and short lists from long term memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, S; Müller, K; Lehmann, C; Thöne-Otto, A I; von Cramon, D Y

    2001-11-13

    Previous studies have shown that reaction time in an item-recognition task with both short and long lists is a quadratic function of list length. This suggests that either different memory retrieval processes are implied for short and long lists or an adaptive process is involved. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study with nine subjects and list lengths varying between 3 and 18 words was conducted to identify the underlying neuronal structures of retrieval from long and short lists. For the retrieval and processing of word-lists a single fronto-parietal network, including premotor, left prefrontal, left precuneal and left parietal regions, was activated. With increasing list length, no additional regions became involved in retrieving information from long-term memory, suggesting that not necessarily different, but highly adaptive retrieval processes are involved.

  2. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  3. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  4. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  5. Magnetic Vestibular Stimulation in Subjects with Unilateral Labyrinthine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kevin Ward

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS in individuals with unilateral loss of labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with differences consistent with their residual labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP. Eye movements were recorded using infrared videooculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology.

  6. Remagnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors subjected to crossed and rotating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderbemden, P [SUPRATECS and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science B28, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Hong, Z [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ausloos, M [SUPRATECS and Department of Physics B5, Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Babu, N Hari [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cardwell, D A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Campbell, A M [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) has significant potential for a variety of high-field permanent-magnet-like applications, such as the rotor of a brushless motor. When used in rotating devices of this kind, however, the YBCO can be subjected to both transient and alternating magnetic fields that are not parallel to the direction of magnetization and which have a detrimental effect on the trapped field. These effects may lead to long-term decay of the magnetization of the bulk sample. In the present work, we analyze both experimentally and numerically the remagnetization process of a melt-processed YBCO single domain that has been partially demagnetized by a magnetic field applied orthogonal to the initial direction of trapped flux. Magnetic torque measurements are used as a tool to probe changes in the remanent magnetization during various sequences of applied field. The application of a small magnetic field between the transverse cycles parallel to the direction of original magnetization results in partial remagnetization of the sample. Rotating the applied field, however, is found to be much more efficient at remagnetizing the bulk material than applying a magnetizing field pulse of the same amplitude. The principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law. Finally, the remagnetization process is shown to result from the complex modification of current distribution within the cross-section of the bulk sample.

  7. Remagnetization of bulk high-temperature superconductors subjected to crossed and rotating magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderbemden, P; Hong, Z; Coombs, T A; Ausloos, M; Babu, N Hari; Cardwell, D A; Campbell, A M

    2007-01-01

    Bulk melt-processed Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) has significant potential for a variety of high-field permanent-magnet-like applications, such as the rotor of a brushless motor. When used in rotating devices of this kind, however, the YBCO can be subjected to both transient and alternating magnetic fields that are not parallel to the direction of magnetization and which have a detrimental effect on the trapped field. These effects may lead to long-term decay of the magnetization of the bulk sample. In the present work, we analyze both experimentally and numerically the remagnetization process of a melt-processed YBCO single domain that has been partially demagnetized by a magnetic field applied orthogonal to the initial direction of trapped flux. Magnetic torque measurements are used as a tool to probe changes in the remanent magnetization during various sequences of applied field. The application of a small magnetic field between the transverse cycles parallel to the direction of original magnetization results in partial remagnetization of the sample. Rotating the applied field, however, is found to be much more efficient at remagnetizing the bulk material than applying a magnetizing field pulse of the same amplitude. The principal features of the experimental data can be reproduced qualitatively using a two-dimensional finite-element numerical model based on an E-J power law. Finally, the remagnetization process is shown to result from the complex modification of current distribution within the cross-section of the bulk sample

  8. Evaluation of magnetic dipolar terms in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, R.B.; Brandi, H.S.; Maffeo, B.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic dipolar parameter b for several values of the internuclear distance in the molecule F 2 - is evaluated. The difficulties appearing in the calculations are discussed and a manner to overcome them is presented [pt

  9. Structural characterization and magnetic properties of steels subjected to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.H.; Tang, F.; Biner, S.B.; Jiles, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Studies have been made on the effects of residual stress and microstructure on the variations of magnetic properties of steels during fatigue. Strain-controlled fatigue tests have been conducted on 0.2wt% C steel samples which were (1) cold-worked (2) cold-worked and annealed at 500 deg. C to relieve residual stress, and (3) annealed at 905 deg. C to produce a ferrite/pearlite structure. The changes of surface microstructure were studied by SEM replica technique. The dislocation structures of samples fatigued for different numbers of cycle were studied by TEM. In the initial stage of fatigue coercivity was found to behave differently for samples which have different residual stress levels. In the intermediate stage the magnetic hysteresis parameters became stable as the dislocation cell structure developed in the samples. In the final stage the magnetic parameters decreased dramatically. The decrease rate is related to the propagation rate of fatigue cracks observed in the SEM study, which was found to be dependent on the sample microstructure. The present results indicate that the magnetic inspection technique is able to differentiate the residual stress effects from the fatigue damage induced by cyclic loading, and therefore it is possible to detect the onset of fatigue failure in steel components via measurements of the changes in magnetic properties.--This work was sponsored by the National Science Foundation, under grant number CMS-9532056

  10. Reliability analysis of magnetic logic interconnect wire subjected to magnet edge imperfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Xiaokuo; Liu, Jiahao; Li, Weiwei; Xu, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Nanomagnet logic (NML) devices have been proposed as one of the best candidates for the next generation of integrated circuits thanks to its substantial advantages of nonvolatility, radiation hardening and potentially low power. In this article, errors of nanomagnetic interconnect wire subjected to magnet edge imperfections have been evaluated for the purpose of reliable logic propagation. The missing corner defects of nanomagnet in the wire are modeled with a triangle, and the interconnect fabricated with various magnetic materials is thoroughly investigated by micromagnetic simulations under different corner defect amplitudes and device spacings. The results show that as the defect amplitude increases, the success rate of logic propagation in the interconnect decreases. More results show that from the interconnect wire fabricated with materials, iron demonstrates the best defect tolerance ability among three representative and frequently used NML materials, also logic transmission errors can be mitigated by adjusting spacing between nanomagnets. These findings can provide key technical guides for designing reliable interconnects. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61302022) and the Scientific Research Foundation for Postdoctor of Air Force Engineering University (Nos. 2015BSKYQD03, 2016KYMZ06).

  11. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  12. Magnetic Behavior of Sintered NdFeB Magnets on a Long-Term Timescale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Haavisto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable polarization of permanent magnets over the lifetime of the application is an important aspect in electrical machine design. Specification of the long-term stability of magnet material is difficult, since knowledge of the phenomenon is incomplete. To be able to optimize magnet material selection, the long-term magnetic behavior of the material must also be understood. This study shows that material with a very square JH curve is stable until a certain critical operating temperature is reached. Major losses are detected as the critical temperature is exceeded. Material with a rounder JH curve does not show a well-defined critical temperature, but increasing losses over a large temperature range. The critical temperature of a material is also dependent on the field conditions. Results differ whether the tests are performed in an open or closed magnetic circuit. In open-circuit tests, the opposing field is not homogeneously distributed throughout the volume of the magnet and thus the long-term behavior is different than that in closed-circuit conditions. Open-circuit tests seem to give bigger losses than closed-circuit tests in cases where the permeance coefficient of the open-circuit sample is considered to be the average permeance coefficient, calculated according to the dimensions of the magnet.

  13. Exploration of Web Users' Search Interests through Automatic Subject Categorization of Query Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsiao-tieh; Yang, Chyan; Chuang, Shui-Lung

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mechanism that carefully integrates human and machine efforts to explore Web users' search interests. The approach consists of a four-step process: extraction of core terms; construction of subject taxonomy; automatic subject categorization of query terms; and observation of users' search interests. Research findings are proved valuable…

  14. The suspended magnetic separator with large blocks from NdFeB magnets and its long term technological tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2011), s. 89-97 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic separation * magnetic separators * magnetic circuits Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.530, year: 2011 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/abstracts/AGG/01_11/8_Zezulka.pdf

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Predicting variation in subject thermal response during transcranial magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery: Comparison in seventeen subject datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Ghanouni, Pejman; Halpern, Casey H.; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Elias, Jeff [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: In transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) treatments, the acoustic and spatial heterogeneity of the skull cause reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beams. These effects depend on skull-specific parameters and can lead to patient-specific thermal responses to the same transducer power. In this work, the authors develop a simulation tool to help predict these different experimental responses using 3D heterogeneous tissue models based on the subject CT images. The authors then validate and compare the predicted skull efficiencies to an experimental metric based on the subject thermal responses during tcMRgFUS treatments in a dataset of seventeen human subjects. Methods: Seventeen human head CT scans were used to create tissue acoustic models, simulating the effects of reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beam as it propagates through a heterogeneous skull. The hybrid angular spectrum technique was used to model the acoustic beam propagation of the InSightec ExAblate 4000 head transducer for each subject, yielding maps of the specific absorption rate (SAR). The simulation assumed the transducer was geometrically focused to the thalamus of each subject, and the focal SAR at the target was used as a measure of the simulated skull efficiency. Experimental skull efficiency for each subject was calculated using the thermal temperature maps from the tcMRgFUS treatments. Axial temperature images (with no artifacts) were reconstructed with a single baseline, corrected using a referenceless algorithm. The experimental skull efficiency was calculated by dividing the reconstructed temperature rise 8.8 s after sonication by the applied acoustic power. Results: The simulated skull efficiency using individual-specific heterogeneous models predicts well (R{sup 2} = 0.84) the experimental energy efficiency. Conclusions: This paper presents a simulation model to predict the variation in thermal responses

  17. Magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting cylinders of arbitrary cross section subjected to an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, G.

    1982-07-01

    We show here how the application of the critical state model allows one to determine the magnetic flux density B⃗ in each point of a superconducting cylinder with an arbitrary cross section subjected to axial magnetic fields Hz; the B = 0 boundaries of the regions occupied by the vortices are so defined. We successively consider the cases where the critical current density Jc is either isotropic (constant or an arbitrary function of B) or tensorial, which means, for our problem, the use of two components Jcx and Jcy (either constant or depending on B but Jcx/Jcy remaining constant).

  18. Electrical and magnetic repetitive transcranial stimulation of the primary motor cortex in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Francesca; Iacovelli, Elisa; Frasca, Vittorio; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; De Lena, Carlo; Cipriani, Anna Maria; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2009-05-08

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) delivered in short trains at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity over the primary motor cortex (M1) in healthy subjects facilitates the motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude by increasing cortical excitability through mechanisms resembling short-term synaptic plasticity. In this study, to investigate whether rTES acts through similar mechanisms we compared the effects of rTMS and repetitive transcranial electrical stimulation (rTES) (10 stimuli-trains, 5Hz frequency, suprathreshold intensity) delivered over the M1 on the MEP amplitude. Four healthy subjects were studied in two separate sessions in a relaxed condition. rTMS and anodal rTES were delivered in trains to the left M1 over the motor area for evoking a MEP in the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Changes in MEP size and latency during the course of the rTMS and rTES trains were compared. The possible effects of muscle activation on MEP amplitude were evaluated, and the possible effects of cutaneous trigeminal fibre activation on corticospinal excitability were excluded in a control experiment testing the MEP amplitude before and after supraorbital nerve repetitive electrical stimulation. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that rTES and rTMS trains elicited similar amplitude first MEPs and a similar magnitude MEP amplitude facilitation during the trains. rTES elicited a first MEP with a shorter latency than rTMS, without significant changes during the course of the train of stimuli. The MEP elicited by single-pulse TES delivered during muscle contraction had a smaller amplitude than the last MEP in the rTES trains. Repetitive supraorbital nerve stimulation left the conditioned MEP unchanged. Our results suggest that 5 Hz-rTES delivered in short trains increases cortical excitability and does so by acting on the excitatory interneurones probably through mechanisms similar to those underlying the rTMS-induced MEP facilitation.

  19. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  20. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Aki, Atsushi; Mizuki, Toru; Maekawa, Toru; Usami, Ron; Morimoto, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  1. Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Suzuki

    Full Text Available We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up and activated. We next prepare a solution, in which α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids and free, nonimmobilized chitinase are dispersed, and analyze their activities. We find that when the solution is subjected to an ac magnetic field, the activity of α-amylase immobilized on the particles increases, whereas that of free chitinase hardly changes; in other words, only α-amylase immobilized on the particles is selectively activated due to heat generation from the particles.

  2. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E

    2002-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation activates corticospinal neurones directly and transsynaptically and hence, activates motoneurones and results in a response in the muscle. Transmastoid stimulation results in a similar muscle response through activation of axons in the spinal cord. This study...... was designed to determine whether the two stimuli activate the same descending axons. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimuli paired with electrical transmastoid stimuli were examined in biceps brachii in human subjects. Twelve interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -6 ms (magnet before transmastoid) to 5 ms......-wave, facilitation still occurred at ISIs of -6 and -5 ms and depression of the paired response at ISIs of 0, 1, 4 and 5 ms. The interaction of the response to transmastoid stimulation with the multiple descending volleys elicited by magnetic stimulation of the cortex is complex. However, depression of the response...

  3. Dynamics of particle suspensions subjected to biaxial and triaxial magnetic fields: vortex mixing and isothermal magnetic advection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James

    2010-03-01

    We have developed several new magnetic methods for stimulating functional fluid flows. These methods depend on adding magnetic particles to the fluids and subjecting them to spatially uniform, time-dependent magnetic fields. The key aspect is the nature of the particles and the way in which the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field changes with time. The first of these new methods, which we call vortex field mixing, gives rise to vigorous fluid mixing that occurs uniformly throughout the sample volume, eliminating the stagnation regions that plague standard methods. This method is ideally suited for microfluidic devices, but can used for mixing at any scale. The second method involves the stimulation of organized fluid flow fields that can efficiently transfer heat and mass along any desired direction. This isothermal magnetic advection has the functionality of natural convection, but because the effect does not depend on gravity or the existence of a thermal gradient, it can be used to stimulate flow where natural convection fails. It is possible to cool under or beside a hot object, in the microgravity environments of space, and without any concern over the magnitude of the thermal gradient.

  4. Vacuum arcing behavior between transverse magnetic field contacts subjected to variable axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan, E-mail: liuzy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density B{sub AMF} can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF–AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.

  5. Vacuum arcing behavior between transverse magnetic field contacts subjected to variable axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density B AMF can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF–AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.

  6. Vacuum arcing behavior between transverse magnetic field contacts subjected to variable axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density BAMF can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF-AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.

  7. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... characters. On the contrary expertise or word frequency may reflect what could be termed subjective complexity, as this relate directly to the individual mental categories established. This study will be able to uncover more details on how we should define complexity of objects to be encoded into short-term....... & Cavanagh, 2004). But the term complexity is often not clearly defined. Sørensen (2008; see also Dall, Katsumi, & Sørensen, 2016) suggested that complexity can be related to two different types; objective and subjective complexity. This distinction is supported by a number of studies on the influence...

  8. Interlayer Hall effect in double quantum wells subject to in-plane magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolorenč, Jindřich; Smrčka, Ludvík; Středa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 8 (2002), s. 085301-1 - 085301-7 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA ČR GA202/01/0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : double - layer two-dimensional electron system * magnetotransport * Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  9. Monitoring long-term evolution of engineered barrier systems using magnets: Magnetic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonat, N; Isnard, O; Harley, S L; Butler, I B

    2018-01-05

    Remote and non-destructive monitoring of the stability and performance of Engineered Barrier Systems for Geological Disposal Facility of is gaining considerable importance in establishing the safety cases for Higher Activity Wastes disposal. This study offers an innovative use of mineral magnetism for monitoring groundwater saturation of the barrier. Four mixtures of permanent magnets (Nd-Fe-B, coated and uncoated; SmCo and AlNiCo) and bentonite were reacted for 4, 8 and 12 months with mildly-saline, high-pH leachates, representing the fluids saturating a time-evolved engineered barrier. Coupled hysteresis and thermomagnetic analyses demonstrate how Nd-Fe-B feature a time-dependent transition from square-like ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic loop via pot-bellied and wasp-waist loops, whereas SmCo and AlNiCo do not show so extensive corrosion-related variations of the intrinsic and extrinsic magnetic properties. This study allowed to identify magnetic materials suitable for shorter- (Nd-Fe-B) and longer-term (SmCo and AlNiCo) monitoring purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Self-organization of topological defects for a triangular-lattice magnetic dots array subject to a perpendicular magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Khymyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The regular array of magnetic particles (magnetic dots of the form of a two-dimensional triangular lattice in the presence of external magnetic field demonstrates complicated magnetic structures. The magnetic symmetry of the ground state for such a system is lower than that for the underlying lattice. Long range dipole-dipole interaction leads to a specific antiferromagnetic order in small fields, whereas a set of linear topological defects appears with the growth of the magnetic field. Self-organization of such defects determines the magnetization process for a system within a wide range of external magnetic fields.

  11. Cathode-constriction and column-constriction in high current vacuum arcs subjected to an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zaiqin; Ma, Hui; Liu, Zhiyuan; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the applied axial magnetic field on the current density distribution in the arc column and electrodes is intensively studied. However, the previous results only provide a qualitative explanation, which cannot quantitatively explain a recent experimental data on anode current density. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively determine the current constriction subjected to an axial magnetic field in high-current vacuum arcs according to the recent experimental data. A magnetohydrodynamic model is adopted to describe the high current vacuum arcs. The vacuum arc is in a diffuse arc mode with an arc current ranged from 6 kArms to 14 kArms and an axial magnetic field ranged from 20 mT to 110 mT. By a comparison of the recent experimental work of current density distribution on the anode, the modelling results show that there are two types of current constriction. On one hand, the current on the cathode shows a constriction, and this constriction is termed as the cathode-constriction. On the other hand, the current constricts in the arc column region, and this constriction is termed as the column-constriction. The cathode boundary is of vital importance in a quantitative model. An improved cathode constriction boundary is proposed. Under the improved boundary, the simulation results are in good agreement with the recent experimental data on the anode current density distribution. It is demonstrated that the current density distribution at the anode is sensitive to that at the cathode, so that measurements of the anode current density can be used, in combination with the vacuum arc model, to infer the cathode current density distribution.

  12. Specific terms glossary for subjects taught in Physical Culture first year career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isel Rodríguez Cruz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contents comprehension is an important element in the learning process; present didactic ways demand from teaching styles that favor communicative competence in the students. Taking into account the relevance of this topic in the teaching learning process it was decided to develop the present work, which has the objective to offer the students a tool that allow them an efficient comprehension of the contents they receive in the Physical Culture first year career subjects. To fulfil the goal a glossary with specific terms of basketball, chess, swimming, athletics, basic gymnastics, and morphology was designed starting from the results of the initial diagnosis, the scientific observation, as well as the detail revision of the normative documents that rule Communicative Spanish subject. The glossary use favor the students´ texts comprehension development from the mentioned subject.

  13. Long-Term Quality of Life Improvement in Subjects with Healed Erosive Esophagitis: Treatment with Lansoprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freston, James W.; Haber, Marian M.; Atkinson, Stuart; Hunt, Barbara; Peura, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Aims To investigate QOL in subjects with healed EE who received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine, followed by long-term open-label lansoprazole therapy to prevent recurrence of EE. Methods Subjects with healed EE received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily, followed by dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole therapy for up to 82 months. Results During double-blind treatment (n = 206), lansoprazole-treated patients showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater improvements than ranitidine-treated patients in the frequency, severity, and ‘bothersomeness’ of heartburn, the symptom index, problems of activity limitation, eating and drinking problems, symptom problems, health distress, and social functioning. During dose-titrated, open-label treatment (n = 195), all disease-specific QOL scales except sleep improved significantly (P lansoprazole for 12 months in healed EE subjects produced significantly greater improvements in QOL indicators than ranitidine. These improvements were sustained during dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole treatment. PMID:19582579

  14. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  15. Commensurability oscillations in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas subject to strong in-plane magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 77, Mar (2016), s. 108-113 ISSN 1386-9477 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lateral superlattices * commensurability oscillations * in-plane magnetic field Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.221, year: 2016

  16. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  17. Noninvasive verification of nasogastric tube placement using a magnet-tracking system: a pilot study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, Premysl; Schlageter, Vincent; Mauro, Marina; Rawlinson, John; Kucera, Pavel; Armstrong, David

    2005-01-01

    Fluoroscopic verification of nasogastric (NG) feeding tube placement is inconvenient and involves radiation exposure. We tested whether the position of an NG tube can be assessed reliably by a recently introduced magnet-tracking system. A small permanent magnet was attached at the end of an NG tube and its position was monitored using an external sensor array connected to a computer. NG tube trajectory, spontaneous movements of the magnet, and its position relative to the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and xiphisternum were assessed in 22 healthy subjects and compared with esophageal manometry. In 12 subjects, localization of the magnet was also compared with fluoroscopy. Magnet-tracking displayed NG tube tip movement reproducibly as it moved vertically in the esophagus and then laterally into the stomach. Compared with manometry, the accuracy and sensitivity of magnet tracking for localization of the NG tube tip, above or below the diaphragm, were 100%. Compared with fluoroscopy, the accuracy of NG tube localization by magnet tracking was 100%. With the magnet in the stomach, but not in the esophagus or LES, low amplitude displacements at a frequency of 3 per minute, consistent with gastric slow wave activity, were observed. Magnet tracking allows accurate, real-time, 3-dimensional localization of an NG tube with respect to anatomic landmarks. Recorded motor patterns are indicative of the position of the NG tube. Magnet tracking may be a useful tool for bedside placement of nasogastric and enteral feeding tubes.

  18. Long-Term Outcome of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Korean Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Ri; Choi, Won Ah; Choi, Young-Chul; Lee, Jang Woo; Hong, Jung Hwa; Park, Jihyun; Kang, Seong-Woong

    2017-12-01

    To report the latest long-term outcome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to analyze the predictors of prognosis. Subjects who were diagnosed with ALS between January 2005 and December 2009 at a single institute were followed up until death or up to December 2014. Data regarding age, sex, date of onset, date of diagnosis, presence of bulbar symptoms on onset, date of initiation of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and the date of tracheostomy were collected. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate analyses of the risk of death were performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Among 212 suspicious subjects, definite ALS was diagnosed in 182 subjects. The survival rate at 3 and 5 years from onset was 61.5% and 40.1%, respectively, and the survival rate at 3 and 5 years post-diagnosis was 49.5% and 24.2%, respectively. Further, 134 patients (134/182, 73.6%) were initiated on NIV, and among them, 90 patients (90/182, 49.5%) underwent tracheostomy. Male gender and onset age of ≥65 years were independent predictors of adverse survival. The analysis of long term survival in ALS showed excellent outcomes considering the overall poor prognosis of this disease.

  19. Automatic bearing fault diagnosis of permanent magnet synchronous generators in wind turbines subjected to noise interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Lu, Siliang; Zhai, Chao; He, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    An automatic bearing fault diagnosis method is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs), which are widely installed in wind turbines subjected to low rotating speeds, speed fluctuations, and electrical device noise interferences. The mechanical rotating angle curve is first extracted from the phase current of a PMSG by sequentially applying a series of algorithms. The synchronous sampled vibration signal of the fault bearing is then resampled in the angular domain according to the obtained rotating phase information. Considering that the resampled vibration signal is still overwhelmed by heavy background noise, an adaptive stochastic resonance filter is applied to the resampled signal to enhance the fault indicator and facilitate bearing fault identification. Two types of fault bearings with different fault sizes in a PMSG test rig are subjected to experiments to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method is fully automated and thus shows potential for convenient, highly efficient and in situ bearing fault diagnosis for wind turbines subjected to harsh environments.

  20. Suppression of EMG activity by transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E; Marchand-Pauvert, Veronique

    2001-01-01

    1. The involvement of the motor cortex during human walking was evaluated using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex at a variety of intensities. Recordings of EMG activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus muscles during walking were rectified and averaged. 2. TMS of low...... intensity (below threshold for a motor-evoked potential, MEP) produced a suppression of ongoing EMG activity during walking. The average latency for this suppression was 40.0 +/- 1.0 ms. At slightly higher intensities of stimulation there was a facilitation of the EMG activity with an average latency of 29.......5 +/- 1.0 ms. As the intensity of the stimulation was increased the facilitation increased in size and eventually a MEP was clear in individual sweeps. 3. In three subjects TMS was replaced by electrical stimulation over the motor cortex. Just below MEP threshold there was a clear facilitation at short...

  1. Subject-specific optimization of channel currents for multichannel transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher C; Johnson, Nessa N; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system using a multichannel coil array for high-resolution neuromodulation. We proposed a novel spatially-distributed stimulation strategy to significantly improve the focality of TMS. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the proposed approach and test the merits of multichannel TMS. Three different multichannel coil arrays were modeled in addition to a conventional figure-8 coil for comparison. Simulations were performed on finite element head models of six subjects constructed from anatomical MR images via an automated pipeline. Multichannel TMS arrays exhibited significantly more focal induced electric field magnitudes compared to the figure-8 coil. Additionally, electrical steering of stimulation sites without physical movement of the coil array was demonstrated.

  2. Design of Active Magnetic Bearing Controllers for Rotors Subjected to Gas Seal Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Jonas Skjødt; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2018-01-01

    Proper design of feedback controllers is crucial for ensuring high performance of Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) supported rotor dynamic systems. Annular seals in those systems can contribute with significant forces, which, in many cases, are hard to model in advance due to complex geometries...... of the seal and multiphase fluids. Hence, it can be challenging to design AMB controllers that will guarantee robust performance for these kinds of systems. This paper demonstrates the design, simulation and experimental results of model based controllers for AMB systems, subjected to dynamic seal forces....... The controllers are found using H-infinity - and µ synthesis and are based on a global rotor dynamic model in-which the seal coefficients are identified in-situ. The controllers are implemented in a rotor-dynamic test facility with two radial AMBs and one annular seal with an adjustable inlet pressure. The seal...

  3. Medium-term energy hub management subject to electricity price and wind uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Arsalan; Falaghi, Hamid; Contreras, Javier; Ramezani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for medium-term energy hub management is proposed. • Risk aversion is considered in medium-term energy hub management. • Stochastic programing is used to solve the medium-term energy hub management problem. • Electricity price and wind uncertainty are considered. - Abstract: Energy hubs play an important role in implementing multi-carrier energy systems. More studies are required in both their modeling and operating aspects. In this regard, this paper attempts to develop medium-term management of an energy hub in restructured power systems. A model is presented to manage an energy hub which has electrical energy and natural gas as inputs and electrical and heat energy as outputs. Electricity is procured in various ways, either purchasing it from a pool-based market and bilateral contracts, or producing it from a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, a diesel generator unit and Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). Pool prices and wind turbine production are subject to uncertainty, which makes energy management a complex puzzle. Heat demand is also procured by a furnace and a CHP unit. Energy hub managers should make decisions whether to purchase electricity from the electricity market and gas from the gas network or to produce electricity using a set of generators to meet the electrical and heat demands in the presence of uncertainties. The energy management objective is to minimize the total cost subject to several technical constraints using stochastic programming. Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR), a well-known risk measure, is used to reduce the unfavorable risk of costs. In doing so, the proposed model is illustrated using a sample test case with actual prices, load and wind speed data. The results show that the minimum cost is obtained by the best decisions involving the electricity market and purchasing natural gas for gas facilities. Considering risk also increases the total expected cost and decreases the CVaR.

  4. Functional Magnetic Stimulation of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscles in Subjects With Tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Plow, Ela; Ranganthan, Vinoth; Huang, Honglian; Schmitt, Melissa; Nemunaitis, Gregory; Kelly, Clay; Frost, Frederick; Lin, Vernon

    2016-07-01

    Respiratory complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in persons with a spinal cord injury, partly because of respiratory muscle paralysis. Earlier investigation has demonstrated that functional magnetic stimulation (FMS) can be used as a noninvasive technology for activating expiratory muscles, thus producing useful expiratory functions (simulated cough) in subjects with spinal cord injury. To evaluate the effectiveness of FMS for conditioning inspiratory and expiratory muscles in persons with tetraplegia. A prospective before and after trial. FMS Laboratory, Louis Stokes Cleveland VA Medical Center, Cleveland, OH. Six persons with tetraplegia. Each subject participated in a 6-week FMS protocol for conditioning the inspiratory and expiratory muscles. A magnetic stimulator was used with the center of a magnetic coil placed at the C7-T1 and T9-T10 spinous processes, respectively. Pulmonary function tests were performed before, during, and after the protocol. Respiratory variables included maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), peak inspiratory flow (PIF), maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and peak expiratory flow (PEF). After 6 weeks of conditioning, the main outcome measurements (mean ± standard error) were as follows: MIP, 89.6 ± 7.3 cm H2O; IRV, 1.90 ± 0.34 L; PIF, 302.4 ± 36.3 L/min; MEP, 67.4 ± 11.1 cm H2O; ERV, 0.40 ± 0.06 L; and PEF, 372.4 ± 31.9 L/min. These values corresponded to 117%, 107%, 136%, 109%, 130%, and 124% of pre-FMS conditioning values, respectively. Significant improvements were observed in MIP (P = .022), PIF (P = .0001), and PEF (P = .0006), respectively. When FMS was discontinued for 4 weeks, these values showed decreases from their values at the end of the conditioning protocol, which suggests that continual FMS may be necessary to maintain improved respiratory functions. FMS conditioning of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles improved

  5. Long-term functional, subjective and psychological results after single digit replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ai Xian; Chen, Qing Zhong; Mu, Shuai; Tan, Jun

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger) in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males) with a mean age of 44.2 years (20-65 years) were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19-50 months). The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ). Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0-39.2). The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD) (P digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  7. Long-term functional, subjective and psychological results after single digit replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Methods: Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males with a mean age of 44.2 years (20–65 years were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19–50 months. The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ. Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. Results: The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0–39.2. The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD (P < 0.05. Several aspects of the MHQ were also statistically relevant to some or all of the three objective results. Furthermore, the grip strength showed significant correlation with DASH and most aspects of the MHQ in multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Total grip strength is the most important factor positively related to subjective outcomes. The incidence rates of psychological symptoms after digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. Keywords: Digit Replantation, DASH score, Posttraumatic stress disorder

  8. Influence of spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic dipole term T.sub.α./sub.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipr, Ondřej; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 14 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 144406. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD15097 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-orbit coupling * magnetism * XMCD Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  9. Robust inter-subject audiovisual decoding in functional magnetic resonance imaging using high-dimensional regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Gal; Svanera, Michele; Singer, Neomi; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Maya Bleich; Lin, Tamar; Admon, Roee; Gonen, Tal; Thaler, Avner; Granot, Roni Y; Goebel, Rainer; Benini, Sergio; Valente, Giancarlo

    2017-12-01

    Major methodological advancements have been recently made in the field of neural decoding, which is concerned with the reconstruction of mental content from neuroimaging measures. However, in the absence of a large-scale examination of the validity of the decoding models across subjects and content, the extent to which these models can be generalized is not clear. This study addresses the challenge of producing generalizable decoding models, which allow the reconstruction of perceived audiovisual features from human magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data without prior training of the algorithm on the decoded content. We applied an adapted version of kernel ridge regression combined with temporal optimization on data acquired during film viewing (234 runs) to generate standardized brain models for sound loudness, speech presence, perceived motion, face-to-frame ratio, lightness, and color brightness. The prediction accuracies were tested on data collected from different subjects watching other movies mainly in another scanner. Substantial and significant (Q FDR movies (R¯=0.62, R¯ = 0.60, R¯ = 0.60, respectively) with high reproducibility of the predictors across subjects. The face ratio model produced significant correlations in 7 out of 8 movies (R¯=0.56). The lightness and brightness models did not show robustness (R¯=0.23, R¯ = 0). Further analysis of additional data (95 runs) indicated that loudness reconstruction veridicality can consistently reveal relevant group differences in musical experience. The findings point to the validity and generalizability of our loudness, speech, motion, and face ratio models for complex cinematic stimuli (as well as for music in the case of loudness). While future research should further validate these models using controlled stimuli and explore the feasibility of extracting more complex models via this method, the reliability of our results indicates the potential usefulness of the approach and the resulting models

  10. Hot spot model of MagLIF implosions: Nernst term effect on magnetic flux losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Rubio, Fernando; Sanz Recio, Javier; Betti, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    An analytical model of a collisional plasma being compressed by a cylindrical liner is proposed and solved in a magnetized liner inertial fusion-like context. The implosion is assumed to be isobaric, and the magnetic diffusion is confined to a thin layer near the liner. Both unmagnetized and magnetized plasma cases are considered. The model reduces to a system of two partial differential equations for temperature and magnetic field. Special attention is given to the effect of the Nernst term on the evolution of the magnetic field. Scaling laws for temperature, magnetic field, hot spot mass increase and magnetic field losses are obtained. The temperature and magnetic field spatial profiles tend to a self-similar state. It is found that when the Nernst term is taken into account, the magnetic field is advected towards the liner, and the magnetic flux losses are independent of the magnetic Lewis number. Research supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad, Project No. ENE2014-54960R. Acknowledgements to the Laboratory of Laser Energetics (Rochester) for its hospitality.

  11. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  12. 25 CFR 900.33 - Are all proposals to renew term contracts subject to the declination criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are all proposals to renew term contracts subject to the... Indian Affairs will not review the renewal of a term contract for declination issues where no material... been proposed by the Indian tribe or tribal organization. Proposals to renew term contracts with DOI...

  13. Low intensity magnetic field influences short-term memory: A study in a group of healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Enrique A; Gomez-Perretta, Claudio; Montes, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes if an external magnetic stimulus (2 kHz and approximately 0.1 μT applied near frontal cortex) influences working memory, perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention in humans. A magnetic stimulus and a sham stimulus were applied to both sides of the head (frontal cortex close to temporal-parietal area) in young and healthy male test subjects (n = 65) while performing Sternberg's memory scanning task. There was a significant change in reaction time. Times recorded for perception, sustained attention, and motor execution were lower in exposed subjects (P short-term working memory, as well as perception, binary decision, motor execution, and sustained attention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  15. Investigating the Neural Bases for Intra-Subject Cognitive Efficiency Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena K. Rao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Several fMRI studies have examined brain regions mediating inter-subject variability in cognitive efficiency, but none have examined regions mediating intra-subject variability in efficiency. Thus, the present study was designed to identify brain regions involved in intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency via participant-level correlations between trial-level reaction time (RT and trial-level fMRI BOLD percent signal change on a processing speed task. On each trial, participants indicated whether a digit-symbol probe-pair was present or absent in an array of nine digit-symbol probe-pairs while fMRI data were collected. Deconvolution analyses, using RT time-series models (derived from the proportional scaling of an event-related hemodynamic response function model by trial-level RT, were used to evaluate relationships between trial-level RTs and BOLD percent signal change. Although task-related patterns of activation and deactivation were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, portions of the medial wall such as the precuneus, default mode network regions including anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, bilateral temporal, right cerebellum, and right cuneus, RT-BOLD correlations were observed in a more circumscribed set of regions. Positive RT-related patterns, or RT-BOLD correlations where fast RTs were associated with lower BOLD percent signal change, were observed in regions including bilateral occipital, bilateral parietal, and the precuneus. RT-BOLD correlations were not observed in the default mode network indicating a smaller set of regions associated with intra-subject variability in cognitive efficiency. The results are discussed in terms of a distributed area of regions that mediate variability in the cognitive efficiency that might underlie processing speed differences between individuals.

  16. Functional diversity of Collembola is reduced in soils subjected to short-term, but not long-term, geothermal warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K.; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-01-01

    the extent of such effects in long-term field-based experiments. In this study we make use of both recent (short-term) and long-term geothermal warming of Icelandic soils to examine the responses of Collembola, an ecologically important group of soil invertebrates, to warming. 2. On the basis of metabolic...

  17. Flutter instability of cantilevered carbon nanotubes caused by magnetic fluid flow subjected to a longitudinal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem; Jeon, Soo; Kwon, Hyock-Ju

    2018-04-01

    CNT (Carbon nanotube)-based fluidic systems hold a great potential for emerging medical applications such as drug delivery for cancer therapy. CNTs can be used to deliver anticancer drugs into a target site under a magnetic field guidance. One of the critical issues in designing such systems is how to avoid the vibration induced by the fluid flow, which is undesirable and may even promote the structural instability. The main objective of the present research is to develop a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model to investigate the flutter instability of a cantilevered CNT induced by a magnetic fluid flow under a longitudinal magnetic field. The CNT is assumed to be embedded in a viscoelastic matrix to consider the effect of biological medium around it. To obtain a dynamical model for the system, the Navier-Stokes theory of magnetic-fluid flow is coupled to the Euler-Bernoulli beam model for CNT. The small size effects of the magnetic fluid and CNT are considered through the small scale parameters including Knudsen number (Kn) and the nonlocal parameter. Then, the extended Galerkin's method is applied to solve the FSI governing equations, and to derive the stability diagrams of the system. Results show how the magnetic properties of the fluid flow have an effect on improving the stability of the cantilevered CNT by increasing the flutter velocity.

  18. Representation of magnetic fields with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Beginning with Boozer's representation of magnetic fields with toroidal topology [Phys. Fluids 26, 1288 (1983)], a general formalism is presented for the representation of any magnetic field with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants. The formalism is an application to the magnetic field case of results developed recently by Lewis et al. (submitted for publication to J. Phys. A) for arbitrary time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with one degree of freedom. Every magnetic field with toroidal topology can be associated with time-dependent Hamiltonian systems with one degree of freedom and every time-dependent Hamiltonian system with one degree of freedom can be associated with magnetic fields with toroidal topology. In the Hamiltonian context, given any particular function I(q,p,t), Lewis et al. derived those Hamiltonians for which I(q,p,t) is an invariant. In addition, for each of those Hamiltonians, they derived a function canonically conjugate to I(q,p,t) that is also an invariant. They applied this result to the case where I(q,p,t) is expressed as a function of two canonically conjugate functions. This general Hamiltonian formalism provides a basis for representing magnetic fields with toroidal topology in terms of field-line invariants. The magnetic fields usually contain plasma with flow and anisotropic pressure. A class of fields with or without rotational symmetry is identified for which there are magnetic surfaces. The formalism is developed for application to the case of vacuum magnetic fields

  19. Magnetoresistance oscillations in GaAs/AlGaAs superlattices subject to in-plane magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrčka, Ludvík; Vašek, Petr; Svoboda, Pavel; Goncharuk, Natalya; Pacherová, Oliva; Krupko, Yuriy; Sheikin, Y.; Wegscheider, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2006), s. 632-635 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : superlattice * Fermi surface * magnetoresistance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.084, year: 2006

  20. Short-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Valentino; Benso, Andrea; Gigliardi, Valentina Ramella; Masha, Andi; Origlia, Carla; Granata, Riccarda; Ghigo, Ezio

    2006-03-01

    Several clinical and population-based studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) play a protective role against atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in human. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unknown. It has recently been suggested that DHEA-S could delay atheroma formation through an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty-four aged male subjects [age (mean +/- SEM): 65.4 +/- 0.7 year; range: 58.2-67.6 years] underwent a blinded placebo controlled study receiving DHEA (50 mg p.o. daily at bedtime) or placebo for 2 months. Platelet cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) concentration (as marker of NO production) and serum levels of DHEA-S, DHEA, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, oestradiol (E(2)), testosterone, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 antigen (PAI-1 Ag), homocysteine and lipid profile were evaluated before and after the 2-month treatment with DHEA or placebo. At the baseline, all variables in the two groups were overlapping. All parameters were unchanged after treatment with placebo. Conversely, treatment with DHEA (a) increased (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) platelet cGMP (111.9 +/- 7.1 vs. 50.1 +/- 4.1 fmol/10(6) plts), DHEA-S (13.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), DHEA (23.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 15.3 +/- 1.4 nmol/l), testosterone (23.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 17.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/l) and E(2) (72.0 +/- 5.0 vs. 60.0 +/- 4.0 pmol/l); and (b) decreased (P < 0.05 vs. baseline) PAI-1 Ag (27.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.5 ng/ml) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (3.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). IGF-I, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, HDL2 cholesterol, HDL3 cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and homocysteine levels were not modified by DHEA treatment. This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1

  1. Pedagogical Factors Stimulating the Self-Development of Students' Multi-Dimensional Thinking in Terms of Subject-Oriented Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Valentin I.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students' multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students' multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where…

  2. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  3. A report on evaluation of research and development subjects in fiscal year 2001. Evaluation subject on the 'Middle- and long-term business program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The middle- and long-term business program determined by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is for elucidation of middle- and long-term targets to be expanded by JNC and is a base to promote individual R and D. This program is to be revised at a chance established on new long-term plan on research, development and application of nuclear energy on November, 2000 by the Committee of Atomic Energy under consideration of condition change after March, 1999. This report is a summary of evaluation results on the present middle- and long-term business program established by JNC, especially at a center of its revised portion, as a form of opinion. The evaluated results are described on two forms of the subject evaluation committees on the fast reactor and fuel cycle and on the wastes processing and disposal. (G.K.)

  4. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcranial magnetic stimulation reveals the content of visual short-term memory in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvanto, Juha; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2010-05-01

    Cortical areas involved in sensory analysis are also believed to be involved in short-term storage of that sensory information. Here we investigated whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can reveal the content of visual short-term memory (VSTM) by bringing this information to visual awareness. Subjects were presented with two random-dot displays (moving either to the left or to the right) and they were required to maintain one of these in VSTM. In Experiment 1, TMS was applied over the motion-selective area V5/MT+ above phosphene threshold during the maintenance phase. The reported phosphene contained motion features of the memory item, when the phosphene spatially overlapped with memory item. Specifically, phosphene motion was enhanced when the memory item moved in the same direction as the subjects' V5/MT+ baseline phosphene, whereas it was reduced when the motion direction of the memory item was incongruent with that of the baseline V5/MT+ phosphene. There was no effect on phosphene reports when there was no spatial overlap between the phosphene and the memory item. In Experiment 2, VSTM maintenance did not influence the appearance of phosphenes induced from the lateral occipital region. These interactions between VSTM maintenance and phosphene appearance demonstrate that activity in V5/MT+ reflects the motion qualities of items maintained in VSTM. Furthermore, these results also demonstrate that information in VSTM can modulate the pattern of visual activation reaching awareness, providing evidence for the view that overlapping neuronal populations are involved in conscious visual perception and VSTM. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  7. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Lumbar Spinal Canal Stenosis in Symptomatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Ragupathi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low backache is a common condition to occur in the middle age. It is mainly caused by the degeneration of the intervertebral disc which forms the main support to the vertebral column. Lumbar spinal canal stenosis results in the compression of spinal cord and nerves at the level of lumbar vertebra. Aim: The purpose of this study is to measure the spinal canal dimensions and correlate with the clinical symptoms to establish a radiological criterion based on MRI for diagnosis of lumbar canal stenosis. This study is done to improve the diagnostic accuracy of lumbar spinal canal stenosis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred subjects with complaints of low backache without a traumatic history underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI after assessment of pain by two methods: 1. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scoring and 2. Wong Baker Facial Expression scale. All the images were qualitatively analyzed to obtain the MRI grading for central canal at various levels from L1 to S1 vertebra after making sure that the neural foramina is not involved. Anteroposterior (AP and transverse diameter of spinal canal at intervertebral disc and upper part of vertebral body levels and spinal canal area are measurements that are taken. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Results on continuous measurements are presented on mean±SD (min-max and results on categorical measurements are presented in number (%. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: The spinal canal diameter measured along its AP and transverse direction is found to be correlating with the severity of low backache complained by the patient. Comparing the two methods of clinical assessment, ODI scoring was found to be more significant. Conclusion: The spinal canal measurements can be used as a radiologic criterion for diagnosis of acquired lumbar spinal canal stenosis. This will improve the diagnostic accuracy. However

  9. Strain and thermally induced magnetic dynamics and spin current in magnetic insulators subject to transient optical grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-Guang; Chotorlishvili, Levan; Berakdar, Jamal

    2017-07-01

    We analyze the magnetic dynamics and particularlythe spin current in an open-circuit ferromagnetic insulator irradiated by two intense, phase-locked laser pulses. The interference of the laser beams generates a transient optical grating and a transient spatio-temporal temperature distribution. Both effects lead to elastic and heat waves at the surface and into the bulk of the sample. The strain induced spin current as well as the thermally induced magnonic spin current are evaluated numerically on the basis of micromagnetic simulations using solutions of the heat equation. We observe that the thermo-elastically induced magnonic spin current propagates on a distance larger than the characteristic size of thermal profile, an effect useful for applications in remote detection of spin caloritronics phenomena. Our findings point out that exploiting strain adds a new twist to heat-assisted magnetic switching and spin-current generation for spintronic applications.

  10. Long-term ETR/INTOR magnet testing in support of the demonstration fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, J.S.; Shah, V.N.; Rouhani, S.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This study considers ways that the proposed Engineering Test Reactor (ETR), or the proposed International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR), can be used for magnet performance tests that would be useful for the design and operation of the Demonstration Tokamak Power Plant (DEMO). Such testing must not interfere with the main function of the ETR/INTOR as an integrated fusion reactor. A performance test plan for the ETR/INTOR magnets is proposed and appropriate tests on the magnets is proposed and appropriate tests on the magnets for each phase of the ETR/INTOR operation are described. The suggested tests would verify design requirements and monitor long-term changes due to radiation. This paper also summarizes the design and operational performance of existing superconducting magnets and identifies the known failures and their predominant causes

  11. Long-term Regularities in Distribution of Global Solar and Interplanetary Magnetic Fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2013), s. 637-642 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /12./. Hvar, 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030808 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : interplanetary magnetic field * solar wind Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Longitudinal conductivity and transverse charge redistribution in coupled quantum wells subject to in-plane magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolorenč, Jindřich; Smrčka, Ludvík; Středa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 311-314 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA ČR GA202/01/0764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : double - layer two-dimensional electron system * magnetotransort * Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2002

  13. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  14. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  15. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenjeres, Sasa

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier-Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell's equations (Biot-Savart/Ampere's law) for treating the imposed magnetic fields. The relevant hydrodynamic and electromagnetic properties of human blood were taken from the literature. The model is then validated for different test cases ranging from a simple cylindrical geometry to real-life right-coronary arteries in humans. The time-dependency of the wall-shear-stress for different stenosis growth rates and the effects of the imposed strong non-uniform magnetic fields on the blood flow pattern are presented and analysed. It is concluded that an imposed non-uniform magnetic field can create significant changes in the secondary flow patterns, thus making it possible to use this technique for optimisations of targeted drug delivery

  16. Numerical analysis of blood flow in realistic arteries subjected to strong non-uniform magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations

  17. Intra-well relaxation process in magnetic fluids subjected to strong polarising fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, C.N., E-mail: cmarin@physics.uvt.ro [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania); Fannin, P.C. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Malaescu, I.; Barvinschi, P.; Ercuta, A. [West University of Timisoara, Faculty of Physics, B-dul V. Parvan, No. 4, Timisoara 300223 (Romania)

    2012-02-15

    We report on the frequency and field dependent complex magnetic susceptibility measurements of a kerosene-based magnetic fluid with iron oxide nanoparticles, stabilized with oleic acid, in the frequency range 0.1-6 GHz and over the polarising field range of 0-168.4 kA/m. By increasing polarising field, H, a subsidiary loss-peak clearly occurs in the vicinity of the ferromagnetic resonance peak, from which it remains distinct even in strong polarising fields of 168.4 kA/m. This is in contrast to other reported cases in which the intra-well relaxation process is manifested only as a shoulder of the resonance peak, which vanishes in polarising fields larger than that of 100 kA/m. The results of the XRD analysis connected to the anisotropy field results confirm that the investigated sample contains particles of magnetite and of the tetragonal phase of maghemite. Taking into account the characteristics of our sample, the theoretical analysis revealed that the intra-well relaxation process of the small particles of the tetragonal phase of maghemite may be responsible for the subsidiary loss peak of the investigated magnetic fluid. - Highlights: > Intra-well relaxation process in a magnetic fluid is studied. > Sample consists of the tetragonal phase of maghemite and magnetite particles. > A subsidiary relaxation peak is observed in the vicinity of the resonance peak. > Relaxation peak is correlated to the intra-well relaxation process. > It is assigned to the tetragonal phase of maghemite particles.

  18. Manitoba Hydro long-term high-voltage transmission line magnetic field monitoring project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, P.S.; Ng, C.K.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the licensing process to construct a new 230 kV transmission line on an existing right-of-way in Manitoba, an electrical effects study was conducted in 1998. The study was part of the environmental assessment program crucial in obtaining government approval to construct the line. Some residents living adjacent to the new transmission circuit expressed concerns about alleged adverse health effects associated with long-term exposure to magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines. In order to verify the accuracy of the predicted magnetic field levels submitted to the regulatory body in the the electrical effects study and to instill confidence in the residents of the affected communities, a three-year magnetic monitoring project was conducted between 2003 and 2005 along the right-of-way after the new 230kV transmission line was energized by Manitoba Hydro. This paper described the monitoring program, with reference to location; equipment; data analysis; and discussion of results. It was concluded that the long-term monitoring project demonstrated that the magnetic field prediction methodology was well understood and accurate, and provided valuable long-term magnetic field characteristics at the edge of the right-of-way. In addition, when there is opposition to a transmission line, public consultation and education were found to be the best options to arrive at a solution. 3 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  19. Colonic movements in healthy subjects as monitored by a Magnet Tracking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroz, P; Schlageter, V; Givel, J-C; Kucera, P

    2009-08-01

    The Magnet Tracking System (MTS) is a minimally-invasive technique of continuous evaluation of gastrointestinal motility. In this study, MTS was used to analyse colonic propulsive dynamics and compare the transit of a magnetic pill with that of standard radio-opaque markers. MTS monitors the progress in real time of a magnetic pill through the gut. Ten men and 10 women with regular daily bowel movements swallowed this pill and 10 radio-opaque markers at 8 pm. Five hours of recordings were conducted during 2 following mornings. Origin, direction, amplitude and velocity of movements were analysed relative to space-time plots of the pill trajectory. Abdominal radiographs were taken to compare the progress of both pill and markers. The magnetic pill lay idle for 90% of its sojourn in the colon; its total retrograde displacement accounted for only 20% of its overall movement. Analysis of these movements showed a bimodal distribution of velocities: around 1.5 and 50 cm min(-1), the latter being responsible for 2/3 of distance traversed. There were more movements overall and more mass movements in males. Net hourly forward progress was greater in the left than right colon, and greater in males. The position of the magnetic pill correlated well with the advancement of markers. MTS showed patterns and propulsion dynamics of colonic segments with as yet unmet precision. Detailed analysis of slow and fast patterns of colonic progress makes it possible to specify the motility of colonic segments, and any variability in gender. Such analysis opens up promising avenues in studies of motility disorders.

  20. ND/FE magnets: Industrial and economical problems in the short and long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconnet, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Rare Earths (RE) world is a small and closed world that needs better communication with the outside and specially with new potential users. The availability of neodymium today is very linked to the existing applications like glass and capacitors. Though no short or long term scarcity can be foreseen, the Rare Earths Industry has to produce increasing amounts of various neodymium compounds and may have to invest in some finishing capacity before knowing which Nd compounds will be used by metal or magnet makers in some years. Despite the high energy product of Nd/Fe magnets some properties like Curie temperature need to be improved to find a large use. Similarly the production cost of these magnets is today rather high, and it will take some years to take advantage of large production scale. The industrial and economical problems of Nd/Fe magnets are discussed in this paper

  1. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  2. Hilbert-Huang transform analysis of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2018-04-01

    Astronomical time series analysis is one of the hottest and most important problems, and becomes the suitable way to deal with the underlying dynamical behavior of the considered nonlinear systems. The quasi-periodic analysis of solar magnetic activity has been carried out by various authors during the past fifty years. In this work, the novel Hilbert-Huang transform approach is applied to investigate the yearly numbers of polar faculae in the time interval from 1705 to 1999. The detected periodicities can be allocated to three components: the first one is the short-term variations with periods smaller than 11 years, the second one is the mid- term variations with classical periods from 11 years to 50 years, and the last one is the long-term variations with periods larger than 50 years. The analysis results improve our knowledge on the quasi-periodic variations of solar magnetic activity and could be provided valuable constraints for solar dynamo theory. Furthermore, our analysis results could be useful for understanding the long-term variations of solar magnetic activity, providing crucial information to describe and forecast solar magnetic activity indicators.

  3. Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rideau Batista Novais

    Full Text Available Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage.

  4. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. The Long-Term Consequences of Relationship Formation for Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Judith P. M.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how relationship transitions affect subjective well-being (SWB) and how this effect changes over time. We used prospective data containing information about 18 years of young adults' lives (PSIN, N = 5, 514). SWB was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Within-person multilevel regression analyses showed that dating,…

  6. Time evolution of a pair of distinguishable interacting spins subjected to controllable and noisy magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaudo, R.; Belousov, Yu.; Nakazato, H.; Messina, A.

    2018-05-01

    The quantum dynamics of a Jˆ2 = (jˆ1 +jˆ2)2-conserving Hamiltonian model describing two coupled spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 under controllable and fluctuating time-dependent magnetic fields is investigated. Each eigenspace of Jˆ2 is dynamically invariant and the Hamiltonian of the total system restricted to any one of such (j1 +j2) - |j1 -j2 | + 1 eigenspaces, possesses the SU(2) structure of the Hamiltonian of a single fictitious spin acted upon by the total magnetic field. We show that such a reducibility holds regardless of the time dependence of the externally applied field as well as of the statistical properties of the noise, here represented as a classical fluctuating magnetic field. The time evolution of the joint transition probabilities of the two spins jˆ1 and jˆ2 between two prefixed factorized states is examined, bringing to light peculiar dynamical properties of the system under scrutiny. When the noise-induced non-unitary dynamics of the two coupled spins is properly taken into account, analytical expressions for the joint Landau-Zener transition probabilities are reported. The possibility of extending the applicability of our results to other time-dependent spin models is pointed out.

  7. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Ping-Ho; Wu, Pei-Fen; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chang, Po-Ya; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR)) for various prognostic factors. The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.03–1.11), males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13), older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC)/small cell carcinoma (SCC), and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3%) than females (23.6%). Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality) play important roles in determining lung cancer survival

  8. Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu Wen; Lin, Jiu Jenq; Yang, Jing Lan; Wang, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and fascia tenderness. We investigated the effects of manual pressure release (MPR) alone or in combination with taping (MPR/MKT) in subjects with MTrPs. Fifteen and 16 subjects received MPR and MPR/MKT respectively. Outcomes including Pressure pain threshold, muscle stiffness, mechanomyography were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 7-days later. Pressure pain threshold improved significantly (d = 1.79, p < 0.005) in both groups. Significant improvement in muscle stiffness in the MPR/MKT group (0.27-0.49 mm) as compared to the MPR group (-0.02-0.23 mm). Mechanomyography amplitude in the MPR/MKT group was significantly higher than that of the MPR group (p < 0.05). MPR and MPR/MKT are effective in reducing pain in these subjects. MPR/MKT has a greater effect on muscle stiffness and contraction amplitude. IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1- 13 C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H 2 18 O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  10. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  11. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal

  12. MAGNETIC FLUX TRANSPORT AND THE LONG-TERM EVOLUTION OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Upton, Lisa; Warren, Harry P.; Hathaway, David H.

    2015-01-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He ii 304 Å data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illustrate how 304 Å images can be used as a proxy for magnetic flux measurements when magnetic field data is not accessible

  13. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbregt, H J; Keeser, D; van Eijk, L; Suiker, E M; Eichhorn, D; Karch, S; Deijen, J B; Pogarell, O

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance. 25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3). Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance. Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term. This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilateral responses of upper limb muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, P; Hamm, J D; Dhillon, P; Gross, P A

    2004-10-01

    Anatomical and behavioural work on primates has shown bilateral innervation of axial and proximal limb muscles, and contralateral control of distal limb muscles. The following study examined if a clear boundary exists between the distal and proximal upper limb muscles that are controlled contralaterally or bilaterally. The right motor cortical area representing the upper limb was stimulated, while surface EMG was recorded bilaterally from various upper limb muscles during rest and phasic voluntary contractions. Peak-to-peak amplitude of motor evoked potential (MEP) was measured for each muscle on both sides. The ratio R = (ipsilateral MEP: contralateral MEP) was calculated for seven pairs of muscles. For each of the seven pairs, R was less than 1.0, implying that for each muscle and subject, the contralateral control is stronger. The boundary where R changed from almost zero to a clearly measurable magnitude depended on the subject. Ipsilateral MEPs from trapezius and pectoralis could be recorded with a small background contraction from almost all subjects; on the other hand, in deltoid and biceps brachii, ipsilateral MEPs were observed only with bimanual phasic contractions. The forearm and hand muscles, in general, did not show any ipsilateral MEPs. Major differences between subjects lay in the presence or the absence of ipsilateral MEPs in biceps brachii and deltoid, without defining a sharp boundary between proximal and distal muscles.

  15. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B_t and AMF B_z (B_t/B_z). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  16. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismael, Muneer A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mansour, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Assuit University, Faculty of Science, Assuit (Egypt); Chamkha, Ali J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Rashad, A.M., E-mail: am_rashad@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Aswan University, Faculty of Science, Aswan 81528 (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0–360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001–1000), Hartman number (Ha=0–100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2–0.8, D=0.3–0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0–0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall. - Highlights: • Partial slip along moving walls of MHD cavity filled with nanofluid is considered. • The suppression exerted by the magnetic field decreases with its orientation. • Nusselt number is enhanced slightly with nanoparticles at shortest heat source. • Nusselt number is enhanced with nanoparticles at stronger magnetic field.

  17. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismael, Muneer A.; Mansour, M.A.; Chamkha, Ali J.; Rashad, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0–360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001–1000), Hartman number (Ha=0–100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2–0.8, D=0.3–0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0–0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall. - Highlights: • Partial slip along moving walls of MHD cavity filled with nanofluid is considered. • The suppression exerted by the magnetic field decreases with its orientation. • Nusselt number is enhanced slightly with nanoparticles at shortest heat source. • Nusselt number is enhanced with nanoparticles at stronger magnetic field.

  18. Experimental investigation of cathode spots and plasma jets behavior subjected to two kinds of axial magnetic field electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Shenli; Qian, Zhonghao; Shi, Zongqian [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, cathode spot plasma jet (CSPJ) rotation and cathode spots behavior subjected to two kinds of large diameter axial magnetic field (AMF) electrode (cup-shaped and coil-shaped) are studied and analyzed based on experiments. The influence of gap distances on the CSPJ rotational behavior is analyzed. Experimental results show that CSPJ rotational phenomena extensively exist in the vacuum interrupters, and CSPJ rotational direction is along the direction of composite magnetic field (mainly the combination of the axial and azimuthal components). For coil-shaped and cup-shaped AMF electrodes, the rotational or inclination phenomena before the current peak value are much more significant than that after current peak value (for the same arc current), which is related to the larger ratio of azimuthal magnetic field B{sub t} and AMF B{sub z} (B{sub t}/B{sub z}). With the increase of the gap distance, the AMF strength decreases, when the arc current is kept as constant, the azimuthal magnetic field is kept invariable, the ratio between azimuthal magnetic field and AMF is increased, which results in the increase of rotational effect. For cathode spots motion, compared with cup-shaped electrode, coil-shaped electrode has the inverse AMF direction. The Robson drift direction of cathode spots of coil-shaped electrode is opposite to that of cup-shaped electrode. With the increase of gap distance, the Robson angle is decreased, which is associated with the reduced AMF strength. Erosion imprints of anode and cathode are also related to the CSPJ rotational phenomena and cathode spots behavior. The noise of arc voltage in the initial arcing stage is related to the weaker AMF.

  19. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    Effectiveness data of an unboosted atazanavir (ATV) with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) switch strategy in clinical routine are scant.We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV + ABC/3TC in pretreated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort when started with undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load (p......VL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR analysis at 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL.We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL. The third......%/67%/59% (snapshot analysis), respectively. The rates of VF were 8%/8%/6%. Rates of adverse events leading to study discontinuation were 0.4%/1%/2%. The multivariable adjusted analysis showed an association between VF and nadir CD4+ (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.93] per 100 cells...

  20. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  1. Ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic steel subjected to long-term isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Won Sik; Kim, Chung Seok [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study presents the ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic stainless steels subjected to longterm isothermal aging. These steels are attractive materials for use in industrial mechanical structures because of their strength at high-temperatures and their chemical stability. The test materials were subjected to accelerated heat-treatment in an electrical furnace for a predetermined aging duration. The variations in the ultrasonic nonlinearity and microstructural damage were carefully evaluated through observation of the microstructure. The ultrasonic nonlinearity stiffly dropped after aging for up to 1000 h and, then, monotonously decreased. The polygonal shape of the initial grain structures changed to circular, especially as the annealing twins in the grains dissolved and disappeared. The delta ferrite on the grain boundaries could not be observed at 1000 h of aging, and these continuously transformed into their sigma phases. Consequently, in the intial aging period, the rapid decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity was caused by voids, dislocations, and twin annihilation. The continuous monotonic decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity after the first drop resulted from the generation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and σ phases.

  2. A functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study of neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in subjects at high risk for schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Puthumana, Dawn Thomas K.; Jayakumar, Peruvumba N.; Gangadhar, B. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion processing abnormalities are considered among the core deficits in schizophrenia. Subjects at high risk (HR) for schizophrenia also show these deficits. Structural neuroimaging studies examining unaffected relatives at high risk for schizophrenia have demonstrated neuroanatomical abnormalities involving neo-cortical and sub-cortical brain regions related to emotion processing. The brain functional correlates of emotion processing in these HR subjects in the context of ecologically valid, real-life dynamic images using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has not been examined previously. Aim: To examine the neurohemodynamic abnormalities during emotion processing in unaffected subjects at high risk for schizophrenia in comparison with age-, sex-, handedness- and education-matched healthy controls, using fMRI. Materials and Methods: HR subjects for schizophrenia (n=17) and matched healthy controls (n=16) were examined. The emotion processing of fearful facial expression was examined using a culturally appropriate and valid tool for Indian subjects. The fMRI was performed in a 1.5-T scanner during an implicit emotion processing paradigm. The fMRI analyses were performed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) software. Results: HR subjects had significantly reduced brain activations in left insula, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, right precentral gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Hypothesis-driven region-of-interest analysis revealed hypoactivation of right amygdala in HR subjects. Conclusions: Study findings suggest that neurohemodynamic abnormalities involving limbic and frontal cortices could be potential indicators for increased vulnerability toward schizophrenia. The clinical utility of these novel findings in predicting the development of psychosis needs to be evaluated. PMID:21267363

  3. Long-term patency of experimental magnetic compression gastroenteric anastomoses achieved with covered stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, C; Ginsberg, G G

    2001-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a prototype "YO-YO"-shaped covered stent for keeping experimental magnetic compression gastroenteric fistulas patent for 6 months. Magnets were introduced perorally with endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance and were mated across the gastric and jejunal walls of 5 dogs. After a mean of 5.5 days a 12-mm diameter YO-YO stent was placed perorally in the resulting fistula. The gastroenteric anastomosis (GEA) with stent was observed endoscopically and gastrographically at 1- to 2-month intervals. There was no morbidity and there were no significant weight changes. The GEA was widely patent at necropsy at 6 months (n = 4); partial membrane separation occurred at 5 months in the fifth dog. There was minor breakage of the stent prongs in 2 animals. Peroral creation of a stented magnetic compression GEA is safe and provides long-term patency. This technique may be potentially useful for managing gastric outlet obstruction caused by malignancy.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebral anomalies in subjects with resistance to thyroid hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, C.M. [Univ. of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hauser, P.; Weintraub, B.D. [National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[Baltimore VA Medical Center, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-19

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the human thyroid receptor beta gene on chromosome 3. Individuals with RTH have an increased incidence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to search for developmental brain malformations associated with RTH. Forty-three subjects (20 affected males [AM], 23 affected females [AF]) with resistance to thyroid hormone and 32 unaffected first degree relatives (18 unaffected males [UM], 14 unaffected females [UF]) underwent MRI brain scans with a volumetric acquisition that provided 90 contiguous 2 mm thick sagittal images. Films of six contiguous images beginning at a standard sagittal position lateral to the insula were analyzed by an investigator who was blind with respect to subject characteristics. The presence of extra or missing gyri in the parietal bank of the Sylvian fissure (multimodal association cortex) and multiple Heschl`s transverse gyri (primary auditory cortex) were noted. There was a significantly increased frequency of anomalous Sylvian fissures in the left hemisphere in males with RTH (AM: 70%; AF: 30%; UM: 28% UF: 28%). Also, there was an increased frequency of anomalous Sylvian fissures on the left combined with multiple Heschl`s gyri in either hemisphere in males with RTH (AM: 50%; AF: 9%; UM: 6%; UF: 0%). However, RTH subjects with anomalies did not have an increased frequency of ADHD as compared with RTH subjects with no anomalies. Abnormal thyroid hormone action in the male fetus early during brain development may be associated with grossly observable cerebral anomalies of the left hemisphere. The effects of mutations in the thyroid receptor beta gene provide a model system for studying the complex interaction of genetic and non-genetic factors on brain and behavioral development. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Dynamic modeling of a thermo-piezo-electrically actuated nanosize beam subjected to a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    In this article, free vibration behavior of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded nanobeams is investigated based on a higher order shear deformation beam theory. Four types of thermal loading including uniform and linear temperature change as well as heat conduction and sinusoidal temperature rise through the thickness are assumed. Magneto-electro-thermo-elastic properties of FG nanobeam are supposed to change continuously throughout the thickness based on power-law model. Via nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen, the small size effects are adopted. Based upon Hamilton's principle, the coupled nonlocal governing equations for higher order shear deformable METE-FG nanobeams are obtained and they are solved applying analytical solution. It is shown that the vibrational behavior of METE-FG nanobeams is significantly affected by various temperature rises, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, power-law index, nonlocal parameter and slenderness ratio.

  6. Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelte Lena; Falk Rolf; Lindström Maria; Philipson Klas; Svartengren Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasi...

  8. Correlation between Very Short and Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Diabetic-Hypertensive and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Karina R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Montano, Nicola; Massierer, Daniela; M F Neto, Flávio; Teló, Gabriela H; Ledur, Priscila S; Reinheimer, Marilia; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Gus, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability can be evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (24h-ABPM), but its concordance with results from finger BP measurement (FBPM) has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of short-term (24h-ABPM) with very short-term BP variability (FBPM) in healthy (C) and diabetic-hypertensive (DH) subjects. Cross-sectional study with 51 DH subjects and 12 C subjects who underwent 24h-ABPM [extracting time-rate, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV)] and short-term beat-to-beat recording at rest and after standing-up maneuvers [FBPM, extracting BP and heart rate (HR) variability parameters in the frequency domain, autoregressive spectral analysis]. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate BP and HR variability parameters obtained from both FBPM and 24h-ABPM (divided into daytime, nighttime, and total). Statistical significance was set at p ABPM) and LF component of short-term variability (FBPM, total, R = 0.591, p = 0.043); standard deviation (24h-ABPM) with LF component BPV (FBPM, total, R = 0.608, p = 0.036), coefficient of variation (24h-ABPM) with total BPV (FBPM, daytime, -0.585, p = 0.046) and alpha index (FBPM, daytime, -0.592, p = 0.043), time rate (24h-ABPM) and delta LF/HF (FBPM, total, R = 0.636, p = 0.026; daytime R = 0,857, p ABPM (total, daytime) reflect BP and HR variability evaluated by FBPM in healthy individuals. This does not apply for DH subjects.

  9. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... resistance. Postabsorptive glucose production (P = 0.64) and the fractional....... Hepatic GE was lower during cortisol than during saline infusion (2.39 +/- 0.24 vs. 3.82 +/- 0.51 ml.kg-1.min-1; P

  10. Long-term loss of radium in 63 subjects first exposed at ages 6 to 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The absorbed dose to bone following the deposition of radium in the skeleton is principally determined by its long-term rate of clearance. In mice, rats, and dogs injected with alkaline-earth radionuclides at various ages between puberty and young adulthood, a negative correlation was observed between the age at injection and the skeletal uptake of the radionuclide and, at short times after injection, a positive correlation was observed between the age at injection and the fraction of the contemporary body content of the radionuclide excreted per unit of time, whereas at long times after injection the fractional clearance rate was found to be largely independent of the age at injection. Age-dependent models of radium retention proposed for man conform to the metabolic observations in animals in their assumption that at long times after intake the fraction of the contemporary body content of radium excreted per unit of time is independent of the age at intake. In this paper, we investigate whether this assumption is supported by the data on the long-term retention of radium in radium-exposed persons

  11. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows lower intramyocellular lipid accumulation in middle-aged subjects predisposed to familial longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, C A; van Opstal, A M; Kan, H E; Maier, A B; Westendorp, R G J; Slagboom, P E; Webb, A G; Mooijaart, S P; van Heemst, D

    2012-02-01

    Families predisposed to longevity show enhanced glucose tolerance and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity compared with controls, independent of body composition and physical activity. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance. Here, we assessed whether subjects enriched for familial longevity have lower IMCL levels. We determined IMCL levels in 48 subjects from the Leiden Longevity Study, comprising 24 offspring of nonagenarian siblings and 24 partners thereof as control subjects. IMCL levels were assessed noninvasively using short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the tibialis anterior muscle with a 7 Tesla human MR scanner. IMCL levels were calculated relative to the total creatine (tCr) CH3 signal. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). After correction for age, sex, BMI, and physical activity, offspring of long-lived nonagenarian siblings tended to show lower IMCL levels compared with controls (IMCL/tCr: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.5, respectively, P = 0.051). In a pairwise comparison, this difference reached statistical significance (P = 0.038). We conclude that offspring of nonagenarian siblings predisposed to longevity show lower IMCL levels compared with environmentally matched control subjects. Future research should focus on assessing what mechanisms may explain the lower IMCL levels in familial longevity.

  12. Long-term Longitudinal Recurrences of the Open Magnetic Flux Density in the Heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dósa, M.; Erdős, G., E-mail: dosa.melinda@wigner.mta.hu [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly-Thege Miklós st 29-33 (Hungary)

    2017-04-01

    Open magnetic flux in the heliosphere is determined from the radial component of the magnetic field vector measured onboard interplanetary space probes. Previous Ulysses research has shown remarkable independence of the flux density from heliographic latitude, explained by super-radial expansion of plasma. Here we are investigating whether any longitudinal variation exists in the 50 year long OMNI magnetic data set. The heliographic longitude of origin of the plasma package was determined by applying a correction according to the solar wind travel time. Significant recurrent enhancements of the magnetic flux density were observed throughout solar cycle 23, lasting for several years. Similar, long-lasting recurring features were observed in the solar wind velocity, temperature and the deviation angle of the solar wind velocity vector from the radial direction. Each of the recurrent features has a recurrence period slightly differing from the Carrington rotation rate, although they show a common trend in time. Examining the coronal temperature data of ACE leads to the possible explanation that these long-term structures are caused by slow–fast solar wind interaction regions. A comparison with MESSENGER data measured at 0.5 au shows that these longitudinal magnetic modulations do not exist closer to the Sun, but are the result of propagation.

  13. Long-term study of an estuarine mudflat subjected to petro-chemical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLusky, D.A.; Martins, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Kinneil intertidal area, situated in the middle reaches of the Forth estuary, eastern Scotland, has been subject to the effects of industrial discharges, principally from petro-chemical industries (oil refinery and chemical works) since the 1920s. The intertidal fauna has been studied annually since 1976 using consistent methodology. The study continues, now providing over 20 yrs of data. During the study period the discharges from the industrial sources have been reduced substantially through a combination of plant closure and modernization and the installation of effluent treatment works. Furthermore, the River Avon which flows across the area has experienced substantial improvements in water quality, attributed to improvements in waste treatment works at localities upstream from the estuarine site. Overall, however, the clearest trends have been increases in diversity, expressed either as mean number of species per station, or as diversity indices. These increases in diversity are shown to be a clear community response to the improvements made to the petro-chemical wastes discharged to the area. (author)

  14. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes, E-mail: jlpetriz@cardiol.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos [Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo, Clério Francisco [Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hadlich, Marcelo Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hospital Barra D’Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Taets, Gunnar de Cunto [Instituto D’Or de Pesquisa e Ensino, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) / Instituto do Coração Edson Saad - Programa de Pós Graduação em Medicina (Cardiologia), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for ischemic heart disease death.

  15. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    .33; P=0.021. The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40 and in the left precuneus (PrC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC (BA30, 31. The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7 and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37. However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40. The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC value of the left IPL was 0.75, with a cutoff point of 0.834 (mean ALFF signal value. Further diagnostic analysis exhibited that the AUC alone discriminated SD status from RW status, with 75% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Conclusion: Long-term SD disturbed the spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern of DMN. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, independent component analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve

  16. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between healthy aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer′s patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer′s disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of Alzheimer′s, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer′s or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments. Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI in differentiating between Alzheimer′s, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and healthy aging. To prove fMRI′s ability, resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects were compared using Independent Component Analysis (ICA algorithm. Forty age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer′s subjects were examined. Results: The results showed that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer′s group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network. Conclusions: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer′s Disease (AD, MCI and healthy aging.

  17. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  18. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...... of a monopile in sand subjected to a long-term cyclic lateral loading is investigated by means of small scale tests. The tests are conducted with a mechanical loading rig capable of applying the cyclic loading as a sine signal with varying amplitude, mean loading level, and loading period for more than 60 000...... cycles. The tests are conducted in dense saturated sand. The maximum moment applied in the cyclic tests is varied from 18% to 36% of the ultimate lateral resistance found in a static loading test. The tests reveal that the accumulated rotation can be expressed by use of a power function. Further, static...

  19. Experimental evaluation of stable long term operation of semiconductor magnetic sensors at ITER relevant environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bolshakova, I.; Belyaev, S.; Bulavin, M.; Brudnyi, V.; Chekanov, V.; Coccorese, V.; Ďuran, Ivan; Gerasimov, S.; Holyaka, R.; Kargin, N.; Konopleva, R.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Makido, O.; Moreau, Ph.; Murari, A.; Quercia, A.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Timoshyn, S.; Vasil’evskii, I.; Vinichenko, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 8 (2015), 083006-083006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Hall sensors * 3D probes * steady state * magnetic measurement instrumentation * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0029-5515/55/8/083006/meta;jsessionid=534DB19F0353E8F68E6E558F2A324088.c2.iopscience.cld.iop.org

  20. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    . This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of the TST......During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique...... conventional transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and responses to peripheral nerve stimulation were recorded following the same fatigue protocol. The size of both the MEPs and the peripheral responses increased after the contraction and were in direct contrast to the decrease in size of the TST response...

  1. Study of the muscular metabolism using Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS) in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, T.S.; Salmon, C.E.G.; Santos, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorus 31 Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) is a powerful technique for evaluating human muscular metabolism. Some reports indicated the behavior of phosphorylated metabolites (PCr, ADP and Pi) and other indirect parameters (intracellular pH and [Mg 2+ ]) in muscles at rest and after an exercise load. The aim of this work is a quantitative study of the phosphorylated metabolite levels in the calf muscle of normal subjects at rest and post-exercise, in order to create a normal control database. 31 P spectra of seven volunteers were acquired in both conditions. Firstly, different quantification methodologies were evaluated to use the more reliable. The P Cr metabolite was the more stable at rest and it had mono-exponential behavior after exercise. The Pi was the more sensible indicator of the physical activities. The time constants of the recuperation process are report for all the evaluated metabolites and parameters. Finally, the temporal behavior of phospho monoesters was quantified. (author)

  2. Magnetization transfer ratio in the brain of preterm subjects: age-related changes during the first 2 years of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xydis, Vassilios; Astrakas, Loukas; Zikou, Anastasia; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Pantou, Kostandina; Andronikou, Styliani [Medical School University of Ioannina, Neonatology Clinic, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    To study the progress of myelination in preterm-born subjects by measuring the MT ratio (MTR) from birth, up to 24 months of corrected age.One hundred twenty-five preterm subjects (64 males and 61 females of gestational age 33{+-}2.4 weeks with chronologic and corrected age of 9.3{+-}5.1 and 7.7{+-}5.1 months, respectively) with normal brain MR using classic sequences were further evaluated for MTR by using a three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence (TR=32/TE=8/flip angle=6 4 mm/2 mm overlapping sections) with and without magnetization transfer prepulse. The magnetization transfer ratio was calculated as: MTR=(SIo-SIm)/SIo x 100%, where SIm refers to signal intensity from an image acquired with a MT prepulse and SIo the signal intensity from the image acquired without a MT prepulse. MTR increased asymptotically in the genu (R{sup 2}=0.85) and splenium (R{sup 2}=0.85) of the corpus callosum, the white matter of the frontal lobe (R{sup 2}=0.91) and occipital lobe (R{sup 2}=0.82), thalamus (R{sup 2}=0.86), caudate nucleus (R{sup 2}=0.67) and putamen (R{sup 2}=0.71), reaching the 95% of the final value at the corrected age 18.7, 17.7, 15.6, 12.9, 10.4, 9.2 and 6.4 months, respectively. This study shows age-related changes of the brain MTR and provides data that may be useful to assess disturbances in the progress of myelination. (orig.)

  3. Mathematical and numerical analysis of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics system with self-generated magnetic field terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to the construction of numerical methods that allow the accurate simulation of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion processes by taking self-generated magnetic field terms into account. In the sequel, we first derive a two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model and describe the considered closure relations. The resulting system of equations is then split in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. Adequate numerical methods are then proposed for each of these subsystems. Particular attention is paid to the development of finite volume schemes for the hyperbolic operator which actually is the hydrodynamics or ideal magnetohydrodynamics system depending on whether magnetic fields are considered or not. More precisely, a new class of high-order accurate dimensionally split schemes for structured meshes is proposed using the Lagrange re-map formalism. One of these schemes' most innovative features is that they have been designed in order to take advantage of modern massively parallel computer architectures. This property can for example be illustrated by the dimensionally split approach or the use of artificial viscosity techniques and is practically highlighted by sequential performance and parallel efficiency figures. Hyperbolic schemes are then combined with finite volume methods for dealing with the thermal and resistive conduction operators and taking magnetic field generation into account. In order to study the characteristics and effects of self-generated magnetic field terms, simulation results are finally proposed with the complete two-temperature resistive magnetohydrodynamics model on a test problem that represents the state of an ICF capsule at the beginning of the deceleration phase. (author)

  4. Nurse and resident satisfaction in magnet long-term care organizations: do high involvement approaches matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Wagar, Terry H

    2006-04-01

    This study examines the association of high involvement nursing work practices with employer-of-choice (magnet) status in a sample of Canadian nursing homes. In response to a severe shortage of registered nursing personnel, it is imperative for health care organizations to more effectively recruit and retain nursing personnel. Some long-term care organizations are developing employee-centred cultures that allow them to effectively enhance nurse and resident satisfaction. At the same time, many nursing homes have adopted progressive nursing workplace practices (high involvement work practices) that emphasize greater employee empowerment, participation and commitment. A mail survey was sent to the director of nursing in 300 nursing homes in western Canada. In total, 125 useable questionnaires were returned and constituted the data set for this study. Separate ordinary least squares regressions are performed with magnet strength, nurse satisfaction and resident satisfaction used as dependent variables. Nursing homes that demonstrate strong magnet (employer-of-choice) characteristics are more likely to have higher levels of nurse and patient satisfaction, even after controlling for a number of significant factors at the establishment level. Magnet nursing homes are more likely to have progressive participatory decision-making cultures and much more likely to spend considerable resources on job-related training for their nursing staff. The presence of high involvement work practices is not found to be a significant predictor in magnet strength, nurse or resident satisfaction. Merely adopting more high involvement nursing work practices may be insufficient for nursing homes, which desire to become 'employers-of-choice' in their marketplaces, especially if these practices are adopted without a concomitant investment in nurse training or an enhanced commitment to establishing a more democratic and participatory decision-making style involving all nursing staff.

  5. LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN’S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042 Graz (Austria); Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hanslmeier, Arnold [Institute für Physik, Geophysik Astrophysik und Meteorologie, University of Graz, Univ.-Platz 5, 8010 Graz (Austria); Carbonell, Marc [Departament de Matemàtiques i Informàtica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Gachechiladze, Tamar [Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory at Ilia State University, Tbilisi, Georgia (United States); Usoskin, Ilya G., E-mail: teimuraz.zaqarashvili@oeaw.ac.at [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory and ReSoLVE Centre of Excellence, University of Oulu, FI-90014 Oulo (Finland)

    2015-06-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200, and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200–1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the timescales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field and consequently the solar cycle strength. This result constitutes a key point for long-term prediction of the cycle strength. According to our model, the next deep minimum in solar activity is expected during the first half of this century.

  6. LONG-TERM VARIATION IN THE SUN’S ACTIVITY CAUSED BY MAGNETIC ROSSBY WAVES IN THE TACHOCLINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Oliver, Ramon; Ballester, Jose Luis; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Carbonell, Marc; Gachechiladze, Tamar; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term records of sunspot number and concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides (10Be and 14C) on the Earth reveal the variation of the Sun's magnetic activity over hundreds and thousands of years. We identify several clear periods in sunspot, 10Be, and 14C data as 1000, 500, 350, 200, and 100 years. We found that the periods of the first five spherical harmonics of the slow magnetic Rossby mode in the presence of a steady toroidal magnetic field of 1200–1300 G in the lower tachocline are in perfect agreement with the timescales of observed variations. The steady toroidal magnetic field can be generated in the lower tachocline either due to the steady dynamo magnetic field for low magnetic diffusivity or due to the action of the latitudinal differential rotation on the weak poloidal primordial magnetic field, which penetrates from the radiative interior. The slow magnetic Rossby waves lead to variations of the steady toroidal magnetic field in the lower tachocline, which modulate the dynamo magnetic field and consequently the solar cycle strength. This result constitutes a key point for long-term prediction of the cycle strength. According to our model, the next deep minimum in solar activity is expected during the first half of this century

  7. Evaluation of long-term effects of 50-Hz magnetic fields on immune functions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touitou, Y.; Auzeby, A.; Camus, F. [Faculty of Medicine Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M.; Verrier, A. [Gaz de France (EDF/GDF), SEM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    The relationship between exposure to 50-Hz magnetic fields (E.L.F.) and human health is of increasing interest since this exposure has been implicated in many different diseases including cancers in epidemiological studies, though the results are controversial. The identification of possible mechanisms of interaction between E.L.F. and biological systems that could provide a biological plausibility to the observed effects has failed so far. In this study we investigate the possible chronic effects of exposure to E.L.F. in humans. We examine the circadian rhythm of CD{sub 3}, CD{sub 4}, CD{sub 8}, Nk cells and B cells in 15 men (38.0{+-}8.9 yrs) exposed chronically and daily for a period of 1-20 years, in the workplace and at home, to a 50-Hz magnetic field in search of any cumulative effect from those chronic conditions of exposure. The weekly geometric mean of individual exposures ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 {mu}T. The results are compared to those for 15 unexposed men similar in a (39.4 {+-}1.2 yrs), with the same synchronization and physical activity who served as controls (individual exposures ranged from 0.004 to 0.092 {mu}T). Blood samples were taken hourly from 2000 to 0800. This work shows that subjects exposed over a long period (up to 20 years) and on a daily basis to magnetic fields experienced no changes in their plasma immune variables. Our data suggest therefore that magnetic fields have no cumulative effects on immune functions, at least for the variables under study. (authors)

  8. From pre-storm activity to magnetic storms: a transition described in terms of fractal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that distinct changes in scaling parameters of the Dst index time series occur as an intense magnetic storm approaches, revealing a gradual reduction in complexity. The remarkable acceleration of energy release – manifested in the increase in susceptibility – couples to the transition from anti-persistent (negative feedback to persistent (positive feedback behavior and indicates that the occurence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. The main driver of the Dst index, the VBSouth electric field component, does not reveal a similar transition to persistency prior to the storm. This indicates that while the magnetosphere is mostly driven by the solar wind the critical feature of persistency in the magnetosphere is the result of a combination of solar wind and internal magnetospheric activity rather than solar wind variations alone. Our results suggest that the development of an intense magnetic storm can be studied in terms of "intermittent criticality" that is of a more general character than the classical self-organized criticality phenomena, implying the predictability of the magnetosphere.

  9. Characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in in-plane magnetic system using transverse field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Feilong [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Li, Sihua; Lim, Gerard Joseph; Tan, Funan; Engel, Christian; Zhang, Senfu; Ma, Fusheng; Lew, Wen Siang, E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhou, Tiejun [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

    2016-08-28

    In this work, we present an efficient method for characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in an in-plane magnetized system using the harmonic measurement technique. This method does not require a priori knowledge of the planar and anomalous hall resistances and is insensitive to non-uniformity in magnetization, as opposed to the conventional harmonic technique. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the field-like term in the Ta/Co/Pt film stack with in-plane magnetic anisotropy can be obtained by an in-plane transverse field sweep as expected, and magnetization non-uniformity is prevented by the application of fixed magnetic field. The experimental results are in agreement with the analytical calculations.

  10. Short- and long-term subjective medical treatment outcome of trauma surgery patients: the importance of physician empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhausen S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simone Steinhausen,1 Oliver Ommen,2 Sunya-Lee Antoine,1 Thorsten Koehler,3 Holger Pfaff,4 Edmund Neugebauer11Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM, Witten/Herdecke University, Campus Cologne-Merheim, Germany; 2Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA, Cologne, Germany; 3Institute for Applied Social Sciences (infas, Bonn, Germany; 4Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR, Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany Purpose: To investigate accident casualties’ long-term subjective evaluation of treatment outcome 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge and its relation to the experienced surgeon’s empathy during hospital treatment after trauma in consideration of patient-, injury-, and health-related factors. The long-term results are compared to the 6-week follow-up outcomes.Patients and methods: Two hundred and seventeen surgery patients were surveyed at 6 weeks, and 206 patients at 12 months after discharge from the trauma surgical general ward. The subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was measured 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge with the respective scale from the Cologne Patient Questionnaire. Physician Empathy was assessed with the Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. The correlation between physician empathy and control variables with the subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome 12 months after discharge was identified by means of logistic regression analysis under control of sociodemographic and injury-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients were included within the logistic regression analysis at the 12-month follow-up. Compared to the 6-week follow-up, the level of subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was slightly lower and the association with physician empathy was weaker. Compared to patients who rated the empathy of their surgeon lower than 31 points, patients

  11. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS A SUBJECT OF ADAPTATION OF RURAL STUDENTS TO THE TERMS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyona Aleksandrovna Antipova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of rural students to the various spheres of life of the modern city. These difficulties are considered as a field of activity of higher educational institution, acting as the subject of adaptation of students coming to study from rural areas to the terms of the city. The authors ' point of view on this issue is substantiated by the analysis of data of several sociological surveys conducted in various regions of theRussian Federation. Also the experience of assistance in adaptation of the Mordovia state University named after N. P. Ogarev of the city ofSaransk, which is the largest in the Republic of Mordovia University and which accommodates a large number of rural youth. The relevance and scientific novelty of research consists in allocation of areas of adaptation support of students from rural areas by the higher educational institution.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging at term and neuromotor outcome in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkama, A.M.; Paeaekkoe, E.L.E.; Vainionpaeae, L.K.; Lanning, F.P.; Ilkko, E.A.; Koivisto, M.E

    2000-07-01

    In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for prediction neuro motor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age less than 34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions without subependymal haemorrhage, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces were assessed. The MRI findings were compared with cranial ultrasound (US) performed at term. Infants' neuro motor development was followed up until 18 mo corrected age. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI at term predicted cerebral palsy (CP) with 100 % sensitivity and 79 % specificity, the corresponding figures for US being 67 % and 85 %, respectively. Parenchymal lesions in MRI, excluding subependymal haemorrhages, predicted CP with a sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 97 %, the corresponding figures for US being 58 % and 100 % respectively. Delayed myelination, ventricular/brain ratios and widths of the extra cerebral spaces failed to predict CP. Term age is a good time for neuroradiological examinations in prematurely born high-risk infants. Parenchymal lesions seen in MRI are reliable predictors for CP.

  13. Short-term changes in temporomandibular joint function in subjects with cleft lip and palate treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K; Otsuka, R; Minato, A; Sato-Wakabayashi, M; Takada, J; Inoue-Arai, M S; Miyamoto, J J; Ono, T; Ohyama, K; Moriyama, K

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function in 21 subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Design - Morphological changes in the maxillofacial region were measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs taken immediately before (pre-DO) and after DO (post-DO) and 1 year after DO (1-year follow-up). A questionnaire was evaluated using a visual analog scale. A chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of TMJ symptoms between pre-DO and 1-year follow-up. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms in association with maxillary DO. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results - The ANB (anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla with the mandible) angle and the mandibular plane angle at pre-DO, post-DO, and 1-year follow-up were -4.3 degrees , +5.8 degrees , +4.3 degrees and 32.1 degrees , 33.5 degrees , 33.6 degrees , respectively. The average amounts of anterior and downward movement of the maxilla at post-DO and 1-year follow-up were 8.3, -1.3 and 0.9, 1.1 mm, respectively. The prevalence of TMJ symptoms showed no significant increase in association with maxillary DO. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms. Conclusion - These results suggest that there was no short-term (i.e., up to 1 year after DO) effect of maxillary DO on TMJ function in subjects with CLP.

  14. Emotion-based decision-making in healthy subjects: short-term effects of reducing dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, Serge; Hassoun, Youssef; Bechara, Antoine; Yechiam, Eldad; Napolitano, Barbara; Burdick, Katherine; Delman, Howard; Malhotra, Anil

    2006-10-01

    Converging evidences from animal and human studies suggest that addiction is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction in brain reward circuits. So far, it is unclear what aspects of addictive behaviors are related to a dopaminergic dysfunction. We hypothesize that a decrease in dopaminergic activity impairs emotion-based decision-making. To demonstrate this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of a decrease in dopaminergic activity on the performance of an emotion-based decision-making task, the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in 11 healthy human subjects. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design to examine the effect of a mixture containing the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine and leucine on prolactin, IGT performance, perceptual competency and visual aspects of visuospatial working memory, visual attention and working memory, and verbal memory. The expectancy-valence model was used to determine the relative contributions of distinct IGT components (attention to past outcomes, relative weight of wins and losses, and choice strategies) in the decision-making process. Compared to placebo, the BCAA mixture increased prolactin levels and impaired IGT performance. BCAA administration interfered with a particular component process of decision-making related to attention to more recent events as compared to more distant events. There were no differences between placebo and BCAA conditions for other aspects of cognition. Our results suggest a direct link between a reduced dopaminergic activity and poor emotion-based decision-making characterized by shortsightedness, and thus difficulties resisting short-term reward, despite long-term negative consequences. These findings have implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting impaired emotion-based decision-making in addictive disorders.

  15. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  16. Effect of propofol on the medial temporal lobe emotional memory system: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, K O; Root, J C; Mehta, M; Stern, E; Pan, H; Veselis, R A; Silbersweig, D A

    2015-07-01

    Subclinical doses of propofol produce anterograde amnesia, characterized by an early failure of memory consolidation. It is unknown how propofol affects the amygdala-dependent emotional memory system, which modulates consolidation in the hippocampus in response to emotional arousal and neurohumoral stress. We present an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the effects of propofol on the emotional memory system in human subjects. Thirty-five healthy subjects were randomized to receive propofol, at an estimated brain concentration of 0.90 μg ml(-1), or placebo. During drug infusion, emotionally arousing and neutral images were presented in a continuous recognition task, while blood-oxygen-level-dependent activation responses were acquired. After a drug-free interval of 2 h, subsequent memory for successfully encoded items was assessed. Imaging analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping and behavioural analysis using signal detection models. Propofol had no effect on the stereotypical amygdalar response to emotional arousal, but caused marked suppression of the hippocampal response. Propofol caused memory performance to become uncoupled from amygdalar activation, but it remained correlated with activation in the posterior hippocampus, which decreased in proportion to amnesia. Propofol is relatively ineffective at suppressing amygdalar activation at sedative doses, but abolishes emotional modulation and causes amnesia via mechanisms that commonly involve hyporesponsiveness of the hippocampus. These findings raise the possibility that amygdala-dependent fear systems may remain intact even when a patient has diminished memory of events. This may be of clinical importance in the perioperative development of fear-based psychopathologies, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. NCT00504894. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study of external source memory and its relation to cognitive insight in non-clinical subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchy, Lisa; Hawco, Colin; Bodnar, Michael; Izadi, Sarah; Dell'Elce, Jennifer; Messina, Katrina; Lepage, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Previous research has linked cognitive insight (a measure of self-reflectiveness and self-certainty) in psychosis with neurocognitive and neuroanatomical disturbances in the fronto-hippocampal neural network. The authors' goal was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive insight during an external source memory paradigm in non-clinical subjects. At encoding, 24 non-clinical subjects travelled through a virtual city where they came across 20 separate people, each paired with a unique object in a distinct location. fMRI data were then acquired while participants viewed images of the city, and completed source recognition memory judgments of where and with whom objects were seen, which is known to involve prefrontal cortex. Cognitive insight was assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. External source memory was associated with neural activity in a widespread network consisting of frontal cortex, including ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporal and occipital cortices. Activation in VLPFC correlated with higher self-reflectiveness and activation in midbrain correlated with lower self-certainty during source memory attributions. Neither self-reflectiveness nor self-certainty significantly correlated with source memory accuracy. By means of virtual reality and in the context of an external source memory paradigm, the study identified a preliminary functional neural basis for cognitive insight in the VLPFC in healthy people that accords with our fronto-hippocampal theoretical model as well as recent neuroimaging data in people with psychosis. The results may facilitate the understanding of the role of neural mechanisms in psychotic disorders associated with cognitive insight distortions. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  18. Does early change predict long-term (6 months) improvements in subjects who receive manual therapy for low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad; Petersen, Shannon; Donaldson, Megan; Wilhelm, Mark; Learman, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Early change is commonly assessed for manual therapy interventions and has been used to determine treatment appropriateness. However, current studies have only explored the relationship of between or within-session changes and short-/medium-term outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether pain changes after two weeks of pragmatic manual therapy could predict those participants with chronic low back pain who demonstrate continued improvements at 6-month follow-up. This study was a retrospective observational design. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a 33% and a 50% pain change to predict improvement. Those who experienced a ≥33% pain reduction by 2 weeks had 6.98 (95% CI = 1.29, 37.53) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the GRoC and 4.74 (95% CI = 1.31, 17.17) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the ODI (at 6 months). Subjects who reported a ≥50% pain reduction at 2 weeks had 5.98 (95% CI = 1.56, 22.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the GRoC and 3.99 (95% CI = 1.23, 12.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the ODI (at 6 months). Future studies may investigate whether a change in plan of care is beneficial for patients who are not showing early improvement predictive of a good long-term outcome.

  19. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  20. Safety and Tolerability of Theta Burst Stimulation versus Single and Paired Pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Comparative Study of 165 Pediatric Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaejee H Hong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although single- and paired-pulse (sp/pp transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS studies are considered minimal risk in adults and children, the safety profile for theta-burst TMS (TBS is unknown.Objective: In this comparative analysis, we explored the rate, severity, and specific symptoms of TMS-related adverse effects (AEs between sp/ppTMS and TBS in subjects between ages 6 and 18 years.Method: Data from 165 participants from 2009-2014 were analyzed. Assessment of AEs was performed based on baseline and post-TMS administration of a symptom-based questionnaire that rated AEs on a 5-level ordinal scale (minimal, mild, moderate, marked, severe. AE rates and severity were compared using Chi Square or Fisher’s Exact Test depending on data characteristics.Result: Overall, no seizures or severe-rated AEs were reported by 165 pediatric participants. The rate of AE in all TBS sessions was 10.5% (n=76, 95% CI: 4.7 - 19.7%, whereas the rate of AE in all sp/ppTMS sessions was 12.4% (n=89, 95% CI: 6.3 - 21.0%. There was no statistical difference in AE rates between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=0.71. In all sp/ppTMS and TBS sessions, 20 subjects reported a total of 35 AEs, among these 31 (~88.6% were rated as minimal or mild. There was no difference in the severity of AE between TBS and sp/ppTMS (p=1.0. Only one of 76 TBS participants reported an AE rated as more than minimal/mild.Conclusion: Our comparative analysis showed that TBS appears to be as safe as sp/ppTMS in terms of AE rate and severity. This report supports further investigation of TBS in children.

  1. Neurobehavioral effects among subjects exposed to high static and gradient magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system--a case-crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Engels, Hans; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-10-01

    The interactive use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is increasing in operating theaters. A study was performed on 17 male company volunteers to assess the neurobehavioral effects of exposure to magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. The subjects' neurobehavioral performances on a neurobehavioral test battery were compared in four 1-hr sessions with and without exposure to magnetic fields, and with and without additional movements. Adverse effects were found for hand coordination (-4%, P Tesla MRI system may lead to neurobehavioral effects. Further research is recommended, especially in members of operating teams using interactive MRI systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Current distributions in superconducting wires subject to a random orientation magnetic field, and corresponding to the Tokamak usual conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    The main themes of this thesis are: review of superconductivity principles; critical current in a random orientation magnetic field; the MHD model applied to superconductors (with comprehensive calculation of the field in a plate type conductor); the magnetization created by a variation of a random orientation magnetic field; the electric field in a superconductor in steady or quasi-steady state (MHD displacement, pinning and thermal effects). 145 figs., 166 refs

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging determined visceral fat reduction associates with enhanced IL-10 plasma levels in calorie restricted obese subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Formoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is characterized by a low grade chronic inflammation state. Indeed circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, are elevated in obese subjects, while anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, appear to be reduced. Cytokines profile improves after weight loss, but how visceral or subcutaneous fat loss respectively affect pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels has not been precisely assessed. Therefore in the present study we correlated changes in circulating cytokine profile with quantitative changes in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots measured by an ad hoc Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI protocol before and after weight loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 14 obese subjects, MRI determination of visceral and subcutaneous fat and plasma glucose, insulin, TNF-α IL-6, and IL-10 measurements were performed before and after a caloric restriction induced weight loss of at least 5% of the original body weight. RESULTS: Weight loss improved insulin sensitivity (QUICKI Index: 0.35±0.03 vs 0.37±0.04; P<0.05, increased IL-10 (3.4±1.9 vs 4.6±1.0 pg/mL; P<0.03, and reduced TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels (2.5±1.3 vs 1.6±1.5 pg/mL, P<0.0015, 2.3±0.4 vs 1.6±0.6 pg/mL, P<0.02 respectively. A significant correlation was observed between the amount of visceral fat loss and the percentage reduction in both TNF-α (r = 0.56, p<0.05 and IL-6 (r = 0.19 p<0.05 plasma levels. In a multiple regression analysis, the amount of visceral fat loss independently correlated with the increase in IL-10 plasma levels. CONCLUSION: The reduction in visceral adipose tissue is the main driver of the improved inflammatory profile induced by weight loss.

  4. Noninvasive measurements of regional cerebral perfusion in preterm and term neonates by magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo; Olofsson, K; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) at 3 Tesla has been investigated as a quantitative technique for measuring regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) in newborn infants. RCP values were measured in 49 healthy neonates: 32 preterm infants born before 34 wk of gestation and 17 term-born neon......Magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) at 3 Tesla has been investigated as a quantitative technique for measuring regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) in newborn infants. RCP values were measured in 49 healthy neonates: 32 preterm infants born before 34 wk of gestation and 17 term...

  5. Short-term changes in chewing efficiency and subjective evaluation in normal dentate subjects after insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satokawa, Y; Minami, I; Wakabayashi, N

    2018-02-01

    Oral appliances with an occlusal flat table are used as treatment dentures. However, the short-term effect of insertion of such oral appliances on chewing has not been reported. This study aimed to determine whether experimental and continuous insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table has an effect on chewing efficiency and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) in healthy participants. Ten participants each in the oral-appliance and control (no oral-appliance insertion) groups attended six data collection sessions for 5 consecutive days. Participants answered the OHIP questionnaire and underwent the chewing efficiency test. For each parameter, intergroup differences were investigated in terms of change from baseline to immediately after oral-appliance insertion (0 hour; P appliance insertion (P appliance insertion (P = .477 and .275, respectively). Differences between the two groups in the degree of change in other parameters were not significant. Insertion of oral appliances caused a decrease in chewing efficiency and an increase in OHIP scores. Continuous insertion improved functional limitation and physical pain within 96 hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    A magnet pole piece for an NMR imaging magnet is made of a plurality of magnetic wires with one end of each wire held in a non-magnetic spacer, the other ends of the wires being brought to a pinch, and connected to a magnetic core. The wires may be embedded in a synthetic resin and the magnetisation and uniformity thereof can be varied by adjusting the density of the wires at the spacer which forms the pole piece. (author)

  7. Non-superconducting magnet structures for near-term, large fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    File, J.; Knutson, D.S.; Marino, R.E.; Rappe, G.H.

    1980-10-01

    This paper describes the magnet and structural design in the following American tokamak devices: the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Princeton Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Joint European Torus (JET), also presented herein, has a magnet structure evolved from several European programs and, like TFTR, represents state of the art magnet and structure design

  8. Long-term incidence of serious fall-related injuries after bariatric surgery in Swedish obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena M S; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Ahlin, Sofie; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Karlsson Lindahl, Linda; Maglio, Cristina; Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Taube, Magdalena; Carlsson, Björn; Svensson, Per-Arne; Peltonen, Markku

    2018-05-24

    Obesity increases risk of falling, but the effect of bariatric surgery on fall-related injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to study the association between bariatric surgery and long-term incidence of fall-related injuries in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study. At inclusion, body mass index was ≥ 34 kg/m 2 in men and ≥38 kg/m 2 in women. The surgery per-protocol group (n = 2007) underwent gastric bypass (n = 266), banding (n = 376), or vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 1365), and controls (n = 2040) received usual care. At the time of analysis (31 December 2013), median follow-up was 19 years (maximal 26 years). Fall-related injuries requiring hospital treatment were captured using data from the Swedish National Patient Register. During follow-up, there were 617 first-time fall-related injuries in the surgery group and 513 in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002). The incidence differed between treatment groups (P < 0.001, log-rank test) and was higher after gastric bypass than after usual care, banding and vertical banded gastroplasty (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50-0.52, P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery was associated with increased risk of serious fall-related injury requiring hospital treatment.

  9. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-10-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared adipose tissue measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but no such study has been conducted in HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss. We compared DXA- with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 877 HIV+ subjects and 260 control subjects in FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status. Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r > or = 0.92) and slightly weaker for leg (r > or = 0.87) and arm (r > or = 0.71) fat. The average estimated limb fat was substantially greater for DXA than for MRI for HIV+ and control men and women (all P < 0.0001). Less of a difference was observed in trunk fat measured by DXA and MRI, but the difference was still statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability. Greater average limb fat in control and HIV+ subjects (both P < 0.0001) was associated with greater differences between DXA and MRI measurements. Because the control subjects had more limb fat than did the HIV+ subjects, greater amounts of fat were measured by DXA than by MRI when control subjects were compared with HIV+ subjects. More HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of the control subjects by DXA than by MRI (P < 0.0001). Although DXA- and MRI-measured adipose tissue depots correlate strongly in HIV+ and control subjects, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher prevalence of peripheral lipoatrophy than does MRI in HIV+ subjects.

  10. Magnetic Materials: Novel Monitors of Long-Term Evolution of Engineered Barrier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L. Harley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most safety cases for the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste are reliant on the swelling of bentonite in the engineered barrier system as it saturates with groundwater. Assurance of safety therefore requires effective monitoring of bentonite saturation. The time- and fluid-dependent corrosion of synthetic magnets embedded in bentonite is demonstrated here to provide a novel and passive means of monitoring saturation. Experiments have been conducted at 70 °C in which neo magnets, AlNiCo magnets, and ferrite magnets have been reacted with saline (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 solutions and alkaline fluids (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2 solutions; pH = 12 in the presence of bentonite. Nd-Fe-B magnets undergo extensive corrosion that results in a dramatic change from ferromagnetic to superparamagnetic behaviour concomitant with bentonite saturation. AlNiCo magnets in saline solutions show corrosion but only limited decreases in their magnetic intensities, and ferrite magnets are essentially unreactive on the experimental timescales, retaining their initial magnetic properties. For all magnets the impact of their corrosion on bentonite swelling is negligible; alteration of bentonite is essentially governed by the applied fluid composition. In principle, synthetic magnet arrays can, with further development, be designed and embedded in bentonite to monitor its fluid saturation without compromising the integrity of the engineered barrier system itself.

  11. CHARGED DUST GRAIN DYNAMICS SUBJECT TO SOLAR WIND, POYNTING–ROBERTSON DRAG, AND THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lhotka, Christoph; Bourdin, Philippe; Narita, Yasuhito, E-mail: christoph.lhotka@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: philippe.bourdin@oeaw.ac.at, E-mail: yasuhito.narita@oeaw.ac.at [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the combined effect of solar wind, Poynting–Robertson drag, and the frozen-in interplanetary magnetic field on the motion of charged dust grains in our solar system. For this reason, we derive a secular theory of motion by the means of an averaging method and validate it with numerical simulations of the unaveraged equations of motions. The theory predicts that the secular motion of charged particles is mainly affected by the z -component of the solar magnetic axis, or the normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field. The normal component of the interplanetary magnetic field leads to an increase or decrease of semimajor axis depending on its functional form and sign of charge of the dust grain. It is generally accepted that the combined effects of solar wind and photon absorption and re-emmision (Poynting–Robertson drag) lead to a decrease in semimajor axis on secular timescales. On the contrary, we demonstrate that the interplanetary magnetic field may counteract these drag forces under certain circumstances. We derive a simple relation between the parameters of the magnetic field, the physical properties of the dust grain, as well as the shape and orientation of the orbital ellipse of the particle, which is a necessary conditions for the stabilization in semimajor axis.

  12. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Yang; Meng Gong; Ying Hei Chui

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1) the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflecti...

  13. The prognostic value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in term newborns treated with therapeutic hypothermia following asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, Paul E.; Wischniowsky, Katharina; ter Horst, Hendrik J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. Methods: At the age of 6.0 +/- 1.8 days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of pseudotumors of the craniovertebral junction in long-term hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, H; Tanizawa, T; Uchiyama, S; Higuchi, T; Ei, K; Oda, M; Ei, I; Oya, M; Kishimoto, H; Saito, T; Miyamura, S; Takano, Y; Hasegawa, S; Kawada, K; Ueki, K; Iwafuchi, Y; Arakawa, M

    1999-01-01

    Pseudotumors of the craniovertebral junction (PTCVJ) are observed in long-term hemodialysis (HD) patients. There are neither criteria for diagnosis nor guidelines for screening. We attempted to determine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings that could be used to detect PTCVJ, to determine the prevalence of PTCVJ, and to evaluate whether destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) might be a yardstick for selection of patients for MRI examination for PTCVJ. MRI were examined in 19 DSA patients (8 males, 11 females, age 61.4 +/- 7.3 years, HD duration 17.0 +/- 4.4 years) and in 20 sex-, age-, and HD-duration-matched non-DSA patients (9 males, 11 females, age 57.5 +/- 6.6 years, HD duration 17.7 +/- 4.9 years). We evaluated MRI characteristics of PTCVJ according those which occur due to rheumatoid arthritis. PTCVJ were characterized as follows: disappearance of fat pads in the upper region (supradental PTCVJ), intensity change of the 'predental triangle' in the anterior region (predental PTCVJ), and thickening of cruciform ligaments (retrodental PTCVJ). The prevalence of PTCVJ among patients undergoing HD more than 10 years was high (26 out of 39; 66.7%). The prevalence of PTCVJ was not different between DSA and non-DSA groups. We verified that the above MRI findings might be helpful in the detection of PTCVJ. These findings were observed frequently and independently also in patients with DSA. Copyright 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. WHY ADULTS LEARN: INTERPRETING ADULTS’ REASONS TO PARTICIPATE IN EDUCATION IN TERMS OF ECCLES’ SUBJECTIVE TASK VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological research shows that subjective task value, a basic component of expectancyvalue theory as outlined by Eccles, predicts task choice (e.g., going to graduate school. However, Eccles’ approach has not been used to investigate adult learning so far. Therefore, the present study investigated a specific form of subjective task value and task choice, namely adults’ subjective task value of participation in education. Based on expectancy-value theory, qualitative content analyses of 16 interviews with adult learners (aged between 21 and 67 from varying age groups and educational backgrounds show a differentiation of positive value according to points of reference and a revised conceptualisation of cost as an independent component of subjective task value with four subcomponents. Apparently people estimate positive value and cost separately at first and only later weigh these components against each other to arrive at an overall evaluation of subjective task value, which, in turn, predicts participation in education. Moreover, results suggest a distinction between anticipated subjective task value prior to participation and subjective task value based on experience (i.e., in hindsight. Benefits of using expectancy-value theory for future research on adults’ participation in education are discussed.

  16. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Wang, Ying; Hao, Dongmei; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects). The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and sample entropy (SampEn), were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant ( p 0.05). In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p < 0.001) and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p < 0.001).

  17. Long-term coherent periodicities in the mean magnetic field of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.A.; Levitsky, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate periodic variations of the magnetic field of the Sun as a star, the authors have used the mean field measurements made in Crimea, Mt. Wilson, and Stanford observatories; in total N = 5783 daily values were available for the time interval 1968 - 1981. In essence, these data offer a unique possibility to study the Sun as a variable magnetic star. (Auth.)

  18. The Magnetic Physical Optics Scattered Field in Terms of a Line Integral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav; Jørgensen, Erik

    2000-01-01

    An exact line integral representation Is derived for the magnetic physical optics field scattered by a perfectly electrically conducting planar plate illuminated by a magnetic Hertzian dipole. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the exactness of the line integral representation...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Volumetry: Prediction of Subjective Memory Complaints and Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Associations with Genetic and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigbjørn Rogne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Subjective memory complaints (SMC are strong predictors of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and subsequent Alzheimer’s disease. Our aims were to see if fully automated cerebral MR volume measurements could distinguish subjects with SMC and MCI from controls, and if probable parental late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, total plasma homocysteine, and cardiovascular risk factors were associated with MR volumetric findings. Methods: 198 stroke-free subjects comprised the control (n = 58, the SMC (n = 25 and the MCI (n = 115 groups. Analysis of covariance and receiver operating characteristic curve was used to see if MR volumetry distinguished subjects with SMC and MCI from controls. Results: Subjects with SMC and MCI had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampal volumes than controls. The area under the curve in subjects with SMC and MCI compared to that of controls was less than 0.68 for all volumes of intracranial structures. There was an interaction between sex and probable parental LOAD for hippocampal volume, with a significant association between probable parental LOAD and hippocampal volume in women. Conclusions: Fully automated MR volumetry can distinguish subjects with SMC and MCI from controls in a general population, but insufficiently to assume a clear clinical role. Research on sporadic LOAD might benefit from a sex-specific search for genetic risk factors.

  20. Experience with magnetic resonance imaging of human subjects with passive implants and tattoos at 7 T: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Yacine; Bitz, Andreas K; Ladd, Mark E; Thürling, Markus; Ladd, Susanne C; Schaefers, Gregor; Kraff, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, the number of clinical MRI studies at 7 T has increased dramatically. Since only limited information about the safety of implants/tattoos is available at 7 T, many centers either conservatively exclude all subjects with implants/tattoos or have started to perform dedicated tests for selected implants. This work presents our experience in imaging volunteers with implants/tattoos at 7 T over the last seven and a half years. 1796 questionnaires were analyzed retrospectively to identify subjects with implants/tattoos imaged at 7 T. For a total of 230 subjects, the type of local transmit/receive RF coil used for examination, imaging sequences, acquisition time, and the type of implants/tattoos and their location with respect to the field of view were documented. These subjects had undergone examination after careful consideration by an internal safety panel consisting of three experts in MR safety and physics. None of the subjects reported sensations of heat or force before, during, or after the examination. None expressed any discomfort related to implants/tattoos. Artifacts were reported in 52% of subjects with dental implants; all artifacts were restricted to the mouth area and did not affect image quality in the brain parenchyma. Our initial experience at 7 T indicates that a strict rejection of subjects with tattoos and/or implants is not justified. Imaging can be conditionally performed in carefully selected subjects after collection of substantial safety information and evaluation of the detailed exposure scenario (RF coil/type and position of implant). Among the assessed subjects with tattoos, no side effects from the exposure to 7 T MRI were reported.

  1. Subjective and objective image qualities: a comparison of sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo and turbo-spin-eco sequences in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine by use of a subjective ranking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerres, G. [Institut fuer diagnostische Radiologie, Departement Radiologie, Universitaetskliniken, Kantonsspital Basel (Switzerland); Mader, I. [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis Dres. Siems, Grossmann, Bayreuth (Germany); Proske, M. [Klinikum Rosenheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    1998-12-31

    We evaluated the subjective image impression of two different magnetic resonance (MR) sequences by using a subjective ranking system. This ranking system was based on 20 criteria describing several tissue characteristics such as the signal intensity of normal anatomical structures and the changes of signal intensities and shape of lesions as well as artefacts. MR of the vertebral spine was performed in 48 female and 52 male patients (mean age 44.8 years) referred consecutively for investigation of a back problem. Ninety-six pathologies were found in 82 patients. Sagittal and axial T1 weighted spin-echo before and after administration of Gadolinium (Gd-DOTA), and sagittal T2 weighted spin-echo (T2wSE) and Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences were performed by means of surface coils. Using the subjective ranking system the sagittal T2wSE and sagittal TSE were compared. Both sequences were suitable for identification of normal anatomy and pathologic changes and there was no trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. We found that sagittal TSE sequences can replace sagittal T2wSE sequences in spinal MR and that artefacts at the cervical and lumbar spine are less frequent using TSE, thus confirming previous studies. In this study, our ranking system reveiled, that there are differences between the subjective judgement of image qualities and objective measurement of SNR. However, this approach may not be helpful to compare two different MR sequences as it is limited to the anatomical area investigated and is time consuming. The subjective image impression, i.e. the quality of images, may not always be represented by physical parameters such as a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), radiologists should try to define influences of image quality also by subjective parameters. (orig.)

  2. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  3. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  4. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    by B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet operation was very satisfactory till the technical stop at the end of the year 2010. The field was ramped down on 5th December 2010, following the successful regeneration test of the turbine filters at full field on 3rd December 2010. This will limit in the future the quantity of magnet cycles, as it is no longer necessary to ramp down the magnet for this type of intervention. This is made possible by the use of the spare liquid Helium volume to cool the magnet while turbines 1 and 2 are stopped, leaving only the third turbine in operation. This obviously requires full availability of the operators to supervise the operation, as it is not automated. The cryogenics was stopped on 6th December 2010 and the magnet was left without cooling until 18th January 2011, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The maintenance of the vacuum pumping was done immediately after the magnet stop, when the magnet was still at very low temperature. Only the vacuum pumping of the ma...

  6. Title Epidemic Model of a Concept within the Subject Classes of Patents: A Case Study on the Term RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tavakolizade Ravari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims at studying the epidemic model of the term RFID within the classes of patents. Methodology: The research is descriptive and has been conducted based on the mathematical models of diseases. Research population consists of 35,627 granted patents from the USPTO database those which the terms RFID or Radio Frequency Identification occur in their titles or abstracts. Data analysis was performed through software like Excel, SPSS, and Ravar-Matrix. Findings show that the cumulative growth of sub-classes with the term RFID follows an S-logistic model. This is an evidence of natural growth rate for assigning the term RFID to the USPTO sub-classes over the years.  Other finding reveals that the term RFID has been entered into and exited from the sub-classes of patents like the SIS epidemic model of diseases. As a final conclusion, the most technical fields those that are susceptible for RFID technology, have been met this technology. On the base of SIS model, the epidemic of RFID technology has been reached a balance.

  7. Neural networks engaged in short-term memory rehearsal are disrupted by irrelevant speech in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid

    2004-01-02

    Rehearsal mechanisms in human short-term memory are increasingly understood in the light of both behavioural and neuroanatomical findings. However, little is known about the cooperation of participating brain structures and how such cooperations are affected when memory performance is disrupted. In this paper we use EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization to investigate rehearsal processes and their disruption by irrelevant speech in a delayed serial recall paradigm. Fronto-central and fronto-parietal theta (4-7.5 Hz), beta (13-20 Hz), and gamma (35-47 Hz) synchronizations are shown to be involved in our short-term memory task. Moreover, the impairment in serial recall due to irrelevant speech was preceded by a reduction of gamma band coherence. Results suggest that the irrelevant speech effect has its neural basis in the disruption of left-lateralized fronto-central networks. This stresses the importance of gamma band activity for short-term memory operations.

  8. Which Group of Individuals are subjected to Get Long-Term Unemployed During and After a Recession? Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞÇI, Hacı; ÖZDEMİR, Ali; DARICI, Burak

    2018-01-01

    This study tests the effects of individual characteristics on the incidence of being long-term unemployed in Turkey using data from Turkey’s Household Labor Force Surveys of 2010 and 2011 which are the first two following years of Global Economic Recession. The results indicate that females are more likely to be long-term unemployed than males and this result hinders for “gender discrimination” against women. The results also indicate that increases in education as well as age increases the p...

  9. Incremental value of normal adenosine perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance: Long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzi, Fabiola B; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Canetta, Ciro; Berthier, Frederic; Rusek, Stephane; Rossi, Philippe; Lombardi, Federico; Dreyfus, Gilles; Dor, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the long-term prognostic value of normal adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients referred for evaluation of myocardial ischemia. We reviewed 300 consecutive patients (age 65 ± 11 years, 74% male) with suspected or known coronary disease and normal wall motion who had undergone adenosine stress CMR negative for ischemia and scar. Most patients were at intermediate risk of coronary artery disease. The end points studied were all causes of mortality and major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, and hospitalization for unstable angina. During a mean follow-up of 5.5 years (mean = 5.4 ± 1.1), 16 patients died because of various causes (cardiac death in 5 patients). Three patients had a nonfatal myocardial infarction, 7 patients were hospitalized for revascularization, and 11 were medically treated for unstable angina. The annual cardiac event rate was 1.3% (0.78% in the first 3 years and 1.9% between the fourth and sixth years). The predictors of major adverse cardiac events in a multivariate analysis model were as follows: advanced age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.02-1.30), diabetes (HR 17.5, 95% CI 2.2-140), and the habit of smoking (HR 5.9, 95% CI 1.0-35.5). For all causes of mortality, the only predictor was diabetes (HR 11.4, 95% CI 1.76-74.2). Patients with normal stress CMR had an excellent outcome during the 3 years after the study. The cardiac event rate was higher between the fourth and sixth years. Over a 5.5-year period, a low event rate and excellent prognosis occurred in patients with normal adenosine stress CMR. Low- to intermediate-risk patients with a normal CMR are at low risk for subsequent cardiac events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of study-test modalities on the remembrance of subjective duration from long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian

    2002-07-31

    It was examined whether stimulus modality (auditory vs. visual) affects the retrieval of subjective duration from memory. In two experiments the temporal generalization paradigm was used. Participants had to decide whether the previously learned standard duration (400 ms) occurred in the context of comparison stimuli. Two major results were found. (1) Discrimination was more accurate if the training and testing stimuli were of the same modality than if they were of opposite modalities. (2) If both modality of learning and modality of testing were different, subjects systematically underestimated the test durations, i.e. temporal generalization gradients (the proportion of identifications of a stimulus as the standard, plotted against stimulus duration) shifted to the right. The observed shift is interpreted as a result of a delayed timing process.

  11. Effects of short term and long term Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on depressive disorder in mice: Involvement of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjid Ansari, Alireza; Farzampour, Shahrokh; Sadr, Ali; Shekarchi, Babak; Majidzadeh-A, Keivan

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports on the possible effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF MF) on mood have been paradoxical in different settings while no study has yet been conducted on animal behavior. In addition, it was shown that ELF MF exposure makes an increase in brain nitric oxide level. Therefore, in the current study, we aimed to assess the possible effect(s) of ELF MF exposure on mice Forced Swimming Test (FST) and evaluate the probable role of the increased level of nitric oxide in the observed behavior. Male adult mice NMRI were recruited to investigate the short term and long term ELF MF exposure (0.5 mT and 50 Hz, single 2h and 2 weeks 2h a day). Locomotor behavior was assessed by using open-field test (OFT) followed by FST to evaluate the immobility time. Accordingly, NΩ-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester 30 mg/kg was used to exert anti-depressant like effect. According to the results, short term exposure did not alter the immobility time, whereas long term exposure significantly reduces immobility time (pmice, whereas short term exposure has no significant effect. Also, reversing the anti-depressant activity of L-NAME indicates a probable increase in the brain nitric oxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychomotor and Memory Effects of Haloperidol, Olanzapine, and Paroxetine in Healthy Subjects After Short-Term Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  13. Psychomotor and memory effects of haloperidol, olanzapine, and paroxetine in healthy subjects after short-term administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  14. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-06-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction in whiplash-associated injury and in healthy control subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Gjertsen, Oeivind; Server, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis and imaging findings in whiplash-associated injury (WAD) are poorly understood and remain debatable. Purpose: To assess the ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with WAD and to compare them with healthy control subjects. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with WAD were selected at random from a total number of 180 examined with MRI using 2-mm proton density (PD)-weighted images in three orthogonal planes at 1.5T. The patients were compared with 27 healthy control subjects without neck trauma. Results: High signal intensity of the alar and transverse ligaments was quite common and was reported at an average of about 50% both among patients and control subjects. The incidence of abnormalities of the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes was low in both groups. No statistically significant difference between control subjects and patients with WAD was revealed for any of the structures assessed. Additional fat-suppressed images seemed to reduce the number of reported anomalies. Conclusion: Due to lack of significant differences between patients with WAD and healthy control subjects, it is not recommended that MRI with the current technique and classification system be used in the routine workup of patients with WAD

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction in whiplash-associated injury and in healthy control subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullerud, Reidar; Gjertsen, Oeivind; Server, Andres (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), e-mail: redu@lds.no

    2010-03-15

    Background: The pathogenesis and imaging findings in whiplash-associated injury (WAD) are poorly understood and remain debatable. Purpose: To assess the ligaments and membranes in the craniocervical junction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with WAD and to compare them with healthy control subjects. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients with WAD were selected at random from a total number of 180 examined with MRI using 2-mm proton density (PD)-weighted images in three orthogonal planes at 1.5T. The patients were compared with 27 healthy control subjects without neck trauma. Results: High signal intensity of the alar and transverse ligaments was quite common and was reported at an average of about 50% both among patients and control subjects. The incidence of abnormalities of the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes was low in both groups. No statistically significant difference between control subjects and patients with WAD was revealed for any of the structures assessed. Additional fat-suppressed images seemed to reduce the number of reported anomalies. Conclusion: Due to lack of significant differences between patients with WAD and healthy control subjects, it is not recommended that MRI with the current technique and classification system be used in the routine workup of patients with WAD

  17. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden......, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve....... between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  18. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.H.; Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. ► Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. ► Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 °C and 500 °C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite (α Cr ) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  19. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.mo [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite ({alpha}{sub Cr}) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  20. The influence of Ca substitution on LaFeO3 nanoparticles in terms of structural and magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing; Xu, Jianmei; Yang, Fang; Yang, Xingxing; He, Yun

    2018-01-01

    The nanocrystalline structure of La 1 -x Ca x FeO 3 was prepared by a sol-gel method involving an auto-combustion process. The incorporation of rare-earths in LaFeO 3 induces strain in magnetic properties, especially in terms of the following parameters: replacement amount, oxygen partial pressure, and calcination temperature. To determine the effects of the amount of Ca 2+ ion doping agent and the calcination temperature on the microstructure, particle morphology, and magnetic properties of LaFeO 3 crystal, we performed the following respective analytical methods: X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer tests. The orthorhombic structure of LaFeO 3 perovskite did not change even when it was doped with Ca 2+ ions, and its space group continued to be Pnma (No.62). FT-IR spectra confirmed that the main band appearing at 568 cm -1 is due to the antisymmetric stretching vibration of Fe-O-Fe bonds in FeO 6 . The introduction of Ca inhibits the growth of grains but the morphology of particles is improved. With an increasing concentration of Ca 2+ ions, magnetic behavior of the samples also witnessed an increasing trend in a proportionate manner. With an increase in calcination temperature, the enclosed area of the magnetic hysteresis curve of the sample reduced remarkably. The growth of nanoparticles can be restrained with an increase of Ca content that is used as doping agent. The magnetic behavior of La 1 -x Ca x FeO 3 tilts towards G-type antiferromagnetism; the magnetic orientation is achieved from the super exchange interaction of Fe 3+ ions with oxygen ions.

  1. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: Long-term performance in liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a 'shield' mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. The seal was perfect against a pressure of 150 mmHg in a continuous flow of 4.0 L/min for 275 days and against a pressure of 175 mmHg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 217 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against pressure mostly used clinically. The magnetic fluid seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  2. Single voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla in a memory disorders clinic: early right hippocampal NAA/Cr loss in mildly impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Maria T; Ragin, Ann; Hermida, Adriana P; Ahrens, R John; Wise, Leon

    2008-11-30

    In this study, we use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3 Tesla to measure N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI) and choline (Cho) to creatine (Cr) ratios in R (right) and L (left) hippocampi (H) in 8 mildly memory impaired (MMI), 6 probable Alzheimer's Disease (PRAD), and 17 control subjects. NAA/Cr was significantly reduced in the RH in the MMI group and bilaterally in the PRAD group vs. controls. No other metabolite differences were noted between the three groups. Five MMI subjects have converted to PRAD in follow-up. These findings suggest that RH NAA/Cr ratios measured at 3 Tesla may be a sensitive marker of future progression to dementia in a clinically defined population with isolated memory complaints.

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    Operation of the magnet has gone quite smoothly during the first half of this year. The magnet has been at 4.5K for the full period since January. There was an unplanned short stop due to the CERN-wide power outage on May 28th, which caused a slow dump of the magnet. Since this occurred just before a planned technical stop of the LHC, during which access in the experimental cavern was authorized, it was decided to leave the magnet OFF until 2nd June, when magnet was ramped up again to 3.8T. The magnet system experienced a fault also resulting in a slow dump on April 14th. This was triggered by a thermostat on a filter choke in the 20kA DC power converter. The threshold of this thermostat is 65°C. However, no variation in the water-cooling flow rate or temperature was observed. Vibration may have been the root cause of the fault. All the thermostats have been checked, together with the cables, connectors and the read out card. The tightening of the inductance fixations has also been checked. More tem...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet was energised at the beginning of March 2012 at a low current to check all the MSS safety chains. Then the magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T on 6 March 2012. Unfortunately two days later an unintentional switch OFF of the power converter caused a slow dump. This was due to a misunderstanding of the CCC (CERN Control Centre) concerning the procedure to apply for the CMS converter control according to the beam-mode status at that time. Following this event, the third one since 2009, a discussion was initiated to define possible improvement, not only on software and procedures in the CCC, but also to evaluate the possibility to upgrade the CMS hardware to prevent such discharge from occurring because of incorrect procedure implementations. The magnet operation itself was smooth, and no power cuts took place. As a result, the number of magnetic cycles was reduced to the minimum, with only two full magnetic cycles from 0 T to 3.8 T. Nevertheless the magnet suffered four stops of the cryogeni...

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      Following the unexpected magnet stops last August due to sequences of unfortunate events on the services and cryogenics [see CMS internal report], a few more events and initiatives again disrupted the magnet operation. All the magnet parameters stayed at their nominal values during this period without any fault or alarm on the magnet control and safety systems. The magnet was stopped for the September technical stop to allow interventions in the experimental cavern on the detector services. On 1 October, to prepare the transfer of the liquid nitrogen tank on its new location, several control cables had to be removed. One cable was cut mistakenly, causing a digital input card to switch off, resulting in a cold-box (CB) stop. This tank is used for the pre-cooling of the magnet from room temperature down to 80 K, and for this reason it is controlled through the cryogenics control system. Since the connection of the CB was only allowed for a field below 2 T to avoid the risk of triggering a fast d...

  6. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased...... probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during exercise even if some MNs failed to discharge by the brain stimulus. Here we used a modified TST (Quadruple stimulation; QuadS and Quintuple stimulation; QuintS) to examine the influence of fatiguing exercise on second and third MN discharges after......, reflecting that a greater proportion of spinal MNs were activated 2 or 3 times by the transcranial stimulus. The size of QuadS responses did not return to pre-contraction levels during 10 min observation time indicating long-lasting increase in excitatory input to spinal MNs. In addition, the post...

  7. Longitudinal Long-term Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Follow-up After Single-Row Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Clinical Superiority of Structural Tendon Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberer, Philipp R; Smolen, Daniel; Pauzenberger, Leo; Plachel, Fabian; Salem, Sylvia; Laky, Brenda; Kriegleder, Bernhard; Anderl, Werner

    2017-05-01

    The number of arthroscopic rotator cuff surgeries is consistently increasing. Although generally considered successful, the reported number of retears after rotator cuff repair is substantial. Short-term clinical outcomes are reported to be rarely impaired by tendon retears, whereas to our knowledge, there is no study documenting long-term clinical outcomes and tendon integrity after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. To investigate longitudinal long-term repair integrity and clinical outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff reconstruction. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Thirty patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with suture anchors for a full-tendon full-thickness tear of the supraspinatus or a partial-tendon full-thickness tear of the infraspinatus were included. Two and 10 years after initial arthroscopic surgery, tendon integrity was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score and Constant score as well as subjective questions regarding satisfaction with the procedure and return to normal activity were used to evaluate short- and long-term outcomes. At the early MRI follow-up, 42% of patients showed a full-thickness rerupture, while 25% had a partial rerupture, and 33% of tendons remained intact. The 10-year MRI follow-up (129 ± 11 months) showed 50% with a total rerupture, while the other half of the tendons were partially reruptured (25%) or intact (25%). The UCLA and Constant scores significantly improved from preoperatively (UCLA total: 50.6% ± 20.2%; Constant total: 44.7 ± 10.5 points) to 2 years (UCLA total: 91.4% ± 16.0% [ P rotator cuff repair showed good clinical long-term results despite a high rate of retears. Nonetheless, intact tendons provided significantly superior clinical long-term outcomes, making the improvement of tendon healing and repair integrity important goals of future research efforts.

  8. Animal Magnetism, Psychiatry and Subjective Experience in Nineteenth-Century Germany: Friedrich Krauß and his Nothschrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, Burkhart

    2016-01-01

    Friedrich Krauß (1791-1868) is the author of Nothschrei eines Magnetisch-Vergifteten [Cry of Distress by a Victim of Magnetic Poisoning] (1852), which has been considered one of the most comprehensive self-narratives of madness published in the German language. In this 1018-page work Krauß documents his acute fears of 'mesmerist' influence and persecution, his detainment in an Antwerp asylum and his encounter with various illustrious physicians across Europe. Though in many ways comparable to other prominent nineteenth-century first-person accounts (eg. John Thomas Perceval's 1838 Narrative of the Treatment Experienced by a Gentleman or Daniel Paul Schreber's 1903 Memoirs of my Nervous Illness), Krauß's story has received comparatively little scholarly attention. This is especially the case in the English-speaking world. In this article I reconstruct Krauß's biography by emphasising his relationship with physicians and his under-explored stay at the asylum. I then investigate the ways in which Krauß appropriated nascent theories about 'animal magnetism' to cope with his disturbing experiences. Finally, I address Krauß's recently discovered calligraphic oeuvre, which bears traces of his typical fears all the while showcasing his artistic skills. By moving away from the predominantly clinical perspective that has characterised earlier studies, this article reveals how Friedrich Krauß sought to make sense of his experience by selectively appropriating both orthodox and non-orthodox forms of medical knowledge. In so doing, it highlights the mutual interaction of discourses 'from above' and 'from below' as well as the influence of broader cultural forces on conceptions of self and illness during that seminal period.

  9. Noninvasive measurements of regional cerebral perfusion in preterm and term neonates by magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria J; Olofsson, Kern; Sidaros, Karam

    2006-09-01

    Magnetic resonance arterial spin labeling (ASL) at 3 Tesla has been investigated as a quantitative technique for measuring regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) in newborn infants. RCP values were measured in 49 healthy neonates: 32 preterm infants born before 34 wk of gestation and 17 term-born neonates. Examinations were performed on unsedated infants at postmenstrual age of 39-40 wk in both groups. Due to motion, reliable data were obtained from 23 preterm and 6 term infants. Perfusion in the basal ganglia (39 and 30 mL/100 g/min for preterm and term neonates, respectively) was significantly higher (p neonates at term-equivalent age and in term neonates. Perfusion was significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the preterm group than in the term infants, indicating that RCP may be influenced by developmental and postnatal ages. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that noninvasive ASL at 3T may be used to measure RCP in healthy unsedated preterm and term neonates. ASL is, therefore, a viable tool that will allow serial studies of RCP in high-risk neonates.

  10. Structural changes in chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in monkeys subjected to long-term daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosichenko, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    During the period that lasted from 4 to 11 years after the cessation of the long-term daily gamma-irradiation the frequency of chromosome rearrangements in peripheral blood lymphocytes of monkeys exceeded the control level. The number of rearrangements did not change significantly with different total irradiation doses (from 826 to 3677r). The main type of structural chromosome rearrangements were symmetrical chromosome exchanges. Abnormal cell clones in peripheral lymphocytes in monkeys irradiated with low doses exhibited no selective advantages during the periods of investigation

  11. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  12. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    OpenAIRE

    Satinder Pal Singh; Ashok Kumar Jena; Vidya Rattan; Ashok Kumar Utreja

    2012-01-01

    Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 month...

  13. The effect of reduced atmospheric deposition on soil and soil solution chemistry at a site subjected to long-term acidification, Nacetin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Hofmeister, J.; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 370, 2-3 (2006), s. 532-544 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : long-term monitoring Norway spruce * Recovery * Soil solution * Base cations * Nitrogen * Norway spruce Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2006

  14. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  15. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predictors of Short-Term Outcomes after High Risk Coronary Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Mohammed J; Mouline, Omar; Hsu, Chijen; Grieve, Stuart M; Wilson, Michael K; Bannon, Paul G; Vallely, Michael P; Puranik, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    The euroSCORE II is a widely used pre-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CAGS) risk score, but its predictive power lacks the specificity to predict outcomes in high-risk patients (surgery case mix, revascularisation techniques and related outcomes in recent years. We investigated the utility of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CMRI) in predicting immediate and six-week outcomes after CAGS. Fifty-two consecutive patients with high euroSCORE II (>16) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (magnetic resonance imaging parameters were assessed in patients who either had complications immediately post-surgery (n=35), six weeks post-surgery (n=20) or were uncomplicated. The average age of patients recruited was 69±5 years with high euroSCORE II (22±4) and low 2D-echocardiography LV ejection fraction (38%±2%). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results demonstrated that those with immediate complications had higher LV scar/infarct burden as a proportion of LV mass (17±3% vs 10±3%; p=0.04) with lower circumferential relaxation index (2.5±0.46 vs 2.8±0.56; p=0.05) compared to those with no complications. Early mortality from surgery was 17% (n=9) and was associated with lower RV stroke volume (55±12 vs 68±18; p=0.03) and higher LV infarct scar/burden (18±2% vs 10±2%, p=0.04). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed patients with complications at six weeks post-surgery had higher LV scar/infarct burden (14.5±2% vs 6.8±2%, p=0.03) compared to those without complications. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging preoperative LV and RV parameters are valuable in assessing the likelihood of successful outcomes from CAGS in high-risk patients with LV dysfunction. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to differentiate between Healthy Aging subjects, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Oghabian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Back ground: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia which is still difficult to be differentiated from other types of brain disorders. Moreover, Mild Cognitive Impairment refers to the presence of cognitive impairments that is not severe enough to meet the criteria of dementia, and its diagnosis in early stages is so critical. There is currently no distinct method available for diagnosing Alzheimer's or Mild Cognitive Impairment, and their diagnosis needs a combination of different methods and assessments.

    Methods: Our goal in this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fMRI imaging in differentiating between Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI and Healthy Aging. To prove fMRI's ability, we compared resting-state brain activation patterns between these three groups of subjects using Independent Component Algorithm (ICA. We examined 40 age- and sex-matched subjects, 15 elderly, 11 MCI and 14 Alzheimer's subjects.

    Results: The results show that during a certain resting-state session, healthy aging brain benefits from larger area and greater intensity of activation (compared with MCI and Alzheimer's group in Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC region of the brain, as part of Default Mode Network.

    Conclusion: This difference in activation pattern can be used as a diagnostic criterion in using fMRI for differentiating between Alzheimer's disease (AD, MCI and Healthy Aging.


    Keywords: fMRI, Default Mode Network, Alzheimer's, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Resting-State

  17. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Failure of activation of spinal motoneurones after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Westlund, Barbro; Krarup, Christian

    2003-01-01

    During a sustained maximal effort a progressive decline in the ability to drive motoneurones (MNs) develops. We used the recently developed triple stimulation technique (TST) to study corticospinal conduction after fatiguing exercise in healthy subjects. This method employs a collision technique....... This points to increased probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during fatigue even if some MNs in the pool failed to discharge. Silent period duration following cortical stimulation lengthened by an average of 55 ms after the contraction and recovered within a time course similar to that of the TST...

  19. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2012-01-01

      The magnet and its sub-systems were stopped at the beginning of the winter shutdown on 8th December 2011. The magnet was left without cooling during the cryogenics maintenance until 17th January 2012, when the cryoplant operation resumed. The magnet temperature reached 93 K. The vacuum pumping was maintained during this period. During this shutdown, the yearly maintenance was performed on the cryogenics, the vacuum pumps, the magnet control and safety systems, and the power converter and discharge lines. Several preventive actions led to the replacement of the electrovalve command coils, and the 20A DC power supplies of the magnet control system. The filters were cleaned on the demineralised water circuits. The oil of the diffusion pumps was changed. On the cryogenics, warm nitrogen at 343 K was circulated in the cold box to regenerate the filters and the heat exchangers. The coalescing filters have been replaced at the inlet of both the turbines and the lubricant trapping unit. The active cha...

  20. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

      The magnet was operated without any problem until the end of the LHC run in February 2013, apart from a CERN-wide power glitch on 10 January 2013 that affected the CMS refrigerator, causing a ramp down to 2 T in order to reconnect the coldbox. Another CERN-wide power glitch on 15 January 2013 didn’t affect the magnet subsystems, the cryoplant or the power converter. At the end of the magnet run, the reconnection of the coldbox at 2.5 T was tested. The process will be updated, in particular the parameters of some PID valve controllers. The helium flow of the current leads was reduced but only for a few seconds. The exercise will be repeated with the revised parameters to validate the automatic reconnection process of the coldbox. During LS1, the water-cooling services will be reduced and many interventions are planned on the electrical services. Therefore, the magnet cryogenics and subsystems will be stopped for several months, and the magnet cannot be kept cold. In order to avoid unc...

  1. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet was successfully operated at the end of the year 2009 despite some technical problems on the cryogenics. The magnet was ramped up to 3.8 T at the end of November until December 16th when the shutdown started. The magnet operation met a few unexpected stops. The field was reduced to 3.5 T for about 5 hours on December 3rd due to a faulty pressure sensor on the helium compressor. The following day the CERN CCC stopped unintentionally the power converters of the LHC and the experiments, triggering a ramp down that was stopped at 2.7 T. The magnet was back at 3.8 T about 6 hours after CCC sent the CERN-wide command. Three days later, a slow dump was triggered due to a stop of the pump feeding the power converter water-cooling circuit, during an intervention on the water-cooling plant done after several disturbances on the electrical distribution network. The magnet was back at 3.8 T in the evening the same day. On December 10th a break occurred in one turbine of the cold box producing the liquid ...

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The CMS magnet has been running steadily and smoothly since the summer, with no detected flaw. The magnet instrumentation is entirely operational and all the parameters are at their nominal values. Three power cuts on the electrical network affected the magnet run in the past five months, with no impact on the data-taking as the accelerator was also affected at the same time. On 22nd June, a thunderstorm caused a power glitch on the service electrical network. The primary water cooling at Point 5 was stopped. Despite a quick restart of the water cooling, the inlet temperature of the demineralised water on the busbar cooling circuit increased by 5 °C, up to 23.3 °C. It was kept below the threshold of 27 °C by switching off other cooling circuits to avoid the trigger of a slow dump of the magnet. The cold box of the cryogenics also stopped. Part of the spare liquid helium volume was used to maintain the cooling of the magnet at 4.5 K. The operators of the cryogenics quickly restarted ...

  3. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the circle of Willis: a prospective comparison with conventional angiography in 54 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrux, B.; Laissy, J.P.; Jouini, S.; Kawiecki, W.; Coty, P.; Thiebot, J.

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively correlated the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with those of transfemoral four-vessel angiography in 54 patients to investigate the direction of flow within the circle of Willis. Our primary goal was to assess the direction of flow using the size of the vessel and signal intensity, without saturation techniques. Analysis of the circle of Willis, especially the communicating arteries, was performed double-blind by two groups of two radiologists. Three types of arteries were identified: high flow or cross-cerebral circulation, patent and nonvisualised arteries. Cerebral angiography was the standard for comparison between the two methods. MRA did not reveal any arteries invisible on angiography, thus providing a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRA was 89.2% for the anterior and 81.3% for the posterior communicating arteries, and 100% for the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. MRA was shown to be a useful technique for the assessment of patency of the circle of Willis. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the circle of Willis: a prospective comparison with conventional angiography in 54 subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrux, B. (Neuroradiology, CHU Charles Nicolle, Rouen (France)); Laissy, J.P. (Neuroradiology, CHU Charles Nicolle, Rouen (France) Dept. of Radiology, CHU Bichat, Paris (France)); Jouini, S. (Neuroradiology, CHU Charles Nicolle, Rouen (France)); Kawiecki, W. (Siemens Medical Systems, Saint-Denis (France)); Coty, P. (Neuroradiology, CHU Charles Nicolle, Rouen (France)); Thiebot, J. (Neuroradiology, CHU Charles Nicolle, Rouen (France))

    1994-04-01

    We prospectively correlated the findings of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with those of transfemoral four-vessel angiography in 54 patients to investigate the direction of flow within the circle of Willis. Our primary goal was to assess the direction of flow using the size of the vessel and signal intensity, without saturation techniques. Analysis of the circle of Willis, especially the communicating arteries, was performed double-blind by two groups of two radiologists. Three types of arteries were identified: high flow or cross-cerebral circulation, patent and nonvisualised arteries. Cerebral angiography was the standard for comparison between the two methods. MRA did not reveal any arteries invisible on angiography, thus providing a specificity of 100%. The sensitivity of MRA was 89.2% for the anterior and 81.3% for the posterior communicating arteries, and 100% for the anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries. MRA was shown to be a useful technique for the assessment of patency of the circle of Willis. (orig.)

  5. Semi-automated vectorial analysis of anorectal motion by magnetic resonance defecography in healthy subjects and fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noelting, J; Bharucha, A E; Lake, D S; Manduca, A; Fletcher, J G; Riederer, S J; Joseph Melton, L; Zinsmeister, A R

    2012-10-01

    Inter-observer variability limits the reproducibility of pelvic floor motion measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim was to develop a semi-automated program measuring pelvic floor motion in a reproducible and refined manner. Pelvic floor anatomy and motion during voluntary contraction (squeeze) and rectal evacuation were assessed by MRI in 64 women with fecal incontinence (FI) and 64 age-matched controls. A radiologist measured anorectal angles and anorectal junction motion. A semi-automated program did the same and also dissected anorectal motion into perpendicular vectors representing the puborectalis and other pelvic floor muscles, assessed the pubococcygeal angle, and evaluated pelvic rotation. Manual and semi-automated measurements of anorectal junction motion (r = 0.70; P controls. This semi-automated program provides a reproducible, efficient, and refined analysis of pelvic floor motion by MRI. Puborectalis injury is independently associated with impaired motion of puborectalis, not other pelvic floor muscles in controls and women with FI. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Near-term tokamak-reactor designs with high-performance resistive magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Advanced Fusion Test Reactors (AFTR) designs have been developed using BITTER type magnets which are capable of steady state operation. The goals of compact AFTR designs (with major radii R approx. 2.5 - 4 m), include DT ignition with large physics margins; high duty cycle, long pulse operation; and DD-DT operation with low tritium concentration. Larger AFTR designs (R approx. 5 m), have the additional goal of early demonstration of self sufficiency in tritium production. The AFTR devices could also serve as prototypes for commercial reactors. Compact ignition test reactors have also been designed (R approx. 1 - 2 m). These designs use BITTER magnets that are inertially cooled starting at liquid nitrogen temperature. A detailed engineering design was developed for ZEPHYR

  7. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  8. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  9. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  10. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  11. Intima-media thickness remodelling in hypertensive subjects with long-term well-controlled blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puato, Massimo; Boschetti, Giovanni; Rattazzi, Marcello; Zanon, Marta; Pesavento, Raffaele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo; Pauletto, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate in a long follow-up the carotid artery remodelling in a cohort of young hypertensive subjects having good blood pressure (BP) control. We studied 20 grade I hypertensives (HT) by assessing the B-mode ultrasound of mean carotid intima-media thickness (mean-IMT) and maximum IMT (M-MAX) in each carotid artery segment (common, bulb, internal), bilaterally. We compared their ultrasound measurements with those recorded 5 and 10 years earlier. While the first 5-year follow-up was observational, in the second 5-year follow-up, lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacological therapy were started to obtain well-controlled BP levels. Office BP was measured at the time of the ultrasound studies and every 6 months during the follow-up. BP levels were: 10 years 144/91 mmHg, 5 years 143/90 mmHg and 129 ± 79 mmHg at the time of the study. In the first 5-year observational follow-up, both mean-IMT and M-MAX increased (Δ 0.116 and Δ 0.165 mm, respectively, p < 0.0005). In the 5-year intervention follow-up, characterized by well-controlled BP, mean-IMT slightly but significantly increased (Δ 0.084 mm, p = 0.004), whereas M-MAX remained stable (Δ 0.026 mm). In our HT, well-controlled BP levels were able to prevent pro-atherogenic remodelling (expressed by M-MAX). Conversely, good BP control slightly decreased but did not stop the progression in mean-IMT, which is likely to reflect some hypertrophy of the arterial media layer.

  12. Existing of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on The Corn Field Subjected by Long-term Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was determined in continuously cropping systems which had applied by organic and/or inorganic fertilizers for a long term (4 years application of corn and upland rice rotation. The experiment was established at Taman Bogo, Probolinggo sub-district, East Lampung district. The experiment were: control (without fertilizer, 20 Mg ha-1 chicken manure (CK, 20 Mg ha-1 green manure Glyricidium sp. (GM, 100 % inorganic fertilizers (IF (urea 300 kg ha-1, SP 36 200 kg ha-1, and KCl 100 kg ha-1, 50% CK + 50% IF, 50% GM + 50% IF, 75% CK + 25% IF, and 75% GM + 25% IF. Soil samples were taken at the first corn growing season (2001 and the eight corn growing season (2004. VAM fungi spores were examined by wet sieving methods. The results showed that application of chicken manure or its combination with inorganic fertilizers had higher VAM fungi spore. The dominant species of VAM fungi at all treatment was Glomus constrictum.

  13. Modulating phonemic fluency performance in healthy subjects with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the left or right lateral frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirni, Daniela; Turriziani, Patrizia; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata; Bracco, Martina; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2017-07-28

    A growing body of evidence have suggested that non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can improve the performance of aphasic patients in language tasks. For example, application of inhibitory rTMS or tDCs over the right frontal lobe of dysphasic patients resulted in improved naming abilities. Several studies have also reported that in healthy controls (HC) tDCS application over the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) improve performance in naming and semantic fluency tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate in HC, for the first time, the effects of inhibitory repetitive TMS (rTMS) over left and right lateral frontal cortex (BA 47) on two phonemic fluency tasks (FAS or FPL). 44 right-handed HCs were administered rTMS or sham over the left or right lateral frontal cortex in two separate testing sessions, with a 24h interval, followed by the two phonemic fluency tasks. To account for possible practice effects, an additional 22 HCs were tested on only the phonemic fluency task across two sessions with no stimulation. We found that rTMS-inhibition over the left lateral frontal cortex significantly worsened phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. In contrast, rTMS-inhibition over the right lateral frontal cortex significantly improved phonemic fluency performance when compared to sham. These results were not accounted for practice effects. We speculated that rTMS over the right lateral frontal cortex may induce plastic neural changes to the left lateral frontal cortex by suppressing interhemispheric inhibitory interactions. This resulted in an increased excitability (disinhibition) of the contralateral unstimulated left lateral frontal cortex, consequently enhancing phonemic fluency performance. Conversely, application of rTMS over the left lateral frontal cortex may induce a temporary, virtual lesion, with effects similar to those reported in left frontal

  14. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2011-01-01

    The magnet ran smoothly in the last few months until a fast dump occurred on 9th May 2011. Fortunately, this occurred in the afternoon of the first day of the technical stop. The fast dump was due to a valve position controller that caused the sudden closure of a valve. This valve is used to regulate the helium flow on one of the two current leads, which electrically connects the coil at 4.5 K to the busbars at room temperature. With no helium flow on the lead, the voltage drop and the temperatures across the leads increase up to the defined thresholds, triggering a fast dump through the Magnet Safety System (MSS). The automatic reaction triggered by the MSS worked properly. The helium release was limited as the pressure rise was just at the limit of the safety valve opening pressure. The average temperature of the magnet reached 72 K. It took four days to recover the temperature and refill the helium volumes. The faulty valve controller was replaced by a spare one before the magnet ramp-up resumed....

  15. Cortico-Striatal GABAergic and Glutamatergic Dysregulations in Subjects at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis Investigated with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Mao, Xiangling; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Rodríguez-Mayoral, Oscar; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo; Favila, Rafael; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dysregulations of the major inhibitory and excitatory amino neurotransmitter systems of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate, respectively, have been described in patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities are present in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Methods: Twenty-three antipsychotic naïve subjects at ultra-high risk and 24 healthy control subjects, matched for age, sex, handedness, cigarette smoking, and parental education, underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy scans in the dorsal caudate bilaterally and the medial prefrontal cortex at 3T. Levels of γ-aminobutyric acid and of the combined resonance of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) were obtained using the standard J-editing technique and expressed as peak area ratios relative to the synchronously acquired unsuppressed voxel water signal. Results: Higher levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (P<.001) and Glx (P=.007) were found in the dorsal caudate of the subjects at ultra-high risk than in the healthy controls. In the medial prefrontal cortex, likewise, both γ-aminobutyric acid (P=.03) and Glx (P=.006) levels were higher in the ultra-high risk group than in the healthy controls. No group differences were found for any of the other metabolites (N-acetylaspartate, total choline, or total creatine) in the 2 regions of interest. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of abnormal elevations, in subjects at ultra-high risk, of γ-aminobutyric acid and Glx in 2 brain regions that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychosis, warranting longitudinal studies to assess whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities can serve as noninvasive biomarkers of conversion risk to psychosis as well as of illness progression and treatment response. PMID:26364273

  16. Simple anthropometric measures correlate with metabolic risk indicators as strongly as magnetic resonance imaging–measured adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference as markers of risk for the complications of excess adiposity, but only limited study has been conducted in HIV-infected subjects. Objective We compared anthropometric and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–based adiposity measures as correlates of metabolic complications of adiposity in HIV-infected and control subjects. Design The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 666 HIV-positive and 242 control subjects in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) study assessing body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip (HC) circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), %BF, and MRI-measured regional adipose tissue. Study outcomes were 3 metabolic risk variables [homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol]. Analyses were stratified by sex and HIV status and adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and HIV-related factors. Results In HIV-infected and control subjects, univariate associations with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL were strongest for WC, MRI-measured visceral adipose tissue, and WHR; in all cases, differences in correlation between the strongest measures for each outcome were small (r ≤ 0.07). Multivariate adjustment found no significant difference for optimally fitting models between the use of anthropometric and MRI measures, and the magnitudes of differences were small (adjusted R2 ≤ 0.06). For HOMA and HDL, WC appeared to be the best anthropometric correlate of metabolic complications, whereas, for triglycerides, the best was WHR. Conclusion Relations of simple anthropometric measures with HOMA, triglycerides, and HDL cholesterol are approximately as strong as MRI-measured whole-body adipose tissue depots in both HIV-infected and control subjects. PMID:18541572

  17. Influence of writing and reading intertrack interferences in terms of bit aspect ratio in shingled magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobuhara, Hirofumi; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Masato; Nakamura, Yasuaki; Osawa, Hisashi; Muraoka, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the influence of the writing and reading intertrack interferences (ITIs) in terms of bit aspect ratio (BAR) in shingled magnetic recording by computer simulation using a read/write model which consists of a writing process based on Stoner-Wohlfarth switching asteroid by a one-side shielded isosceles triangular write head and a reading process by an around shielded read head for a discrete Voronoi medium model. The results show that BAR should be 3 to reduce the influence of writing and reading ITIs, media noise, and additive white Gaussian noise in an assumed areal density of 4.61Tbpsi.

  18. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Duncombe, Chris; Li, Patrick C.K.; Gill, John M.; Kerr, Stephen J.; Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent 1 H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  19. Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities are detected on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in HIV-infected subjects commencing antiretroviral therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, Alan; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D. [Imperial College London, St. Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Duncombe, Chris [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); Li, Patrick C.K. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Gill, John M. [Calgary Regional Health Authority, Calgary (Canada); Kerr, Stephen J. [HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok (Thailand); University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Puls, Rebekah L.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A. [University of New South Wales, National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Collaboration: for the Altair Study Group

    2012-12-15

    Cerebral function impairment remains problematic in subjects with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Using cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS), we aimed to determine if abnormalities could be detected in neurologically asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Therapy-naive, HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls underwent {sup 1}H MRS in several anatomical voxels including the mid-frontal grey matter (FGM) and right basal ganglia (RBG). Differences in cerebral metabolite ratios between groups and correlations between immune and virological status were assessed. Forty-six subjects were recruited (26 HIV-infected and 20 control subjects). In the HIV-infected group, mean CD4+ count (SD, cells per microlitre) and plasma HIV RNA (SD, log10 copies per millilitre) were 192 (86) and 4.71 (0.64), respectively. Choline (Cho)/Creatine (Cr) and myoinositol (MI)/Cr ratios were significantly lower in the FGM in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (0.67 (0.14) versus 0.88 (0.49), p = 0.036, and 0.94 (0.28) and 1.17 (0.26), p = 0.008, for Cho/Cr and MI/Cr, respectively) and Cho/Cr ratio associated with CD4+ lymphocyte count (p = 0.041). N-Acetyl-aspartate (NAA)/Cho ratio was significantly lower in the RBG in HIV-infected subjects compared to controls (2.27 (0.54) versus 2.63 (0.68), p = 0.002), and this was associated with greater plasma HIV RNA load (p = 0.014). Two patterns of cerebral metabolite abnormalities were observed in HIV-infected subjects electively commencing cART. Greater inflammatory metabolite ratios (Cho/Cr and MI/Cr) associated with lower markers of peripheral immune markers (CD4+ lymphocyte count) in the FGM and lower neuronal metabolite ratios (NAA/Cho) associated with greater HIV viraemia in the RBG were present in HIV-infected subjects. (orig.)

  20. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  1. Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of animal auditory cortex impairs short-term but not long-term memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Xu; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning

    2006-04-01

    Bilateral rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of gerbil auditory cortex with a miniature coil device was used to study short-term and long-term effects on discrimination learning of frequency-modulated tones. We found previously that directional discrimination of frequency modulation (rising vs. falling) relies on auditory cortex processing and that formation of its memory depends on local protein synthesis. Here we show that, during training over 5 days, certain rTMS regimes contingent on training had differential effects on the time course of learning. When rTMS was applied several times per day, i.e. four blocks of 5 min rTMS each followed 5 min later by a 3-min training block and 15-min intervals between these blocks (experiment A), animals reached a high discrimination performance more slowly over 5 days than did controls. When rTMS preceded only the first two of four training blocks (experiment B), or when prolonged rTMS (20 min) preceded only the first block, or when blocks of experiment A had longer intervals (experiments C and D), no significant day-to-day effects were found. However, in experiment A, and to some extent in experiment B, rTMS reduced the within-session discrimination performance. Nevertheless the animals learned, as demonstrated by a higher performance the next day. Thus, our results indicate that rTMS treatments accumulate over a day but not strongly over successive days. We suggest that rTMS of sensory cortex, as used in our study, affects short-term memory but not long-term memory formation.

  2. Rederivation of the alpha effect in terms of the magnetic fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinigs, R.K.; Gerwin, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    We demonstrate that the alpha effect can be expressed in terms of the integrated current helicity spectrum of the turbulence. This is a much more convenient form than that obtained using a kinematic velocity field description

  3. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  4. Magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dissociates fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sligte, Ilja G; Wokke, Martijn E; Tesselaar, Johannes P; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2011-05-01

    To guide our behavior in successful ways, we often need to rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). While VSTM is usually broken down into iconic memory (brief and high-capacity store) and visual working memory (sustained, yet limited-capacity store), recent studies have suggested the existence of an additional and intermediate form of VSTM that depends on activity in extrastriate cortex. In previous work, we have shown that this fragile form of VSTM can be dissociated from iconic memory. In the present study, we provide evidence that fragile VSTM is different from visual working memory as magnetic stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) disrupts visual working memory, while leaving fragile VSTM intact. In addition, we observed that people with high DLPFC activity had superior working memory capacity compared to people with low DLPFC activity, and only people with high DLPFC activity really showed a reduction in working memory capacity in response to magnetic stimulation. Altogether, this study shows that VSTM consists of three stages that have clearly different characteristics and rely on different neural structures. On the methodological side, we show that it is possible to predict individual susceptibility to magnetic stimulation based on functional MRI activity. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of short-term source and item memory for negative pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen J; Mather, Mara; Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Greene, Erich J

    2006-10-02

    We investigated the hypothesis that arousal recruits attention to item information, thereby disrupting working memory processes that help bind items to context. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared brain activity when participants remembered negative or neutral picture-location conjunctions (source memory) versus pictures only. Behaviorally, negative trials showed disruption of short-term source, but not picture, memory; long-term picture recognition memory was better for negative than for neutral pictures. Activity in areas involved in working memory and feature integration (precentral gyrus and its intersect with superior temporal gyrus) was attenuated on negative compared with neutral source trials relative to picture-only trials. Visual processing areas (middle occipital and lingual gyri) showed greater activity for negative than for neutral trials, especially on picture-only trials.

  7. Decrease in the cortical intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with aging in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imon, Yukari; Murata, Yoshio; Kajima, Toshio; Nakamura, Shigenobu; Yamaguchi, Shinya

    1997-01-01

    We reported previously that Low T 2 intensity areas (LIAs) are more common in patients with central nervous system (CNS) diseases than in those with no such diseases, and that the occurrence of LIAs increases with aging. To determine a relationship between the intensity changes and aging, we investigated the intensity of the cerebral cortex in 26 normal Japanese individuals. Measurements of brain MRIs were performed with a Signa Advantage apparatus at 1.5 tesla. T 2 -weighted images were obtained using the spin-echo pulse sequences. On our laboratory console, we measured signal intensities in the regions of interest in the prefrontal, motor, sensory, parietal, temporal, or occipital cortex, and in the frontal white matter. To remove the effect of the system gain settings on signal intensity, that of cerebrospinal fluid was used as reference according to the method of Pujol et al. The average intensity in the temporal and prefrontal cortices was the highest, followed in order by the parietal, sensory, motor, and occipital cortices. The intensity in the temporal and parietal cortices decreased significantly with aging, and that in the motor and sensory cortices had a tendency to decrease with aging. The intensity in the motor and sensory cortices of the elderly subjects and that in the occipital cortex throughout all ages were lower than that in the prefrontal white matter, which would result in the appearance of LIAs. The average intensity of each cerebral cortex was inversely related to the non-heme iron content previously reported. It is likely that the difference in intensity among the cortices reflects variations of the non-heme iron content, and that the change in intensity with aging could be due to the increase in such cortical senile changes as that of microglia, astroglia, and senile plaques, which contain iron or iron-related proteins. The temporal cortex is most susceptible to senile changes. (K.H.)

  8. Magnetic-Field-Assisted Assembly of Ordered Multifunctional Ceramic Nanocomposites for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    SUBJECT TERMS carbon nanotubes, composite, electromagnetic shielding , extreme environments, magnetism, fibers, woven composite, boron nitride...The samples were sealed in glass vial and exposed to the magnetic field immediately after deposition prior to crystallization of PEG that allowed

  9. [Long-term outcome analysis of subjective and objective parameters after breast reduction in 159 cases: Patients judge differently from plastic surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Rik; Babst, Doris; Bodmer, Elvira S; Link, Bjoern C; Fritsche, Elmar; Hug, Urs

    2017-12-01

    This work assessed both subjective and objective postoperative parameters after breast reduction surgery and compared between patients and plastic surgeons. After an average postoperative observation period of 6.7 ± 2.7 (2 - 13) years, 159 out of 259 patients (61 %) were examined. The mean age at the time of surgery was 37 ± 14 (15 - 74) years. The postoperative anatomy of the breast and other anthropometric parameters were measured in cm with the patient in an upright position. The visual analogue scale (VAS) values for symmetry, size, shape, type of scar and overall satisfaction both from the patient's and from four plastic surgeons' perspectives were assessed and compared. Patients rated the postoperative result significantly better than surgeons. Good subjective ratings by patients for shape, symmetry and sensitivity correlated with high scores for overall assessment. Shape had the strongest influence on overall satisfaction (regression coefficient 0.357; p reduction surgery, long-term outcome is rated significantly better by patients than by plastic surgeons. Good subjective ratings by patients for shape, symmetry and sensitivity correlated with high scores for overall assessment. Shape had the strongest influence on overall satisfaction, followed by symmetry and sensitivity of the breast. Postoperative size of the breast, resection weight, type of scar, age or BMI was not of significant influence. Symmetry was the only assessed subjective parameter of this study that could be objectified by postoperative measurements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2010-01-01

    The magnet worked very well at 3.8 T as expected, despite a technical issue that manifested twice in the cryogenics since June. All the other magnet sub-systems worked without flaw. The issue in the cryogenics was with the cold box: it could be observed that the cold box was getting progressively blocked, due to some residual humidity and air accumulating in the first thermal exchanger and in the adsorber at 65 K. This was later confirmed by the analysis during the regeneration phases. An increase in the temperature difference between the helium inlet and outlet across the heat exchanger and a pressure drop increase on the filter of the adsorber were observed. The consequence was a reduction of the helium flow, first compensated by the automatic opening of the regulation valves. But once they were fully opened, the flow and refrigeration power reduced as a consequence. In such a situation, the liquid helium level in the helium Dewar decreased, eventually causing a ramp down of the magnet current and a field...

  11. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    MAGNET During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bough...

  12. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé.

    The magnet operation restarted end of June this year. Quick routine checks of the magnet sub-systems were performed at low current before starting the ramps up to higher field. It appeared clearly that the end of the field ramp down to zero was too long to be compatible with the detector commissioning and operations plans. It was decided to perform an upgrade to keep the ramp down from 3.8T to zero within 4 hours. On July 10th, when a field of 1.5T was reached, small movements were observed in the forward region support table and it was decided to fix this problem before going to higher field. At the end of July the ramps could be resumed. On July 28th, the field was at 3.8T and the summer CRAFT exercise could start. This run in August went smoothly until a general CERN wide power cut took place on August 3rd, due to an insulation fault on the high voltage network outside point 5. It affected the magnet powering electrical circuit, as it caused the opening of the main circuit breakers, resulting in a fast du...

  13. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    2013-01-01

    The magnet is fully stopped and at room temperature. The maintenance works and consolidation activities on the magnet sub-systems are progressing. To consolidate the cryogenic installation, two redundant helium compressors will be installed as ‘hot spares’, to avoid the risk of a magnet downtime in case of a major failure of a compressor unit during operation. The screw compressors, their motors, the mechanical couplings and the concrete blocks are already available and stored at P5. The metallic structure used to access the existing compressors in SH5 will be modified to allow the installation of the two redundant ones. The plan is to finish the installation and commissioning of the hot spare compressors before the summer 2014. In the meantime, a bypass on the high-pressure helium piping will be installed for the connection of a helium drier unit later during the Long Shutdown 1, keeping this installation out of the schedule critical path. A proposal is now being prepared for the con...

  14. Short-term magnetic field alignment variations of equatorial ionospheric irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The ionospheric irregularities that cause equatorial scintillation are elongated along the north-south magnetic field lines. During a 1981 field campaign at Ascension Island, 250-MHz receivers were spaced from 300 m to 1.6 km along the field lines, and the signals received from the Marisat satellite were cross correlated. Data collected during eight nights of fading showed a linear relationship between fading rate and cross correlation. The alignment of the antennas was adjusted to give a zero time lag between the widely spaced receivers with a measurement accuracy of 0.03 s. Since the average irregularity velocity was 125 m/s, this time accuracy translated to an angular measurement accuracy of 0.1 deg. During a 4-hour period of nightly fading, occasional differences in time of arrival were noted that corresponded to a tilt in the north-south alignment of + or - 1 deg. Data from several nights of fading were analyzed, and each night exhibited the same variance in the north-south irregularity alignment. It is postulated that the shift in the measured peak correlation may have been caused by patches of irregularities at different altitudes where the magnetic field lines have a slightly different direction. 13 references

  15. Coherent hole burning and Mollow absorption effects in the cycling transition Fe=0↔Fg=1 subject to a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Ying; Sun Qingqing; Gong Qihuang

    2004-01-01

    With saturation and probing by circularly polarized fields, quantum coherence effects are investigated for the cycling transition F e =0↔F g =1, which is subject to a linearly polarized field and a magnetic field. The saturation field is applied to the case of maximum coherence between the drive Rabi frequency and magnetic field, corresponding to the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) with negative dispersion found by Gu et al. For a small saturation Rabi frequency, holes are burned in two Autler-Towns peaks outside two symmetric electromagnetically induced transparency windows due to the two-photon resonance. However, when the saturation Rabi frequency is comparable with the drive Rabi frequency, holes caused by the coherent population oscillation appear in the EIA spectrum. Finally, when the saturation Rabi frequency is large enough, several emission peaks are observed due to the Mollow absorption effects. Furthermore, the dispersion at the pump-probe detuning center is kept negative with an increase in saturation field, which is a precursor of superluminal light propagation

  16. Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based Long-Term Short-Term Stochastic Synapse for a Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip STDP Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-07-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.

  17. Long-term effects of serial anodal tDCS on motion perception in subjects with occipital stroke measured in the unaffected visual hemifield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C Olma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a novel neuromodulatory tool that has seen early transition to clinical trials, although the high variability of these findings necessitates further studies in clincally-relevant populations. The majority of evidence into effects of repeated tDCS is based on research in the human motor system, but it is unclear whether the long-term effects of serial tDCS are motor-specific or transferable to other brain areas. This study aimed to examine whether serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex can exogenously induce long-term neuroplastic changes in the visual cortex. However, when the visual cortex is affected by a cortical lesion, up-regulated endogenous neuroplastic adaptation processes may alter the susceptibility to tDCS. To this end, motion perception was investigated in the unaffected hemifield of subjects with unilateral visual cortex lesions. Twelve subjects with occipital ischaemic lesions participated in a within-subject, sham-controlled, double-blind study. MRI-registered sham or anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 20 minutes was applied on five consecutive days over the visual cortex. Motion perception was tested before and after stimulation sessions and at 14- and 28-day follow-up. After a 16-day interval an identical study block with the other stimulation condition (anodal or sham tDCS followed. Serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex resulted in an improvement in motion perception, a function attributed to MT/V5. This effect was still measurable at 14- and 28-day follow-up measurements. Thus, this may represent evidence for long-term tDCS-induced plasticity and has implications for the design of studies examining the time course of tDCS effects in both the visual and motor systems.

  18. Symptom Severity and Quality of Life Among Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Compared With Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Charles, Susan T; Gunaratne, Mekhala; Baxter, Nancy N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cohen, Zane; Gallinger, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. Long-term

  19. Long-term preclinical magnetic resonance imaging alterations in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanusso, Gianluigi; Camporese, Giulia; Ferrari, Sergio; Santelli, Luca; Bongianni, Matilde; Fiorini, Michele; Monaco, Salvatore; Manara, Renzo; Cagnin, Annachiara

    2016-10-01

    An asymptomatic 74-year-old woman, on follow-up for a carotid body tumor, showed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) focal restricted diffusion confined to the left temporal and occipital cortices. Thirteen months later, diffusion-weighted images revealed a bilateral cortical ribbon sign involving all lobes. After 1 month, the patient developed gait instability and cognitive decline rapidly evolving to severe dementia and death within 3 months. Prion protein gene sequence, molecular, and neuropathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) MM1 subtype. Here we show the kinetics of MRI changes and prion spreading in preclinical sCJD MM1. Ann Neurol 2016;80:629-632. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  20. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H N; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-10-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 healthy subjects received a single administration of a cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe cocktail, consisting of caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19) and warfarin (CYP2C9), on four occasions: an oral (1) and intravenous (2) administration after an overnight fast (control) and an oral (3) and intravenous (4) administration after 36 h of fasting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software NONMEM. Short-term fasting increased systemic caffeine clearance by 17% (p = 0.04) and metoprolol clearance by 13% (p < 0.01), whereas S-warfarin clearance decreased by 19% (p < 0.01). Fasting did not affect bioavailability. The study demonstrates that short-term fasting alters CYP-mediated drug metabolism in a non-uniform pattern without affecting oral bioavailability.

  1. The long-term fate of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with magnetic resonance imaging-visible polymersomes in cerebral ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan X

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaohui Duan,1,* Liejing Lu,1,* Yong Wang,2 Fang Zhang,1 Jiaji Mao,1 Minghui Cao,1 Bingling Lin,1 Xiang Zhang,1 Xintao Shuai,2,3 Jun Shen1 1Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, 2PCFM Lab of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 3BME Center, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Understanding the long-term fate and potential mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs after transplantation is essential for improving functional benefits of stem cell-based stroke treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is considered an attractive and clinically translatable tool for longitudinal tracking of stem cells, but certain controversies have arisen in this regard. In this study, we used SPION-loaded cationic polymersomes to label green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing MSCs to determine whether MRI can accurately reflect survival, long-term fate, and potential mechanisms of MSCs in ischemic stroke therapy. Our results showed that MSCs could improve the functional outcome and reduce the infarct volume of stroke in the brain. In vivo MRI can verify the biodistribution and migration of grafted cells when pre-labeled with SPION-loaded polymersome. The dynamic change of low signal volume on MRI can reflect the tendency of cell survival and apoptosis, but may overestimate long-term survival owing to the presence of iron-laden macrophages around cell graft. Only a small fraction of grafted cells survived up to 8 weeks after transplantation. A minority of these surviving cells were differentiated into astrocytes, but not into neurons. MSCs might exert their therapeutic effect via secreting paracrine factors rather than directing cell replacement through differentiation into neuronal and/or glial phenotypes. Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, magnetic resonance imaging, superparamagnetic iron oxide

  2. Brain activity associated with memory and cognitive function during jaw-tapping movement in healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Yeon; Shin, Ae-Sook; Na, Byung-Jo; Jahng, Geon-Ho; Park, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Sang; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Jung-Mi

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether jaw-tapping movement, a classically described as an indication of personal well-being and mental health, stimulates the memory and the cognitive regions of the brain and is associated with improved brain performance. Twelve healthy right-handed female subjects completed the study. Each patient performed a jaw-tapping task and an n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjects were trained to carry out the jaw-tapping movement at home twice a day for 4 weeks. The fMRI was repeated when they returned. During the first and second jaw-tapping session, both sides of precentral gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 6) were activated. And during the second session of the jaw-tapping task, parts of frontal lobe and temporal lobe related to memory function were more activated. In addition, the total percent task accuracy in n-back task significantly increased after 4 weeks of jawtapping movement. After jaw-tapping training for 4 weeks, brain areas related to memory showed significantly increased blood oxygen level dependent signals. Jaw-tapping movement might be a useful exercise for stimulating the memory and cognitive regions of the brain.

  3. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001. Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  4. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (Pmaxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  5. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The magnet subsystems resumed operation early this spring. The vacuum pumping was restarted mid March, and the cryogenic power plant was restarted on March 30th. Three and a half weeks later, the magnet was at 4.5 K. The vacuum pumping system is performing well. One of the newly installed vacuum gauges had to be replaced at the end of the cool-down phase, as the values indicated were not coherent with the other pressure measurements. The correction had to be implemented quickly to be sure no helium leak could be at the origin of this anomaly. The pressure measurements have been stable and coherent since the change. The cryogenics worked well, and the cool-down went quite smoothly, without any particular difficulty. The automated start of the turbines had to be fine-tuned to get a smooth transition, as it was observed that the cooling power delivered by the turbines was slightly higher than needed, causing the cold box to stop automatically. This had no consequence as the cold box safety system acts to keep ...

  6. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Curé

    During the winter shutdown, the magnet subsystems went through a full maintenance. The magnet was successfully warmed up to room temperature beginning of December 2008. The vacuum was broken later on by injecting nitrogen at a pressure just above one atmosphere inside the vacuum tank. This was necessary both to prevent any accidental humidity ingress, and to allow for a modification of the vacuum gauges on the vacuum tank and maintenance of the diffusion pumps. The vacuum gauges had to be changed, because of erratic variations on the measurements, causing spurious alarms. The new type of vacuum gauges has been used in similar conditions on the other LHC experiments and without problems. They are shielded against the stray field. The lubricants of the primary and diffusion pumps have been changed. Several minor modifications were also carried out on the equipment in the service cavern, with the aim to ease the maintenance and to allow possible intervention during operation. Spare sensors have been bought. Th...

  7. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution. Fiscal Year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index United States Army Research Institute for...Fiscal Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index CONTENTS Page Introduction...39 Author Index .................................................................................................................. 39

  8. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  9. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Lyskov, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor), and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p = .001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p = .02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain. PMID:26557711

  10. Characterization of regional left ventricular function in nonhuman primates using magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers: a test-retest repeatability and inter-subject variability study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sampath

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical animal models are important to study the fundamental biological and functional mechanisms involved in the longitudinal evolution of heart failure (HF. Particularly, large animal models, like nonhuman primates (NHPs, that possess greater physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic similarity to humans are gaining interest. To assess the translatability of these models into human diseases, imaging biomarkers play a significant role in non-invasive phenotyping, prediction of downstream remodeling, and evaluation of novel experimental therapeutics. This paper sheds insight into NHP cardiac function through the quantification of magnetic resonance (MR imaging biomarkers that comprehensively characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of left ventricular (LV systolic pumping and LV diastolic relaxation. MR tagging and phase contrast (PC imaging were used to quantify NHP cardiac strain and flow. Temporal inter-relationships between rotational mechanics, myocardial strain and LV chamber flow are presented, and functional biomarkers are evaluated through test-retest repeatability and inter subject variability analyses. The temporal trends observed in strain and flow was similar to published data in humans. Our results indicate a dominant dimension based pumping during early systole, followed by a torsion dominant pumping action during late systole. Early diastole is characterized by close to 65% of untwist, the remainder of which likely contributes to efficient filling during atrial kick. Our data reveal that moderate to good intra-subject repeatability was observed for peak strain, strain-rates, E/circumferential strain-rate (CSR ratio, E/longitudinal strain-rate (LSR ratio, and deceleration time. The inter-subject variability was high for strain dyssynchrony, diastolic strain-rates, peak torsion and peak untwist rate. We have successfully characterized cardiac function in NHPs using MR imaging. Peak strain, average systolic strain

  11. Comparative short-term effects of two thoracic spinal manipulation techniques in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-08-01

    Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  13. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Topographic contribution of early visual cortex to short-term memory consolidation: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-04

    The neural correlates for retention of visual information in visual short-term memory are considered separate from those of sensory encoding. However, recent findings suggest that sensory areas may play a role also in short-term memory. We investigated the functional relevance, spatial specificity, and temporal characteristics of human early visual cortex in the consolidation of capacity-limited topographic visual memory using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Topographically specific TMS pulses were delivered over lateralized occipital cortex at 100, 200, or 400 ms into the retention phase of a modified change detection task with low or high memory loads. For the high but not the low memory load, we found decreased memory performance for memory trials in the visual field contralateral, but not ipsilateral to the side of TMS, when pulses were delivered at 200 ms into the retention interval. A behavioral version of the TMS experiment, in which a distractor stimulus (memory mask) replaced the TMS pulses, further corroborated these findings. Our findings suggest that retinotopic visual cortex contributes to the short-term consolidation of topographic visual memory during early stages of the retention of visual information. Further, TMS-induced interference decreased the strength (amplitude) of the memory representation, which most strongly affected the high memory load trials.

  15. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and motor and intellectual functioning in 86 patients born at term with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Yurika; Onuma, Akira; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Sato-Shirai, Ikuko; Tanaka, Soichiro; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Inui, Takehiko; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns and motor function, epileptic episodes, and IQ or developmental quotient in patients born at term with spastic diplegia. Eighty-six patients born at term with cerebral palsy (CP) and spastic diplegia (54 males, 32 females; median age 20 y, range 7-42 y) among 829 patients with CP underwent brain MRI between 1990 and 2008. The MRI and clinical findings were analysed retrospectively. Intellectual disability was classified according to the Enjoji developmental test or the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (3rd edition). The median ages at diagnosis of CP, assignment of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, cognitive assessment, and MRI were 2 years (range 5 mo-8 y), 6 years (2 y 8 mo-19 y), 6 years (1 y 4 mo-19 y), and 7 years (10 mo-30 y) respectively. MRI included normal findings (41.9%), periventricular leukomalacia, hypomyelination, and porencephaly/periventricular venous infarction. The frequency of patients in GMFCS levels III to V and intellectual disability did not differ between those with normal and abnormal MRI findings. Patients with normal MRI findings had significantly fewer epileptic episodes than those with abnormal ones (p=0.001). Varied MRI findings, as well as the presence of severe motor dysfunction and intellectual disability (despite normal MRI), suggest that patients born at term with spastic diplegia had heterogeneous and unidentified pathophysiology. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all p<0.01). A statistically significant reduction in KTag was found in both groups after contact lens wear (all p<0.05). Significant reduction was found over time in CCA (p=0.001) and anterior corneal asphericity in both groups (p<0.001). Thickness at the thinnest corneal point increased significantly after CL wear (p<0.0001). Coma-like and total HOA root mean square (RMS) error were significantly reduced following CL wearing in both fitting approaches (all p<0.05). Short-term rigid gas-permeable CL wear flattens the anterior cornea, increases the thinnest corneal thickness and reduces anterior surface HOA in keratoconus subjects. Apical-touch was associated with greater corneal flattening in comparison to three-point-touch lens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  18. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  19. Relative phase asynchrony and long-range correlation of long-term solar magnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Linhua

    2017-07-01

    Statistical signal processing is one of the most important tasks in a large amount of areas of scientific studies, such as astrophysics, geophysics, and space physics. Phase recurrence analysis and long-range persistence are the two dynamical structures of the underlying processes for the given natural phenomenon. Linear and nonlinear time series analysis approaches (cross-correlation analysis, cross-recurrence plot, wavelet coherent transform, and Hurst analysis) are combined to investigate the relative phase interconnection and long-range correlation between solar activity and geomagnetic activity for the time interval from 1932 January to 2017 January. The following prominent results are found: (1) geomagnetic activity lags behind sunspot numbers with a phase shift of 21 months, and they have a high level of asynchronous behavior; (2) their relative phase interconnections are in phase for the periodic scales during 8-16 years, but have a mixing behavior for the periodic belts below 8 years; (3) both sunspot numbers and geomagnetic activity can not be regarded as a stochastic phenomenon because their dynamical behaviors display a long-term correlation and a fractal nature. We believe that the presented conclusions could provide further information on understanding the dynamical coupling of solar dynamo process with geomagnetic activity variation, and the crucial role of solar and geomagnetic activity in the long-term climate change.

  20. Short term post-operative morphing of sacrocolpopexy mesh measured by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhwani, Nikhil; Callewaert, Geertje; Deprest, Thomas; Housmans, Susanne; Van Beckevoort, Dirk; Deprest, Jan

    2018-04-01

    Sacrocolpopexy (SC) involves suspension of the vaginal vault or cervix to the sacrum using a mesh. Following insertion, the meshes have been observed to have undergone dimensional changes. To quantify dimensional changes of meshes following implantation and characterize their morphology in-vivo. 24 patients underwent SC using PolyVinyliDeneFluoride mesh loaded with Fe 3 O 4 particles. Tailored anterior and posterior mesh flaps were sutured to the respective vaginal walls, uniting at the apex. The posterior flap continued to the sacrum and was attached there. Meshes were visualized on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 12 [3-12] (median [range]) months postoperatively and 3D models of the mesh were generated. Dynamic MR sequences were acquired during valsalva to record mesh mobility. The area of the vagina effectively supported by the mesh (Effective Support Area (ESA)) was calculated. The 3D models' wall thickness map was analyzed to identify the locations of mesh folding. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was calculated to test the reliability of the methods. To measure the laxity and flatness of the mesh, the curvature and the ellipticity of the sacral flap were calculated. The ESA calculation methodology had ICC = 0.97. A reduction of 75.49 [61.55-78.67] % (median [IQR]) in area, 47.64 [38.07-59.81] % in anterior flap, and of 23.95 [10.96-27.21] % in the posterior flap was measured. The mesh appeared thicker near its attachment at the sacral promontory (n = 19) and near the vaginal apex (n = 22). The laxity of the mesh was 1.13 [1.10-1.16] and 60.55 [49.76-76.25] % of the sacral flap was flat. We could not reliably measure mesh mobility (ICC = 0.16). A methodology for complete 3D characterization of SC meshes using MR images was presented. After implantation, the supported area is much lower than what is prepared prior to implantation. We propose this happened during the surgery itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-Masry, Nabil; Qaddah, Atef; Alqahtani, Faisal; Moufti, Mohammed R. H.

    2015-06-01

    The Rahat volcanic field represents one of the widely distributed Cenozoic volcanic fields across the western regions of the Arabian Peninsula. Its human significance stems from the fact that its northern fringes, where the historical eruption of 1256 A.D. took place, are very close to the holy city of Al-Madinah Al-Monawarah. In the present work, we analyzed aeromagnetic data from the northern part of Rahat volcanic field as well as carried out a ground gravity survey. A joint interpretation and inversion of gravity and magnetic data were used to estimate the thickness of the lava flows, delineate the subsurface structures of the study area, and estimate the depth to basement using various geophysical methods, such as Tilt Derivative, Euler Deconvolution and 2D modeling inversion. Results indicated that the thickness of the lava flows in the study area ranges between 100 m (above Sea Level) at the eastern and western boundaries of Rahat Volcanic field and getting deeper at the middle as 300-500 m. It also showed that, major structural trend is in the NW direction (Red Sea trend) with some minor trends in EW direction.

  2. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    The cooling down to the nominal temperature of 4.5 K was achieved at the beginning of August, in conjunction with the completion of the installation work of the connection between the power lines and the coil current leads. The temperature gradient on the first exchanger of the cold box is now kept within the nominal range. A leak of lubricant on a gasket of the helium compressor station installed at the surface was observed and several corrective actions were necessary to bring the situation back to normal. The compressor had to be refilled with lubricant and a regeneration of the filters and adsorbers was necessary. The coil cool down was resumed successfully, and the cryogenics is running since then with all parameters being nominal. Preliminary tests of the 20kA coil power supply were done earlier at full current through the discharge lines into the dump resistors, and with the powering busbars from USC5 to UXC5 without the magnet connected. On Monday evening August 25th, at 8pm, the final commissionin...

  3. MAGNET

    CERN Document Server

    B. Curé

    The first phase of the commissioning ended in August by a triggered fast dump at 3T. All parameters were nominal, and the temperature recovery down to 4.5K was carried out in two days by the cryogenics. In September, series of ramps were achieved up to 3 and finally 3.8T, while checking thoroughly the detectors in the forward region, measuring any movement of and around the HF. After the incident of the LHC accelerator on September 19th, corrective actions could be undertaken in the forward region. When all these displacements were fully characterized and repetitive, with no sign of increments in displacement at each field ramp, it was possible to start the CRAFT, Cosmic Run at Four Tesla (which was in fact at 3.8T). The magnet was ramped up to 18.16kA and the 3 week run went smoothly, with only 4 interruptions: due to the VIP visits on 21st October during the LHC inauguration day; a water leak on the cooling demineralized water circuit, about 1 l/min, that triggered a stop of the cooling pumps, and resulte...

  4. MAGNET

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Curé

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance work and consolidation activities on the magnet cryogenics and its power distribution are progressing according to the schedules. The manufacturing of the two new helium compressor frame units has started. The frame units support the valves, all the sensors and the compressors with their motors. This activity is subcontracted. The final installation and the commissioning at CERN are scheduled for March–April 2014. The overhauls of existing cryogenics equipment (compressors, motors) are in progress. The reassembly of the components shall start in early 2014. The helium drier, to be installed on the high-pressure helium piping, has been ordered and will be delivered in the first trimester of 2014. The power distribution for the helium compressors in SH5 on the 3.3kV network is progressing. The 3.3kV switches, between each compressor and its hot spare compressor, are being installed, together with the power cables for the new compressors. The 3.3kV electrical switchboards in SE5 will ...

  5. Does the Temporal Asymmetry of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Change during Regular Walking? A Pilot Study of Healthy Young Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration and deceleration patterns in heartbeat fluctuations distribute asymmetrically, which is known as heart rate asymmetry (HRA. It is hypothesized that HRA reflects the balancing regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. This study was designed to examine whether altered autonomic balance during exercise can lead to HRA changes. Sixteen healthy college students were enrolled, and each student undertook two 5-min ECG measurements: one in a resting seated position and another while walking on a treadmill at a regular speed of 5 km/h. The two measurements were conducted in a randomized order, and a 30-min rest was required between them. RR interval time series were extracted from the 5-min ECG data, and HRA (short-term was estimated using four established metrics, that is, Porta’s index (PI, Guzik’s index (GI, slope index (SI, and area index (AI, from both raw RR interval time series and the time series after wavelet detrending that removes the low-frequency component of <~0.03 Hz. Our pilot data showed a reduced PI but unchanged GI, SI, and AI during walking compared to resting seated position based on the raw data. Based on the wavelet-detrended data, reduced PI, SI, and AI were observed while GI still showed no significant changes. The reduced PI during walking based on both raw and detrended data which suggests less short-term HRA may underline the belief that vagal tone is withdrawn during low-intensity exercise. GI may not be sensitive to short-term HRA. The reduced SI and AI based on detrended data suggest that they may capture both short- and long-term HRA features and that the expected change in short-term HRA is amplified after removing the trend that is supposed to link to long-term component. Further studies with more subjects and longer measurements are warranted to validate our observations and to examine these additional hypotheses.

  6. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  8. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  9. Changes in Regional Brain Homogeneity Induced by Electro-Acupuncture Stimulation at the Baihui Acupoint in Healthy Subjects: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Demao; Duan, Gaoxiong; Liao, Hai; Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Geliang; Liu, Huimei; Tang, Lijun; Pang, Yong; Tao, Jien; He, Xin; Yuan, Wenzhao; Liu, Peng

    2016-10-01

    According to the Traditional Chinese Medicine theory of acupuncture, Baihui (GV20) is applied to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the relationships between neural responses and GV20 remain unknown. Thus, the main aim of this study was to examine the brain responses induced by electro-acupuncture stimulation (EAS) at GV20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 33 healthy subjects. Based on the non-repeated event-related (NRER) paradigm, group differences were examined between GV20 and a sham acupoint using the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Compared with the sham acupoint, EAS at GV20 induced increased ReHo in regions including the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), middle cingulate cortex (MCC), precentral cortex, and precuneus (preCUN). Decreased ReHo was found in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), supplementary motor area (SMA), thalamus, putamen, and cerebellum. The current findings provide preliminary neuroimaging evidence to indicate that EAS at GV20 could induce a specific pattern of neural responses by analysis of ReHo of brain activity. These findings might improve the understanding of mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation at GV20.

  10. Aiming at super long term application of nuclear energy. Scope and subjects on the water cooled breeder reactor, the 'reduced moderation water reactor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Tatematsu, Kenji; Tanaka, Yoji

    2001-01-01

    In order to make possible on nuclear energy application for super long term, development of sodium cooling type fast breeder reactor (FBR) has been carried out before today. However, as it was found that its commercialization was technically and economically difficult beyond expectation, a number of nations withdrew from its development. And, as Japan has continued its development, scope of its actual application is not found yet. Now, a research and development on a water cooling type breeder reactor, the reduced moderation water reactor (RMWR)' using LWR technology has now been progressed under a center of JAERI. This RMWR is a reactor intending a jumping upgrade of conversion ratio by densely arranging fuel bars to shift neutron spectrum to faster region. The RMWR has a potential realizable on full-dress plutonium application at earlier timing through its high conversion ratio, high combustion degree, plutonium multi-recycling, and so on. And, it has also feasibility to solve uranium resource problem by realization of conversion ratio with more than 1.0, to contribute to super long term application of nuclear energy. Here was investigated on an effect of reactor core on RMWR, especially of its conversion ratio and plutonium loading on introduction effect as well as on how RMWR could be contributed to reduction of uranium resource consumption, by drawing some scenario on development of power generation reactor and fuel cycle in Japan under scope of super long term with more than 100 years in future. And, trial calculation on power generation cost of the RMWR was carried out to investigate some subjects at a viewpoint of upgrading on economy. (G.K.)

  11. Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fayed

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This work aimed to determine whether (1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. (1H-MRS (1.5 T of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC and fractional anisotropy (FA by MR-DTI. RESULTS: Myo-inositol (mI was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019. We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = -0.452; p = .045, NAA (r = -0.617; p = .003 and NAA/Cr (r = -0.448; P = .047 in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = -0.4850, p = .0066. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators.

  12. Competing effect of spin-orbit torque terms on perpendicular magnetization switching in structures with multiple inversion asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoqiang; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; He, Congli; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Alzate, Juan G.; Lang, Murong; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in structurally asymmetric multilayers have been used to efficiently manipulate magnetization. In a structure with vertical symmetry breaking, a damping-like SOT can deterministically switch a perpendicular magnet, provided an in-plane magnetic field is applied. Recently, it has been further demonstrated that the in-plane magnetic field can be eliminated by introducing a new type of perpendicular field-like SOT via incorporating a lateral structural a...

  13. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Müller-Holz, Matthias; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects. In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test) were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21), -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03) and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003), which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P < 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001), followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002), latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001) and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004) at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.

  14. Semi-Automated Analysis of Diaphragmatic Motion with Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy Controls and Non-Ambulant Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney A. Bishop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD suffer from progressive muscle damage leading to diaphragmatic weakness that ultimately requires ventilation. Emerging treatments have generated interest in better characterizing the natural history of respiratory impairment in DMD and responses to therapy. Dynamic (cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI may provide a more sensitive measure of diaphragm function in DMD than the commonly used spirometry. This study presents an analysis pipeline for measuring parameters of diaphragmatic motion from dynamic MRI and its application to investigate MRI measures of respiratory function in both healthy controls and non-ambulant DMD boys. We scanned 13 non-ambulant DMD boys and 10 age-matched healthy male volunteers at baseline, with a subset (n = 10, 10, 8 of the DMD subjects also assessed 3, 6, and 12 months later. Spirometry-derived metrics including forced vital capacity were recorded. The MRI-derived measures included the lung cross-sectional area (CSA, the anterior, central, and posterior lung lengths in the sagittal imaging plane, and the diaphragm length over the time-course of the dynamic MRI. Regression analyses demonstrated strong linear correlations between lung CSA and the length measures over the respiratory cycle, with a reduction of these correlations in DMD, and diaphragmatic motions that contribute less efficiently to changing lung capacity in DMD. MRI measures of pulmonary function were reduced in DMD, controlling for height differences between the groups: at maximal inhalation, the maximum CSA and the total distance of motion of the diaphragm were 45% and 37% smaller. MRI measures of pulmonary function were correlated with spirometry data and showed relationships with disease progression surrogates of age and months non-ambulatory, suggesting that they provide clinically meaningful information. Changes in the MRI measures over 12 months were consistent with weakening of

  15. The prevalence of cervical myelopathy among subjects with narrow cervical spinal canal in a population-based magnetic resonance imaging study: the Wakayama Spine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Keiji; Yoshimura, Noriko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Muraki, Shigeyuki; Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Noboru; Nakagawa, Yukihiro; Minamide, Akihito; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kozo; Akune, Toru; Yoshida, Munehito

    2014-12-01

    A narrow cervical spinal canal (CSC) is a well-known risk factor for cervical myelopathy (CM). However, no epidemiologic data of the CSC based on a population-based cohort are available. The purpose of the study was to investigate the age-related differences in CSC diameters on plain radiographs and to examine the associated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities including cervical cord compression and increased signal intensity (ISI) as well as the clinical CM with the narrow CSC. This was a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Wakayama Spine Study that was performed from 2008 to 2010 in a western part of Japan. Finally, a total of 959 subjects (319 men and 640 women; mean age, 66.4 years) were included. The outcome measures included in the study were the CSC diameter at C5 level on plain radiographs, cervical cord compression and ISI on sagittal T2-weighted MRI, and physical signs related to CM (eg, the Hoffmann reflex, hyperreflexia of the patellar tendon, the Babinski reflex, sensory and motor function, and bowel/bladder symptoms). The age-related differences of CSC diameters in men and women were investigated by descriptive statistics. The prevalence of MRI abnormalities and clinical CM was compared among the groups divided by the CSC diameter (less than 13, 13-15, and 15 mm or more). In addition, a logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association of the CSC diameter with cervical cord compression/clinical CM after overall adjustment for age, sex, and body mass index. The CSC diameter was narrower with increasing age in both men and women. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and the clinical CM was significantly higher in the narrower CSC group. The prevalence of cervical cord compression, ISI, and CM among subjects with CSC diameter less than 13 mm was 38.0%, 5.4%, and 10.1%, respectively. In the logistic model, the CSC diameter was a significant predictive factor for the

  16. The Lattice Compatibility Theory LCT: Physical and Chemical Arguments from the Growth Behavior of Doped Compounds in terms of Bandgap Distortion and Magnetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical arguments for the recently discussed materials-related Lattice Compatibility Theory are presented. The discussed arguments are based on some differences of Mn ions incorporation kinetics inside some compounds. These differences have been evaluated and quantified in terms of alteration of bandgap edges, magnetic patterns, and Faraday effect.

  17. Innovative Perspective: Gadolinium-Free Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Long-Term Follow-Up after Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick J. M. van Eijs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1980s magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been investigated as a non- or minimally invasive tool to probe kidney allograft function. Despite this long-standing interest, MRI still plays a subordinate role in daily practice of transplantation nephrology. With the introduction of new functional MRI techniques, administration of exogenous gadolinium-based contrast agents has often become unnecessary and true non-invasive assessment of allograft function has become possible. This raises the question why application of MRI in the follow-up of kidney transplantation remains restricted, despite promising results. Current literature on kidney allograft MRI is mainly focused on assessment of (sub acute kidney injury after transplantation. The aim of this review is to survey whether MRI can provide valuable diagnostic information beyond 1 year after kidney transplantation from a mechanistic point of view. The driving force behind chronic allograft nephropathy is believed to be chronic hypoxia. Based on this, techniques that visualize kidney perfusion and oxygenation, scarring, and parenchymal inflammation deserve special interest. We propose that functional MRI mechanistically provides tools for diagnostic work-up in long-term follow-up of kidney allografts.

  18. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  19. Fluid model of the sheath in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field: Some comments on ion source terms and ion temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is

  20. Short-term effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment on clinical parameters and serum levels of C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines in subjects with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvert, Stefan; Lindahl, Christel; Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie; Lessem, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common multifactorial disease, afflicting a very large proportion of the adult population. Periodontal disease secondarily causes increases in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers of inflammation. An increased level of CRP reflects an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the short-term effect of a combination of dipyridamole and prednisolone (CRx-102) on the levels of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, proinflammatory markers in blood, and clinical signs of periodontal disease. Fifty-seven patients with >/=10 pockets with probing depths >/=5 mm were randomized into two groups in this masked single-center placebo-controlled study: CRx-102 (n = 28) and placebo (n = 29). hs-CRP levels, inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, -1beta, -8, and -12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]), bleeding on probing (BOP), and changes in probing depths were evaluated. The subjects received mechanical non-surgical therapy after 42 days, and the study was completed after 49 days. At day 42, the differences in the hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 levels between the two groups were statistically significant (P <0.05), whereas no difference was found for the other inflammatory markers. There was no change in probing depth or BOP between the two groups. The administration of CRx-102 resulted in significant decreases in hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6, but it did not significantly change BOP or probing depths.

  1. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd.

  2. Dayside magnetic ULF power at high latitudes: A possible long-term proxy for the solar wind velocity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    1999-01-01

    We examine the occurrence of dayside high-latitude magnetic variations with periods between 2 and 10 min statistically using data from around 20 magnetic stations in Greenland, Scandinavia, and Canada, many of which have been in operation for a full solar cycle. We derive time series of the power...

  3. Conservative numerical methods for a two-temperature resistive MHD model with self-generated magnetic field term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbert-Gérard Lise-Marie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose numerical methods on Cartesian meshes for solving the 2-D axisymmetric two-temperature resistivive magnetohydrodynamics equations with self-generated magnetic field and Braginskii’s [1] closures. These rely on a splitting of the complete system in several subsystems according to the nature of the underlying mathematical operator. The hyperbolic part is solved using conservative high-order dimensionally split Lagrange-remap schemes whereas semi-implicit diffusion operators have been developed for the thermal and resistive conduction equations. Source terms are treated explictly. Numerical results on the deceleration phase of an ICF implosion test problem are proposed, a benchmark which was initially proposed in [2]. Nous proposons dans cet article des méthodes numériques pour les équations de la magnétohydrodynamique résistive à deux températures avec champ magnétique auto-généré et relations de fermeture de Braginskii [1] en géométrie 2-D axisymétrique sur maillage cartésien. Celles-ci sont basées sur une décomposition du système complet selon la nature des opérateurs mathématiques sous-jacents. La partie hyperbolique est résolue par des schémas conservatifs Lagrange-projection d’ordre élevé en directions alternées tandis que des opérateurs de diffusion semi-implicites ont été développés pour les équations de conduction thermique et résistive. Les termes sources sont traités de manière explicite. Des résultats numériques sur un cas-test simulant la phase de décélération d’une implosion de capsule FCI sont proposés, ce benchmark ayant été initialement présenté dans [2].

  4. Effect of short-term low- and high-fat diets on low-density lipoprotein particle size in normolipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Valérie; Lamarche, Benoît; Charest, Amélie; Tremblay, André J; Couture, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to raise plasma cholesterol levels, an effect associated with the formation of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, the impact of dietary intervention on time-course changes in LDL particle size has not been investigated. To test whether a short-term dietary intervention affects LDL particle size, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study using an intensive dietary modification in 12 nonobese healthy men with normal plasma lipid profile. Participants were subjected to 2 isocaloric 3-day diets: high-fat diet (37% energy from fat and 50% from carbohydrates) and low-fat diet (25% energy from fat and 62% from carbohydrates). Plasma lipid levels and LDL particle size were assessed on fasting blood samples after 3 days of feeding on each diet. The LDL particles were characterized by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Compared with the low-fat diet, plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased (4.45 vs 4.78 mmol/L, P = .04; 2.48 vs 2.90 mmol/L, P = .005; and 1.29 vs 1.41 mmol/L, P = .005, respectively) following the 3-day high-fat diet. Plasma triglycerides and fasting apolipoprotein B-48 levels were significantly decreased after the high-fat diet compared with the low-fat diet (1.48 vs 1.01 mmol/L, P = .0003 and 9.6 vs 5.5 mg/L, P = .008, respectively). The high-fat diet was also associated with a significant increase in LDL particle size (255.0 vs 255.9 Å;P = .01) and a significant decrease in the proportion of small LDL particle (vs 44.6%, P = .01). As compared with a low-fat diet, the cholesterol-raising effect of a high-fat diet is associated with the formation of large LDL particles after only 3 days of feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preliminary assessment of cardiac short term safety and efficacy of manganese chloride for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaf Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Manganese based agents are intracellular and accumulate inside myocytes allowing for different imaging strategies compared to gadolinium contrasts. While previous agents release manganese very slowly in the circulation, MnCl2 allows for rapid Mn2+ uptake in myocytes, creating a memory effect that can be potentially explored. Data on animal models are very encouraging but the safety and efficacy of this approach in humans has not yet been investigated. Therefore, our objectives were to study the safety and efficacy of a rapid infusion of manganese chloride (MnCl2 for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR in humans. Methods Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a CMR scan on a 1.5 T scanner. Before the infusion, cardiac function was calculated and images of a short axis mid-ventricular slice were obtained using a 2D and 3D gradient-echo inversion recovery (GRE-IR sequence, a phase-sensitive IR sequence and a single breath-hold segmented IR prepared steady-state precession acquisition for T1 calculations. MnCl2 was infused over three minutes at a total dose of 5 μMol/kg. Immediately after the infusion, and at 15 and 30 minutes later, new images were obtained and cardiac function re-evaluated. Results There was a significant decrease in T1 values compared to baseline, sustained up to 30 minutes after the MnCl2 infusion (pre,839 ± 281 ms; 0 min, 684 ± 99; 15 min, 714 ± 168; 30 min, 706 ± 172, P = 0.003. The 2D and 3D GRE-IR sequence showed the greatest increase in signal-to-noise ratio compared to the other sequences (baseline 6.6 ± 4.2 and 9.7 ± 5.3; 0 min, 11.3 ± 4.1 and 15.0 ± 8.7; 15 min, 10.8 ± 4.0 and 16.9 ± 10.2; 30 min, 10.6 ± 5.2 and 16.5 ± 8.3, P 2 with no major adverse events, despite all reporting transient facial flush. Conclusions In the short term, MnCl2 appears safe for human use. It effectively decreases myocardium T1, maintaining this effect for a relatively long period of time and allowing for the

  6. Magnetic strength and corrosion of rare earth magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khalid A; Drummond, James L; Graber, Thomas; BeGole, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Rare earth magnets have been used in orthodontics, but their corrosion tendency in the oral cavity limits long-term clinical application. The aim of this project was to evaluate several; magnet coatings and their effects on magnetic flux density. A total of 60 neodymium-iron-boron magnets divided into 6 equal groups--polytetrafluoroethylene-coated (PTFE), parylene-coated, and noncoated--were subjected to 4 weeks of aging in saline solution, ball milling, and corrosion testing. A significant decrease in magnet flux density was recorded after applying a protective layer of parylene, whereas a slight decrease was found after applying a protective layer of PTFE. After 4 weeks of aging, the coated magnets were superior to the noncoated magnets in retaining magnetism. The corrosion-behavior test showed no significant difference between the 2 types of coated magnets, and considerable amounts of iron-leached ions were seen in all groups. Throughout the processes of coating, soaking, ball milling, and corrosion testing, PTFE was a better coating material than parylene for preserving magnet flux density. However, corrosion testing showed significant metal leaching in all groups.

  7. Left Gastric Vein Visualization with Hepatopetal Flow Information in Healthy Subjects Using Non-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Angiography with Balanced Steady-State Free-Precession Sequence and Time-Spatial Labeling Inversion Pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akihiro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Ayako; Yamashita, Rikiya; Arizono, Shigeki; Kido, Aki; Sakashita, Naotaka; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-01-01

    To selectively visualize the left gastric vein (LGV) with hepatopetal flow information by non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography under a hypothesis that change in the LGV flow direction can predict the development of esophageal varices; and to optimize the acquisition protocol in healthy subjects. Respiratory-gated three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession scans were conducted on 31 healthy subjects using two methods (A and B) for visualizing the LGV with hepatopetal flow. In method A, two time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP) were placed on the whole abdomen and the area from the gastric fornix to the upper body, excluding the LGV area. In method B, nonselective inversion recovery pulse was used and one Time-SLIP was placed on the esophagogastric junction. The detectability and consistency of LGV were evaluated using the two methods and ultrasonography (US). Left gastric veins by method A, B, and US were detected in 30 (97%), 24 (77%), and 23 (74%) subjects, respectively. LGV flow by US was hepatopetal in 22 subjects and stagnant in one subject. All hepatopetal LGVs by US coincided with the visualized vessels in both methods. One subject with non-visualized LGV in method A showed stagnant LGV by US. Hepatopetal LGV could be selectively visualized by method A in healthy subjects.

  8. Social participation and subjective well-being of long-term unemployed : why is paid work so hard to substitute for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR

    2000-01-01

    In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of

  9. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a

  10. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seismic Study of Magnetic Field in the Solar Interior (H. M. Antia), 85 ... Hα Intensity Oscillations in Large Flares (Ram Ajor Maurya & Ashok Ambastha), 249 .... Utilization of GPS Satellites for Precise Irradiation Measurement and Monitoring.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  12. Pyridostigmine bromide and the long-term subjective health status of a sample of over 700 male Reserve Component Gulf War era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R; Reppert, Earl J; Jurich, Anthony P; Bollman, Stephan R; Webb, Farrell J; Castelo, Carlos S; Stever, James C; Kaufman, Mark; Deng, Liang-Yu; Krehbiel, Michelle; Owens, Barbara L; Hall, Carolyn A; Brown, Beverlyn F Cay; Lash, Jeanne F; Fink, Carol J; Crow, Janet R; Bonjour, Gabriele N

    2002-06-01

    Data from a 1996-1997 survey of approximately 700 Reserve Component male veterans indicate that the consumption of pyridostigmine bromide pills, used as a pretreatment for potential exposure to the nerve agent Soman, was a significant predictor of declines in reported subjective health status after the war, even after controlling for a number of other possible factors. Reported reactions to vaccines and other medications also predicted declines in subjective health. While higher military rank generally predicted better health during and after the war, educational attainment, minority status, number of days in theater, and age generally did not predict changes in subjective health. Although servicemembers were directed to take three pills a day, veterans reported a range of compliance--less than a fourth (24%) followed the medical instructions compared to 61% who took fewer than three pills daily and 6% who took six or more pills a day. Implications for use of pyridostigmine bromide are discussed.

  13. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  14. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...

  15. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  16. On-road magnetic emissions prediction of electric cars in terms of driving dynamics using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wefky, Ahmed M.; Espinosa, Felipe; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes; Gardel, Alfredo; Vogt-Ardatjew, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel artificial neural network (ANN) model estimating vehicle-level radiated magnetic emissions of an electric car as a function of the corresponding driving pattern. Real world electromagnetic interference (EMI) experiments have been realized in a semi-anechoic chamber using

  17. Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Demonstrates Long-Term Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation in α-Mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Else R; Lund, Allan M; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    α-Mannosidosis, OMIM #248500, is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by acidic α-mannosidase deficiency. Treatment options include bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and, possibly in the future, enzyme replacement therapy. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) enables non...

  18. Magnetic Measurement and Magnet Tutorial, Part 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Jack

    2003-07-15

    Magnetic measurements, like magnet design, is a broad subject. It is the intention of this lecture to cover only a small part of the field, regarding the characterization of the line integral field quality of multipole magnets (dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles) using compensated rotating coils. Other areas which are not covered are magnet mapping, AC measurements and sweeping wire measurements.

  19. Surface magnetic field measurement with magnetic shielding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perevertov, Oleksiy

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 7 (2010), 66-68 ISSN 1335-3632 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100100906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic hysteresis * magnetic field measurement * magnetic shielding * extrapolation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2010

  20. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as

  1. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as well as empirical challenges: What kind of things are mental disorders? And how to deal with situations where subjective reports, clinical decisions, and brain scans contradict each other? The present paper starts out with a discussion of recent efforts to objectify beauty. Such attempts to quantify and localize psychological constructs in the brain are compared to earlier examples from the history of psychology. The paper then discusses personal and social implications of the objectification of subjective mental states, including mental disorders. The construct of Major Depressive Disorder, one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is then analyzed in more detail. It turns out that this is a very complex construct probably associated with highly heterogeneous actual instances of the disorder. It is then shown that it is unlikely to replace these symptoms' descriptions with patterns of brain activations, at least in the near future, given these patterns' empirical lack of specificity. The paper then discusses which of the disorder's core symptoms are more or less amenable to behavioral or neuroscientific investigation and analyses whether the heterophenomenological method can solve the problem. The conclusion is that the disorder construct is neither entirely subjective, nor completely objectifiable, and that clinical experts do well by continuing to take a pragmatical stance.

  2. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  3. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  4. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  5. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia

    2014-01-01

    routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c...

  6. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects - a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, Robert; Luke, Anthony; Ma, C.B.; Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of knee abnormalities was found in marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects-a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Robert; Luke, Anthony; Ma, C Benjamin; Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences.

  8. Prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects - a 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Robert [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospitals-Campus Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Luke, Anthony [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); University of California, San Francisco, Department of Family and Community Medicine, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ma, C.B. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States); Krug, Roland; Steinbach, Lynne; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-07-15

    To determine the prevalence of pathologic findings in asymptomatic knees of marathon runners before and after a competition in comparison with physically active subjects. To compare the diagnostic performance of cartilage-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences at 3.0 T. Ten marathon runners underwent 3.0 T MRI 2-3 days before and after competition. Twelve physically active asymptomatic subjects not performing long-distance running were examined as controls. Pathologic condition was assessed with the whole-organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS). Cartilage abnormalities and bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) were quantified. Visualization of cartilage pathology was assessed with intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IM-w FSE), fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) and T1-weighted three-dimensional (3D) high-spatial-resolution volumetric fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) MRI sequences. Eight of ten marathon runners and 7/12 controls showed knee abnormality. Slightly more and larger cartilage abnormalities, and BMEP, in marathon runners yielded higher but not significantly different WORMS (P > 0.05) than in controls. Running a single marathon did not alter MR findings substantially. Cartilage abnormalities were best visualized with IM-w FSE images (P < 0.05). A high prevalence of knee abnormalities was found in marathon runners and also in active subjects participating in other recreational sports. IM-w FSE sequences delineated more cartilage MR imaging abnormalities than did FIESTA and SPGR sequences. (orig.)

  9. Long-term characteristics of geological conditions in Japan. Pt. 1. Fundamental concept for future's prediction of geological conditions and the subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Chigira, Masahiro.

    1997-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate the long-term stability of geological conditions such as volcanic activity, uplift-subsidence, earthquakes, faulting and sea level change when the long-term safety performance of HLW geological disposal is investigated. We proposed the extrapolation method using the geological date obtained in the geologic time of the last 500 ka to predict the future's tectonic movements in Japan. Furthermore, we extract geological conditions that would affect the long-term safety of HLW geological disposal with regard to direct and indirect radionuclide release scenarios. As a result, it was concluded that volcanic activity and tectonic movements including faulting and uplift-subsidence, should be considered and their surveying system and evaluating method should be developed. (author)

  10. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  11. Long-term MRI cell tracking after intraventricular delivery in a patient with global cerebral ischemia and prospects for magnetic navigation of stem cells within the CSF.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Janowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term clinical tracking of magnetically labeled stem cells after intracerebroventricular transplantation as well as to investigate in vitro feasibility for magnetic guidance of cell therapy within large fluid compartments.After approval by our Institutional Review Board, an 18-month-old patient, diagnosed as being in a vegetative state due to global cerebral ischemia, underwent cell transplantation to the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle, with umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO contrast agent. The patient was followed over 33 months with clinical examinations and MRI. To evaluate the forces governing the distribution of cells within the fluid compartment of the ventricular system in vivo, a gravity-driven sedimentation assay and a magnetic field-driven cell attraction assay were developed in vitro.Twenty-four hours post-transplantation, MR imaging (MRI was able to detect hypointense cells in the occipital horn of the lateral ventricle. The signal gradually decreased over 4 months and became undetectable at 33 months. In vitro, no significant difference in cell sedimentation between SPIO-labeled and unlabeled cells was observed (p = NS. An external magnet was effective in attracting cells over distances comparable to the size of human lateral ventricles.MR imaging of SPIO-labeled cells allows monitoring of cells within lateral ventricles. While the initial biodistribution is governed by gravity-driven sedimentation, an external magnetic field may possibly be applied to further direct the distribution of labeled cells within large fluid compartments such as the ventricular system.

  12. [Methylphenidate and short-term memory in young females with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. A study using functional magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garrido, A A; Barrios, F A; de la Serna-Tuya, J M; Cocula-León, H; Gómez-Velázquez, F R

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder found mainly in males, thus current knowledge on its clinical expression in female adults is extremely limited. AIM. To evaluate the behavioral and neural substrates associated with the performance of a short-term memory task in female ADHD adults, with and without methylphenidate exposure, with respect to a control group. Two groups of eight young right-handed, female, university students with ADHD and healthy controls matched by age, gender, handedness and academic level, voluntarily participated. All subjects performed twice an easy auditory short-term memory task (ADHD group without, and 90 minutes post-intake of methylphenidate 0.4 mg/kg in a counterbalanced order). The BOLD-fMRI response was used as a measure of neural activity during task performance. ADHD subjects showed a tendency to improve their performances under medication, showing an increased widespread functional activation, especially relevant over left frontal and cerebellar areas, in comparison with control subjects. Methylphenidate slightly improves short-term memory task performance in adult female ADHD subjects by modifying underlying neural functioning patterns.

  13. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, Atsushi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences

    2002-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  14. Activation of lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal subjects and in patients with visual disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during visual stimulation can detect regional cerebral blood flow changes that reflect neural activity in the lateral geniculate nucleus and primary visual cortex, which are major relay points in the human afferent visual system. FMRI has been used in the clinical evaluation of visual disorders such as homonymous hemianopia and unilateral eye diseases (optic neuritis, amblyopia, and so on). Future development in the data acquisition and data analysis may facilitate the use of fMRI for the management of patients with visual deficits and understanding of the visual disorders. (author)

  15. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  17. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A.; Vogl, W.D.; Weber, M.; Meyer-Baese, A.; Pinker, Katja

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  18. Inter- and intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of amount of fibroglandular breast tissue with magnetic resonance imaging: comparison to automated quantitative assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, G.J.; Helbich, T.H.; Woitek, R.; Kapetas, P.; Clauser, P.; Baltzer, P.A. [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Vogl, W.D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Computational Imaging Research Lab, Wien (Austria); Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wien (Austria); Meyer-Baese, A. [State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Pinker, Katja [Medical University of Vienna/ Vienna General Hospital, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); State University of Florida, Department of Scientific Computing in Medicine, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Services, New York City, NY (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the inter-/intra-observer agreement of BI-RADS-based subjective visual estimation of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to investigate whether FGT assessment benefits from an automated, observer-independent, quantitative MRI measurement by comparing both approaches. Eighty women with no imaging abnormalities (BI-RADS 1 and 2) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved prospective study. All women underwent un-enhanced breast MRI. Four radiologists independently assessed FGT with MRI by subjective visual estimation according to BI-RADS. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT with MRI was performed using a previously described measurement system. Inter-/intra-observer agreements of qualitative and quantitative FGT measurements were assessed using Cohen's kappa (k). Inexperienced readers achieved moderate inter-/intra-observer agreement and experienced readers a substantial inter- and perfect intra-observer agreement for subjective visual estimation of FGT. Practice and experience reduced observer-dependency. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurement of FGT was successfully performed and revealed only fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.209-0.497) with subjective visual estimations of FGT. Subjective visual estimation of FGT with MRI shows moderate intra-/inter-observer agreement, which can be improved by practice and experience. Automated observer-independent quantitative measurements of FGT are necessary to allow a standardized risk evaluation. (orig.)

  19. Glycogenolysis during short-term fasting in malaria and healthy subjects - the potential regulatory role of glycogen content on glycogen breakdown: a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, F.; Thien, H. V.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Background & aims: During short-term starvation ( <24h), glucose production decreases 10-20% due to a decrease in glycogenolysis. In the fed state glycogen regulates its rate of breakdown, in order to limit glycogen accumulation. Whether in the fasted state a similar mechanism exists to preserve

  20. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    dodecyl sulphate (SDS) complex. 299. Acid catalysts ... Synthesis of gold nanoparticles stabilised by metal-chelator and the ... 83. a3Co1+xIr1–xO6. Structural and magnetic anomalies among ..... Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal inter-.

  1. Influence of body mass index on short-term subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after mid-urethral sling surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weltz, Vibeke; Guldberg, Rikke; Larsen, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after first-time mid-urethral sling surgery. Methods: Data were retrieved from the national Danish Urogynaecological Database, including women...... was defined as any new surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence performed within the study period. Results: During the study period, 6,414 mid-urethral sling procedures were performed; 80.0% of these women filled out both pre- and post-surgical International Consultation on Incontinence...

  2. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  3. Magnetic superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwo, J.; Hong, M.; McWhan, D.B.; Yafet, Y.; Fleming, R.M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Waszczak, J.V.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Gibbs, D.; Goldmann, A.I.; Boni, P.; Bohr, J.; Grimm, H.; Bohr, J.; Chien, C.L.; Grimm, H.; Cable, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Single crystal magnetic rare earth superlattices were synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy. The studies include four rare earth systems: Gd-Y, Dy-Y, Ho-Y, and Gd-Dy. The magnetic properties and the long-range spin order are reviewed in terms of the interfacial behavior, and the interlayer exchange coupling across Y medium

  4. Quantification of pancreatic exocrine function with secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: normal values and short-term effects of pancreatic duct drainage procedures in chronic pancreatitis. Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bali, M.A.; Sztantics, A.; Metens, T.; Matos, C.; Arvanitakis, M.; Delhaye, M.; Deviere, J.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify pancreatic exocrine function in normal subjects and in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) before and after pancreatic duct drainage procedures (PDDP) with dynamic secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP). Pancreatic exocrine secretions [quantified by pancreatic flow output (PFO) and total excreted volume (TEV)] were quantified twice in ten healthy volunteers and before and after treatment in 20 CP patients (18 classified as severe, one as moderate, and one as mild according to the Cambridge classification). PFO and TEV were derived from a linear regression between MR-calculated volumes and time. In all subjects, pancreatic exocrine fluid volume initially increased linearly with time during secretin stimulation. In controls, the mean PFO and TEV were 6.8 ml/min and 97 ml; intra-individual deviations were 0.8 ml/min and 16 ml. In 10/20 patients with impaired exocrine secretions before treatment, a significant increase of PFO and TEV was observed after treatment (P<0.05); 3/20 patients presented post-procedural acute pancreatitis and a reduced PFO. The S-MRCP quantification method used in the present study is reproducible and provides normal values for PFO and TEV in the range of those obtained from previous published intubation studies. The initial results in CP patients have demonstrated non-invasively a significant short-term improvement of PFO and TEV after PDDP. (orig.)

  5. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  6. Short-term exercise training improves insulin sensitivity but does not inhibit inflammatory pathways in immune cells from insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Sara M; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  7. Three-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area of anterior cruciate ligament-deficient and -reconstructed subjects using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Choongsoo S; Carpenter, R Dana; Majumdar, Sharmila; Ma, C Benjamin

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether (1) the 3-dimensional in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and patellofemoral contact area of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees are different from those of normal, contralateral knees and (2) ACL reconstruction restores in vivo patellofemoral kinematics and contact area. Ten ACL-deficient knees and twelve ACL-reconstructed knees, as well as the contralateral uninjured knees, were tested. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at full extension and 40 degrees of flexion under simulated partial weight-bearing conditions. Six-degrees of freedom patellofemoral kinematics, patellofemoral contact area, and contact location were analyzed by use of magnetic resonance image-based 3-dimensional patellofemoral knee models. The patella in the ACL-deficient knees underwent significantly more lateral tilt during flexion (P contact areas of ACL-deficient knees at both the extended and flexed positions (37 +/- 22 mm(2) and 357 +/- 53 mm(2), respectively) were significantly smaller than those of contralateral knees (78 +/- 45 mm(2) and 437 +/- 119 mm(2), respectively) (P contact area of ACL-reconstructed knees in the extended position (86 +/- 41 mm(2)) was significantly larger (P contact centroid translation, and contact area showed coefficients of variation of less than 6.8%. ACL injuries alter patellofemoral kinematics including patellar tilt and patellar lateral translation, but ACL reconstruction with hamstring or allograft restores altered patellar tilt. ACL injuries reduce the patellofemoral contact area at both the extended and flexed positions, but ACL reconstruction enlarges the patellofemoral contact area at extension and restores the normal contact area at low angles of flexion. Level III, case-control study.

  8. Evaluation of the liver in normal subjects and cases of hepatic diseases by ultra-low field (0.02 T) magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yoshie

    1988-01-01

    A total of 123 cases (45 controls, 14 liver cirrhoses, 6 fatty livers, 22 cavernous hemangiomas, 14 hepatomas, 9 metastases, 10 cysts, and 3 hemorrhagic cysts) were studied by ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging. On T1-weighted images, the means of the intesity ratio in controls were 0.703±0.074 (liver to spleen), 0.658±0.073 (liver to kidney) and 0.932±0.058 (spleen to kidney). On T2-weighted images, the means of the intensity ratios in controls were 0.449±0.083 (liver to spleen), 0.363±0.069 (liver to kidney) and 0.822±0.115 (spleen to kidney). In liver cirrhosis, on T2-weighted images, the intensity ratio of liver to kidney and spleen to kidney. In liver cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in controls. In fatty liver, the intensity ratio of liver to spleen on T1-weighted image, and those of liver to spleen and liver to kidney on T2-weighted image were higher than those in controls. On T2-weighted images, the intensity ratio of tumor to liver in hepatic cavernous hemangioma were significantly higher than those in hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumor. Ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging with the intensity ratio of tumor to liver was valuable in distinguishing between hepatic cavernous hemangioma and hepatic malignancies and it was also possible to distinguish hemorrhagic liver cyst from non-hemorrhagic liver cyst. (author)

  9. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (SE)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease

  10. Short-term adaptations in spinal cord circuits evoked by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: possible underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Monica A.; Lungholt, Bjarke K.S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to induce adaptations in cortical neuronal circuitries. In the present study we investigated whether rTMS, through its effect on corticospinal pathways, also produces adaptations at the spinal level, and what the neuronal mechanisms...... that the depression of the H-reflex by rTMS can be explained, at least partly, by an increased presynaptic inhibition of soleus Ia afferents. In contrast, rTMS had no effect on disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition from ankle dorsiflexors to plantarflexors. We conclude that a train of rTMS may modulate transmission...

  11. Long-term stability of Sm2Co17-type magnets for control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Imayoshi, S.; Morimoto, K.; Watanabe, M.; Komada, N.; Takeshita, T.

    1995-01-01

    Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is an apparatus that regulates vertical position of control rods in a nuclear reactor by using a driving motor of synchronous type. While CRDM is usually placed outside the reactor vessel to escape from the severe environment inside the vessel, built-in type CRDM, which is now being developed for advanced marine reactors, is placed inside the vessel for making the reactor compact. The driving motor must stand in high-temperature (573--603 K) and high-pressure (approximately 120 atm) water which contains a trace amount of hydrogen. Although the magnet rotor is sealed by corrosion-resistant alloy, the magnets still need to have excellent thermal and chemical stabilities in order to ensure the reliability of the system. For an application of Sm 2 Co 17 -type magnets for a driving motor of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) placed inside a nuclear reactor vessel, long-term stabilities of Sm(Co 0.61 Fe 0.28 Cu 0.08 Ni 0.01 Zr 0.02 ) 7.3 magnets were evaluated under the severe conditions. Initial magnetic properties of the specimens at room temperature were: B r = 1.03 T, H cJ = 1,400 kA/m and (BH) max = 207 kJ/m 3 . Irreversible losses of open-circuit remanent flux of the specimens exposed for 19,000 hours in 1 atm Ar atmosphere were 5--10% at the temperature (573--603 K) and the operating point (permeance coefficient of 1.7--2.4) of the actual driving motor application. Large fraction of the irreversible loss is attributed to permanent flux loss due to oxidation of the specimen. Losses due to thermal fluctuation aftereffect of these specimens are estimated to be less than 5%. Multilayer coating of Ni, Cu, Ni and Au was found to be effective to protect the magnets from the oxidation. The coated specimens exhibited a small permanent loss value of 0.5% after the exposure to 120 atm water for 2,000 hours at 613 K

  12. Long-term effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinjung, Tobias; Eichhammer, Peter; Langguth, Berthold; Jacob, Peter; Marienhagen, Joerg; Hajak, Goeran; Wolf, Stephan R; Strutz, Juergen

    2005-04-01

    The pathophysiologic mechanisms of idiopathic tinnitus remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrated focal brain activation in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is able to reduce cortical hyperexcitability. Fusing of the individual PET-scan with the structural MRI-scan (T1, MPRAGE) allowed us to identify exactly the area of increased metabolic activity in the auditory cortex of patients with chronic tinnitus. With the use of a neuronavigational system, this target area was exactly stimulated by the figure 8-shaped magnetic coil. In a prospective study, rTMS (110% motor threshold; 1 Hz; 2000 stimuli/day over 5 days) was performed using a placebo controlled cross-over design. Patients were blinded regarding the stimulus condition. For the sham stimulation a specific sham-coil system was used. Fourteen patients were followed for 6 months. Treatment outcome was assessed with a specific tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller). Tertiary referral medical center. Increased metabolic activation in the auditory cortex was verified in all patients. After 5 days of verum rTMS, a highly significant improvement of the tinnitus score was found whereas the sham treatment did not show any significant changes. The treatment outcome after 6 months still demonstrated significant reduction of tinnitus score. These preliminary results demonstrate that neuronavigated rTMS offers new possibilities in the understanding and treatment of chronic tinnitus.

  13. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

  14. Long-term cerebral metabolite changes on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients cured of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with previous intrathecal methotrexate and cranial irradiation prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Roebuck, Derek J.; Yuen Manpan; Yeung Kawai; Lau Kamying; Li Chikong; Chik Kiwai

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term brain metabolite changes on 1 H-MRS in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients who had intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) and cranial irradiation (CRT) for central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis against CNS relapse. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven ALL patients (12 females, 25 males) with history of ITMTX and CRT for CNS prophylaxis were studied. Age ranges at the time of diagnosis and at magnetic resonance examination were 0.8-13 years and 12-27 years, respectively. The interval since diagnosis was 5.6-19 years. T2-weighted and gradient-recalled echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) were performed to assess brain injury. Results: On MRI, 3 leukoencephalopathy (LEP) and 1 infarct were detected. Twenty-two patients had evidence of hemosiderin. On 1 H-MRS no statistically significant difference in choline (Cho)/creatine (Cr) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr was associated with LEP. A lower Cho/Cr (p=0.006) and NAA/Cr (p=0.078) was observed in brains with hemosiderin. Linear-regression analysis showed no statistically significant relationship between NAA/Cr or Cho/Cr with age at diagnosis, but there was a statistically significant decreasing trend of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr with the interval since diagnosis. Conclusion: Long-term brain injury in ALL survivors after CNS prophylaxis with ITMTX and CRT was reflected by decreasing NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr with the interval since diagnosis. The lower Cho/Cr associated with hemosiderin but not LEP suggested a different pathophysiology for these brain lesions

  15. Radiation-induced myelopathy in long-term surviving metastatic spinal cord compression patients after hypofractionated radiotherapy: a clinical and magnetic resonance imaging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maranzano, Ernesto; Bellavita, Rita; Floridi, Piero; Celani, Grazia; Righetti, Enrico; Lupattelli, Marco; Panizza, Bianca Moira; Frattegiani, Alessandro; Pelliccioli, Gian Piero; Latini, Paolo

    2001-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hypofractionated radiotherapy is often administered in metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC), but no studies have been published on the incidence of radiation-induced myelopathy (RIM) in long-term surviving patients. Our report addresses this topic. Patients and methods: Of 465 consecutive MSCC patients submitted to radiotherapy between 1988 and 1997, 13 live patients (seven females, six males, median age 69 years, median follow-up 69 months) surviving for 2 years or more were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate RIM. All patients underwent radiotherapy. Eight patients underwent a short-course regimen of 8 Gy, with 7 days rest, and then another 8 Gy. Five patients underwent a split-course regimen of 5 Gy x3, 4 days rest, and then 3 Gy x5. Only one patient also underwent laminectomy. Full neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. Results: Of 12 patients submitted to radiotherapy alone, 11 were ambulant (eight without support and three with support) with good bladder function. In nine of these 11 patients, MRI was negative; in one case MRI evidenced an in-field relapse 30 months after the end of radiotherapy, and in the other, two new MSCC foci outside the irradiated spine. In the remaining patient RIM was suspected at 18 months after radiotherapy when the patient became paraplegic and cystoplegic, and magnetic resonance images evidenced an ischemic injury in the irradiated area. The only patient treated with surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy worsened and remained paraparetic. Magnetic resonance images showed cord atrophy at the surgical level, explained as an ischemic necrosis due to surgery injury. Conclusions: On the grounds of our data regarding RIM in long-term surviving MSCC patients, we believe that a hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen can be used for the majority of patients. For a minority of patients, more protracted radiation regimens could be considered

  16. Quantitative Renal Cortical Perfusion in Human Subjects with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of T1 Shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, A.; Ahlstrom, H.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Abildgaard, A.; Bock, M.; Bjoernerud, A. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Using conventional contrast agents, the technique of quantitative perfusion by observing the transport of a bolus with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the brain due to extravascular leakage. Purpose: To perform quantitative perfusion measurements in humans with an intravascular contrast agent, and to estimate the influence of the T1 relaxivity of the contrast agent on the first-pass response. Material and Methods: Renal cortical perfusion was measured quantitatively in six patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis using a rapid gradient double-echo sequence in combination with an intravenous bolus injection of NC100150 Injection, an intravascular contrast agent based on iron-oxide nanoparticles. The influence of T1 relaxivity was measured by comparing perfusion results based on single- and double-echo data. Results: The mean values of cortical blood flow, cortical blood volume, and mean transit time in the normal kidneys were measured to 339+-60 ml/min/100 g, 41+-8 ml/100 g, and 7.3+-1.0 s, respectively, based on double-echo data. The corresponding results based on single-echo data, which are not compensated for the T1 relaxivity, were 254+-47 ml/min/100 g, 27+-3 ml/100 g, and 6+-1.2 s, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a double-echo sequence enabled elimination of confounding T1 effects and consequent systematic underestimation of the perfusion.

  17. Benefits of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS for Spastic Subjects: Clinical, Functional, and Biomechanical Parameters for Lower Limb and Walking in Five Hemiparetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Terreaux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle. Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in Hmax⁡ /Mmax⁡ and T/Mmax⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  18. Benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for spastic subjects: clinical, functional, and biomechanical parameters for lower limb and walking in five hemiparetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terreaux, Luc; Gross, Raphael; Leboeuf, Fabien; Desal, Hubert; Hamel, Olivier; Nguyen, Jean Paul; Pérot, Chantal; Buffenoir, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Spasticity is a disabling symptom resulting from reorganization of spinal reflexes no longer inhibited by supraspinal control. Several studies have demonstrated interest in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in spastic patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind crossover study on five spastic hemiparetic patients to determine whether this type of stimulation of the premotor cortex can provide a clinical benefit. Material and Methods. Two stimulation frequencies (1 Hz and 10 Hz) were tested versus placebo. Patients were assessed clinically, by quantitative analysis of walking and measurement of neuromechanical parameters (H and T reflexes, musculoarticular stiffness of the ankle). Results. No change was observed after placebo and 10 Hz protocols. Clinical parameters were not significantly modified after 1 Hz stimulation, apart from a tendency towards improved recruitment of antagonist muscles on the Fügl-Meyer scale. Only cadence and recurvatum were significantly modified on quantitative analysis of walking. Neuromechanical parameters were modified with significant decreases in H max⁡ /M max⁡ and T/M max⁡ ratios and stiffness indices 9 days or 31 days after initiation of TMS. Conclusion. This preliminary study supports the efficacy of low-frequency TMS to reduce reflex excitability and stiffness of ankle plantar flexors, while clinical signs of spasticity were not significantly modified.

  19. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  20. Short-term outcomes using magnetic sphincter augmentation versus Nissen fundoplication for medically resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Shultz, Dale; Brennan, Christina; Vallières, Eric; Aye, Ralph W

    2014-08-01

    In 2012 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved implantation of a magnetic sphincter to augment the native reflux barrier based on single-series data. We sought to compare our initial experience with magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF). A retrospective case-control study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing either procedure who had chronic gastrointestinal esophageal disease (GERD) and a hiatal hernia of less than 3 cm. Sixty-six patients underwent operations (34 MSA and 32 LNF). The groups were similar in reflux characteristics and hernia size. Operative time was longer for LNF (118 vs 73 min) and resulted in 1 return to the operating room and 1 readmission. Preoperative symptoms were abolished in both groups. At 6 months or longer postoperatively, scores on the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health Related Quality of Life scale improved from 20.6 to 5.0 for MSA vs 22.8 to 5.1 for LNF. Postoperative DeMeester scores (14.2 vs 5.1, p=0.0001) and the percentage of time pH was less than 4 (4.6 vs 1.1; p=0.0001) were normalized in both groups but statistically different. MSA resulted in improved gassy and bloated feelings (1.32 vs 2.36; p=0.59) and enabled belching in 67% compared with none of the LNFs. MSA results in similar objective control of GERD, symptom resolution, and improved quality of life compared with LNF. MSA seems to restore a more physiologic sphincter that allows physiologic reflux, facilitates belching, and creates less bloating and flatulence. This device has the potential to allow individualized treatment of patients with GERD and increase the surgical treatment of GERD. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dissociates fragile visual short-term memory from visual working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, I.G.; Wokke, M.E.; Tesselaar, J.P.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    To guide our behavior in successful ways, we often need to rely on information that is no longer in view, but maintained in visual short-term memory (VSTM). While VSTM is usually broken down into iconic memory (brief and high-capacity store) and visual working memory (sustained, yet limited-capacity

  2. Diagnostic utility of magnetic resonance imaging and radiography in juvenile spondyloarthritis: evaluation of the sacroiliac joints in controls and affected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Jacob L; Liu, Lei; Winn, Naomi J; Ellsworth, Janet E; Lambert, Robert G W

    2014-05-01

    To compare the utility of radiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of juvenile-onset spondyloarthritis in pediatric patients presenting with low back and/or sacroiliac (SI) pain of potentially inflammatory etiology. Radiographs and MRI studies of the SI joints in 26 patients with juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) and 35 controls were assessed independently by 2 radiologists, with discrepancies arbitrated by a third. Radiographs and MRI were blinded and read in separate batches in random order. Erosion was common and was the most useful diagnostic feature on radiography [positive likelihood ratio (LR) = 3.5] and was especially diagnostic of SpA on MRI (LR = 6.7). Subchondral sclerosis was common but was the least specific feature for both modalities. Joint space narrowing had some utility on radiography (LR = 2.0) and MRI (LR = 2.7) but was uncommon and had poor reader reliability. Bone marrow edema (LR = 3.1) and subarticular fat infiltration (LR = 4.5), detectable only on MRI, were both useful features. Global diagnostic impression of MRI (LR = 9.4) had very high utility for the diagnosis of JSpA, exceeding radiography (LR = 4.4) because of superior specificity. In addition, global diagnosis of SpA is much more reliably made on MRI (κ = 0.80) compared to radiography (κ = 0.30). Specificity and reliability of MRI of the SI joints are superior to radiography for the diagnosis of juvenile-onset SpA and, where available, MRI should replace radiography as the first line of investigation.

  3. Cue-Induced Brain Activation in Chronic Ketamine-Dependent Subjects, Cigarette Smokers, and Healthy Controls: A Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObservations of drug-related cues may induce craving in drug-dependent patients, prompting compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Sexual dysfunction is common in drug users. The aim of the study was to examine regional brain activation to drug (ketamine, cigarette smoking associated cues and natural (sexual rewards.MethodsA sample of 129 [40 ketamine use smokers (KUS, 45 non-ketamine use smokers (NKUS and 44 non-ketamine use non-smoking healthy controls (HC] participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing ketamine use related, smoking and sexual films.ResultsWe found that KUS showed significant increased activation in anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in response to ketamine cues. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in cerebellum and middle temporal cortex compared with non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC in response to sexual cues. Smokers (KUS and NKUS showed higher activation in the right precentral frontal cortex in response to smoking cues. Non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC showed significantly increased activation of cerebellum and middle temporal cortex while viewing sexual cues.ConclusionThese findings clearly show the engagement of distinct neural circuitry for drug-related stimuli in chronic ketamine users. While smokers (both KUS and NKUS showed overlapping differences in activation for smoking cues, the former group showed a specific neural response to relevant (i.e., ketamine-related cues. In particular, the heightened response in anterior cingulate cortex may have important implications for how attentionally salient such cues are in this group. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in response to sexual cues may partly reflect the neural basis of sexual dysfunction.

  4. Interpreting on The Awakening in Terms of Lacan’s Subject Theory%以拉康的主体理论解读《觉醒》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江云琴

    2014-01-01

    Edna,the heroine of The Awakening,was not satisfied with the status of her life as a married woman with two children,therefore tried to explore a new and independent life through the liberation of her sexual desire and romantic love,but she ended by killing herself.From the perspective of Lacan’s theory of the three orders, Edna has gone through the psychological journey for three aspects:trying to break away from the socialized roles set by the Other in the symbolic,seeking solace in the imaginary order of sensual pleasures and romance,and fi-nally,facing up to the void at the core of the subject and walking into the sea to attain a union with the Mother.%《觉醒》中的女主人公埃德娜不满足于她为人妻为人母的生活现状,于是尝试着在身体欲望的解放和浪漫爱情中探寻一种新的自主的生活,但最终却走上自杀的道路。从拉康的主体三界理论来看,埃德娜经历了以下三个层面的心理历程:试图摆脱象征界大写他者法则所界定的社会化的角色,沉迷在想象界中身体感官的愉悦和爱情的幻象,面对实在界主体结构中心的“空无”,走入大海,试图回到生命最初的他者———母亲的怀抱。

  5. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  6. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  7. Patient-specific quality assurance for the delivery of 60Co intensity modulated radiation therapy subject to a 0.35 T lateral magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L.; Green, Olga L.; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy device. Methods and materials The program consisted of the following components: 1) one-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15 cm3 cubic phantom, 2) two-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30×30×20 cm3 phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers, 3) quasi- three-dimensional (3D) diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber, 4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files, and 5) 3D Monte-Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Results The ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS) computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean difference (mean ± SD) was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102, range, −3.0 % to 2.9%). The film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30, range, 87.4% to 100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34, range, 95.8% to 100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1×1 mm2 showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18, range, 97.0% to100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. Conclusions We have developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay’s patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and

  8. Patient-specific quality assurance for the delivery of (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy subject to a 0.35-T lateral magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L; Green, Olga L; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging-guided RT device. The program consisted of: (1) a 1-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15-cm(3) cube-shaped phantom; (2) 2-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30- × 30- × 20-cm(3) phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers; (3) quasi-3D diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber; (4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files; and (5) 3D Monte Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS)-computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean ± SD difference was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102; range, -3.0%-2.9%). Film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS-computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30; range, 87.4%-100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean ± SD passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34; range, 95.8%-100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1 × 1 mm(2) showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18; range, 97.0%-100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. We developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay's patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and action limits for ViewRay's IMRT QA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for the Delivery of 60Co Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Subject to a 0.35-T Lateral Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H. Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L.; Green, Olga L.; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging-guided RT device. Methods and Materials: The program consisted of: (1) a 1-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15-cm 3 cube-shaped phantom; (2) 2-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30- × 30- × 20-cm 3 phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers; (3) quasi-3D diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber; (4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files; and (5) 3D Monte Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Results: Ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS)-computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean ± SD difference was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102; range, −3.0%-2.9%). Film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS-computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30; range, 87.4%-100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean ± SD passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34; range, 95.8%-100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1 × 1 mm 2 showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18; range, 97.0%-100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. Conclusions: We developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay's patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and action limits for ViewRay's IMRT

  10. Long term evaluation of brain perfusion with magnetic resonance in high flow extracranial-intracranial saphenous graft bypass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozzao, Alessandro [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, II Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Sant' Andrea Hospital, Rome (Italy); Fasoli, Fabrizio; Finocchi, Vanina; Romano, Andrea; Fantozzi, Luigi M. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neuroradiology, II Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Santoro, Giuseppe [University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Neurosurgery, I Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy)

    2007-01-15

    Assessment was made of the cerebral vascular haemodynamic parameters in patients with a high-flow extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass performed for therapeutic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Sixteen patients with ICA occlusion and EC-IC bypass (time interval from surgery 1-6 years) underwent MRI. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PW-MRI) sequences were performed without the use of an arterial input function. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), mean transit time (MTT) and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were evaluated in all patients at the level of the basal ganglia, centrum semiovale and cortex in both hemispheres. Statistically significant differences (P<0.005) were observed in the haemodynamic parameters, indicating increased rCBV in the basal ganglia and decreased rCBF and rCBV in the cortex of the hemisphere supplied by the graft with respect to the contralateral. Patients with occlusion of the ICA and high flow EC-IC bypass do have altered vascular haemodynamic status between the hemispheres. In particular, rCBF is impaired in the surgical hemisphere at the level of the cortex. These patients should be followed-up to rule out chronic ischemia. (orig.)

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazacu, A.; Ciubotaru, A.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of congenital heart disease can be attributed to major improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in the clinical management strategy of patients with congenital heart disease. The development of new cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques allows comprehensive assessment of complex cardiac anatomy and function and provides information about the long-term residual post-operative lesions and complications of surgery. It overcomes many of the limitations of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. This review evaluates the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging modality in the management of subject with congenital heart disease (CHD). (authors)

  12. Short-Term Results of Carotid Endarterectomy and Stenting After the Introduction of Carotid Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Single-Institution Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumitsu, Ryu; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Torihashi, Koichi; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Koyanagi, Masaomi; Narumi, Osamu; Sato, Tsukasa; Chin, Masaki; Handa, Akira; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2017-05-01

    Although carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been gaining popularity as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA), perioperative stroke rate following contemporary CAS remains significantly higher than stroke rate after CEA. The purpose of this study was to assess perioperative (within 30 days) therapeutic results in patients with carotid stenosis (CS) after introduction of preoperative carotid magnetic resonance imaging plaque evaluation in a single center performing both CEA and CAS. Based on prospectively collected data for patients with CS who were scheduled for carotid revascularization, retrospective analysis was conducted of 295 consecutive patients with CS. An intervention was selected after consideration of periprocedural risks for both CEA and CAS. Concerning risk factors for CAS, results of magnetic resonance imaging plaque evaluation were emphasized with a view toward reducing embolic complications. CAS was performed in 114 patients, and CEA was performed in 181 patients. Comparing baseline characteristics of the 295 patients, age, T1 signal intensity of plaque, symptomatic CS, urgent intervention, and diabetes mellitus differed significantly between CAS and CEA groups. Among patients who underwent CAS, new hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging were confirmed in 47 patients. New hyperintense lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging were recognized in 21.4% of patients who underwent CEA (n = 39), significantly less frequent than in patients who underwent CAS. The overall short-term outcome of CEA and CAS is acceptable. Preoperative carotid magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of plaque might contribute to low rates of ischemic complications in CAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Size of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age at magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Jun; Mori, Kouichi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Imamura, Masatoshi [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Mizushima, Yukiko [Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki (Japan); Tateishi, Ukihide [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The expected MRI-based dimensions of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates are unknown. To evaluate the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age using MRI. We retrospectively analyzed brain MRI examinations in 62 infants (28 boys) without intracranial abnormalities. The images were obtained in infants at term-equivalent age with a 1.5-tesla MRI scanner. We measured the widths and heights of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract and calculated the cross-sectional areas using the formula for an ellipse. The means ± standard deviation of the width, height and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 2.7 ± 0.2 mm, 1.7 ± 0.2 mm and 3.5 ± 0.5 mm{sup 2}, respectively. The width, height and cross-sectional area of the optic tract were 1.5 ± 0.1 mm, 1.6 ± 0.1 mm and 2.0 ± 0.2 mm{sup 2}, respectively. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we found that postmenstrual age showed independent intermediate positive correlations with the width (r = 0.48, P < 0.01) and cross-sectional area (r = 0.40, P < 0.01) of the intracranial optic nerve. The lower bounds of the 95% prediction intervals for the width and cross-sectional area of the intracranial optic nerve were 0.07 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 0.46 mm, and 0.17 x (postmenstrual age in weeks) - 4.0 mm{sup 2}, respectively. We identified the sizes of the intracranial optic nerve and optic tract in neonates at term-equivalent age. The postmenstrual age at MRI independently positively correlated with the sizes. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic Barkhausen noise at different magnetization conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Alexandr; Perevertov, Oleksiy; Neslušan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 7 (2015), s. 10-13 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Barkhausen noise * surface magnetic field * magnetization control * magnetic hysteresis * digital feedback loop Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 0.407, year: 2015

  15. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation once a week induces sustainable long-term relief of central poststroke pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masahito; Fujimaki, Takamitsu; Mihara, Ban; Ohira, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Central poststroke pain is a serious problem for some patients after stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been reported to relieve poststroke pain but its efficacy is still controversial. We tested the possibility that rTMS, when applied once a week, would induce sustainable relief of poststroke pain. Eighteen patients with central poststroke pain were included in this study. rTMS (10 trains of 10-sec 5 Hz-rTMS) was delivered over the primary motor cortex on the affected side. The rTMS session was repeated once a week for 12 weeks, and for six patients the intervention was continued for one year. The degree of the pain was assessed before each weekly rTMS session to evaluate sustainable effects. The effects of the rTMS reached a plateau at the eighth week. At the 12th week, the rTMS was effective in 61.1% of the patients; 5 of the 18 patients showed more than 70% reduction based on a visual analog scale, 6 patients showed 40-69% reduction, and 7 remained at a pain reduction level of less than 40%. When patients were divided into two groups with or without severe dysesthesia, it was found that eight patients with severe dysesthesia showed less pain relief than those without. In the six patients who continued rTMS for one year, the pain relief effects also were sustained. Although this was an open-label study without a control group, our findings suggest that rTMS of the primary motor cortex, when maintained once a week, could help to relieve poststroke pain. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging can accurately assess the long-term progression of knee structural changes in experimental dog osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boileau, C; Martel-Pelletier, J; Abram, F; Raynauld, J-P; Troncy, E; D'Anjou, M-A; Moreau, M; Pelletier, J-P

    2008-07-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) structural changes take place over decades in humans. MRI can provide precise and reliable information on the joint structure and changes over time. In this study, we investigated the reliability of quantitative MRI in assessing knee OA structural changes in the experimental anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) dog model of OA. OA was surgically induced by transection of the ACL of the right knee in five dogs. High resolution three dimensional MRI using a 1.5 T magnet was performed at baseline, 4, 8 and 26 weeks post surgery. Cartilage volume/thickness, cartilage defects, trochlear osteophyte formation and subchondral bone lesion (hypersignal) were assessed on MRI images. Animals were killed 26 weeks post surgery and macroscopic evaluation was performed. There was a progressive and significant increase over time in the loss of knee cartilage volume, the cartilage defect and subchondral bone hypersignal. The trochlear osteophyte size also progressed over time. The greatest cartilage loss at 26 weeks was found on the tibial plateaus and in the medial compartment. There was a highly significant correlation between total knee cartilage volume loss or defect and subchondral bone hypersignal, and also a good correlation between the macroscopic and the MRI findings. This study demonstrated that MRI is a useful technology to provide a non-invasive and reliable assessment of the joint structural changes during the development of OA in the ACL dog model. The combination of this OA model with MRI evaluation provides a promising tool for the evaluation of new disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs).

  17. Noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance renal angiography using a repetitive artery and venous labelling technique at 3 T: comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in subjects with normal renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, EunJu [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-13

    To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced MR angiography (NC-MRA) using the repetitive artery and venous labelling (RAVEL) technique to evaluate renal arteries compared to contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). Twenty-five subjects with normal renal function underwent NC-MRA using a RAVEL technique and CE-MRA at 3 T. Two independent readers analysed the MRA images. Image quality, number of renal arteries, presence or absence of an early branching vessel, and diameter of the main renal arteries were evaluated. The overall image quality of NC-MRA was fair or greater in 88 % of right and 92 % of left renal arteries, while it was 96 % in both sides with CE-MRA. On NC-MRA, the number of renal arteries in all subjects was perfectly predicted by both readers. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting early branching vessels were 82 % and 100 % for reader 1 and 82 % and 95 % for reader 2. Inter-modality agreement for comparing the diameters of main renal arteries was good or excellent at all segments for both readers. Inter-reader agreement was moderate or good at all segments except at the right distal segment on NC-MRA. NC-MRA with the RAVEL technique at 3 T may have comparable diagnostic feasibility for evaluating renal arteries compared to CE-MRA. (orig.)

  18. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Clinical Science and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Department of Neuroradiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan (Italy); Lista, Gianluca [V. Buzzi Children' s Hospital, ICP, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Milan (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  19. Intracranial haemorrhage: an incidental finding at magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of late preterm and term infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirgiovanni, Ida; Groppo, Michela; Bassi, Laura; Passera, Sofia; Schiavolin, Paola; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia; Triulzi, Fabio; Lista, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in term newborns has been increasingly recognised but the occurrence in late preterm infants and the clinical presentation are still unclear. To investigate the appearance of intracranial haemorrhage at MRI in a cohort of infants born at 34 weeks' gestation or more and to correlate MRI findings with neonatal symptoms. We retrospectively reviewed neonatal brain MRI scans performed during a 3-year period. We included neonates ≥34 weeks' gestation with intracranial haemorrhage and compared findings with those in babies without intracranial haemorrhage. Babies were classified into three groups according to haemorrhage location: (1) infratentorial, (2) infra- and supratentorial, (3) infra- and supratentorial + parenchymal involvement. Intracranial haemorrhage was observed in 36/240 babies (15%). All of these 36 had subdural haemorrhage. Sixteen babies were included in group 1; 16 in group 2; 4 in group 3. All infants in groups 1 and 2 were asymptomatic except one who was affected by intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3. Among the infants in group 3, who had intracranial haemorrhage with parenchymal involvement, three of the four (75%) presented with acute neurological symptoms. Uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery was reported in 20/36 neonates (56%), vacuum extraction in 4 (11%) and caesarean section in 12 (33%). Babies with intracranial haemorrhage had significantly higher gestational age (38 ± 2 weeks vs. 37 ± 2 weeks) and birth weight (3,097 ± 485 g vs. 2,803 ± 741 g) compared to babies without intracranial haemorrhage and were more likely to be delivered vaginally than by caesarian section. Mild intracranial haemorrhage (groups 1 and 2) is relatively common in late preterm and term infants, although it mostly represents an incidental finding in clinically asymptomatic babies; early neurological symptoms appear to be related to parenchymal involvement. (orig.)

  20. Deep Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic Sensing: A Cost Effective, Long-Term Tool for Sequestration Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrecque, Douglas [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Brigham, Russell D. [Multi-Phase Technologies, LLC, Sparks, NV (United States); Schmidt-Hattenburger, Conny [GFZ German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (Germany); Um, Evan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Petrov, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The proposed system was designed to operate as a permanent, autonomous monitoring and data collection system that can provide much higher temporal data density than can be achieved economically with 3-Dimensional (3D) seismic surveys. It can operate over broad areas for long periods of time providing full 3D data sets on a monthly basis at a very low cost. By borrowing techniques commonly used in marine CSEM, structural information from background seismic surveys can be incorporated into the CSEM modeling to provide high resolution models of CO2 progression within reservoirs. The system uses borehole-based vertical-electric-dipole sources placed at reservoir depths in the formation. The electric and magnetic fields induced by this source are received on the surface using an array of stations. The project was conducted in three phases. Phase I demonstrated the feasibility of the system to collect static/reference data at the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site in Germany. In Phase I, numerical modeling was used to determine the optimal configurations and requirements for sensor sensitivity and data accuracy. Based on the model results, existing hardware and software were modified. The CSEM system was then field tested at the Ketzin site. The data were imaged and the results were compared with independent studies of the reservoir and overburden geo-electrical characteristics. Phase II demonstrated the ability to provide sensitive, cost-effective measurement of changes in reservoir properties and changes in the overlying formations using a second round of measurements at the Ketzin site. A prototype autonomous recording system was developed and tested as a subset of the measurement points. Phase III of the project quantified the advantages (and disadvantages) of the fully autonomous data collection subsystems by comparing them with repeated measurements made with mobile stations. The Phase III also provided an additional time point in measuring post

  1. Noncontrast-enhanced magnetic resonance renal angiography using a repetitive artery and venous labelling technique at 3 T: comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in subjects with normal renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Kim, EunJu; Park, Byung Kwan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the feasibility of noncontrast-enhanced MR angiography (NC-MRA) using the repetitive artery and venous labelling (RAVEL) technique to evaluate renal arteries compared to contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA). Twenty-five subjects with normal renal function underwent NC-MRA using a RAVEL technique and CE-MRA at 3 T. Two independent readers analysed the MRA images. Image quality, number of renal arteries, presence or absence of an early branching vessel, and diameter of the main renal arteries were evaluated. The overall image quality of NC-MRA was fair or greater in 88% of right and 92% of left renal arteries, while it was 96% in both sides with CE-MRA. On NC-MRA, the number of renal arteries in all subjects was perfectly predicted by both readers. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting early branching vessels were 82% and 100% for reader 1 and 82% and 95% for reader 2. Inter-modality agreement for comparing the diameters of main renal arteries was good or excellent at all segments for both readers. Inter-reader agreement was moderate or good at all segments except at the right distal segment on NC-MRA. NC-MRA with the RAVEL technique at 3 T may have comparable diagnostic feasibility for evaluating renal arteries compared to CE-MRA. • Accurate pre-treatment evaluation of renal artery anatomy helps clinical decision-making. • NC-MRA using RAVEL offers acceptable imaging quality for renal artery evaluation. • The 3 T RAVEL technique provides excellent diagnostic performance for renal artery evaluation. • The 3 T RAVEL technique may be an alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA.

  2. Incidental findings on brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in long-term survivors of breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Schagen, Sanne B; Poels, Mariëlle M F; Boogerd, Willem; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Lugt, Aad; Breteler, Monique M B

    2011-11-01

    Incidental brain findings defined as previously undetected abnormalities of potential clinical relevance that are unexpectedly discovered at brain imaging and are unrelated to the purpose of the examination are common in the general population. Because it is unclear whether the prevalence of incidental findings in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy is different to that in the general population, we compared the prevalence in breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy to that in a population-based sample of women without a history of any cancer. Structural brain MRI (1.5T) was performed in 191 female CMF (Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, 5-Fluorouracil) chemotherapy-exposed breast cancer survivors. A reference group of 1590 women without a history of cancer was sampled from a population-based cohort study. All participants were aged 50 to 80 years. Five trained reviewers recorded the brain abnormalities. Two experienced neuro-radiologists reviewed the incidental findings. The cancer survivors had completed chemotherapy on average 21 years before. Of the 191 subjects, 2.6% had an aneurysm and 3.7% had a meningioma. The prevalence of meningiomas and aneurysms was not different between the groups. The prevalence of pituitary macro adenomas in the breast cancer survivors (1.6%) was higher than that in the reference group (0.1%) (OR=23.7; 95% CI 2.3-245.8). Contrary to commonly held opinions, we did not observe an increased prevalence of meningiomas in cancer survivors. Breast cancer survivors previously treated with chemotherapy are more likely to develop pituitary adenomas than persons without a history of cancer and chemotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic guns with cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Beleggia, M.; Heller, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 324, č. 9 (2012), s. 1715-1719 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0391; GA AV ČR IAA100100920 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : permanent magnet * cylindrical magnet * Earnshaw's theorem * magnetic gun * magnetostatic interaction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.826, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304885311008997

  4. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  5. KIC 6048106: an Algol-type eclipsing system with long-term magnetic activity and hybrid pulsations - I. Binary modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi Ghadim, A.; Lampens, P.; Jassur, M.

    2018-03-01

    The A-F-type stars and pulsators (δ Scuti-γ Dor) are in a critical regime where they experience a transition from radiative to convective transport of energy in their envelopes. Such stars can pulsate in both gravity and acoustic modes. Hence, the knowledge of their fundamental parameters along with their observed pulsation characteristics can help in improving the stellar models. When residing in a binary system, these pulsators provide more accurate and less model-dependent stellar parameters than in the case of their single counterparts. We present a light-curve model for the eclipsing system KIC 6048106 based on the Kepler photometry and the code PHOEBE. We aim to obtain accurate physical parameters and tough constraints for the stellar modelling of this intermediate-mass hybrid pulsator. We performed a separate modelling of three light-curve segments which show a distinct behaviour due to a difference in activity. We also analysed the Kepler Eclipse Time Variations (ETVs). KIC 6048106 is an Algol-type binary with F5-K5 components, a near-circular orbit and a 1.56-d period undergoing variations of the order of Δ P/P˜eq 3.60× 10^{-7} in 287 ± 7 d. The primary component is a main-sequence star with M1 = 1.55 ± 0.11 M⊙, R1 = 1.57 ± 0.12 R⊙. The secondary is a much cooler subgiant with M2 = 0.33 ± 0.07 M⊙, R2 = 1.77 ± 0.16 R⊙. Many small near-polar spots are active on its surface. The second quadrature phase shows a brightness modulation on a time-scale 290 ± 7 d, in good agreement with the ETV modulation. This study reveals a stable binary configuration along with clear evidence of a long-term activity of the secondary star.

  6. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction...... of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close...... to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration....

  7. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjork, R.; Bahl, C.R.H.; Smith, A.; Christensen, D.V.; Pryds, N.

    2010-01-01

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  8. Synthesis of 13C-labelled lactose for metabolic studies in subjects with gastrointestinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyna, P.

    1993-01-01

    The long-range goals included development of a 13 C-labelled lactose method for measuring lactose malabsorption in patients with diarrhea. The short-term goals included assembling a nuclear magnetic resonance system and a computer system for spectra analysis. The latter results are the subject of the report. (author)

  9. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  10. A Preliminary Urinary Metabolomics Study of Sprague-Dawley Rats after Short-term Ketamine Administration by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse has become a global problem. The mass spectrometry-based metabolic consequences of ketamine administration in anesthesia and therapy have been well studied, but to the best of our knowledge, metabolomic studies of ketamine abuse based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy are still lacking. In this study, twenty Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (n = 10 and a ketamine group (n = 10. The animals in the ketamine group received intraperitoneal injections of ketamine twice daily at 12-h intervals at progressively increasing doses over a period of 9 days, while the control group received an equal volume of saline. The urine samples were collected for 24 h at days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 for the metabolomics study. The metabolic changes in urine after short-term ketamine administration were analyzed by proton NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. The results indicated that short-term ketamine exposure led to significant alterations of the metabolites in the urine of the rats. Specifically, 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, acetoacetic acid, acetylglycine, creatine, sarcosine, dimethylglycine, glycine, and theobromine were significantly increased in the urine. Significant changes were also found in metabolites related to antioxidant and energy metabolism, including acetoacetic acid, succinate, 1,3,7-trimethyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, creatine, and taurine. Our findings indicated that short-term ketamine administration leads to disorder of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In addition, the modified metabolites identified could serve as the new biological markers and potential biological indices reflecting the underlying mechanism of ketamine abuse.

  11. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  12. Detection of long-term progression of myocardial fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an affected family: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcher, Thomas; Steinbach, Peter; Spiess, Jochen; Kunze, Markus; Gradinger, Robert; Walcher, Daniel; Bernhardt, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Detection of myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the corner stone for further therapeutic studies. Little is known about the ability of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to evaluate progression of myocardial fibrosis. Aim of our study was to provide CMR data in a previously genotyped DMD family and to evaluate whether progression of myocardial fibrosis could be visualized. Methods and results: DMD genotypes were available in 14 family members. CMR was performed in 4/5 carrier females, in 2/2 affected males and in one healthy family member with normal genotype. Functional images and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images in contiguous short-axis orientation were acquired at baseline and follow-up of 1231 days CMR examination could be repeated in three carrier females, in one affected male and in the healthy subject previously scanned. Mean decrease of left ventricular ejection fraction during the follow-up period was 10.5 ± 11.0%, mean progression of LGE volume 11.7 ± 9.5%. Conclusions: Myocardial fibrosis seems to occur prior to global left ventricular dysfunction in DMD diseased males and carrier females. CMR could be used to evaluate progression of myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function and may thus serve as an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of therapeutical options in DMD.

  13. Detection of long-term progression of myocardial fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy in an affected family: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walcher, Thomas [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Steinbach, Peter [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Spiess, Jochen; Kunze, Markus; Gradinger, Robert; Walcher, Daniel [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany); Bernhardt, Peter, E-mail: peter.bernhardt@uniklinik-ulm.de [Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, Ulm (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Background: Detection of myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the corner stone for further therapeutic studies. Little is known about the ability of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to evaluate progression of myocardial fibrosis. Aim of our study was to provide CMR data in a previously genotyped DMD family and to evaluate whether progression of myocardial fibrosis could be visualized. Methods and results: DMD genotypes were available in 14 family members. CMR was performed in 4/5 carrier females, in 2/2 affected males and in one healthy family member with normal genotype. Functional images and late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) images in contiguous short-axis orientation were acquired at baseline and follow-up of 1231 days CMR examination could be repeated in three carrier females, in one affected male and in the healthy subject previously scanned. Mean decrease of left ventricular ejection fraction during the follow-up period was 10.5 {+-} 11.0%, mean progression of LGE volume 11.7 {+-} 9.5%. Conclusions: Myocardial fibrosis seems to occur prior to global left ventricular dysfunction in DMD diseased males and carrier females. CMR could be used to evaluate progression of myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular function and may thus serve as an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of therapeutical options in DMD.

  14. A bearingless coaxial magnetic gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Abdel-Khalik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, magnetic gearboxes (MGBs are serious contenders to their conventional mechanical counterparts in terms of reduced maintenance requirements, improved reliability, tolerance to mechanical inaccuracies, and inherent overload protection. MGBs are preferably employed in high speed applications and compact harsh environments subjected to severe shock and vibration. A high gear ratio MGB is also a suitable candidate for single stage high-speed transmission applications such as helicopter power transmissions. In this paper, the conventional planetary magnetic gearbox is equipped with a three-phase winding to provide additional magnetic levitation capabilities besides torque transmission, thus creating a bearingless MGB configuration. This was achieved by adding a three-phase winding in the space between the ferromagnetic pieces. The current in this additional winding is controlled to provide decoupled axial forces irrespective of the transmitted mechanical power. This feature is important to reduce the mechanical losses especially for high-speed rotors and can be a viable method for vibration suppression.

  15. Iron dominated magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided

  16. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  17. Iron dominated magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    These two lectures on iron dominated magnets are meant for the student of accelerator science and contain general treatments of the subjects design and construction. The material is arranged in the categories: General Concepts and Cost Considerations, Profile Configuration and Harmonics, Magnetic Measurements, a few examples of ''special magnets'' and Materials and Practices. Extensive literature is provided.

  18. Oxidative and antioxidative responses in submandibular and parotid glands of rats exposed to long-term extremely low frequency magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akdağ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some epidemiologic and laboratory studies have suggested a possible associations between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF and cancer. However, it is not known underlying mechanisms of this interaction. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible oxidative damage induced by long-term ELF-MF exposure on submandibular and parotis glands of rats. Methods: Rats in the experimental group were exposed to 100 and 500 µT ELF-MF (2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months corresponding to exposure levels that are considered safe for humans. The same experimental procedures were applied to the sham group, but the ELF generator was turned off. The levels of catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO, total antioxidative capacity (TAC, total oxidant status (TOS, and oxidative stress index (OSI were measured in rat submandibular and parotis gland. Results: Although some oxidative and antioxidative parameters of submandibular gland were altered by ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups, these changes were not statistically significant ( p >0.05. However, a decrease observed in CAT levels of parotid gland in both the ELF-100 and ELF-500 exposure groups (p0.05. Conclusions: Our results showed that long-term ELF-MF exposure did not alter oxidative, antioxidative processes and lipid peroxidation in submandibular gland of rats. However, 100 µT and 500 µT ELF-MF exposure decreased CAT activity in parotid gland. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 219-225

  19. Short and long term effects of left and bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Bais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the left temporo-parietal junction area has been studied as a treatment option for auditory verbal hallucinations. Although the right temporo-parietal junction area has also shown involvement in the genesis of auditory verbal hallucinations, no studies have used bilateral stimulation. Moreover, little is known about durability effects. We studied the short and long term effects of 1 Hz treatment of the left temporo-parietal junction area in schizophrenia patients with persistent auditory verbal hallucinations, compared to sham stimulation, and added an extra treatment arm of bilateral TPJ area stimulation. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 51 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and persistent auditory verbal hallucinations were randomly allocated to treatment of the left or bilateral temporo-parietal junction area or sham treatment. Patients were treated for six days, twice daily for 20 minutes. Short term efficacy was measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS, and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. We included follow-up measures with the AHRS and PANAS at four weeks and three months. RESULTS: The interaction between time and treatment for Hallucination item P3 of the PANSS showed a trend for significance, caused by a small reduction of scores in the left group. Although self-reported hallucination scores, as measured with the AHRS and PANAS, decreased significantly during the trial period, there were no differences between the three treatment groups. CONCLUSION: We did not find convincing evidence for the efficacy of left-sided rTMS, compared to sham rTMS. Moreover, bilateral rTMS was not superior over left rTMS or sham in improving AVH. Optimizing treatment parameters may result in stronger evidence for the efficacy of rTMS treatment of AVH. Moreover, future research should consider

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehnholm, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an electron spin resonance enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (ESREMRI) apparatus able to generate a primary magnetic field during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection. This allows the generation of ESREMRI images of a subject. A primary magnetic field of a second and higher value generated during periods of nuclear spin transition excitation and magnetic resonance signal detection can be used to generate conventional MR images of a subject. The ESREMRI and native MR images so generated may be combined, (or superimposed). (author)

  1. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    , no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after......Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  2. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However......, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  3. The long-term effect of erythropoiesis stimulating agents given to preterm infants. A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study on neurometabolites in early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparovic, Charles; Caprihan, Arvind; Yeo, Ronald A.; Phillips, John; Lowe, Jean R.; Ohls, Robin K.; Campbell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) are neuroprotective in cell and animal models of preterm birth. Prematurity has been shown to alter neurometabolite levels in children in studies using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We hypothesized that ESA treatment in premature infants would tend to normalize neurometabolites by 4-6 years of age. Children in a longitudinal study of neurodevelopment underwent MRI and 1H-MRS at approximately 4 years and 6 years of age. Prematurely born children (500-1,250 g birth weight) received ESAs (erythropoietin or darbepoetin) or placebo during their neonatal hospitalization, and these groups were compared to healthy term controls. 1H-MRS spectra were obtained from the anterior cingulate (gray matter) and frontal lobe white matter, assessing combined N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA), myo-inositol, choline compounds (Cho), combined creatine and phosphocreatine, and combined glutamate and glutamine. No significant (P≤0.5) group differences were observed for any metabolite level. Significant age-related increases in white-matter tNAA and Cho were observed, as well as a trend for increased gray-matter tNAA. Neither prematurity nor neonatal ESA treatment was associated with differences in brain metabolite levels in the children of this study at a significance level of 0.05. These findings suggest that earlier differences that might have existed had normalized by 4-6 years of age or were too small to be statistically significant in the current sample. (orig.)

  4. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center Amersfoort, Department of Radiology, PO Box 1502, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  5. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E.; Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  6. Role of magnetism on the martensitic transformation in Ni–Mn-based magnetic shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Gómez-Polo, C.; Rodríguez-Velamazán, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of magnetism on the martensitic structural transformation has been analyzed through the evolution of the transformation temperatures of several Ni–Mn–Ga and Ni–Mn–In alloys subjected to high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is found that the atomic order variations associated with the thermal treatments affect the structural transformation in different ways depending on the character of the magnetic ordering in the austenitic and the martensitic phases. In particular, regardless of composition, the variation in the atomic order affects the martensitic transformation temperature only in those alloys in which at least one of the structural phases show magnetic order at the transformation temperature, whereas those transformations taking place between paramagnetic phases remain unaffected. The observed behaviors are explained in terms of the effect of the magnetic exchange coupling variations on the free energy difference between austenite and martensite. The results confirm the key role of magnetism in the martensitic transformation.

  7. Line broadening interference for high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra under inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Zhiliang; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Chen, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy serves as an important tool for analyzing chemicals and biological metabolites. However, its performance is subject to the magnetic-field homogeneity. Under inhomogeneous fields, peaks are broadened to overlap each other, introducing difficulties for assignments. Here, we propose a method termed as line broadening interference (LBI) to provide high-resolution information under inhomogeneous magnetic fields by employing certain gradients in the indirect dimension to interfere the magnetic-field inhomogeneity. The conventional spectral-line broadening is thus interfered to be non-diagonal, avoiding the overlapping among adjacent resonances. Furthermore, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to recover the high-resolution information from LBI spectra. Theoretical deductions are performed to offer systematic and detailed analyses on the proposed method. Moreover, experiments are conducted to prove the feasibility of the proposed method for yielding high-resolution spectra in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

  8. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  9. Magnetic refrigeration: Materials, design, and applications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenics using magnetic refrigerants. Refrigerant properties, magnetic materials, and thermal characteristics are discussed. Magnetic refrigerators are used for helium liquefaction, cooling superconductors, and superfluid helium production. Carnot-cycle refrigerators, reciprocating refrigerators, parasitic refrigerators, Ericsson refrigerators, and Stirling cycle refrigerators are among the types of magnetic refrigerators evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 94 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Vortex flow during early and late left ventricular filling in normal subjects: quantitative characterization using retrospectively-gated 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance and three-dimensional vortex core analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Calkoen, Emmeline E; Westenberg, Jos J M; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Roest, Arno A W; van der Geest, Rob J

    2014-09-27

    LV diastolic vortex formation has been suggested to critically contribute to efficient blood pumping function, while altered vortex formation has been associated with LV pathologies. Therefore, quantitative characterization of vortex flow might provide a novel objective tool for evaluating LV function. The objectives of this study were 1) assess feasibility of vortex flow analysis during both early and late diastolic filling in vivo in normal subjects using 4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with retrospective cardiac gating and 3D vortex core analysis 2) establish normal quantitative parameters characterizing 3D LV vortex flow during both early and late ventricular filling in normal subjects. With full ethical approval, twenty-four healthy volunteers (mean age: 20±10 years) underwent whole-heart 4D Flow CMR. The Lambda2-method was used to extract 3D LV vortex ring cores from the blood flow velocity field during early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling. The 3D location of the center of vortex ring core was characterized using cylindrical cardiac coordinates (Circumferential, Longitudinal (L), Radial (R)). Comparison between E and A filling was done with a paired T-test. The orientation of the vortex ring core was measured and the ring shape was quantified by the circularity index (CI). Finally, the Spearman's correlation between the shapes of mitral inflow pattern and formed vortex ring cores was tested. Distinct E- and A-vortex ring cores were observed with centers of A-vortex rings significantly closer to the mitral valve annulus (E-vortex L=0.19±0.04 versus A-vortex L=0.15±0.05; p=0.0001), closer to the ventricle's long-axis (E-vortex: R=0.27±0.07, A-vortex: R=0.20±0.09, p=0.048) and more elliptical in shape (E-vortex: CI=0.79±0.09, A-vortex: CI=0.57±0.06; vortex. The circumferential location and orientation relative to LV long-axis for both E- and A-vortex ring cores were similar. Good to strong correlation was found between vortex shape and

  11. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  12. The dynamic behavior of magnetic fluid adsorbed to small permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.j [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Asano, Daisaku [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Takana, Hidemasa; Nishiyama, Hideya [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    The dynamic behavior of a magnetic fluid adsorbed to a small NdFeB permanent magnet subjected to an alternating magnetic field was studied with a high speed video camera system. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and opposite to that of the permanent magnet. It was found that the surface of magnetic fluid responds to the external alternating magnetic field in elongation and contraction with a lot of spikes. Generation of a capillary magnetic fluid jet was observed in the neighbourhood of a specific frequency of alternating field. The effect of gravitational force on surface phenomena of magnetic fluid adsorbed to the permanent magnet was revealed. - Research Highlights: Magnetic fluid of the system responds to alternating magnetic field with higher frequencies. Large-amplitude surface motions of magnetic fluid occur at the specific frequencies of the external field. Capillary jets of magnetic fluid are generated at the natural frequency of the system.

  13. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  14. Can safe and long-term exposure to extremely low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields affect apoptosis, reproduction, and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Dasdag, Suleyman; Uzunlar, Ali Kemal; Ulukaya, Engin; Oral, Arzu Yilmaztepe; Çelik, Necla; Akşen, Feyzan

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether 50 Hz extremely low frequency-magnetic fields (ELF-MF) affects apoptotic processes, oxidative damage, and reproductive characteristics such as sperm count and morphology in rat testes. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the present study, which were divided into three groups (sham group, n = 10, and two experimental groups, n = 10 for each group). Rats in the experimental group were exposed to 100 and 500 μT ELF-MF (2 h/day, 7 days/week, for 10 months) corresponding to exposure levels that are considered safe for humans. The same experimental procedures were applied to the sham group, but the ELF generator was turned off. Tissues from the testes were immunohistochemically stained for active (cleaved) caspase-3 in order to measure the apoptotic index by a semi-quantitative scoring system. The levels of catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), total antioxidative capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also measured. Additionally, epididymal sperm count and sperm morphology was evaluated. There were no significant differences in the reproductive and oxidative stress parameters between the sham group and the exposed groups (p > 0.05). While no difference was observed between the final apoptosis score of the sham and the 100 μT ELF-MF group (p > 0.05), the final apoptosis score was higher in the 500 μT ELF-MF exposure group than in the sham group (p reproductive components such as sperm count and morphology in testes tissue of rats. However, long-term exposure to 500 μT ELF-MF did affect active-caspase-3 activity, which is a well-known apoptotic indicator.

  15. Phosphorus forms and chemistry in the soil profile under long-term conservation tillage: a phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade-Menun, Barbara J; Carter, Martin R; James, Dean C; Liu, Corey W

    2010-01-01

    In many regions, conservation tillage has replaced conventional tilling practices to reduce soil erosion, improve water conservation, and increase soil organic matter. However, tillage can have marked effects on soil properties, specifically nutrient redistribution or stratification in the soil profile. The objective of this research was to examine soil phosphorus (P) forms and concentrations in a long-term study comparing conservation tillage (direct drilling, "No Till") and conventional tillage (moldboard plowing to 20 cm depth, "Till") established on a fine sandy loam (Orthic Humo-Ferric Podzol) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. No significant differences in total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total P, or total organic P concentrations were detected between the tillage systems at any depth in the 0- to 60-cm depth range analyzed. However, analysis with phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed differences in P forms in the plow layer. In particular, the concentration of orthophosphate was significantly higher under No Till than Till at 5 to 10 cm, but the reverse was true at 10 to 20 cm. Mehlich 3-extractable P was also significantly higher in No Till at 5 to 10 cm and significantly higher in Till at 20 to 30 cm. This P stratification appears to be caused by a lack of mixing of applied fertilizer in No Till because the same trends were observed for pH and Mehlich 3-extractable Ca (significantly higher in the Till treatment at 20 to 30 cm), reflecting mixing of applied lime. The P saturation ratio was significantly higher under No Till at 0 to 5 cm and exceeded the recommended limits, suggesting that P stratification under No Till had increased the potential for P loss in runoff from these sites.

  16. Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Martínez González, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in many astrophysical processes. They are difficult to detect and characterize since often their properties have to be inferred through interpreting the polarization of the light. Magnetic fields are also challenging to model and understand. Magnetized plasmas behave following highly non-linear differential equations having no general solution, so that every astrophysical problem represents a special case to be studied independently. Hence, magnetic fields are often an inconvenient subject which is overlooked or simply neglected (the elephant in the room, as they are dubbed in poster of the school). Such difficulty burdens the research on magnetic fields, which has evolved to become a very technical subject, with many small disconnected communities studying specific aspects and details. The school tried to amend the situation by providing a unifying view of the subject. The students had a chance to understand the behavior of magnetic fields in all astrophysical contexts, from cosmology to the Sun, and from starbursts to AGNs. The school was planed to present a balanced yet complete review of our knowledge, with excursions into the unknown to point out present and future lines of research. The subject of Cosmic Magnetic Fields was split into seven different topics: cosmic magnetic field essentials, solar magnetic fields, stellar magnetic fields, the role of magnetic fields on AGN feedback, magnetic fields in galaxies, magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and at larger scales, and primordial magnetic fields and magnetic fields in the early Universe. The corresponding lectures were delivered by seven well known and experienced scientists that have played key roles in the major advances of the field during the last years: F. Cattaneo, P. Judge, O. Kochukhov, R. Keppens, R. Beck, K. Dolag, and F. Finelli. Their lectures were recorded and are freely available at the IAC website: http://iactalks.iac.es/talks/serie/19.

  17. Differences in short-term primary motor cortex synaptic potentiation as assessed by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in migraine patients with and without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Antonella; Barbanti, Piero; Frasca, Vittorio; Iacovelli, Elisa; Gabriele, Maria; Giacomelli, Elena; Aurilia, Cinzia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Gilio, Francesca; Inghilleri, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    To find out more about glutamatergic and gabaergic transmission in migraine, in this study we investigated glutamate-dependent short-term synaptic potentiation and GABA-dependent inhibitory cortical interneuron excitability as assessed by 5Hz-rTMS delivered over primary motor cortex (M1) (motor evoked potential, MEP, amplitude facilitation and cortical silent period, CSP, duration lengthening) in migraine patients with (MA) and without aura (MwoA) and healthy controls. We studied 37 patients with migraine (19 MA and 18 MwoA) and 19 healthy control subjects. 5Hz-rTMS was delivered at 120% resting motor threshold to the hand motor area of the left hemisphere with the target muscle at rest and during contraction. Three of the MA patients were also tested at the end of visual aura during a spontaneous migraine attack. ANOVA showed that the MEP significantly increased in size and CSP significantly lengthened during 5Hz-rTMS in the three groups tested. The 5Hz-rTMS-induced MEP facilitation differed significantly being highest in MA patients. In the three patients tested both ictally and interictally the MEP increased during the interictal session but remained unchanged when the visual aura ended. Our study shows that the neurophysiological feature that differentiates MA patients from MwoA patients and healthy controls is an abnormal M1 susceptibility to 5Hz-rTMS both outside and during the attack suggesting that glutamate-dependent short-term M1 cortical potentiation patterns differ in migraine with and without aura. Copyright 2009 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New vision of magnetic tunnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Jonathan R. [Amherst College, Amhurst, MA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments support the idea that crystal defects may be responsible for the quantum tunnelling of magnetic moments in molecular magnets at low temperatures. The magnetic moment of a typical bar magnet will never spontaneously reverse direction. However, thermal fluctuations can flip the moment of a magnetic particle just a few nanometres across. The particle can be cooled to nearly absolute zero to suppress this process, but the moment may still find a way to reverse via quantum tunnelling. Quantum tunnelling of magnetization has been the subject of decades of research. Until a few years ago, however, there had only been circumstantial evidence for the phenomenon. This is because most systems of small magnetic particles are hard to characterize - the particles have a variety of shapes, sizes and other properties, making it difficult to compare data with theory. Some real progress was made a few years ago through research into high-spin single-molecule magnets. With dimensions of about a nanometre, these magnets are usually composed of a magnetic core that is surrounded by organic complexes. When they crystallize into a regular lattice, the organic ions keep neighbouring magnets well separated so that they interact only weakly. Ideally all the molecules are identical because they have been built chemically, which means that they can be characterized precisely and that any data can be analysed quantitatively. The most studied of these molecules is manganese-12 acetate (Mn{sub 12}). Within each molecule, the spins of the eight Mn{sup 3+} ions (each with S=2) are antiparallel to the spins of the four Mn{sup 4+} ions (each with S=3/2), giving Mn{sub 12} a total spin of S=10. Or, to put it another way, the magnetic moment of Mn{sub 12} is 20 times larger than that of the electron. Now Eugene Chudnovsky of Lehman College in New York and Dmitry Garanin of the University of Mainz in Germany have suggested a new mechanism for producing tunnelling in Mn{sub 12

  19. Magnetic circuit with large blocks from NdFeB magnets for suspended magnetic separators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2010), s. 227-235 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnetic circuits * magnetic separation * permanent magnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.452, year: 2010 www.irsm.cas.cz/?Lang=CZE&Menu=25,0,0,0

  20. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun, E-mail: parkck@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period.

  1. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H 2 O 2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P < 0.05). The acrosome reaction was significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group compared with the other treatments (P < 0.05). Live sperm with high intracellular H 2 O 2 level were significantly lower in the 6000G + BSA group than under other treatments (P < 0.05). Based on our results, magnetized extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. - Highlights: • Magnetized water is water that has been passed through a magnetic field. • Magnetized extender improve viability and decrease oxidative stress of boar sperm for preservation. • Ejaculated semen diluted with magnetized extender can improve liquid preservation period

  2. Magnetic Non-destructive Testing of Plastically Deformed Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Barkhausen noise analysis and coercive field measurement have been used as magnetic non-destructive testing methods for plastically deformed high quality carbon steel specimens. The strain dependence of root mean square value and power spectrum of the Barkhausen noise and the coercive field are explained in terms of the dislocation density. The specimens have been subjected to different magnetizing frequencies to show the overlapping nature of the Barkhausen noise. The results are discussed in the context of usage of magnetic non-destructive testing to evaluate the plastic deformation of high quality carbon steel products.

  3. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days from patients of varying ages (26–62 years. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved 2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  4. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  5. Antioxidative effects of magnetized extender containing bovine serum albumin on sperm oxidative stress during long-term liquid preservation of boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-21

    Magnetized water is defined as water that has passed through a magnet and shows increased permeability into cells and electron-donating characteristics. These attributes can protect against membrane damage and remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells. We explored the effects of improved magnetized semen extenders containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as antioxidants on apoptosis in boar sperm. Ejaculated semen was diluted in magnetized extender (0G and 6000G) with or without BSA (0G + BSA and 6000G + BSA), and sperm were analyzed based on viability, acrosome reaction, and H2O2 level of live sperm using flow cytometry. Sperm were then preserved for 11 days at 18 °C. We found that viability was significantly higher in 6000G + BSA than under the other treatments (P extenders have antioxidative effects on the liquid preservation of boar sperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Connection between microstructure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of soft magnetic materials is discussed with some emphasis on the connection between macroscopic properties and underlying micromagnetic energy aspects. It is shown that important conceptual gaps still exist in the interpretation of macroscopic magnetic properties in terms of the micromagnetic formulation. Different aspects of hysteresis modeling, power loss prediction and magnetic non-destructive evaluation are discussed in this perspective

  7. The Quantum Theory of Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Majlis, Norberto

    2000-01-01

    This book is intended as a basic text for a two-term graduate course for physicists, engineers and chemists with a background in quantum and statistical mechanics. What sets it apart from other publications on the subject is its extensive use of Green’s function techniques and its detailed discussion of the application of the mean-field approximation and dipoleâ€"dipole interactions in one, two and three dimensions. A chapter each has been devoted to low-dimensional systems, surface magnetism and layered systems. A total of 60 exercises have also been included.

  8. Long term delivery of pulsed magnetic fields does not alter visual discrimination learning or dendritic spine density in the mouse CA1 pyramidal or dentate gyrus neurons [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2gk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sykes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is thought to facilitate brain plasticity. However, few studies address anatomical changes following rTMS in relation to behaviour. We delivered 5 weeks of daily pulsed rTMS stimulation to adult ephrin-A2-/- and wildtype (C57BI/6j mice (n=10 per genotype undergoing a visual learning task and analysed learning performance, as well as spine density, in the dentate gyrus molecular and CA1 pyramidal cell layers in Golgi-stained brain sections. We found that neither learning behaviour, nor hippocampal spine density was affected by long term rTMS. Our negative results highlight the lack of deleterious side effects in normal subjects and are consistent with previous studies suggesting that rTMS has a bigger effect on abnormal or injured brain substrates than on normal/control structures.

  9. Nanoparticulated magnetic drug delivery systems: Preparation and magnetic characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, P C, E-mail: pcmor@unb.b [Universidade de BrasIlia, Instituto de Fisica, Nucleo de Fisica Aplicada, Brasilia DF 70910-900 (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes how magnetic resonance can be successfully used as a tool to help customize and quantify nanosized magnetic particles while labeling cells and administered in animals for targeting different biological sites. Customization of magnetic nanoparticles is addressed here in terms of production of complex magnetic drug delivery systems whereas quantification of magnetic nanoparticle in different biological compartments emerges as a key experimental information to assess time-dependent magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution profiles. Examples of using magnetic resonance in unfolding information regarding the pharmacokinetics of intravenously-injected surface-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in animals are included in the paper.

  10. Magnetism basics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanita, Carmen-Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    This textbook is aimed at engineering students who are likely to come across magnetics applications in their professional practice. Whether designing lithography equipment containing ferromagnetic brushes, or detecting defects in aeronautics, some basic knowledge of 21st century magnetism is needed. From the magnetic tape on the pocket credit card to the read head in a personal computer, people run into magnetism in many products. Furthermore, in a variety of disciplines tools of the trade exploit magnetic principles, and many interdisciplinary laboratory research areas cross paths with magnetic phenomena that may seem mysterious to the untrained mind. Therefore, this course offers a broad coverage of magnetism topics encountered more often in this millenium, revealing key concepts on which many practical applications rest. Some traditional subjects in magnetism are discussed in the first half of the book, followed by areas likely to spark the curiosity of those more interested in today’s technological achi...

  11. AC magnetization loss characteristics of HTS coated-conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Liu, M.; Odaka, S.; Miyagi, D.; Ohmatsu, K.

    2007-01-01

    AC magnetization loss characteristics of an HTS coated tape conductor with magnetic substrate subjected to an external AC magnetic field were investigated. The external magnetic field was perpendicular or parallel to the wide face of the tape conductor. Magnetization losses in the conductor and in the magnetic substrate itself without the superconductor layer, were measured by electric and calorimetric methods. The influence of the magnetic property of the substrate was strongly dependent on the direction of the external magnetic field. When the external magnetic field was perpendicular, magnetic property of the substrate did not affect the magnetization loss characteristics. This result suggests that the magnetization losses can be reduced by subdivisions of the superconducting layers even in the case of magnetic substrate conductors. When the external magnetic field was parallel, the magnetization losses were dominated by the losses in the magnetic substrate. Therefore, to reduce the magnetization losses in this case, reduction of magnetization losses in the substrate is necessary

  12. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving...... the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated...... and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, Λcool. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis...

  13. Photons and magnetization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pile, P.; Němec, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2013), s. 500 ISSN 1749-4885 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * photonics * magneto-optics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013

  14. Effective magnetic Hamiltonians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1997-2000 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0775 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : effective magnetic Hamiltonian * ab initio * magnetic structure Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013

  15. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Pieter Jan; Meiners, Linda C.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Veere, van der Christa; Sijens, Paul E.

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and

  16. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnir, Ya.M.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph addresses the field theoretical aspects of magnetic monopoles. Written for graduate students as well as researchers, the author demonstrates the interplay between mathematics and physics. He delves into details as necessary and develops many techniques that find applications in modern theoretical physics. This introduction to the basic ideas used for the description and construction of monopoles is also the first coherent presentation of the concept of magnetic monopoles. It arises in many different contexts in modern theoretical physics, from classical mechanics and electrodynamics to multidimensional branes. The book summarizes the present status of the theory and gives an extensive but carefully selected bibliography on the subject. The first part deals with the Dirac monopole, followed in part two by the monopole in non-abelian gauge theories. The third part is devoted to monopoles in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  17. Out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility and environmental magnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18 (2016), EGU2016-6808 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paleomagnetism * magnetic susceptibility * environmental magnetism Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2016/EGU2016-6808.pdf

  18. Magnetic forces between arrays of cylindrical permanent magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokoun, David; Tomassetti, G.; Beleggia, M.; Stachiv, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 323, č. 1 (2011), s. 55-60 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetism * permanent magnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.780, year: 2011

  19. Acute and long term outcomes of catheter ablation using remote magnetic navigation for the treatment of electrical storm in patients with severe ischemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Qi; Jacobsen, Peter Karl; Pehrson, Steen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Catheter ablation with remote magnetic navigation (RMN) can offer some advantages compared to manual techniques. However, the relevant clinical evidence for how RMN-guided ablation affects electrical storm (ES) due to ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with severe ischemic heart......-guided catheter ablation can prevent VT recurrence and significantly reduce ICD shocks, suggesting that this strategy can be used as an alternative therapy for VT storm in SIHF patients with ICDs....

  20. Noncollinear magnetism in manganese nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelený, Martin; Šob, Mojmír; Hafner, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 14 (2009), 144414/1-144414/19 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100920; GA MŠk OC09011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : magnetism of nanostructures * nanowires * noncollinear magnetism * manganese Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.475, year: 2009

  1. Magnets and magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, Ch.; Rifflet, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the world's largest highest-energy particle collider that the CERN plans to commission in 2008, gets a double boost from superconducting magnet technology. Superconducting magnets are first used to guide the particles scheduled for collision through the accelerator, and then to observe the events triggered by the collision inside giant detectors in a known magnetic field. Despite the installation's massive dimensions, all this is done with minimal expenditure of energy. (author)

  2. Magnetization states and magnetization processes in nanostructures: from a single layer to multilayers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maziewski, A.; Fassbender, J.; Kisielewski, J.; Kisielewski, M.; Kurant, Z.; Mazalski, P.; Stobiecki, F.; Stupakiewicz, A.; Sveklo, I.; Tekielak, M.; Wawro, A.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 211, č. 5 (2014), s. 1005-1018 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : light and ions irradiation effects * magnetic anisotropy * magnetic domains * magnetic ordering * magnetic ultrathin films and multilayers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.616, year: 2014

  3. Superconducting pulsed magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Lecture 1. Introduction to Superconducting Materials Type 1,2 and high temperature superconductors; their critical temperature, field & current density. Persistent screening currents and the critical state model. Lecture 2. Magnetization and AC Loss How screening currents cause irreversible magnetization and hysteresis loops. Field errors caused by screening currents. Flux jumping. The general formulation of ac loss in terms of magnetization. AC losses caused by screening currents. Lecture 3. Twisted Wires and Cables Filamentary composite wires and the losses caused by coupling currents between filaments, the need for twisting. Why we need cables and how the coupling currents in cables contribute more ac loss. Field errors caused by coupling currents. Lecture 4. AC Losses in Magnets, Cooling and Measurement Summary of all loss mechanisms and calculation of total losses in the magnet. The need for cooling to minimize temperature rise in a magnet. Measuring ac losses in wires and in magnets. Lecture 5. Stab...

  4. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The design, analysis, evaluation, and operation of SMES systems and equipment are discussed. Topics include utility scale SMES plants, SMES for transmission line stabilization, design and protection of superconducting magnets and coils, computer controlled SMES systems, and fusion power reactors. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology and use of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). The design, analysis, evaluation, and operation of SMES systems and equipment are discussed. Topics include utility scale SMES plants, SMES for transmission line stabilization, design and protection of superconducting magnets and coils, computer controlled SMES systems, and fusion power reactors. (Contains a minimum of 82 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Evaluation of the US Army Research Laboratory Squeeze 5 Magnetic Flux Compression Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    armature cracking, high-voltage insulation , and electrical arcing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS magnetic flux compression, field diffusion, mega ampere, high... insulation and can result in arcing that robs energy from the system. Magnetic field diffusion into the conducting portions of the system can also play a...indicates a short circuit occurred internally to the device, most likely due to damaged insulation during construction. The high-voltage switch failed to

  7. Magnet pole tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Craig E.; Chasman, Chellis; Baltz, Anthony J.

    1984-04-24

    An improved magnet which more easily provides a radially increasing magnetic field, as well as reduced fringe field and requires less power for a given field intensity. The subject invention comprises a pair of spaced, opposed magnetic poles which further comprise a pair of pole roots, each having a pole tip attached to its center. The pole tips define the gap between the magnetic poles and at least a portion of each pole tip is separated from its associated pole root. The separation begins at a predetermined distance from the center of the pole root and increases with increasing radial distance while being constant with azimuth within that portion. Magnets in accordance with the subject invention have been found to be particularly advantageous for use in large isochronous cyclotrons.

  8. A study on the changes in attractive force of magnetic attachments for overdenture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Han-Wool; Cho, In-Ho; Lee, Jong-Hyuk; Choi, Yu-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Although magnetic attachment is used frequently for overdenture, it is reported that attractive force can be decreased by abrasion and corrosion. The purpose of this study was to establish the clinical basis about considerations and long term prognosis of overdenture using magnetic attachments by investigating the change in attractive force of magnetic attachment applied to the patients. Among the patients treated with overdenture using magnetic attachments in Dankook University Dental Hospital, attractive force records of 61 magnetic attachments of 20 subjects who re-visited from July 2013 to June 2014 were analyzed. Dental magnet tester (Aichi Micro Intelligent Co., Aichi, Japan) was used for measurement. The magnetic attachments used in this study were Magfit IP-B Flat, Magfit DX400, Magfit DX600 and Magfit DX800 (Aichi Steel Co., Aichi, Japan) filled with Neodymium (NdFeB), a rare-earth magnet. Reduction ratio of attractive force had no significant correlation with conditional variables to which attachments were applied, and was higher when the maintenance period was longer (Pattractive force was significantly higher in the subject group in which attachments were used over 9 years than within 9 years (PAttractive force of magnetic attachment is maintained regardless of conditional variables and reduction ratio increased as the maintenance period became longer. Further study on adhesive material, attachment method and design improvement to prevent detachment of magnetic attachment is needed.

  9. Temperature dependence of magnetic descriptors of Magnetic Adaptive Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Uchimoto, T.; Tomáš, Ivan; Takagi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2010), s. 509-512 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323; GA AV ČR 1QS100100508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic NDE * magnetic adaptive testing * magnetic hysteresis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.052, year: 2010

  10. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  11. Magnetism and magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    It describes the actual status of physics in Brazil concerning the study of magnetism and magnetic materials. It gives an overview of different research groups in Brazil, their needs, as well as the investments needed to improve the area. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  13. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  14. Successful Use of Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Long-Term Pain Palliation in a Patient Suffering from Metastatic Bone Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Jong Tae [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shay, Lilach [InSightec. Ltd, Hifa, (Israel); Lee, Kyong Sik [Dept. of General Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a clinically effective, non-invasive treatment for thermal ablation of various soft tissue tumors, and is effective in pain palliation following radiation therapy, as has been demonstrated in the initial studies of bone metastases. The current study evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of MRgFUS for pain palliation prior to radiation therapy, in a patient with a solitary metastatic bone lesion. This is the first case report of MRgFUS treatment with a 1-year follow-up in a patient.

  15. Successful Use of Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Long-Term Pain Palliation in a Patient Suffering from Metastatic Bone Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Yoon, Sang Wook; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Jong Tae; Shay, Lilach; Lee, Kyong Sik

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a clinically effective, non-invasive treatment for thermal ablation of various soft tissue tumors, and is effective in pain palliation following radiation therapy, as has been demonstrated in the initial studies of bone metastases. The current study evaluated the safety and clinical efficacy of MRgFUS for pain palliation prior to radiation therapy, in a patient with a solitary metastatic bone lesion. This is the first case report of MRgFUS treatment with a 1-year follow-up in a patient.

  16. A mechanism for the dynamo terms to sustain closed-flux current, including helicity balance, by driving current which crosses the magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Sutherland, D. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    An analysis of imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) [T.R. Jarboe et al., Nucl. Fusion 52 083017 (2012)] reveals: (a) current drive on closed flux surfaces seems possible without relaxation, reconnection, or other flux-surface-breaking large events; (b) the scale size of the key physics may be smaller than is often computationally resolved; (c) helicity can be sustained across closed flux; and (d) IDCD current drive is parallel to the current which crosses the magnetic field to produce the current driving force. In addition to agreeing with spheromak data, IDCD agrees with selected tokamak data.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to include the effect of a magnetic object in a subject under investigation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) apparatus is operable at more than one radio frequency (RF) frequency. The apparatus allows normal practice as far as obtaining an NMR response or image from a given nuclear species is concerned, but, in addition, interrogates the nuclear spin system at a frequency which is different from the resonance frequency normally used for the given nuclear species, as determined from the applied magnetic field. The magnetic field close to a magnetised or magnetisable object is modified and the given nuclear species gives a response at the different frequency. Thus detection of a signal at the frequency indicates the presence of the chosen nuclei close to the magnetised or magnetisable object. Applications include validation of an object detection or automatic shape inspection system in the presence of magnetic impurities, and the detection of magnetic particles which affect measurement of liquid flow in a pipe. (author)

  18. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  19. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliuos, Pooyan; Schulze, Jennifer; Schomaker, Markus; Reuter, Günter; Stolle, Stefan R O; Werner, Darja; Ripken, Tammo; Lenarz, Thomas; Warnecke, Athanasia

    2016-01-01

    Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI) electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB) onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated. Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB. Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release. Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  20. Magnetic Beads Enhance Adhesion of NIH 3T3 Fibroblasts: A Proof-of-Principle In Vitro Study for Implant-Mediated Long-Term Drug Delivery to the Inner Ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooyan Aliuos

    Full Text Available Long-term drug delivery to the inner ear may be achieved by functionalizing cochlear implant (CI electrodes with cells providing neuroprotective factors. However, effective strategies in order to coat implant surfaces with cells need to be developed. Our vision is to make benefit of electromagnetic field attracting forces generated by CI electrodes to bind BDNF-secreting cells that are labelled with magnetic beads (MB onto the electrode surfaces. Thus, the effect of MB-labelling on cell viability and BDNF production were investigated.Murine NIH 3T3 fibroblasts-genetically modified to produce BDNF-were labelled with MB.Atomic force and bright field microscopy illustrated the internalization of MB by fibroblasts after 24 h of cultivation. Labelling cells with MB did not expose cytotoxic effects on fibroblasts and allowed adhesion on magnetic surfaces with sufficient BDNF release.Our data demonstrate a novel approach for mediating enhanced long-term adhesion of BDNF-secreting fibroblasts on model electrode surfaces for cell-based drug delivery applications in vitro and in vivo. This therapeutic strategy, once transferred to cells suitable for clinical application, may allow the biological modifications of CI surfaces with cells releasing neurotrophic or other factors of interest.

  1. Magnetic S-parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct test of the existence of gauge duals for nonsupersymmetric asymptotically free gauge theories developing an infrared fixed point by computing the S-parameter in the electric and dual magnetic description. In particular we show that at the lower bound of the conformal window...... the magnetic S-parameter, i.e. the one determined via the dual magnetic gauge theory, assumes a simple expression in terms of the elementary magnetic degrees of freedom. The results further support our recent conjecture of the existence of a universal lower bound on the S parameter and indicates...

  2. Helminth infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar in the decade from 2005 to 2014: temporal trends and varying prevalence among subjects from different regional origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Boughattas, Sonia; Al-Thani, Asma; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Deshmukh, Anand

    2016-03-16

    Travel and migration from developing regions, where tropical diseases are common, to more developed industrialised nations can contribute to the introduction and subsequent spread of infections. With its rapidly expanding economy, Qatar has attracted vast numbers of immigrant workers in the last two decades, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many used to arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections. We analysed the prevalence of helminth infections in a dataset of 29,286 records of subjects referred for stool examination at the Hamad Medical Corporation over the course of a decade (2005 to 2014, inclusive). Overall prevalence of combined helminth infections was low (1.86 %) but there were significant temporal trends, age and sex effects and those arising from the region of origin of the subjects. The most common helminths were hookworms (overall prevalence 1.22 %), which accounted for 70.1 % of cases, and therefore patterns for combined helminth infections were largely driven by hookworms. In both cases, and also in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides, prevalence peaked in 2008, since when prevalence has been steadily falling. Helminth infections were largely concentrated among subjects from five Asian countries (Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan), and there was a highly biased prevalence in favour of male subjects in all cases. Prevalence of all three nematodes peaked in age class 7 (mean age 25.5 years, range = 20-29) and there were significant interactions between region of origin, sex of subjects and prevalence of hookworms. These results offer optimism that prevalence will continue to decline in the years ahead, especially if control is targeted at those most at risk of carrying infections.

  3. A long-term study on the effect of magnetite supplementation in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent - Magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Jung, Heejung; Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-10-01

    Promotion of direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) between exoelectrogenic bacteria and electron-utilizing methanogens has recently been discussed as a new method for enhanced biomethanation. This study evaluated the effect of magnetite-promoted DIET in continuous anaerobic digestion of dairy effluent and tested the magnetic separation and recycling of magnetite to avoid continuous magnetite addition. The applied magnetite recycling method effectively supported enhanced DIET activity and biomethanation performance over a long period (>250days) without adding extra magnetite. DIET via magnetite particles as electrical conduits was likely the main mechanism for the enhanced biomethanation. Magnetite formed complex aggregate structures with microbes, and magnetite recycling also helped retain more biomass in the process. Methanosaeta was likely the major methanogen group responsible for DIET-based methanogenesis, in association with Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi populations as syntrophic partners. The recycling approach proved robust and effective, highlighting the potential of magnetite recycling for high-rate biomethanation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recent development in magnetic neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1993-01-01

    Neutron scattering results contain many new concepts in modern magnetism. We review here the most recent neutron magnetic scattering studies from so called '214' copper oxide lamellar materials, because a number of important developments in magnetism are condensed in this novel subject. We show that neutron scattering has played crucial role in our understanding of modern magnetism. (author)

  5. Magnetic particles as tracers of industrial pollution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrovský, Eduard; Kapička, Aleš; Jordanova, Neli; Fialová, Hana

    č. 26 (2002), s. 131-132 ISSN 1590-2595. [Fundamental rock magnetism and environmental applications. Erice, 26.06.2002-01.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : magnetic particles * industrial pollution * fly ashes * magnetic susceptibility Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  6. Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy Utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Cancer therapy by localized immune response, Magneto -rehological Fluids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing Biocompatible Magnetic Fluids PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Cahit Evrensel...2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Immune Response Augmentation in Metastasized Breast Cancer by Localized Therapy utilizing

  7. Non-Contact Circuit for Real-Time Electric and Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    response, noise spectral density, and dynamic range. 15. SUBJECT TERMS electric field, magnetic field, 1Wire, low-power microcontroller 16. SECURITY...4 Fig. 4 Altium DesignerTM schematic showing the pin connections of our MSP430 microcontroller ...electrical characteristics of the attached cable. 2. Methods and Procedures The circuit’s primary design consists of a microcontroller , 8-channel digital-to

  8. The 2017 Magnetism Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, D.; Valenzuela, S. O.; Makarov, D.; Marrows, C. H.; Fullerton, E. E.; Fischer, P.; McCord, J.; Vavassori, P.; Mangin, S.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.; Kent, A. D.; Jungwirth, T.; Gutfleisch, O.; Kim, C. G.; Berger, A.

    2017-09-01

    accurate snapshot of the world of magnetism in 2017. The article consists of 14 sections, each written by an expert in the field and addressing a specific subject on two pages. Evidently, the depth at which each contribution can describe the subject matter is limited and a full review of their statuses, advances, challenges and perspectives cannot be fully accomplished. Also, magnetism, as a vibrant research field, is too diverse, so that a number of areas will not be adequately represented here, leaving space for further Roadmap editions in the future. However, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article can provide a frame that will enable the reader to judge where each subject and magnetism research field stands overall today and which directions it might take in the foreseeable future. The first material focused pillar of the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap contains five articles, which address the questions of atomic scale confinement, 2D, curved and topological magnetic materials, as well as materials exhibiting unconventional magnetic phase transitions. The second pillar also has five contributions, which are devoted to advances in magnetic characterization, magneto-optics and magneto-plasmonics, ultrafast magnetization dynamics and magnonic transport. The final and application focused pillar has four contributions, which present non-volatile memory technology, antiferromagnetic spintronics, as well as magnet technology for energy and bio-related applications. As a whole, the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article, just as with its 2014 predecessor, is intended to act as a reference point and guideline for emerging research directions in modern magnetism.

  9. The 2017 Magnetism Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, D; Valenzuela, S O; Makarov, D

    2017-01-01

    accurate snapshot of the world of magnetism in 2017. The article consists of 14 sections, each written by an expert in the field and addressing a specific subject on two pages. Evidently, the depth at which each contribution can describe the subject matter is limited and a full review of their statuses, advances, challenges and perspectives cannot be fully accomplished. Also, magnetism, as a vibrant research field, is too diverse, so that a number of areas will not be adequately represented here, leaving space for further Roadmap editions in the future. However, this 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article can provide a frame that will enable the reader to judge where each subject and magnetism research field stands overall today and which directions it might take in the foreseeable future. The first material focused pillar of the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap contains five articles, which address the questions of atomic scale confinement, 2D, curved and topological magnetic materials, as well as materials exhibiting unconventional magnetic phase transitions. The second pillar also has five contributions, which are devoted to advances in magnetic characterization, magneto-optics and magneto-plasmonics, ultrafast magnetization dynamics and magnonic transport. The final and application focused pillar has four contributions, which present non-volatile memory technology, antiferromagnetic spintronics, as well as magnet technology for energy and bio-related applications. As a whole, the 2017 Magnetism Roadmap article, just as with its 2014 predecessor, is intended to act as a reference point and guideline for emerging research directions in modern magnetism. (topical review)

  10. Piezoelectric response of a PZT thin film to magnetic fields from permanent magnet and coil combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiffard, B.; Seveno, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the magnetically induced electric field E 3 in Pb(Zr0.57Ti0.43)O3 (PZT) thin films, when they are subjected to both dynamic magnetic induction (magnitude B ac at 45 kHz) and static magnetic induction ( B dc) generated by a coil and a single permanent magnet, respectively. It is found that highest sensitivity to B dc——is achieved for the thin film with largest effective electrode. This magnetoelectric (ME) effect is interpreted in terms of coupling between eddy current-induced Lorentz forces (stress) in the electrodes of PZT and piezoelectricity. Such coupling was evidenced by convenient modelling of experimental variations of electric field magnitude with both B ac and B dc induction magnitudes, providing imperfect open circuit condition was considered. Phase angle of E 3 versus B dc could also be modelled. At last, the results show that similar to multilayered piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composite film, a PZT thin film made with a simple manufacturing process can behave as a static or dynamic magnetic field sensor. In this latter case, a large ME voltage coefficient of under B dc = 0.3 T was found. All these results may provide promising low-cost magnetic energy harvesting applications with microsized systems.

  11. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  12. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  13. Magnet management in electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Huh, Kum Kang

    2017-03-21

    A magnet management method of controlling a ferrite-type permanent magnet electrical machine includes receiving and/or estimating the temperature permanent magnets; determining if that temperature is below a predetermined temperature; and if so, then: selectively heating the magnets in order to prevent demagnetization and/or derating the machine. A similar method provides for controlling magnetization level by analyzing flux or magnetization level. Controllers that employ various methods are disclosed. The present invention has been described in terms of specific embodiment(s), and it is recognized that equivalents, alternatives, and modifications, aside from those expressly stated, are possible and within the scope of the appending claims.

  14. Specialty magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.

    1986-07-01

    A number of basic conceptual designs are explained for magnet systems that use permanent magnet materials. Included are iron free multipoles and hybrid magnets. Also appended is a discussion of the manufacturing process and magnetic properties of some permanent magnet materials

  15. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  16. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Tatsuo; Adel, Mohamed; Takahashi, Masahiro; Haga, Shugo; Nagahama, Ryo; Nakashima, Misato; Furuhata, Mayu; Kamatani, Takaaki; Maki, Koutaro

    2017-01-01

    Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient's malocclusion. The patient's mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course. PMID:28744380

  17. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Yamaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient’s malocclusion. The patient’s mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course.

  18. The 2017 magnetism roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sander, D.; Valenzuela, S.O.; Makarov, D.; Marrows, C.H.; Fullerton, E.E.; Fischer, P.; McCord, J.; Vavassori, P.; Mangin, S.; Pirro, P.; Hillebrands, B.; Kent, A.D.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Gutfleisch, O.; Kim, C.G.; Berger, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 36 (2017), s. 1-33, č. článku 363001. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetism * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016

  19. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  20. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  1. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  2. Metallic Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hernando

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reviewed some relevant aspects of the magnetic properties of metallic nanoparticles with small size (below 4 nm, covering the size effects in nanoparticles of magnetic materials, as well as the appearance of magnetism at the nanoscale in materials that are nonferromagnetic in bulk. These results are distributed along the text that has been organized around three important items: fundamental magnetic properties, different fabrication procedures, and characterization techniques. A general introduction and some experimental results recently obtained in Pd and Au nanoparticles have also been included. Finally, the more promising applications of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine are indicated. Special care was taken to complete the literature available on the subject.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethier, R.; Melanson, D.; Peters, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Ten years following computerized tomography, a new technique called nuclear magnetic resonance revolutionizes the field of diagnostic imaging. A major advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance is that the danger of radiation is non-existent as compared to computerized tomography. When parts of the human body are subject to radio-frequencies while in a fixed magnetic field, its most detailed structures are revealed. The quality of images, the applications, as well as the indications are forever increasing. Images obtained at the level of the brain and spinal cord through nuclear magnetic resonance supercede those obtained through computerized tomography. Hence, it is most likely that myelography, along with pneumoencephalography will be eliminated as a diagnostic means. It is without a doubt that nuclear magnetic resonance is tomorrow's computerized tomography [fr

  4. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  5. Predictors of long-term pain and disability in patients with low back pain investigated by magnetic resonance imaging: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampson Madeleine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is possible that clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP differs according to the presence or absence of spinal abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, in which case there could be value in using MRI findings to refine case definition of LBP in epidemiological research. We therefore conducted a longitudinal study to explore whether spinal abnormalities on MRI for LBP predict prognosis after 18 months. Methods A consecutive series of patients aged 20-64 years, who were investigated by MRI because of mechanical LBP (median duration of current episode 16.2 months, were identified from three radiology departments, and those who agreed completed self-administered questionnaires at baseline and after a mean follow-up period of 18.5 months (a mean of 22.2 months from MRI investigation. MRI scans were assessed blind to other clinical information, according to a standardised protocol. Associations of baseline MRI findings with pain and disability at follow-up, adjusted for treatment and for other potentially confounding variables, were assessed by Poisson regression and summarised by prevalence ratios (PRs with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Questionnaires were completed by 240 (74% of the patients who had agreed to be followed up. Among these 111 men and 129 women, 175 (73% reported LBP in the past four weeks, 89 (37% frequent LBP, and 72 (30% disabling LBP. In patients with initial disc degeneration there was an increased risk of frequent (PR 1.3, 95%CI 1.0-1.9 and disabling LBP (PR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1-2.5 at follow-up. No other associations were found between MRI abnormalities and subsequent outcome. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the MRI abnormalities examined are not major predictors of outcome in patients with LBP. They give no support to the use of MRI findings as a way of refining case definition for LBP in epidemiological research.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging with superparamagnetic iron oxide fails to track the long-term fate of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted into heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Liu, Qiong; Chen, Xiuyu; Yin, Gang; Zhu, Hao; Zhang, Lianfeng; Meng, Xianmin; Tang, Yue; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-03-12

    MRI for in vivo stem cell tracking remains controversial. Here we tested the hypothesis that MRI can track the long-term fate of the superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles labelled mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) following intramyocardially injection in AMI rats. MSCs (1 × 10(6)) from male rats doubly labeled with SPIO and DAPI were injected 2 weeks after myocardial infarction. The control group received cell-free media injection. In vivo serial MRI was performed at 24 hours before cell delivery (baseline), 3 days, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after cell delivery, respectively. Serial follow-up MRI demonstrated large persistent intramyocardial signal-voids representing SPIO during the follow-up of 4 weeks, and MSCs did not moderate the left ventricular dysfunction. The TUNEL analysis confirmed that MSCs engrafted underwent apoptosis. The histopathological studies revealed that the site of cell injection was infiltrated by inflammatory cells progressively and the iron-positive cells were macrophages identified by CD68 staining, but very few or no DAPI-positive stem cells at 4 weeks after cells transplantation. The presence of engrafted cells was confirmed by real-time PCR, which showed that the amount of Y-chromosome-specific SRY gene was consistent with the results. MRI may not reliably track the long-term fate of SPIO-labeled MSCs engraftment in heart.

  7. Magnetic conditioning in superfluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caspi, S.

    1988-08-01

    Improvements in superconducting magnet technology have reduced to a handful the number of training quenches typical of dipole magnets. The number of training quenches in long (17 m) and short (1--2 m) SSC magnets are now about the same (operating at 6.6 tesla and 4.4 K). Yet the steps necessary to totally eliminate training are in the future RandD plans for magnet construction and conductor motion prevention. The accepted hypothesis is that Lorentz forces and poor mechanical properties of superconducting cables are the cause of conductor motion. Conductor motion reduces the stored energy in the cable by converting it into heat. The small amount of heat generated (millijoules) during motion is usually enough to quench the magnet when it is close to short sample. During training, the magnet performance normally improves with the number of quenches. It is not the quench itself that improves magnet performance but rather the fact that once conductor motion has occurred it will probably not repeat itself unless subjected to higher forces. Conditioning is a process that enables the magnet to reduce its stored energy without causing a premature quench. During the conditioning process the magnet is further cooled from its operating temperature of 4.4 K to 1.8 K by converting He I into He II. As a result the magnet is placed in a state where it has excess stability as well as excellent heat transfer capabilities. Although this does not eliminate motion, if the magnet is now cycled to /approximately/10% above its operating field at 4.4 K (which is above short sample) the excess stability should be enough to prevent quenching and reduce the probability of conductor motion and training once the magnet has been warmed back up to its operating temperature of 4.4 K. 3 refs., 5 figs

  8. Magnetic conditioning in superfluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspi, S.

    1988-08-01

    Improvements in superconducting magnet technology have reduced to a handful the number of training quenches typical of dipole magnets. The number of training quenches in long (17 m) and short (1--2 m) SSC magnets are now about the same (operating at 6.6 tesla and 4.4 K). Yet the steps necessary to totally eliminate training are in the future RandD plans for magnet construction and conductor motion prevention. The accepted hypothesis is that Lorentz forces and poor mechanical properties of superconducting cables are the cause of conductor motion. Conductor motion reduces the stored energy in the cable by converting it into heat. The small amount of heat generated (millijoules) during motion is usually enough to quench the magnet when it is close to short sample. During training, the magnet performance normally improves with the number of quenches. It is not the quench itself that improves magnet performance but rather the fact that once conductor motion has occurred it will probably not repeat itself unless subjected to higher forces. Conditioning is a process that enables the magnet to reduce its stored energy without causing a premature quench. During the conditioning process the magnet is further cooled from its operating temperature of 4.4 K to 1.8 K by converting He I into He II. As a result the magnet is placed in a state where it has excess stability as well as excellent heat transfer capabilities. Although this does not eliminate motion, if the magnet is now cycled to /approximately/10% above its operating field at 4.4 K (which is above short sample) the excess stability should be enough to prevent quenching and reduce the probability of conductor motion and training once the magnet has been warmed back up to its operating temperature of 4.4 K. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Effects of short- and long-term Mediterranean-based dietary treatment on plasma LC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling of subjects with metabolic syndrome features: The Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Martinez, José Alfredo; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, Kati; Zulet, Maria de los Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics approach may contribute to identify beneficial associations of metabolic changes affected by Mediterranean diet-based interventions with inflammatory and oxidative-stress markers related to the etiology and development of the MetS. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight-MS metabolic profiling was applied to plasma from a 6-month randomized intervention with two sequential periods, a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, and a 4-month self-control period, with two energy-restricted diets; the RESMENA diet (based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the Control diet (based on the American Heart Association guidelines), in 72 subjects with a high BMI and at least two features of MetS. The major contributing biomarkers of each sequential period were lipids, mainly phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between metabolic changes and clinical variables after 2 and 6 month of intervention, with a highly interconnected network during the nutritional-learning intervention period of the study. The 2-month RESMENA diet produced significant changes in the plasma metabolic profile of subjects with MetS features. However, at the end of the 6-month study, most of the associations between metabolic and clinical variables disappeared; suggesting that adherence to healthy dietary habits had declined during the self-control period. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Study of the the efficacy Magiran, Noormags and SID database in retrieval and relevance of Information Science and Knowledge subject by free keywords and Compare them in terms of the use of controlled keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Shahbazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, Speed and coverage are two important factors that are considered by databases. In fact, a database in a particular subject area can be valid when a large percentage of the area covered by the thematic keywords and consequently it can provide most of the resources with the resources for that subject. The present study was conducted based on analytical - survey method with the main objectives of comparing Noormagz, Magiran and SID databases according to the rate of information, knowledge retrieval, and relevance of thematic vocabulary by free and controlled Keywords as well as Secondary objectives of comparing the coverage and overlap of these three databases of indexed journals in the field of information science and knowledge. All journals in the field of information and knowledge science are approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, according to the latest list of valid publications of this ministry in March 2016 , and key words taken from the articles in these journals were considered population of this research. Searching and comparing selected thematic keywords in each of the study databases indicated that there are a huge difference regarding free and controlled vocabulary retrieval of information and knowledge science in Noormagz database compared to the other two sites. In addition, studying the thematic relevance of research data showed that the ability of this database for receiving other related articles is more than two other databases. Although the titles of journals in Magiran database were more than those two databases and this database compared to two other databases was more update, the number of journals published in Noormagz database were more than others.

  11. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E., E-mail: bekas@itmo.by [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S. [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Istomin, Yuri P. [N. N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus, Lesnoy-2, Minsk 223040 (Belarus); Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S. [Institute of Physiology, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str. 28, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-04-15

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body. - Highlights: • Hard-magnetic nanoparticles are shown superior for hyperthetmia to superparamagnetic. • Optimal system parameters are found from magnetic reversal model in movable particle. • Penetrating suspension of HM particles with aggregation-independent SAR is developed. • For the first time, mice with tumors are healed in AC field acceptable for human body.

  12. A new method of assembling large magnetic blocks from permanent NdFeB magnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2007), 75-83 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : magnet assembly * magnet ic circuits * magnet ic separation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism www.irsm.cas.cz

  13. A magnetic filter with permanent magnets on the basis of rare earths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žežulka, Václav; Straka, Pavel; Mucha, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 268, - (2004), s. 219-226 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS3046004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : magnetic filtration * rare earth magnets * high gradient magnetic Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  14. Monte Carlo simulated dynamical magnetization of single-chain magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui, E-mail: bgliu@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-03-15

    Here, a dynamical Monte-Carlo (DMC) method is used to study temperature-dependent dynamical magnetization of famous Mn{sub 2}Ni system as typical example of single-chain magnets with strong magnetic anisotropy. Simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results under typical temperatures and sweeping rates, and simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are also consistent with experimental curves. Further analysis indicates that the magnetization reversal is determined by both thermal-activated effects and quantum spin tunnelings. These can help explore basic properties and applications of such important magnetic systems. - Highlights: • Monte Carlo simulated magnetization curves are in good agreement with experimental results. • Simulated coercive fields as functions of temperature are consistent with experimental results. • The magnetization reversal is understood in terms of the Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Magnetic Spinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    A science toy sometimes called the "magnetic spinner" is an interesting class demonstration to illustrate the principles of magnetic levitation. It can also be used to demonstrate Faraday's law and a horizontally suspended physical pendulum. The levitated part contains two circular magnets encased in a plastic housing. Each magnet stays…

  16. Targeted drug delivery to magnetic implants for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellen, Benjamin B.; Forbes, Zachary G.; Halverson, Derek S.; Fridman, Gregory; Barbee, Kenneth A.; Chorny, Michael; Levy, Robert; Friedman, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A new method for locally targeted drug delivery is proposed that employs magnetic implants placed directly in the cardiovascular system to attract injected magnetic carriers. Theoretical simulations and experimental results support the assumption that using magnetic implants in combination with externally applied magnetic field will optimize the delivery of magnetic drug to selected sites within a subject

  17. Forces between a permanent magnet and a soft magnetic plate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beleggia, M.; Vokoun, David; DeGraef, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 5 (2012), 0500204/1-0500204/4 ISSN 1949-307X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP108/12/P111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : electromagnetics * hard magnetic materials * soft magnetic materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6313974

  18. Solar-cycle period-amplitude relation as evidence of hysteresis of the solar-cycle nonlinear magnetic oscillation and the long-term (55 year) cyclic modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.

    1979-01-01

    A new dynamical model of the solar cycle has predicted that the cycle should have a hysteretic nature: the behavior of each 11 year cycle should depend on previous cycles. In the light of this new understanding of the dynamical mechanism of the solar cycle, Waldmeier's (hypothetical) law was examined as a yet unexplained characteristic of the cycle by studying the observed sunspot frequency curve. Contrary to this hypothetical law, however, it was found that sunspot cycle curves did not form a single-parameter family characterized by the maximum amplitude of the cycle. The evolutionary trajectories in period-amplitude phase space verified the hysteretic nature of the observed cycle and revealed long-term (55 year instead of the previously claimed 80 year) periodic modulations, called here 55 year grand cycles. Each 55 year grand cycle forms a loop in the phase space, and the characteristics of each 11 year cycle depend on its position in the ascending or descending phase of the grand cycle. This new law was analyzed by the nonlinear multiple-period dynamo oscillation model which has predicted the hysteretic nature. The era from cycle 11 to cycle 15 turned out to be an anomalous one characterized by alternating amplitudes for odd and even cycles. Cycles 16--20 seem to constitute one grand cycle. If this is true, cycle 21 would be the beginning of another grand maximum and the model predicts that its duration would be short

  19. Value of magnetic resonance imaging in the mid-term follow-up of osteochondritis dissecans of the femoral condyle and talus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.; Rominger, M.; Rau, W.S.; Juergensen, I.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Definition of the prognostic value of clinical and morphological findings in the mid-term follow-up of OCD of the femoral condyle and talus. Demonstration of the consolidation of OCD on MRI depending on different therapies. Materials and Methods: 76 patients were examined before and at an average of 30 months after conservative or surgical therapy using T 1 and T 2 weighted SE and 3D-FISP sequences and contrast enhanced studies. Six clinical (age, gender, site, duration and severity of symptoms, therapy) and six morphological (size, signal intensity, fragmentation, contrast enhancement, condition of cartilage, staging) data were registered on first MRI and correlated with the degree of consolidation of OCD (partial and complete remission, no change and progression) on control MRI. Results: Patients under 17 years showed partial or complete remissions in 73%, those of 17 years or older in 33%. Conservatively treated patients had a higher remission rate (54%) than those treated with different surgical techniques (drilling 50%, refixation 43%, abrasio 38%). Small OCDs had a higher remission rate than large lesions (63% vs. 33%). OCDs covered with intact cartilage healed better than lesions with chondral defects (61% vs. 26%). Contrast enhancing fragments had a better prognosis than non-enhancing lesions (100% vs. 40%). Conclusions: Prognosis of OCD can be better estimated when size of OCD, condition of cartilage and enhancement of contrast agent is graduated with MRI and patient age is registered. The consequences for therapy planning are great. (orig.) [de

  20. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  1. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  2. Magnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-01

    Welcome to the special issue of Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials on magnetic skyrmions. We are proud to present, with great pleasure, a timely collection of 9 original research articles on the recent hot topic "magnetic skyrmions" which studies the static and dynamic properties of skyrmions and the methods to control them in a variety of ways, including magnetic field, electric current and applied strain.

  3. Magnetic Exitations in Praseodymium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Rainford, B. D.; Jensen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic excitations in a single crystal of dhcp Pr have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The excitations on the hexagonal sites, and their dependence on magnetic fields up to 43 kOe applied in the basal plane, have been analyzed in terms of a Hamiltonian in which exchange, crystal......-field, and magnetoelastic interactions are included. The exchange is found to be strongly anisotropic, and this anisotropy is manifested directly in a splitting of most branches of the dispersion relations. By considering a variety of magnetic properties, we have been able to determine the crystal-field level scheme...

  4. A paradigm called magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of how diverse issues of Magnetism have implications for other areas of physics. Attention will be drawn to different aspects of many-body physics, which first appeared in Magnetism but have had deep impact in different branches of physics. Each of these aspects will be illustrated schematically and in terms of physical examples, chosen from multicritical phenomena, quantum phase transition, spin glasses, relaxation, phase ordering and quantum dissipation. A unique feature of this book is a unified and coherent discussion of magnetic phenomena, presented in a luc

  5. Mid-term follow-up of patients with transposition of the great arteries after atrial inversion operation using two- and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.; Hubbard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Background: Older patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone an atrial inversion procedure (ATRIAL-INV) are difficult to image by echocardiography. The surgical baffles are spatially complex. Objective: To test the hypothesis that two- and three-dimensional MRI can elucidate the spatially complex anatomy in this patient population. Materials and methods; Twelve patients with ATRIAL-INV, ages 16±4.5 years, underwent routine T1-weighted spin-echo axial imaging to obtain a full cardiac volumetric data set. Postprocessing created three-dimensional shaded surface displays and allowed for multiplanar reconstruction. Routine transthoracic echocardiography was available on all patients. Results: Three-dimensional reconstruction enabled complete spatial conceptualization of the venous pathways, and allowed for precise localization of a narrowed region in the upper limb of the systemic venous pathway found in two patients. This was subsequently confirmed on angiography. Routine MRI was able to image the full extent of the venous pathways in all 12 patients. Routine transthoracic echocardiography was able to visualize proximal portions of the venous pathways in eight (67%), the distal upper limb in five (42%), and the distal lower limb in four (33%) patients, and it was able to visualize the outflow tracts in all patients. Conclusion: Three-dimensional reconstruction adds important spatial information, which can be especially important in stenotic regions. Routine MRI is superior to transthoracic echocardiography in delineation of the systemic and pulmonary venous pathway anatomy of ATRIAL-INV patients at mid-term follow-up. Although transesophageal echocardiography is an option, it is more invasive. (orig.)

  6. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  7. Pulsed air-core deflector-magnet design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.; Cooper, R.K.; Liebman, A.D.; Blind, B.; Koelle, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    The response of air-core magnets to pulsed excitation is dependent on the pulse frequency spectrum because of fields produced by induced currents in the magnet structure. We discuss this phenomenon quantitatively in terms of magnet performance optimization

  8. Safety and reliability in superconducting MHD magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverick, C.; Powell, J.; Hsieh, S.; Reich, M.; Botts, T.; Prodell, A.

    1979-07-01

    This compilation adapts studies on safety and reliability in fusion magnets to similar problems in superconducting MHD magnets. MHD base load magnet requirements have been identified from recent Francis Bitter National Laboratory reports and that of other contracts. Information relevant to this subject in recent base load magnet design reports for AVCO - Everett Research Laboratories and Magnetic Corporation of America is included together with some viewpoints from a BNL workshop on structural analysis needed for superconducting coils in magnetic fusion energy. A summary of design codes used in large bubble chamber magnet design is also included

  9. Method of regulating magnetic field of magnetic pole center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masao; Yamada, Teruo; Kato, Norihiko; Toda, Yojiro; Kaneda, Yasumasa.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the subject method comprising using a plurality of magnetic metal pieces having different thicknesses, regulating very easily symmetry of the field of the magnetic pole center depending upon the combination of said metal pieces, thereby obtaining a magnetic field of high precision. Method: The regulation of magnetic field at the central part of the magnetic field is not depending only upon processing of the center plug, axial movement of trim coil and ion source but by providing a magnetic metal piece such as an iron ring, primary higher harmonics of the field at the center of the magnetic field can be regulated simply while the position of the ion source slit is on the equipotential surface in the field. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Magnetic measurements under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zentková, M.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Mihalik, M.; Mihalik, M.; Zentko, A.; Kamarád, Jiří; Mitróová, Z.; Mat`aš, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, 8/S (2006), s. 29-32 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrostatic pressure * Prussian blue analogues * AC susceptibility * intermetallic compound * ferromagnetism * errimagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  12. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  13. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  14. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  15. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in the men exposed to 1.5 T static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmatel, O; Sert, C; Sirmatel, F; Selek, S; Yokus, B

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-strength magnetic field produced by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus on oxidative stress. The effects of a 1.5 T static magnetic field on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in male subjects were investigated. In this study, 33 male volunteers were exposed to a 1.5 T static magnetic field for a short time and the TAC, TOS and OSI of each subject were determined. Magnetic field exposure was provided using a magnetic resonance apparatus; radiofrequency was not applied. Blood samples were taken from subjects and TAC, TOS and OSI values were measured using the methods of Erel. TAC showed a significant increase in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to the magnetic field (p < 0.05). OSI and TOS showed a significant decrease in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to a 1.5 T magnetic field (for each of two, p < 0.01). The 1.5 T static magnetic field used in the MRI apparatus did not yield a negative effect; on the contrary, it produced the positive effect of decreasing oxidative stress in men following short-term exposure.

  16. High energy magnetic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    The report emphasizes that the current development in condensed matter physics opens a research field fit to inelastic neutron scattering experiments in the eV range which is easilly accessed by spallation neutro