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Sample records for subject terms chemical

  1. Long-term study of an estuarine mudflat subjected to petro-chemical discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLusky, D.A.; Martins, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Kinneil intertidal area, situated in the middle reaches of the Forth estuary, eastern Scotland, has been subject to the effects of industrial discharges, principally from petro-chemical industries (oil refinery and chemical works) since the 1920s. The intertidal fauna has been studied annually since 1976 using consistent methodology. The study continues, now providing over 20 yrs of data. During the study period the discharges from the industrial sources have been reduced substantially through a combination of plant closure and modernization and the installation of effluent treatment works. Furthermore, the River Avon which flows across the area has experienced substantial improvements in water quality, attributed to improvements in waste treatment works at localities upstream from the estuarine site. Overall, however, the clearest trends have been increases in diversity, expressed either as mean number of species per station, or as diversity indices. These increases in diversity are shown to be a clear community response to the improvements made to the petro-chemical wastes discharged to the area. (author)

  2. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 2--long-term health effects among participants of U.S. military chemical warfare agent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns about how their participation affected their health. A companion article describes the history of these experiments, and how the lack of clinical data hampers evaluation of long-term health consequences. Conversely, much information is available about specific agents tested and their long-term health effects in other populations, which may be invaluable for helping clinicians respond effectively to the health care and other needs of affected veterans. The following review describes tested agents and their known long-term health consequences. Although hundreds of chemicals were tested, they fall into only about a half-dozen pharmaceutical classes, including common pharmaceuticals; anticholinesterase agents including military nerve agents and pesticides; anticholinergic glycolic acid esters such as atropine; acetylcholine reactivators such as 2-PAM; psychoactive compounds including cannabinoids, phencyclidine, and LSD; and irritants including tear gas and riot control agents.

  3. Biomass Morphology Subjected to Different Chemical Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Masjida Mazlan, Siti; Taib, Siti Noor Linda; Lee, Delsye Teo Ching; Hassan, Alsidqi; Kudnie Sahari, Siti; Mohamad Said, Khairul Anwar; Rahman Sobuz, Habibur

    2018-03-01

    A growing interest of sugarcane bagasse fibre composite has been observed in recent years due to its attractiveness properties such as low specific weight, renewable source and producible with low investment at low cost. However, these materials have a low interfacial adhesion between fibre and matrix which lead to reduction in certain mechanical properties of the composite. To overcome this problem, studies show that certain chemical treatments on the surface of the fibres are some alternatives that significantly increase the adhesion reinforcement/matrix, in some cases improving its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different type of chemical treatment which are alkali and acid treatment on sugarcane bagasse fibre surface morphology. Seeking to improve the adhesion fibre matrix, the fibre has been treated with 5% of NaOH and 5% of HCL solution with added of bagasse fibre used in the range of 0% to 3% of cement weight respectively. Through SEM investigation, it is confirmed that chemical treatment helps to remove hemicelluloses from raw bagasse fiber as well as improved fibre matrix adhesion.

  4. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemical Substances which are the Subject of Certain TSCA Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides guidance for people who may be subject to the Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule on how their requirements for reporting for 2016 may be affected when chemical substances are the subject of certain TSCA actions.

  5. Chemical evolution and the origin of life: cumulative keyword subject index 1970-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. C.; Powers, J. V.; Rummel, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    This cumulative subject index encompasses the subject indexes of the bibliographies on Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life that were first published in 1970 and have continued through publication of the 1986 bibliography supplement. Early bibliographies focused on experimental and theoretical material dealing directly with the concepts of chemical evolution and the origin of life, excluding the broader areas of exobiology, biological evolution, and geochemistry. In recent years, these broader subject areas have also been incorporated as they appear in literature searches relating to chemical evolution and the origin of life, although direct attempts have not been made to compile all of the citations in these broad areas. The keyword subject indexes have also undergone an analogous change in scope. Compilers of earlier bibliographies used the most specific term available in producing the subject index. Compilers of recent bibliographies have used a number of broad terms relating to the overall subject content of each citation and specific terms where appropriate. The subject indexes of these 17 bibliographies have, in general, been cumulatively compiled exactly as they originally appeared. However, some changes have been made in an attempt to correct errors, combine terms, and provide more meaningful terms.

  6. Radiological and chemical source terms for Solid Waste Operations Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological and chemical source terms for the major projects of the Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC), including Project W-112, Project W-133 and Project W-100 (WRAP 2A). For purposes of this document, the term ''source term'' means the design basis inventory. All of the SWOC source terms involve the estimation of the radiological and chemical contents of various waste packages from different waste streams, and the inventories of these packages within facilities or within a scope of operations. The composition of some of the waste is not known precisely; consequently, conservative assumptions were made to ensure that the source term represents a bounding case (i.e., it is expected that the source term would not be exceeded). As better information is obtained on the radiological and chemical contents of waste packages and more accurate facility specific models are developed, this document should be revised as appropriate. Radiological source terms are needed to perform shielding and external dose calculations, to estimate routine airborne releases, to perform release calculations and dose estimates for safety documentation, to calculate the maximum possible fire loss and specific source terms for individual fire areas, etc. Chemical source terms (i.e., inventories of combustible, flammable, explosive or hazardous chemicals) are used to determine combustible loading, fire protection requirements, personnel exposures to hazardous chemicals from routine and accident conditions, and a wide variety of other safety and environmental requirements

  7. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  8. Exploration of Web Users' Search Interests through Automatic Subject Categorization of Query Terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hsiao-tieh; Yang, Chyan; Chuang, Shui-Lung

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mechanism that carefully integrates human and machine efforts to explore Web users' search interests. The approach consists of a four-step process: extraction of core terms; construction of subject taxonomy; automatic subject categorization of query terms; and observation of users' search interests. Research findings are proved valuable…

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  11. Predicting Rapid Relapse Following Treatment for Chemical Dependence: A Matched-Subjects Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanum, Soren; McAdoo, William George

    1989-01-01

    Persons who underwent residential treatment for chemical dependency were identified as three-month treatment failures (N=52) or successes (N=52). Subjects were matched on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) scores. Found posttreatment depression, anxiety, and sleep problems strongly related to failure among psychiatric MMPI group;…

  12. A study on shear behavior of R/C beams subjected to long-term heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, M.; Yamazaki, M.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, many structural members are subjected to long term heating. There are few experimental data available on the behavior especially in shear of reinforced concrete (R/C) members subjected to long term heating. This paper describes a study aimed at experimentally determining the shear behavior of R/C members in nuclear power plant facilities following sustained heating at high temperatures

  13. The difference in subjective and objective complexity in the visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several studies discuss the influence of complexity on the visual short term memory; some have demonstrated that short-term memory is surprisingly stable regardless of content (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997) where others have shown that memory can be influenced by the complexity of stimulus (e.g. Alvarez...... characters. On the contrary expertise or word frequency may reflect what could be termed subjective complexity, as this relate directly to the individual mental categories established. This study will be able to uncover more details on how we should define complexity of objects to be encoded into short-term....... & Cavanagh, 2004). But the term complexity is often not clearly defined. Sørensen (2008; see also Dall, Katsumi, & Sørensen, 2016) suggested that complexity can be related to two different types; objective and subjective complexity. This distinction is supported by a number of studies on the influence...

  14. Some comments on misuse of terms related to chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2007-01-01

    Complet text of publication follows. I have been involved in scientific studies involving chemical analysis for more than 49 years. Over this period I have observed an increasing tendency to incorrect use of terms 'analysis' and 'determination' and the corresponding verbum forms. According to correct terminology in English, samples are analyzed, analytes (e.g., trace elements) are determined. However, too often expressions such as 'analysis of copper in blood' are seen in the literature, especially in papers written by non-chemists. The reason why I am raising this point at the present time in that I observed the problem in several recent titles of papers published over the last few years in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry: Preconcentration and neutron activation analysis of thorium and uranium in natural waters. Use of activated carbon as pre-separation agent in NAA of selenium, cobalt and iodine. Recent developments in the analysis of transuranics (Np, Pu, Am) in sea water. Automated radiochemical analysis of total 99 Tc in aged nuclear waste processing streams. Photon activation analysis of carbon in glasses for fiber amplifiers by using the flow method for the rapid separation of 11 C. Preconcentration neutron activation analysis of lanthanides by cloudpoint extraction using PAN. Analysis of the chemical elements in leaves infected by fumagina by X-ray fluorescence technique. Rapid method for 226 Ra and 228 Ra analysis in water samples. The above list is far from exhaustive. I believe that this incorrect use of terminology should be avoided at least in the titles of scientific papers, in Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry as well as in other scientific journals. In some of the above cases replacing 'of' with 'for the determination of', or just with 'for', would have solved the problem. In other cases it would be preferable to reverse the order of words in the sentence, such as e.g., 'Determination of selenium, cobalt and

  15. Subjective and objective measurement of websites quality in a chemical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Jillbert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the Website of a chemical company, Deza, relative to strategy and Website quality. In an attempt to obtain both an objective and subjective measure of the quality of the Deza website, two assessment methods have been used. Firstly, a subjective assessment was conducted based on the WebQual survey instrument proposed by Barnes and Vidgen (2000. Secondly, a more objective assessment was conducted via an “informational content analysis”, based on the work of Carlson et. al. (2001. Analysis of the results of the WebQual survey suggest that overall, the Deza Website is perceived by the user as being of a higher quality than the Koppers Website, but a lower quality then the Nalon Website. The Information content analysis also ranks the Deza website as being superior to Koppers and inferior to Nalon.

  16. Frequency of use controls chemical leaching from drinking-water containers subject to disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P

    2011-12-15

    Microbial-, and chemical-based burden of disease associated with lack of access to safe water continues to primarily impact developing countries. Cost-effective health risk-mitigating measures, such as of solar disinfection applied to microbial-contaminated water stored in plastic bottles have been increasingly tested in developing countries adversely impacted by epidemic water-borne diseases. Public health concerns associated with chemical leaching from water packaging materials led us to investigate the magnitude and variability of antimony (Sb) and bromine (Br) leaching from reused plastic containers (polyethylene terephthalate, PET; and polycarbonate, PC) subject to UV and/or temperature-driven disinfection. The overall objective of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of temperature, UV exposure duration, and frequency of bottle reuse on the extent of leaching of Sb and Br from plastic bottles into water. Regardless of UV exposure duration, frequency of reuse (up to 27 times) was the major factor that linearly increased Sb leaching from PET bottles at all temperatures tested (13-47 °C). Leached Sb concentrations (∼360 ng L(-1)) from the highly reused (27 times) PET bottles (minimal Sb leaching from PC bottles, water at much lower concentrations. Additional research on potential leaching of organic chemicals from water packaging materials is deemed necessary under relevant environmental conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Specific terms glossary for subjects taught in Physical Culture first year career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isel Rodríguez Cruz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contents comprehension is an important element in the learning process; present didactic ways demand from teaching styles that favor communicative competence in the students. Taking into account the relevance of this topic in the teaching learning process it was decided to develop the present work, which has the objective to offer the students a tool that allow them an efficient comprehension of the contents they receive in the Physical Culture first year career subjects. To fulfil the goal a glossary with specific terms of basketball, chess, swimming, athletics, basic gymnastics, and morphology was designed starting from the results of the initial diagnosis, the scientific observation, as well as the detail revision of the normative documents that rule Communicative Spanish subject. The glossary use favor the students´ texts comprehension development from the mentioned subject.

  18. Long-Term Quality of Life Improvement in Subjects with Healed Erosive Esophagitis: Treatment with Lansoprazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freston, James W.; Haber, Marian M.; Atkinson, Stuart; Hunt, Barbara; Peura, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic symptomatic condition and may be associated with erosive esophagitis (EE). Considerable data on the long-term maintenance of healing of EE are available, but data on long-term GERD symptom prevention and patient quality of life (QOL) are limited. Aims To investigate QOL in subjects with healed EE who received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole or ranitidine, followed by long-term open-label lansoprazole therapy to prevent recurrence of EE. Methods Subjects with healed EE received 12 months of double-blind maintenance treatment with lansoprazole 15 mg once daily or ranitidine 150 mg twice daily, followed by dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole therapy for up to 82 months. Results During double-blind treatment (n = 206), lansoprazole-treated patients showed significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater improvements than ranitidine-treated patients in the frequency, severity, and ‘bothersomeness’ of heartburn, the symptom index, problems of activity limitation, eating and drinking problems, symptom problems, health distress, and social functioning. During dose-titrated, open-label treatment (n = 195), all disease-specific QOL scales except sleep improved significantly (P lansoprazole for 12 months in healed EE subjects produced significantly greater improvements in QOL indicators than ranitidine. These improvements were sustained during dose-titrated, open-label lansoprazole treatment. PMID:19582579

  19. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  20. Metacognition of visual short-term memory: Dissociation between objective and subjective components of VSTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the objective accuracy of visual-short term memory (VSTM representations and their subjective conscious experience is unknown. We investigated this issue by assessing how the objective and subjective components of VSTM in a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task are affected by intervening distracters. On each trial, participants were shown a memory cue (a grating, the orientation of which they were asked to hold in memory. On approximately half of the trials, a distractor grating appeared during the maintenance interval; its orientation was either identical to that of the memory cue, or it differed by 10 or 40 degrees. The distractors were masked and presented briefly, so they were only consciously perceived on a subset of trials. At the end of the delay period, a memory test probe was presented, and participants were asked to indicate whether it was tilted to the left or right relative to the memory cue (VSTM accuracy; objective performance. In order to assess subjective metacognition, participants were asked indicate the vividness of their memory for the original memory cue. Finally, participants were asked rate their awareness of the distracter. Results showed that objective VSTM performance was impaired by distractors only when the distractors were very different from the cue, and that this occurred with both subjectively visible and invisible distractors. Subjective metacognition, however, was impaired by distractors of all orientations, but only when these distractors were subjectively invisible. Our results thus indicate that the objective and subjective components of VSTM are to some extent dissociable.

  1. A long-term variation of chemical composition in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Ryuma; Okimura, Takashi; Okumura, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Precipitation samples are collected at the six localities in the southwestern Japan weekly or monthly over a long period of time (1978-1989) in order to estimate chemical weathering rates and amount of weathered materials through chemical composition in natural waters. Major chemical composition is determined for the precipitation samples. Together with the data available in the literature, the following characteristics are recognized : 1) Most pH values fall in the narrow range of 4.4 to 5.4, 2) Systematic variations in pH values are observed among the precipitation samples of different geologic environments, 3) pH values become almost constant from 1984 to 1989, 4) NO 3 - concentrations gradually decrease to an almost constant value with time, and 5) ΔSO 4 2- concentrations gradually have a tendency to decrease from 1978 to 1985. The mechanism of phenomena described above is also presented. (author)

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Korean Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mi Ri; Choi, Won Ah; Choi, Young-Chul; Lee, Jang Woo; Hong, Jung Hwa; Park, Jihyun; Kang, Seong-Woong

    2017-12-01

    To report the latest long-term outcome of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to analyze the predictors of prognosis. Subjects who were diagnosed with ALS between January 2005 and December 2009 at a single institute were followed up until death or up to December 2014. Data regarding age, sex, date of onset, date of diagnosis, presence of bulbar symptoms on onset, date of initiation of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), and the date of tracheostomy were collected. Survival was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate analyses of the risk of death were performed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Among 212 suspicious subjects, definite ALS was diagnosed in 182 subjects. The survival rate at 3 and 5 years from onset was 61.5% and 40.1%, respectively, and the survival rate at 3 and 5 years post-diagnosis was 49.5% and 24.2%, respectively. Further, 134 patients (134/182, 73.6%) were initiated on NIV, and among them, 90 patients (90/182, 49.5%) underwent tracheostomy. Male gender and onset age of ≥65 years were independent predictors of adverse survival. The analysis of long term survival in ALS showed excellent outcomes considering the overall poor prognosis of this disease.

  3. Long term physical and chemical stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Grooth, Joris; Haakmeester, Brian; Wever, Carlos; Potreck, Jens; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a detailed investigation into the long term stability of polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) modified membranes, a key factor for the application of these membranes in water purification processes. Although PEM modified membranes have been frequently investigated, their long term

  4. Medium-term energy hub management subject to electricity price and wind uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Arsalan; Falaghi, Hamid; Contreras, Javier; Ramezani, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model for medium-term energy hub management is proposed. • Risk aversion is considered in medium-term energy hub management. • Stochastic programing is used to solve the medium-term energy hub management problem. • Electricity price and wind uncertainty are considered. - Abstract: Energy hubs play an important role in implementing multi-carrier energy systems. More studies are required in both their modeling and operating aspects. In this regard, this paper attempts to develop medium-term management of an energy hub in restructured power systems. A model is presented to manage an energy hub which has electrical energy and natural gas as inputs and electrical and heat energy as outputs. Electricity is procured in various ways, either purchasing it from a pool-based market and bilateral contracts, or producing it from a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) unit, a diesel generator unit and Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs). Pool prices and wind turbine production are subject to uncertainty, which makes energy management a complex puzzle. Heat demand is also procured by a furnace and a CHP unit. Energy hub managers should make decisions whether to purchase electricity from the electricity market and gas from the gas network or to produce electricity using a set of generators to meet the electrical and heat demands in the presence of uncertainties. The energy management objective is to minimize the total cost subject to several technical constraints using stochastic programming. Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR), a well-known risk measure, is used to reduce the unfavorable risk of costs. In doing so, the proposed model is illustrated using a sample test case with actual prices, load and wind speed data. The results show that the minimum cost is obtained by the best decisions involving the electricity market and purchasing natural gas for gas facilities. Considering risk also increases the total expected cost and decreases the CVaR.

  5. Long-term functional, subjective and psychological results after single digit replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Ai Xian; Chen, Qing Zhong; Mu, Shuai; Tan, Jun

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger) in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males) with a mean age of 44.2 years (20-65 years) were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19-50 months). The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ). Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0-39.2). The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD) (P digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic steel subjected to long-term isothermal aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Won Sik; Kim, Chung Seok [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    This study presents the ultrasonic nonlinearity of AISI316 austenitic stainless steels subjected to longterm isothermal aging. These steels are attractive materials for use in industrial mechanical structures because of their strength at high-temperatures and their chemical stability. The test materials were subjected to accelerated heat-treatment in an electrical furnace for a predetermined aging duration. The variations in the ultrasonic nonlinearity and microstructural damage were carefully evaluated through observation of the microstructure. The ultrasonic nonlinearity stiffly dropped after aging for up to 1000 h and, then, monotonously decreased. The polygonal shape of the initial grain structures changed to circular, especially as the annealing twins in the grains dissolved and disappeared. The delta ferrite on the grain boundaries could not be observed at 1000 h of aging, and these continuously transformed into their sigma phases. Consequently, in the intial aging period, the rapid decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity was caused by voids, dislocations, and twin annihilation. The continuous monotonic decrease in the ultrasonic nonlinearity after the first drop resulted from the generation of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates and σ phases.

  7. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelte Lena

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasions up to 21 days after inhalation. Results were compared with data from ten healthy controls. For additional comparison three of the PCD subjects also inhaled the test particles with normal inhalation flow, 0.5 L/s, providing a more central deposition. The lung retention at 24 h in % of lung deposition (Ret24 was higher (p 24 with slow inhalation flow was 73.9 ± 1.9 % compared to 68.9 ± 7.5 % with normal inhalation flow in the three PCD subjects exposed twice. During day 7–21 the three PCD subjects exposed twice cleared 9 % with normal flow, probably representing predominantly alveolar clearance, compared to 19 % with slow inhalation flow, probably representing mainly small airway clearance. This study shows that despite ciliary dysfunction, clearance continues in the small airways beyond 24 h. There are apparently additional clearance mechanisms present in the small airways.

  8. Long-term functional, subjective and psychological results after single digit replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term functional, subjective, and psychological results after single-digit replantation. Methods: Thirty cases of digital replantation (14 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 2 middle fingers, 1 ring finger, and 1 little finger in 30 patients (7 females and 23 males with a mean age of 44.2 years (20–65 years were evaluated at the end of a mean follow-up time of 36 months (19–50 months. The active range of motion of joints, grip and pinch strength, cutaneous sensibility, upper-extremity functioning, and subjective satisfaction were determined using the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH questionnaire and the Michigan Hand Outcomes questionnaire (MHQ. Psychological sequelae, including depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, were assessed. A correlation analysis among variables was also performed. Results: The mean score for the DASH questionnaire was 6.6 (range: 0–39.2. The symptom of cold intolerance occurred in 53% of the patients. Two patients were diagnosed with depression, and only one patient exhibited PTSD. The DASH score had a good statistical correlation with total grip strength, pinch grip strength, and static two-point discrimination (S-2PD (P < 0.05. Several aspects of the MHQ were also statistically relevant to some or all of the three objective results. Furthermore, the grip strength showed significant correlation with DASH and most aspects of the MHQ in multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Total grip strength is the most important factor positively related to subjective outcomes. The incidence rates of psychological symptoms after digit replantation are very low at long-term follow-up. Level of evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. Keywords: Digit Replantation, DASH score, Posttraumatic stress disorder

  9. Nonparametric Monitoring for Geotechnical Structures Subject to Long-Term Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Bum Yun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonparametric, data-driven methodology of monitoring for geotechnical structures subject to long-term environmental change is discussed. Avoiding physical assumptions or excessive simplification of the monitored structures, the nonparametric monitoring methodology presented in this paper provides reliable performance-related information particularly when the collection of sensor data is limited. For the validation of the nonparametric methodology, a field case study was performed using a full-scale retaining wall, which had been monitored for three years using three tilt gauges. Using the very limited sensor data, it is demonstrated that important performance-related information, such as drainage performance and sensor damage, could be disentangled from significant daily, seasonal and multiyear environmental variations. Extensive literature review on recent developments of parametric and nonparametric data processing techniques for geotechnical applications is also presented.

  10. 25 CFR 900.33 - Are all proposals to renew term contracts subject to the declination criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are all proposals to renew term contracts subject to the... Indian Affairs will not review the renewal of a term contract for declination issues where no material... been proposed by the Indian tribe or tribal organization. Proposals to renew term contracts with DOI...

  11. Relevance of a subjective quality of life questionnaire for long-term homeless persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Tinland, A; Bonin, J P; Olive, F; Poule, J; Lancon, C; Apostolidis, T; Rowe, M; Greacen, T; Simeoni, M C

    2017-02-17

    Increasing numbers of programs are addressing the specific needs of homeless people with schizophrenia in terms of access to housing, healthcare, basic human rights and other domains. Although quality of life scales are being used to evaluate such programs, few instruments have been validated for people with schizophrenia and none for people with schizophrenia who experience major social problems such as homelessness. The aim of the present study was to validate the French version of the S-QoL a self-administered, subjective quality of life questionnaire specific to schizophrenia for people with schizophrenia who are homeless. In a two-step process, the S-QoL was first administered to two independent convenience samples of long-term homeless people with schizophrenia in Marseille, France. The objective of the first step was to analyse the psychometric properties of the S-QoL. The objective of the second step was to examine, through qualitative interviews with members of the population in question, the relevance and acceptability of the principle quality of life indicators used in the S-QoL instrument. Although the psychometric characteristics of the S-QoL were found to be globally satisfactory, from the point of view of the people being interviewed, acceptability was poor. Respondents frequently interrupted participation complaining that questionnaire items did not take into account the specific context of life on the streets. Less intrusive questions, more readily understandable vocabulary and greater relevance to subjects' living conditions are needed to improve the S-QoL questionnaire for this population. A modular questionnaire with context specific sections or specific quality of life instruments for socially excluded populations may well be the way forward.

  12. Comparison of Short-Term Estrogenicity Tests for Identification of Hormone-Disrupting Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare results obtained by eight different short-term assays of estrogenlike actions of chemicals conducted in 10 different laboratories in five countries. Twenty chemicals were selected to represent direct-acting estrogens, compounds with estrogenic metabolites, est...

  13. Comparison of short-term estrogenicity tests for identification of hormone-disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersson, A M; Arnold, S F

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare results obtained by eight different short-term assays of estrogenlike actions of chemicals conducted in 10 different laboratories in five countries. Twenty chemicals were selected to represent direct-acting estrogens, compounds with estrogenic metabolites, est...

  14. Long-Term Chemical Resistance of Ecological Epoxy Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardeta Debska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Resin concretes belong to a small group of building materials which, besides high strength parameters, also have a very good chemical resistance. This is confirmed by the studies carried out by various research institutions around the world. However, there is little data on the behaviour of composite resin exposed to corrosive solutions for an extended period of time. This article presents the results of the research on weight changes in samples of epoxy mortar modified with poly(ethylene terephthalate glycolysates, immersed for 5 years in four different aggressive media i.e. 10% aqueous solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids, sodium hydroxide, and sodium chloride. The actual average weight changes obtained were compared with the data calculated on the basis of the regression functions fitted to the data recorded after 3.5 years of exposure. This allowed verification of the model selection correctness and evaluation of the effectiveness of the fitted regression curve. In the case of aqueous sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride solutions, it can be assumed that the logarithmic model describes weight changes well. It was observed that the weight of the samples exposed to NaCl solutions and NaOH stabilizes over prolonged monitoring time and reaches a plateau. However, the weight changes in mortar samples immersed for 5 years in aqueous solution of sulphuric and nitric acids quite significantly differ from the data calculated on the basis of the trend line fitted to the results of the tests carried out after 3.5 years of exposure. It seems that the better solution in this case is the selection of an exponential model. In addition, placing the logarithmic trendlines for all corrosive media together on a chart allows to note which of the solutions is the most aggressive. It was found that after 5 years of immersion in aqueous solutions of acids, mortar samples became brittle, and the observation of their fractures confirmed the weakness of the

  15. Functional diversity of Collembola is reduced in soils subjected to short-term, but not long-term, geothermal warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K.; Slotsbo, Stine

    2018-01-01

    the extent of such effects in long-term field-based experiments. In this study we make use of both recent (short-term) and long-term geothermal warming of Icelandic soils to examine the responses of Collembola, an ecologically important group of soil invertebrates, to warming. 2. On the basis of metabolic...

  16. Probabilistic vulnerability assessment of chemical clusters subjected to external acts of interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argenti, F.; Landucci, G; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Acts of interference against chemical facilities or chemical clusters might result in severe consequences in
    case of a successful attack (major explosions, fires, toxic dispersions or environmental contamination).
    Although process facilities implement multiple safety barriers to control

  17. Short-term dehydroepiandrosterone treatment increases platelet cGMP production in elderly male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Valentino; Benso, Andrea; Gigliardi, Valentina Ramella; Masha, Andi; Origlia, Carla; Granata, Riccarda; Ghigo, Ezio

    2006-03-01

    Several clinical and population-based studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate (DHEA-S) play a protective role against atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in human. However, the mechanisms underlying this action are still unknown. It has recently been suggested that DHEA-S could delay atheroma formation through an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. Twenty-four aged male subjects [age (mean +/- SEM): 65.4 +/- 0.7 year; range: 58.2-67.6 years] underwent a blinded placebo controlled study receiving DHEA (50 mg p.o. daily at bedtime) or placebo for 2 months. Platelet cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) concentration (as marker of NO production) and serum levels of DHEA-S, DHEA, IGF-I, insulin, glucose, oestradiol (E(2)), testosterone, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 antigen (PAI-1 Ag), homocysteine and lipid profile were evaluated before and after the 2-month treatment with DHEA or placebo. At the baseline, all variables in the two groups were overlapping. All parameters were unchanged after treatment with placebo. Conversely, treatment with DHEA (a) increased (P < 0.001 vs. baseline) platelet cGMP (111.9 +/- 7.1 vs. 50.1 +/- 4.1 fmol/10(6) plts), DHEA-S (13.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.3 micromol/l), DHEA (23.6 +/- 1.7 vs. 15.3 +/- 1.4 nmol/l), testosterone (23.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 17.7 +/- 1.0 nmol/l) and E(2) (72.0 +/- 5.0 vs. 60.0 +/- 4.0 pmol/l); and (b) decreased (P < 0.05 vs. baseline) PAI-1 Ag (27.4 +/- 3.8 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.5 ng/ml) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (3.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/l). IGF-I, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, HDL2 cholesterol, HDL3 cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and homocysteine levels were not modified by DHEA treatment. This study shows that short-term treatment with DHEA increased platelet cGMP production, a marker of NO production, in healthy elderly subjects. This effect is coupled with a decrease in PAI-1

  18. Pedagogical Factors Stimulating the Self-Development of Students' Multi-Dimensional Thinking in Terms of Subject-Oriented Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Valentin I.

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to disclose the essence of students' multi-dimensional thinking, also to reveal the rating of factors which stimulate the raising of effectiveness of self-development of students' multi-dimensional thinking in terms of subject-oriented teaching. Subject-oriented learning is characterized as a type of learning where…

  19. Controlled Terms or Free Terms? A JavaScript Library to Utilize Subject Headings and Thesauri on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Nagaya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of keywords used as metadata: controlled terms and free terms. Free terms have the advantage that metadata creators can freely select keywords, but there also exists a disadvantage that the information retrieval recall ratio might be reduced. The recall ratio can be improved by using controlled terms. But creating and maintaining controlled vocabularies has an enormous cost. In addition, many existing controlled vocabularies are published in formats less suitable for programming. We introduce a JavaScript library called “covo.js” that enables us to make use of controlled vocabularies as metadata for the organization of web pages.

  20. A report on evaluation of research and development subjects in fiscal year 2001. Evaluation subject on the 'Middle- and long-term business program'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The middle- and long-term business program determined by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is for elucidation of middle- and long-term targets to be expanded by JNC and is a base to promote individual R and D. This program is to be revised at a chance established on new long-term plan on research, development and application of nuclear energy on November, 2000 by the Committee of Atomic Energy under consideration of condition change after March, 1999. This report is a summary of evaluation results on the present middle- and long-term business program established by JNC, especially at a center of its revised portion, as a form of opinion. The evaluated results are described on two forms of the subject evaluation committees on the fast reactor and fuel cycle and on the wastes processing and disposal. (G.K.)

  1. Negative emotion enhances mnemonic precision and subjective feelings of remembering in visual long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2017-09-01

    Negative emotion sometimes enhances memory (higher accuracy and/or vividness, e.g., flashbulb memories). The present study investigates whether it is the qualitative (precision) or quantitative (the probability of successful retrieval) aspect of memory that drives these effects. In a visual long-term memory task, observers memorized colors (Experiment 1a) or orientations (Experiment 1b) of sequentially presented everyday objects under negative, neutral, or positive emotions induced with International Affective Picture System images. In a subsequent test phase, observers reconstructed objects' colors or orientations using the method of adjustment. We found that mnemonic precision was enhanced under the negative condition relative to the neutral and positive conditions. In contrast, the probability of successful retrieval was comparable across the emotion conditions. Furthermore, the boost in memory precision was associated with elevated subjective feelings of remembering (vividness and confidence) and metacognitive sensitivity in Experiment 2. Altogether, these findings suggest a novel precision-based account for emotional memories. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of chemical disinfectant on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to mechanical and chemical polishing: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Smitha; Kavitha, H R; Konde, Harish; Kalahasti, Deepthi

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfectant on the transverse strength of heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to mechanical and chemical polishing. A total of 256 rectangular specimens (65 * 10 * 3 mm) 128 per resin (Lucitone-199 and Acralyn-H) were fabricated. One side of each specimen was not polished and the other was either mechanically (n = 96) or chemically (n = 96) polished and immersed for 10, 30 and 60 minutes in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. Mechanically polished (n = 32) and chemically polished (n = 32) control specimens were immersed only in distilled water. The transverse strength (N/mm(2)) was tested for failure in a universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Student t-test. chemical polishing resulted in significantly lower transverse strength values than mechanical polishing. Lucitone- 199 resin demonstrated the highest overall transverse strength for the materials tested. Heat-polymerized acrylic resins either mechanically or chemically polished, did not demonstrate significant changes in transverse strength during immersion in the disinfecting solution tested, regardless of time of immersion. Lucitone-199 resin demonstrated the highest overall transverse strength for the materials tested and significantly stronger than Acralyn-H with either type of polishing following immersion in 2% alkaline glutaraldehyde. There is a concern that immersion in chemical solutions often used for cleansing and disinfection of prostheses may undermine the strength and structure of denture base resins. In this study it was observed that, the transverse strength of samples of Lucitone-199 was higher than that of the samples of Acralyn-H. The chances of fracture of the denture made of Lucitone-199 are less than that of dentures made of Acralyn-H. The chemically polished dentures may be more prone to fracture than mechanically polished dentures.

  3. Short term effects of kinesiotaping on acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic subjects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, A; Navarro-Ledesma, S; Petocz, P; Hancock, M J; Hush, J

    2013-12-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiotaping (KT) can increase the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) in asymptomatic subjects in the short term. The second aim was to investigate whether the direction of kinesiotaping application influences AHD. In recent years, the use of KT has become increasingly popular for a range of musculoskeletal conditions and for sport injuries. To date, we are unaware of any research investigating the effect of kinesiotaping on AHD. Moreover, it is unknown whether the direction of kinesiotaping application for the shoulder is important. Forty nine participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: kinesiotaping group 1 (KT1), kinesiotaping group 2 (KT2) and sham kinesiotaping (KT3). AHD ultrasound measurements at 0° and 60° of shoulder elevation were collected at baseline and immediately after kinesiotape application. The results showed significant improvements in AHD after kinesiotaping, compared with sham taping. The mean difference in AHD between KT1 and KT3 groups was 1.28 mm (95% CI: 0.55, 2.03), and between KT2 and KT3 was 0.98 mm (95% CI: 0.23, 1.74). Comparison of KT1 and KT2 groups, which was performed to identify whether the direction of taping influences the AHD, indicated there were no significant differences. KT increases AHD in healthy individuals immediately following application, compared with sham kinesiotape. No differences were found with respect to the direction in which KT was applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of pH during chemical weathering of bricks: Long term exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Charola, A. Elena

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of environmental weathering of bricks in historical structures, this study focuses on new bricks currently employed for restoration projects. The bricks were subjected to an accelerated chemical weathering test by immersion in solutions with pH ranging from 3 to 13 for differ...

  5. Implementing the flipped classroom methodology to the subject "Applied computing" of the chemical engineering degree at the University of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Iborra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is focus on implementation, development, documentation, analysis and assessment of flipped classroom methodology, by means of just in time teaching strategy, in a pilot group (1 of 6 of the subject “Applied Computing” of Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Degree of the University of Barcelona. The results show that this technique promotes self-learning, autonomy, time management as well as an increase in the effectiveness of classroom hours.

  6. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  7. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  8. Chemicals from Biomass: A Market Assessment of Bioproducts with Near-Term Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Production of chemicals from biomass offers a promising opportunity to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as to improve the overall economics and sustainability of an integrated biorefinery. Given the increasing momentum toward the deployment and scale-up of bioproducts, this report strives to: (1) summarize near-term potential opportunities for growth in biomass-derived products; (2) identify the production leaders who are actively scaling up these chemical production routes; (3) review the consumers and market champions who are supporting these efforts; (4) understand the key drivers and challenges to move biomass-derived chemicals to market; and (5) evaluate the impact that scale-up of chemical strategies will have on accelerating the production of biofuels.

  9. Improving subjective pattern recognition in chemical senses through reduction of nonlinear effects in evaluation of sparse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Amir H.; Rasouli, Firooz; Wrenn, Susan E.; Subbiah, M.

    2002-11-01

    Artificial neural network models are typically useful in pattern recognition and extraction of important features in large data sets. These models are implemented in a wide variety of contexts and with diverse type of input-output data. The underlying mathematics of supervised training of neural networks is ultimately tied to the ability to approximate the nonlinearities that are inherent in network"s generalization ability. The quality and availability of sufficient data points for training and validation play a key role in the generalization ability of the network. A potential domain of applications of neural networks is in analysis of subjective data, such as in consumer science, affective neuroscience and perception of chemical senses. In applications of ANN to subjective data, it is common to rely on knowledge of the science and context for data acquisition, for instance as a priori probabilities in the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we discuss the circumstances that create challenges for success of neural network models for subjective data analysis, such as sparseness of data and cost of acquisition of additional samples. In particular, in the case of affect and perception of chemical senses, we suggest that inherent ambiguity of subjective responses could be offset by a combination of human-machine expert. We propose a method of pre- and post-processing for blind analysis of data that that relies on heuristics from human performance in interpretation of data. In particular, we offer an information-theoretic smoothing (ITS) algorithm that optimizes that geometric visualization of multi-dimensional data and improves human interpretation of the input-output view of neural network implementations. The pre- and post-processing algorithms and ITS are unsupervised. Finally, we discuss the details of an example of blind data analysis from actual taste-smell subjective data, and demonstrate the usefulness of PCA in reduction of dimensionality, as well as ITS.

  10. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  11. Tiagabine improves hippocampal long-term depression in rat pups subjected to prenatal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rideau Batista Novais

    Full Text Available Maternal inflammation during pregnancy is associated with the later development of cognitive and behavioral impairment in the offspring, reminiscent of the traits of schizophrenia or autism spectrum disorders. Hippocampal long-term potentiation and long-term depression of glutamatergic synapses are respectively involved in memory formation and consolidation. In male rats, maternal inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS led to a premature loss of long-term depression, occurring between 12 and 25 postnatal days instead of after the first postnatal month, and aberrant occurrence of long-term potentiation. We hypothesized this would be related to GABAergic system impairment. Sprague Dawley rats received either LPS or isotonic saline ip on gestational day 19. Male offspring's hippocampus was studied between 12 and 25 postnatal days. Morphological and functional analyses demonstrated that prenatal LPS triggered a deficit of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons, associated with presynaptic GABAergic transmission deficiency in male offspring. Increasing ambient GABA by impairing GABA reuptake with tiagabine did not interact with the low frequency-induced long-term depression in control animals but fully prevented its impairment in male offspring of LPS-challenged dams. Tiagabine furthermore prevented the aberrant occurrence of paired-pulse triggered long-term potentiation in these rats. Deficiency in GABA seems to be central to the dysregulation of synaptic plasticity observed in juvenile in utero LPS-challenged rats. Modulating GABAergic tone may be a possible therapeutic strategy at this developmental stage.

  12. The Long-Term Consequences of Relationship Formation for Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Judith P. M.; Liefbroer, Aart C.; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how relationship transitions affect subjective well-being (SWB) and how this effect changes over time. We used prospective data containing information about 18 years of young adults' lives (PSIN, N = 5, 514). SWB was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Within-person multilevel regression analyses showed that dating,…

  13. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in subjects occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation or chemical clastogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalic, H.; Radosevic-Stasic, B.

    2002-01-01

    To get an insight into genotoxic risk in some occupations, in this study the chromosome aberration analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was made in 20 physicians and nurses exposed to a low dose of ionizing radiation in a hospital, 12 individuals working with X-rays in a cement factory and 19 technicians working with some chemical toxic agents in the laboratories of a medical school. The control group consisted of 14 sex- and age-matched unexposed persons living in the same district area. The data showed that the total number of chromosome aberrations in 200 scored metaphases in all examined groups were almost the same and inside the low-permitted values. In hospital workers, however, the percentage of acentric and dicentric fragments (1.63 ± 0.28 vs 0.31 ± 0.21 and 0.47 ± 0.18 vs 0.0, respectively) increased predominantly in contrast to cement-factory employees and laboratory workers, where a higher incidence of minutes (0.58 ± 0.19 vs 0.31 ± 0.2) or gaps (2.21 ± 0.37 vs 1.15 ± 1.15) was noticed. Moreover, in groups exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (hospital and factory), a positive correlation was found between the total number of chromosome aberrations and the 6-year absorption dose or working period, suggesting an effect of cumulative dosage. (author)

  14. Physical chemical evaluation of sugarcane spirit with Anatto subjected to gamma irradiation for aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Vanessa C.S.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Pires, Juliana A.; Scanholato, Mariana; Santos, Mariana R.; Bortoleto, Gisele G.

    2011-01-01

    The sugarcane spirit beverage has economic and cultural importance in Brazil, and is produced by distilling the fermented sugarcane juice. The aging process, generally done in oak barrels, consists of chemical reactions which occur slowly and continuously, leading to richer and more complex flavours. Annatto, a native fruit from tropical America is used in the production of natural dyes, in the replacement for artificial colorants, especially by the food industry. Also, the beverage industry uses it to make products resembling the natural aged ones. Nowadays, modern methods use irradiation to accelerate the aging process. There are many reasons to use it in sugarcane spirit production: sterilizing the wort, changing sensory characteristics of sugarcane liquor and aging speedup. For this study, samples of sugarcane spirit were obtained at FATEC Piracicaba and annatto was added at a ratio of 3%, when using annatto seeds, and 0.25%, when using annatto extract. The samples, except the controls, were directly irradiated in polyethylene containers with doses of 200 Gy and 300 Gy at a rate of 0.406 Gy/h. The evaluation parameters were soluble solids, pH, acidity and ashes content. For statistical purposes, the Tukey test was used with a 5% significance level. From the obtained results, the gamma radiation ages the sugarcane spirit and parameters as soluble solids and acidity can be used for aging determination. Annatto addition is allowed in the process. (author)

  15. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Ping-Ho; Wu, Pei-Fen; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Chang, Po-Ya; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2008-01-01

    This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR)) for various prognostic factors. The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.03–1.11), males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13), older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC)/small cell carcinoma (SCC), and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3%) than females (23.6%). Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality) play important roles in determining lung cancer survival

  16. Kinesio taping and manual pressure release: Short-term effects in subjects with myofasical trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu Wen; Lin, Jiu Jenq; Yang, Jing Lan; Wang, Wendy Tzyy-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial. Myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) and fascia tenderness. We investigated the effects of manual pressure release (MPR) alone or in combination with taping (MPR/MKT) in subjects with MTrPs. Fifteen and 16 subjects received MPR and MPR/MKT respectively. Outcomes including Pressure pain threshold, muscle stiffness, mechanomyography were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and 7-days later. Pressure pain threshold improved significantly (d = 1.79, p < 0.005) in both groups. Significant improvement in muscle stiffness in the MPR/MKT group (0.27-0.49 mm) as compared to the MPR group (-0.02-0.23 mm). Mechanomyography amplitude in the MPR/MKT group was significantly higher than that of the MPR group (p < 0.05). MPR and MPR/MKT are effective in reducing pain in these subjects. MPR/MKT has a greater effect on muscle stiffness and contraction amplitude. IV. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of short-term fasting on lipolytic responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.; Klein, S.; Holland, O.B.; Rosenblatt, J.; Gary, H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the rate of lipolysis (fatty acid and glycerol release into blood) has been quantified in both normal weight and obese volunteers after both 15 and 87 h of fasting. In each study, the basal rate and subsequent response to epinephrine infusion were determined. The rate of appearance (R/sub a/) of free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol were quantified by infusion of [1- 13 C]palmitate and D-5-glycerol, respectively. Substrate flux rates per unit of body fat mass and lean body mass were calculated from total body water measurements using H 2 18 O dilution. In normal volunteers, the basal R/sub a/ FFA and R/sub a/ glycerol rose markedly with 87 h of fasting, whereas the increases were more modest in the obese subjects. However, the rate of mobilization of fat, in relation to the lean body mass, was higher in the obese subjects than in the normal subjects after 15 h of fasting, and the values were similar in both groups after 87 h of fasting. There was an increased lipolytic response to epinephrine after fasting in both groups. This increased sensitivity may have resulted from the enhancement of fatty acid-triglyceride substrate cycling that occurred after fasting

  18. A short-term high fat diet increases exposure to midazolam and omeprazole in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbergh, Roos; Lammers, Laureen A.; van Nierop, Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.; Romijn, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of factors contributing to variation in drug metabolism is of vital importance to optimize drug treatment. This study assesses the effects of a short-term hypercaloric high fat diet on metabolism of five oral drugs, which are each specific for a single P450 isoform: midazolam (CYP3A4),

  19. Recent onmiddellijk geheugenonderzoek bij zwakzinnigen [Investigation of short term memory in mentally retarded subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to get a preliminary answer to the problem of the type of information processing deficit of undifferentiated retardates (with an IQ of about 70). Taking the topic of verbal short-term memory as a framework, it appears that children or adults of a subnormal

  20. Short and long-term effects of sham-controlled prefrontal EEG-neurofeedback training in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbregt, H J; Keeser, D; van Eijk, L; Suiker, E M; Eichhorn, D; Karch, S; Deijen, J B; Pogarell, O

    2016-04-01

    In this study we evaluated long-term effects of frontal beta EEG-neurofeedback training (E-NFT) on healthy subjects. We hypothesized that E-NFT can change frontal beta activity in the long-term and that changes in frontal beta EEG activity are accompanied by altered cognitive performance. 25 healthy subjects were included and randomly assigned to active or sham E-NFT. On average the subjects underwent 15 E-NFT training sessions with a training duration of 45 min. Resting-state EEG was recorded prior to E-NFT training (t1) and in a 3-year follow-up (t3). Compared to sham E-NFT, which was used for the control group, real E-NFT increased beta activity in a predictable way. This increase was maintained over a period of three years post training. However, E-NFT did not result in significantly improved cognitive performance. Based on our results, we conclude that EEG-NFT can selectively modify EEG beta activity both in short and long-term. This is a sham controlled EEG neurofeedback study demonstrating long-term effects in resting state EEG. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling of chemical evolution of low pH cements at long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bitouri, Y.; Buffo-Lacarriere, L.; Sellier, A.; Bourbon, X.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the underground radioactive waste repository, low-pH cements were developed to reduce interactions between concrete and clay barrier. These cements contain high proportions of mineral additions like silica fume, fly ash or blast furnace slag for example. The high ratio of cement replacement by pozzolanic additions allows to reduce the pH by a global reduction of Ca/Si ratio of the hydrates (according to the one observed on CEM I pastes). In order to predict the short term development of the hydration for each component of this cement, a multiphasic hydration model, previously developed, is used. The model predicts the evolution of hydration degree of each anhydrous phase and consequently the quantity of each hydrate in paste (CH, aluminates, CSH with different Ca/Si ratios). However, this model is not suitable to determine the long term mineralogical and chemical evolution of the material, due to the internal change induced by chemical imbalance between initial hydrates. In order to evaluate the chemical characteristics of low pH cement based materials, and thus assess its chemical stability in the context of radioactive waste storage, a complementary model of chemical evolution at long term is proposed. This original model is based on 'solid-solution' principles. It assumes that the microdiffusion of calcium plays a major role to explain how the different Ca/Si ratio of initial C-S-H tends together toward a medium stabilized value. The main mechanisms and full development of the model equations are presented first. Next, a comparison of the model with experimental data issue from EDS (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) analysis on low pH cement allows to test the model. (authors)

  2. Complete long-term corrosion protection with chemical vapor deposited graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Feng; Camilli, Luca; Wang, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer-graphene......Despite numerous reports regarding the potential of graphene for corrosion protection, examples of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene-based anticorrosive coatings able to provide long-term protection (i.e. several months) of metals have so far been absent. Here, we present a polymer......-graphene hybrid coating, comprising two single layers of CVD graphene sandwiched by three layers of polyvinyl butyral, which provides complete corrosion protection of commercial aluminum alloys even after 120 days of exposure to simulated seawater. The essential role played by graphene in the hybrid coating...

  3. Long-term effectiveness of unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Pedersen, Court

    2016-01-01

    Effectiveness data of an unboosted atazanavir (ATV) with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) switch strategy in clinical routine are scant.We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV + ABC/3TC in pretreated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort when started with undetectable plasma HIV-1 viral load (p......VL), performing a time to loss of virological response (TLOVR analysis at 48, 96, and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as confirmed pVL >50 copies/mL.We included 285 subjects, 67% male, with median baseline CD4 530 cells, and 44 months with pVL ≤50 copies/mL. The third......%/67%/59% (snapshot analysis), respectively. The rates of VF were 8%/8%/6%. Rates of adverse events leading to study discontinuation were 0.4%/1%/2%. The multivariable adjusted analysis showed an association between VF and nadir CD4+ (hazard ratio [HR] 0.63 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.93] per 100 cells...

  4. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  5. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomat, L.

    2008-04-01

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH≥11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  6. Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Long-term clearance from small airways in subjects with ciliary dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelte Lena; Falk Rolf; Lindström Maria; Philipson Klas; Svartengren Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate if long-term clearance from small airways is dependent on normal ciliary function. Six young adults with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) inhaled 111 Indium labelled Teflon particles of 4.2 μm geometric and 6.2 μm aerodynamic diameter with an extremely slow inhalation flow, 0.05 L/s. The inhalation method deposits particles mainly in the small conducting airways. Lung retention was measured immediately after inhalation and at four occasi...

  8. Correlation between Very Short and Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability in Diabetic-Hypertensive and Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, Karina R; Schaan, Beatriz D; Montano, Nicola; Massierer, Daniela; M F Neto, Flávio; Teló, Gabriela H; Ledur, Priscila S; Reinheimer, Marilia; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Gus, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability can be evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (24h-ABPM), but its concordance with results from finger BP measurement (FBPM) has not been established yet. The aim of this study was to compare parameters of short-term (24h-ABPM) with very short-term BP variability (FBPM) in healthy (C) and diabetic-hypertensive (DH) subjects. Cross-sectional study with 51 DH subjects and 12 C subjects who underwent 24h-ABPM [extracting time-rate, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV)] and short-term beat-to-beat recording at rest and after standing-up maneuvers [FBPM, extracting BP and heart rate (HR) variability parameters in the frequency domain, autoregressive spectral analysis]. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to correlate BP and HR variability parameters obtained from both FBPM and 24h-ABPM (divided into daytime, nighttime, and total). Statistical significance was set at p ABPM) and LF component of short-term variability (FBPM, total, R = 0.591, p = 0.043); standard deviation (24h-ABPM) with LF component BPV (FBPM, total, R = 0.608, p = 0.036), coefficient of variation (24h-ABPM) with total BPV (FBPM, daytime, -0.585, p = 0.046) and alpha index (FBPM, daytime, -0.592, p = 0.043), time rate (24h-ABPM) and delta LF/HF (FBPM, total, R = 0.636, p = 0.026; daytime R = 0,857, p ABPM (total, daytime) reflect BP and HR variability evaluated by FBPM in healthy individuals. This does not apply for DH subjects.

  9. Impaired basal glucose effectiveness but unaltered fasting glucose release and gluconeogenesis during short-term hypercortisolemia in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael F; Caumo, Andrea; Chandramouli, Visvanathan

    2004-01-01

    Excess cortisol has been demonstrated to impair hepatic and extrahepatic insulin action. To determine whether glucose effectiveness and, in terms of endogenous glucose release (EGR), gluconeogenesis, also are altered by hypercortisolemia, eight healthy subjects were studied after overnight infusion...... resistance. Postabsorptive glucose production (P = 0.64) and the fractional....... Hepatic GE was lower during cortisol than during saline infusion (2.39 +/- 0.24 vs. 3.82 +/- 0.51 ml.kg-1.min-1; P

  10. Long-term loss of radium in 63 subjects first exposed at ages 6 to 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.T.; Schlenker, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The absorbed dose to bone following the deposition of radium in the skeleton is principally determined by its long-term rate of clearance. In mice, rats, and dogs injected with alkaline-earth radionuclides at various ages between puberty and young adulthood, a negative correlation was observed between the age at injection and the skeletal uptake of the radionuclide and, at short times after injection, a positive correlation was observed between the age at injection and the fraction of the contemporary body content of the radionuclide excreted per unit of time, whereas at long times after injection the fractional clearance rate was found to be largely independent of the age at injection. Age-dependent models of radium retention proposed for man conform to the metabolic observations in animals in their assumption that at long times after intake the fraction of the contemporary body content of radium excreted per unit of time is independent of the age at intake. In this paper, we investigate whether this assumption is supported by the data on the long-term retention of radium in radium-exposed persons

  11. Long-term pulmonary complications of chemical weapons exposure in former poison gas factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshifumi; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Nobuhisa; Hattori, Noboru; Horimasu, Yasushi; Ohshimo, Shinichiro; Fujitaka, Kazunori; Kondo, Keiichi; Hamada, Hironobu; Awai, Kazuo; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) and lewisite are vesicant chemical warfare agents that can cause skin blistering and chronic lung complications. During 1929-1945, a Japanese factory produced poisonous gases, which included SM, lewisite and other chemical weapons. The aim of this study was to investigate the chest computed tomography (CT) findings among long-term survivors who worked at this factory. During 2009-2012, we evaluated chest CT findings from 346 long-term survivors who worked at the poison gas factory. Skin lesions were used as an indicator of significant exposure to vesicant agents. Among the 346 individuals, 53 (15%) individuals experienced skin lesions while working at the factory, and chest CT revealed abnormal findings in 179 individuals (52%). Emphysema was the most common CT finding and was observed in 75 individuals (22%), while honeycombing was observed in 8 individuals (2%). Emphysema and honeycombing were more prevalent among individuals with skin lesions, compared to individuals without skin lesions. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between the presence of emphysema and skin lesions (p = 0.008). Among individuals who never smoked, individuals with skin lesions (n = 26) exhibited a significantly higher rate of emphysema, compared to individuals without skin lesions (n = 200) (35% versus 7%, respectively; p chemical warfare agents.

  12. SHORT TERM EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE-TENS ON LUNG FUNCTIONS AND DYSPNEA FOR SUBJECTS WITH MODERATE COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acupuncture TENS is used to improve pain instead of invasive acupuncture. Acupuncture shown to improve dyspnoea and lung functions in COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. The purpose of the study is to determine Short term effectiveness of Acupuncture-TENS in reducing dyspnea and improving lung functions for subjects with moderate COPD. Method: An experimental study design, selected 30 geriatric subjects with COPD randomized 15 subjects into each Study and Control group. Study group received Acu-TENS for 45 minutes for total 5 sessions, while control group received placebo TENS. Outcome measurements such as breathlessness using Modified Borg Scale (MBS, Lung functions using Pulmonary Function Test (PFT was measured before and after intervention. Results: Analysis from pre-intervention to post-intervention within study group found that there is statistically significant change in means of MBS, FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio and within control group there is a statistically significant change in means of MBS, but there is no statistically significant change in means of FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. When post-intervention means were compared between the groups there is no statistically significant difference in means of MBS and FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: It is concluded that one week of Acu-TENS on EXL1 point found no significant effect on improving dyspnea and lung functions in subjects with moderate COPD in geriatric populations.

  13. Chemical characterization of exhaled breath to differentiate between patients with malignant plueral mesothelioma from subjects with similar professional asbestos exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gennaro, G. de; Longobardi, F.; Stallone, G.; Trizio, L.; Tutino, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Chemistry, Bari (Italy); Dragonieri, S. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Pulmonology, Bari (Italy); Musti, M. [University of Bari Aldo Moro, Department of Occupational Medicine, Bari (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumour whose main aetiology is the long-term exposure to asbestos fibres. The diagnostic procedure of MPM is difficult and often requires invasive approaches; therefore, it is clinically important to find accurate markers for MPM by new noninvasive methods that may facilitate the diagnostic process and identify patients at an earlier stage. In the present study, the exhaled breath of 13 patients with histology-established diagnosis of MPM, 13 subjects with long-term certified professional exposure to asbestos (EXP) and 13 healthy subjects without exposure to asbestos (healthy controls, HC) were analysed. An analytical procedure to determine volatile organic compounds by sampling of air on a bed of solid sorbent and thermal desorption GC-MS analysis was developed in order to identify the compounds capable of discriminating among the three groups. The application of univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate statistical treatments (PCA, DFA and CP-ANN) showed that cyclopentane and cyclohexane were the dominant variables able to discriminate among the three groups. In particular, it was found that cyclohexane is the only compound able to differentiate the MPM group from the other two; therefore, it can be a possible marker of MPM. Cyclopentane is the dominant compound in the discrimination between EXP and the other groups (MPM and HC); then, it can be considered a good indicator for long-term asbestos exposure. This result suggests the need to perform frequent and thorough investigations on people exposed to asbestos in order to constantly monitor their state of health or possibly to study the evolution of disease over time. (orig.)

  14. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Breitwieser

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  15. Short-Term and Long-Term Biological Effects of Chronic Chemical Contamination on Natural Populations of a Marine Bivalve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Graber, Marianne; Murillo, Laurence; Becquet, Vanessa; Churlaud, Carine; Fruitier-Arnaudin, Ingrid; Huet, Valérie; Lacroix, Camille; Pante, Eric; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia) at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational) responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases) as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides) in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde) were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites) than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.

  16. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction...... of a monopile in sand subjected to a long-term cyclic lateral loading is investigated by means of small scale tests. The tests are conducted with a mechanical loading rig capable of applying the cyclic loading as a sine signal with varying amplitude, mean loading level, and loading period for more than 60 000...... cycles. The tests are conducted in dense saturated sand. The maximum moment applied in the cyclic tests is varied from 18% to 36% of the ultimate lateral resistance found in a static loading test. The tests reveal that the accumulated rotation can be expressed by use of a power function. Further, static...

  17. Investigation of short and long term trends in chemical composition of Eastern Mediterranean aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    A collaborative study was started with the Middle East Technical University, Environmental Engineering Department in 2004 in order to determine the transport of air pollutants and their deposition rates to Eastern Mediterranean with the ultimate aim of filling the gaps in knowledge on the current status of Eastern Mediterranean air quality profile. Collection sufficient amount of representative samples, analyzes of the collected samples with high accuracy and precision and interpretation of generated data are crucial efforts. To attain this goal, EDXRF spectrometer, which is a rapid, reliable and sensitive analytical instrument, located at our center was employed in analysis of the collected samples after calibration with 'NIST 2783 Air Particles on Filter'. The effectiveness of the control strategies taken on the emissions was discussed by investigating the short and long term variations in the chemical composition of samples collected between 1993 and 2001 at Antalya station. In this context, generated data set was studied for short (daily) term, seasonal and long term variations. It has been found that short term variations in the concentrations of pollutants in short time scale are highly episodic. The concentration of measured pollutants was changed 10-20 folds in the subsequent two days. The most important factors affecting the chemical composition of pollutants in short time interval are meteorological factors such as precipitation and variations observed at the emission strength of pollutants. The declined in Pb concentrations at the Antalya station was attributed to observed decrease in Pb emissions in Europe after the introduction of leaded gasoline. Highest summer averages were reported for anthropogenic pollutants in summer months. Aegean Sea (Izmir-Aliaga) studies of the project will be completed this year

  18. Long-term Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in the Amazon Forest - ATTO Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, S.; Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Holanda, B. A.; Cirino, G. G.; Saturno, J.; Krüger, M. L.; Pöhlker, C.; Ng, N. L.; Xu, L.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The study of the chemical composition of aerosol particles in the Amazon forest represents a step forward to understand the strong coupling between the atmosphere and the forest. For this reason submicron aerosol particles were investigated in the Amazon forest, where biogenic and anthropogenic aerosol particles coexist at the different seasons (wet/dry). The measurements were performed at the ATTO station, which is located about 150 km northeast of Manaus. At ATTO station the Aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, Aerodyne) and the Multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP, Thermo 5012) have been operated continuously from March 2014 to July 2015. In this study, long-term measurements (near-real-time, ~30 minutes) of PM1 chemical composition were investigated for the first time in this environment.The wet season presented lower concentrations than the dry season (~5 times). In terms of chemical composition, both seasons were dominated by organics (75 and 63%) followed by sulfate (11 and 13%). Nitrate presented different ratio values between the mass-to-charges 30 to 46 (main nitrate fragments) suggesting the presence of nitrate as inorganic and organic nitrate during both seasons. The results indicated that about 75% of the nitrate signal was from organic nitrate during the dry season. In addition, several episodes with elevated amount of chloride, likely in the form of sea-salt from the Atlantic Ocean, were observed during the wet season. During those episodes, chloride comprised up to 7% of the PM1. During the dry season, chloride was also observed; however, with different volatility, which suggested that Chloride was present in different form and source. Moreover, the constant presence of sulfate and BC during the wet season might be related to biomass burning emissions from Africa. BC concentration was 2.5 times higher during the dry season. Further characterization of the organic fraction was accomplished with the positive matrix factorization (PMF), which

  19. Comment on the Long-Term Chemical and Mineralogical Stability of the Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Randy; Apted, Mick; Stenhouse, Mike

    2005-03-01

    This report examines concepts and data that SKB may use to assess the long-term chemical and mineralogical evolution of bentonite barriers in a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel. Three interrelated topics are considered: mineral chemistry of the smectite clays; thermodynamic stability of the smectite clays; and bentonite-water interactions during the early thermal period of repository evolution. Smectites are complex solid solutions having variable compositions resulting from ionic substitutions on exchange, octahedral and tetrahedral sites in the crystalline lattice. Although little is known about the mechanisms and rates of reactions involving the latter two sites, abundant observational evidence from natural systems suggests that such reactions could occur to an appreciable extent in the buffer over the million year time frame being considered for an intact canister. We are not aware of any efforts in SKB's current modeling strategy to account for such reactions, and therefore question whether the strategy is appropriate for modeling the long-term chemical evolution of the buffer and associated potential effects on the desirable physical and rheological properties of this barrier material. The variable chemistry of smectites affects their thermodynamic stability. Models of smectite-water equilibria use either a fixed stoichiometric composition to approximate representative smectite varieties, or account for compositional variations using solid solution models and ideal mixing relations among thermodynamic components. In either case the thermodynamic properties of a specific smectite composition or of individual solid-solution components must usually be estimated. Recent reports suggest that SKB will not account explicitly for the thermodynamic properties of smectite in its models of bentonite-water interactions. Rather, the models will assume that this clay mineral has a fixed, though unspecified, composition representing an ion-exchanger phase. This phase

  20. Development of Chemistry Game Card as an Instructional Media in the Subject of Naming Chemical Compound in Grade X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayharti; Iswendi, I.; Arifin, M. N.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to produce a chemistry game card as an instructional media in the subject of naming chemical compounds and determine the degree of validity and practicality of instructional media produced. Type of this research was Research and Development (R&D) that produced a product. The development model used was4-D model which comprises four stages incuding: (1) define, (2) design, (3) develop, and (4) disseminate. This research was restricted at the development stage. Chemistry game card developed was validated by seven validators and practicality was tested to class X6 students of SMAN 5 Padang. Instrument of this research is questionnair that consist of validity sheet and practicality sheet. Technique in collection data was done by distributing questionnaire to the validators, chemistry teachers, and students. The data were analyzed by using formula Cohen’s Kappa. Based on data analysis, validity of chemistry game card was0.87 with category highly valid and practicality of chemistry game card was 0.91 with category highly practice.

  1. Short- and long-term subjective medical treatment outcome of trauma surgery patients: the importance of physician empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhausen S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Simone Steinhausen,1 Oliver Ommen,2 Sunya-Lee Antoine,1 Thorsten Koehler,3 Holger Pfaff,4 Edmund Neugebauer11Institute for Research in Operative Medicine (IFOM, Witten/Herdecke University, Campus Cologne-Merheim, Germany; 2Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA, Cologne, Germany; 3Institute for Applied Social Sciences (infas, Bonn, Germany; 4Institute for Medical Sociology, Health Services Research and Rehabilitation Science (IMVR, Faculty of Human Science and Faculty of Medicine, University of Cologne, Germany Purpose: To investigate accident casualties’ long-term subjective evaluation of treatment outcome 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge and its relation to the experienced surgeon’s empathy during hospital treatment after trauma in consideration of patient-, injury-, and health-related factors. The long-term results are compared to the 6-week follow-up outcomes.Patients and methods: Two hundred and seventeen surgery patients were surveyed at 6 weeks, and 206 patients at 12 months after discharge from the trauma surgical general ward. The subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was measured 6 weeks and 12 months after discharge with the respective scale from the Cologne Patient Questionnaire. Physician Empathy was assessed with the Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure. The correlation between physician empathy and control variables with the subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome 12 months after discharge was identified by means of logistic regression analysis under control of sociodemographic and injury-related factors.Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients were included within the logistic regression analysis at the 12-month follow-up. Compared to the 6-week follow-up, the level of subjective evaluation of medical treatment outcome was slightly lower and the association with physician empathy was weaker. Compared to patients who rated the empathy of their surgeon lower than 31 points, patients

  2. HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION AS A SUBJECT OF ADAPTATION OF RURAL STUDENTS TO THE TERMS OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyona Aleksandrovna Antipova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the difficulties of adaptation of rural students to the various spheres of life of the modern city. These difficulties are considered as a field of activity of higher educational institution, acting as the subject of adaptation of students coming to study from rural areas to the terms of the city. The authors ' point of view on this issue is substantiated by the analysis of data of several sociological surveys conducted in various regions of theRussian Federation. Also the experience of assistance in adaptation of the Mordovia state University named after N. P. Ogarev of the city ofSaransk, which is the largest in the Republic of Mordovia University and which accommodates a large number of rural youth. The relevance and scientific novelty of research consists in allocation of areas of adaptation support of students from rural areas by the higher educational institution.

  3. Retrieval of long and short lists from long term memory: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysset, S; Müller, K; Lehmann, C; Thöne-Otto, A I; von Cramon, D Y

    2001-11-13

    Previous studies have shown that reaction time in an item-recognition task with both short and long lists is a quadratic function of list length. This suggests that either different memory retrieval processes are implied for short and long lists or an adaptive process is involved. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study with nine subjects and list lengths varying between 3 and 18 words was conducted to identify the underlying neuronal structures of retrieval from long and short lists. For the retrieval and processing of word-lists a single fronto-parietal network, including premotor, left prefrontal, left precuneal and left parietal regions, was activated. With increasing list length, no additional regions became involved in retrieving information from long-term memory, suggesting that not necessarily different, but highly adaptive retrieval processes are involved.

  4. Short-term changes in temporomandibular joint function in subjects with cleft lip and palate treated with maxillary distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, K; Otsuka, R; Minato, A; Sato-Wakabayashi, M; Takada, J; Inoue-Arai, M S; Miyamoto, J J; Ono, T; Ohyama, K; Moriyama, K

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the short-term effects of maxillary distraction osteogenesis (DO) on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function in 21 subjects with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Design - Morphological changes in the maxillofacial region were measured using lateral cephalometric radiographs taken immediately before (pre-DO) and after DO (post-DO) and 1 year after DO (1-year follow-up). A questionnaire was evaluated using a visual analog scale. A chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of TMJ symptoms between pre-DO and 1-year follow-up. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms in association with maxillary DO. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results - The ANB (anteroposterior relationship of the maxilla with the mandible) angle and the mandibular plane angle at pre-DO, post-DO, and 1-year follow-up were -4.3 degrees , +5.8 degrees , +4.3 degrees and 32.1 degrees , 33.5 degrees , 33.6 degrees , respectively. The average amounts of anterior and downward movement of the maxilla at post-DO and 1-year follow-up were 8.3, -1.3 and 0.9, 1.1 mm, respectively. The prevalence of TMJ symptoms showed no significant increase in association with maxillary DO. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between changes in cephalometric variables and TMJ symptoms. Conclusion - These results suggest that there was no short-term (i.e., up to 1 year after DO) effect of maxillary DO on TMJ function in subjects with CLP.

  5. Emotion-based decision-making in healthy subjects: short-term effects of reducing dopamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevy, Serge; Hassoun, Youssef; Bechara, Antoine; Yechiam, Eldad; Napolitano, Barbara; Burdick, Katherine; Delman, Howard; Malhotra, Anil

    2006-10-01

    Converging evidences from animal and human studies suggest that addiction is associated with dopaminergic dysfunction in brain reward circuits. So far, it is unclear what aspects of addictive behaviors are related to a dopaminergic dysfunction. We hypothesize that a decrease in dopaminergic activity impairs emotion-based decision-making. To demonstrate this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of a decrease in dopaminergic activity on the performance of an emotion-based decision-making task, the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in 11 healthy human subjects. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject design to examine the effect of a mixture containing the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine and leucine on prolactin, IGT performance, perceptual competency and visual aspects of visuospatial working memory, visual attention and working memory, and verbal memory. The expectancy-valence model was used to determine the relative contributions of distinct IGT components (attention to past outcomes, relative weight of wins and losses, and choice strategies) in the decision-making process. Compared to placebo, the BCAA mixture increased prolactin levels and impaired IGT performance. BCAA administration interfered with a particular component process of decision-making related to attention to more recent events as compared to more distant events. There were no differences between placebo and BCAA conditions for other aspects of cognition. Our results suggest a direct link between a reduced dopaminergic activity and poor emotion-based decision-making characterized by shortsightedness, and thus difficulties resisting short-term reward, despite long-term negative consequences. These findings have implications for behavioral and pharmacological interventions targeting impaired emotion-based decision-making in addictive disorders.

  6. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  7. Improving short-term air quality predictions over the U.S. using chemical data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Delle Monache, L.; Alessandrini, S.; Saide, P.; Lin, H. C.; Liu, Z.; Pfister, G.; Edwards, D. P.; Baker, B.; Tang, Y.; Lee, P.; Djalalova, I.; Wilczak, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    State and local air quality forecasters across the United States use air quality forecasts from the National Air Quality Forecasting Capability (NAQFC) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) as one of the key tools to protect the public from adverse air pollution related health effects by dispensing timely information about air pollution episodes. This project funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aims to enhance the decision-making process by improving the accuracy of NAQFC short-term predictions of ground-level particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) by exploiting NASA Earth Science Data with chemical data assimilation. The NAQFC is based on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. To improve the initialization of PM2.5 in CMAQ, we developed a new capability in the community Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) system to assimilate Terra/Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals in CMAQ. Specifically, we developed new capabilities within GSI to read/write CMAQ data, a forward operator that calculates AOD at 550 nm from CMAQ aerosol chemical composition and an adjoint of the forward operator that translates the changes in AOD to aerosol chemical composition. A generalized background error covariance program called "GEN_BE" has been extended to calculate background error covariance using CMAQ output. The background error variances are generated using a combination of both emissions and meteorological perturbations to better capture sources of uncertainties in PM2.5 simulations. The newly developed CMAQ-GSI system is used to perform daily 24-h PM2.5 forecasts with and without data assimilation from 15 July to 14 August 2014, and the resulting forecasts are compared against AirNOW PM2.5 measurements at 550 stations across the U. S. We find that the assimilation of MODIS AOD retrievals improves initialization of the CMAQ model

  8. Does early change predict long-term (6 months) improvements in subjects who receive manual therapy for low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Chad; Petersen, Shannon; Donaldson, Megan; Wilhelm, Mark; Learman, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Early change is commonly assessed for manual therapy interventions and has been used to determine treatment appropriateness. However, current studies have only explored the relationship of between or within-session changes and short-/medium-term outcomes. The goal of this study was to determine whether pain changes after two weeks of pragmatic manual therapy could predict those participants with chronic low back pain who demonstrate continued improvements at 6-month follow-up. This study was a retrospective observational design. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a 33% and a 50% pain change to predict improvement. Those who experienced a ≥33% pain reduction by 2 weeks had 6.98 (95% CI = 1.29, 37.53) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the GRoC and 4.74 (95% CI = 1.31, 17.17) times higher odds of 50% improvement on the ODI (at 6 months). Subjects who reported a ≥50% pain reduction at 2 weeks had 5.98 (95% CI = 1.56, 22.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the GRoC and 3.99 (95% CI = 1.23, 12.88) times higher odds of a 50% improvement in the ODI (at 6 months). Future studies may investigate whether a change in plan of care is beneficial for patients who are not showing early improvement predictive of a good long-term outcome.

  9. Long-Term Coffee Monoculture Alters Soil Chemical Properties and Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qingyun; Xiong, Wu; Xing, Yizhang; Sun, Yan; Lin, Xingjun; Dong, Yunping

    2018-04-17

    Long-term monoculture severely inhibits coffee plant growth, decreases its yield and results in serious economic losses in China. Here, we selected four replanted coffee fields with 4, 18, 26 and 57 years of monoculture history in Hainan China to investigate the influence of continuous cropping on soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Results showed long-term monoculture decreased soil pH and organic matter content and increased soil EC. Soil bacterial and fungal richness decreased with continuous coffee cropping. Principal coordinate analysis suggested monoculture time was a major determinant of bacterial and fungal community structures. Relative abundances of bacterial Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Nitrospira and fungal Ascomycota phyla decreased over time. At genus level, potentially beneficial microbes such as Nitrospira and Trichoderma, significantly declined over time and showed positive relationships with coffee plant growth in pots. In conclusion, continuous coffee cropping decreased soil pH, organic matter content, potentially beneficial microbes and increased soil EC, which might lead to the poor growth of coffee plants in pots and decline of coffee yields in fields. Thus, developing sustainable agriculture to improve soil pH, organic matter content, microbial activity and reduce the salt stress under continuous cropping system is important for coffee production in China.

  10. Long-term experiment with orchard floor management systems: influence on apple yield and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatnar, Ana; Licznar-Malanczuk, Maria; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert

    2014-05-07

    The study focuses on the response of apple primary and secondary metabolism and some important quality parameters to three living mulch treatments, classical herbicide fallow, and black polypropylene strip application in two apple cultivars. Primary and secondary metabolites were analyzed after 10 years of ground cover experiments. Soluble solids, firmness, and color measurements indicate differences among orchard floor management treatments. Significantly, lower levels of individual sugars have been measured in fruit of different living mulch treatments compared with fruit harvested from trees subjected to the herbicide strip treatment. Total sugar content was higher in fruit of the herbicide strip treatment in both cultivars analyzed. Significantly higher levels of total organic acids were only detected in 'Pinova' fruit of the Festuca ovina L. treatment. Long-term response of both cultivars to living mulch treatments indicated that apples increase the accumulation of almost all analyzed individual phenolic compounds.

  11. Chemically induced immunotoxicity in a medium-term multiorgan bioassay for carcinogenesis with Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinardi-Barbisan, Ana Lucia Tozzi; Kaneno, Ramon; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Viana de Camargo, Joao Lauro; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2004-01-01

    A variety of chemicals can adversely affect the immune system and influence tumor development. The modifying potential of chemical carcinogens on the lymphoid organs and cytokine production of rats submitted to a medium-term initiation-promotion bioassay for carcinogenesis was investigated. Male Wistar rats were sequentially initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N-butyl-N-(4hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine (DHPN), and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) during 4 weeks. Two initiated groups received phenobarbital (PB) or 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) for 25 weeks and two noninitiated groups received only PB or 2-AAF. A nontreated group was used as control. Lymphohematopoietic organs, liver, kidneys, lung, intestines, and Zymbal's gland were removed for histological analysis. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) levels were determined by ELISA in spleen cell culture supernatants. At the fourth week, exposure to the initiating carcinogens resulted in cell depletion of the thymus, spleen and bone marrow, and impairment of IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ production. However, at the 30th week, no important alterations were observed both in lymphoid organs and cytokine production in the different groups. The results indicate that the initiating carcinogens used in the present protocol exert toxic effects on the lymphoid organs and affect the production of cytokines at the initiation step of carcinogenesis. This early and reversible depression of the immune surveillance may contribute to the survival of initiated cells facilitating the development of future neoplasia

  12. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  13. Long-term measurement of aerosol chemical composition in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, Despina; Liakakou, Eleni; Theodosi, Christina; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    The collection of our samples was conducted for a period of five years (2008 - 2013) in Athens, Greece. The site is situated at the premises of the National Observatory of Athens on Penteli Hill, northeast Athens suburbs, and is considered an urban background station. The aim of our study was a first long-term estimation of the chemical mass closure of aerosol. For the purposes of the study, we applied three filter samplers during the sampling period: two Partisol FRM Model 2000 air samplers (one of them collecting PM10 and the other PM2.5 fractions of aerosol) and one Dichotomous Partisol auto-sampler (with PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 inlet). Aerosols were collected on Whatman QM-A quartz fiber filters and the mass of the collected samples was estimated by weighing the pre-combusted filters before and after sampling, under controlled conditions, using a microbalance. All quartz filters were analysed for organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) by a thermal - optical transmission technique. The concentration of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was defined for each filter using a total organic carbon analyzer, while the content in main water soluble ions (Cl-, Br-, NO-3, SO4-2, PO4-3, C2O4-2, NH4+, K+, Na+, Mg+2, Ca+2) was determined by ion chromatography. Additionally the filters were analyzed for trace metals by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Aerosol chemical mass closure calculations were conducted for the PM2.5 fraction. The area of Athens is characterized by aged aerosol that can originate from the marine boundary layer, the European mainland and occasionally from North African desert areas. The contribution of dust and particulate organic matter on PM levels was estimated taking into consideration the location of the sampling site, while identification and evaluation of sources was performed. Additionally, non-sea salt concentrations of the main ions were estimated to complete the chemical closure in the extended area. According to

  14. Technology for the long-term management of defense HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, B.A.; Berreth, J.R.; Knecht, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Management Plan of June 1983 includes a reference plan for the long-term management of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) high-level waste (HLW), with a goal of disposing of the annual output in 500 canisters a year by FY-2008. Based on the current vitrification technology, the ICPP base-glass case would produce 1700 canisters per year after FY-2007. Thus, to meet the DWMP goal processing steps including fuel dissolution, waste treatment, and waste immobilization are being studied as areas where potential modifications could result in HLW volume reductions for repository disposal. It has been demonstrated that ICPP calcined wastes can be densified by hot isostatic pressing to multiphase ceramic forms of high loading and density. Conversion of waste by hot isostatic pressing to these forms has the potential of reducing the annual ICPP waste production to volumes near those of the goal of the DWMP. This report summarizes the laboratory-scale information currently available on the development of these forms

  15. Long-term monitored catchments in Norway - a hydrologic and chemical evaluation -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydersen, E

    1994-10-20

    About 20 years ago, long-term monitoring of small Norwegian catchments were initiated, because of increasing concern regarding acidification of surface water and damage to fish populations. Long range transported air pollutants were considered to be the major acidification factor and so both precipitation and runoff chemistry were included in the monitoring programme. This report contains a thorough hydrologic and chemical evaluation of precipitation and runoff water separately as well as relationships between precipitation chemistry and runoff chemistry. The data comes from four catchments: Birkenes, Storgama, Langtjern and Kaarvatn. The chapters are (1) Sampling and analysis, (2) Description of the catchments, (3) Hydrology, (4) Chemistry, with subsections on wet deposition, dry deposition, concentration of marine compounds with distance from the sea, acid precipitation, runoff chemistry, sulphuric acid and other acidifying compounds, acid neutralizing capacity, and aluminium, (5) Time trends in precipitation and runoff chemistry. The time trends are evaluated in relation to the declining emissions of sulphur compounds in Europe since the late seventies. 134 refs., 213 figs., 54 tabs.

  16. Dual simulation of the massless lattice Schwinger model with topological term and non-zero chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göschl, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    We discuss simulation strategies for the massless lattice Schwinger model with a topological term and finite chemical potential. The simulation is done in a dual representation where the complex action problem is solved and the partition function is a sum over fermion loops, fermion dimers and plaquette-occupation numbers. We explore strategies to update the fermion loops coupled to the gauge degrees of freedom and check our results with conventional simulations (without topological term and at zero chemical potential), as well as with exact summation on small volumes. Some physical implications of the results are discussed.

  17. Short-term changes in chewing efficiency and subjective evaluation in normal dentate subjects after insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satokawa, Y; Minami, I; Wakabayashi, N

    2018-02-01

    Oral appliances with an occlusal flat table are used as treatment dentures. However, the short-term effect of insertion of such oral appliances on chewing has not been reported. This study aimed to determine whether experimental and continuous insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table has an effect on chewing efficiency and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) in healthy participants. Ten participants each in the oral-appliance and control (no oral-appliance insertion) groups attended six data collection sessions for 5 consecutive days. Participants answered the OHIP questionnaire and underwent the chewing efficiency test. For each parameter, intergroup differences were investigated in terms of change from baseline to immediately after oral-appliance insertion (0 hour; P appliance insertion (P appliance insertion (P = .477 and .275, respectively). Differences between the two groups in the degree of change in other parameters were not significant. Insertion of oral appliances caused a decrease in chewing efficiency and an increase in OHIP scores. Continuous insertion improved functional limitation and physical pain within 96 hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. Long-term incidence of serious fall-related injuries after bariatric surgery in Swedish obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Lena M S; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Ahlin, Sofie; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Karlsson Lindahl, Linda; Maglio, Cristina; Karlsson, Cecilia; Hjorth, Stephan; Taube, Magdalena; Carlsson, Björn; Svensson, Per-Arne; Peltonen, Markku

    2018-05-24

    Obesity increases risk of falling, but the effect of bariatric surgery on fall-related injuries is unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to study the association between bariatric surgery and long-term incidence of fall-related injuries in the prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects study. At inclusion, body mass index was ≥ 34 kg/m 2 in men and ≥38 kg/m 2 in women. The surgery per-protocol group (n = 2007) underwent gastric bypass (n = 266), banding (n = 376), or vertical banded gastroplasty (n = 1365), and controls (n = 2040) received usual care. At the time of analysis (31 December 2013), median follow-up was 19 years (maximal 26 years). Fall-related injuries requiring hospital treatment were captured using data from the Swedish National Patient Register. During follow-up, there were 617 first-time fall-related injuries in the surgery group and 513 in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio 1.21, 95% CI, 1.07-1.36; P = 0.002). The incidence differed between treatment groups (P < 0.001, log-rank test) and was higher after gastric bypass than after usual care, banding and vertical banded gastroplasty (adjusted hazard ratio 0.50-0.52, P < 0.001 for all three comparisons). In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery was associated with increased risk of serious fall-related injury requiring hospital treatment.

  1. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  2. Field studies on long term ecosystem consequences of ionising radiation and chemical pollutants (EANOR Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, D. [Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD (Norway); Evseeva, T. [Institute of Biology RAS (Russian Federation); Erenturk, S. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey)

    2014-07-01

    Chernobyl and other nuclear accidents have demonstrated that high levels of ionizing radiation can result in impacts on plants and animals, however little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure on biodiversity or other population and ecosystem level effects. The issue of ecological impact has been addressed after the Fukushima accident, which has raised questions about the impacts of radioactivity not only on human health, but also on wildlife. The overall aim of the EANOR project (2012-2015) is to assess the impacts of chronic exposure to enhanced radioactivity and chemical pollutants by studying the diversity of plant and soil invertebrate populations at two field sites. The first is a radium contaminated site in the Vodny area of the Komi Republic, Russia. Between 1931 and 1956, this was the main location of Soviet radium production. Wastes from the industry caused contamination of the environment, leading to high levels of radionuclides, heavy metals and rare-earth elements in the surroundings. The prolonged exposure of the ecosystem, combined with relatively low human activities, makes the site an excellent field laboratory for investigating the long-term effects of pollution. The second site is metal mining (Fe, Au, Ag, Mn, Mo, Cu, Pb and Zn) and industrial area on the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, having elevated levels of both heavy metals and radionuclides for many decades. Eastern Black Sea Region is a mountainous area covered with dense forests, where numerous rivers and torrents flow through gorges and is characterized by heavy rainfall, humid summers, and mild winters. Based on these conditions, the region is rich in biological diversity. Joint field expeditions have been carried out in 2012 and 2013 with the objective of documenting levels of radionuclides and other chemical contaminants in soils and organisms, and assessing plant and soil invertebrate biodiversity. Measurement of a range of biomarkers, including soil meta

  3. Long-term degradation of chemical structures and mechanical properties in polyethylene induced by ion-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Hama, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The long-term degradation in polyethylene irradiated with ion beams was studied. We found the changes of the chemical structures and the mechanical properties with time storage. S-PE has a good resistance to ion-beam irradiation because the crystallinity and density were very low. (author)

  4. Nonradioactive Environmental Emissions Chemical Source Term for the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Vapor Space During Waste Retrieval Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    A nonradioactive chemical vapor space source term for tanks on the Phase 1 and the extended Phase 1 delivery, storage, and disposal mission was determined. Operations modeled included mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers. Concentrations of ammonia, specific volatile organic compounds, and quantitative volumes of aerosols were estimated

  5. Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Eek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT. Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604 and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group.

  6. Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eek, Frida; Merlo, Juan; Gerdtham, Ulf; Lithman, Thor

    2009-01-01

    Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group. PMID:19936124

  7. Health Care Utilisation and Attitudes towards Health Care in Subjects Reporting Environmental Annoyance from Electricity and Chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eek, F.; Merlo, J.; Gerdtham, U.; Lithman, T.

    2010-01-01

    Environmentally intolerant persons report decreased self-rated health and daily functioning. However, it remains unclear whether this condition also results in increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to describe the health care consumption and attitudes towards health care in subjects presenting subjective environmental annoyance in relation to the general population, as well as to a group with a well-known disorder as treated hypertension (HT). Methods. Postal questionnaire (n = 13 604) and record linkage with population-based register on health care costs. Results. Despite significantly lower subjective well being and health than both the general population and HT group, the environmentally annoyed subjects had lower health care costs than the hypertension group. In contrast to the hypertension group, the environmentally annoyed subjects expressed more negative attitudes toward the health care than the general population. Conclusions. Despite their impaired subjective health and functional capacity, health care utilisation costs were not much increased for the environmentally annoyed group. This may partly depend on negative attitudes towards the health care in this group.

  8. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Yang; Meng Gong; Ying Hei Chui

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1) the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflecti...

  9. 15 CFR 710.1 - Definitions of terms used in the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to on-site verification pursuant to Articles IV, V, and VI of the Convention. Host Team. Means the U... relatively self-contained area, structure or building containing one or more units with auxiliary and..., including carrying out the verification measures delineated in the CWC. Toxic Chemical. Means any chemical...

  10. Ca isotopes, chemical weathering, and geomorphic controls on long-term climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.; Jacobson, A. D.; Holmden, C. E.; Craw, D.

    2009-12-01

    Calcium isotope geochemistry (δ44Ca) offers a unique opportunity to directly quantify proportions of riverine Ca originating from silicate versus carbonate weathering, which is essential for understanding how geomorphic processes affecting landscape evolution, such as tectonic uplift and glaciation, influence the long-term cycling of atmospheric CO2. We measured the elemental and δ44Ca chemistry of river and rock samples from the New Zealand Southern Alps. In combination with our geochemical data, we used runoff and suspended sediment fluxes to elucidate relationships between chemical weathering, mechanical erosion, and long-term climate. The S. Alps have uniform bedrock chemistry but significant tectonic and climatic gradients. West of the main topographic divide, watersheds drain schist and experience high runoff, uplift, and erosion rates. East of the main divide, watersheds drain greywacke or schist and experience lower runoff, uplift, and erosion rates. Glaciated watersheds with high erosion rates are present throughout the mountain range. Both schist and greywacke contain up to 3% metamorphic and hydrothermal calcite. Waters exhibit two-component mixing between calcite and silicate end-members when plotted as δ44Ca versus Ca/Sr. Scatter about the mixing curve is generally smaller than the analytical uncertainty of the measurements and likely reflects variability of the end-member compositions rather than fractionation. We used the mixing relationships to calculate percentages of Ca from silicate weathering. Rivers draining greywacke average 27.6% of Ca from silicate weathering with glaciated and non-glaciated watersheds yielding 41.8 and 19.5%, respectively. Rivers draining schist average 9.8% with glaciated and non-glaciated watersheds yielding 17.7 and 3.9%, respectively. Although Ca fluxes are larger west of the main divide where erosion and runoff are higher, the percentage of Ca from silicate weathering is smaller. Hence, long-term atmospheric CO2

  11. Immunobiological, biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranovskaya, E.A.; Shibaeva, I.V.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains. (author)

  12. Immunobiological, biochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics of Brucella lipopolysaccharide subjected to various doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dranovskaya, E A; Shibaeva, I V [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehpidemiologii i Mikrobiologii; Khabakpasheva, N A; Rostovtseva, N A [Institut Vaktsin i Syvorotok, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of toxicity, serological activity, some biochemical and physico-chemical properties of the highly toxic Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and of preparations obtained as a result of gamma irradiation in doses of 1, 3, and 10 mrad on the antigen. The toxicity of LPS was found to decrease with increasing radiation dose. Irradiation with a dose of 3 mrad produced a marked decrease in the toxicity of the antigen without essentially changing its serological properties. The process of LPS detoxication under the effect of irradiation was accompanied by changes in certain biochemical and physico-chemical indices suggestive of a modification of the primary structure of the LPS molecule and of an impairment especially of its polysaccharide side chains.

  13. WHY ADULTS LEARN: INTERPRETING ADULTS’ REASONS TO PARTICIPATE IN EDUCATION IN TERMS OF ECCLES’ SUBJECTIVE TASK VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Gorges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological research shows that subjective task value, a basic component of expectancyvalue theory as outlined by Eccles, predicts task choice (e.g., going to graduate school. However, Eccles’ approach has not been used to investigate adult learning so far. Therefore, the present study investigated a specific form of subjective task value and task choice, namely adults’ subjective task value of participation in education. Based on expectancy-value theory, qualitative content analyses of 16 interviews with adult learners (aged between 21 and 67 from varying age groups and educational backgrounds show a differentiation of positive value according to points of reference and a revised conceptualisation of cost as an independent component of subjective task value with four subcomponents. Apparently people estimate positive value and cost separately at first and only later weigh these components against each other to arrive at an overall evaluation of subjective task value, which, in turn, predicts participation in education. Moreover, results suggest a distinction between anticipated subjective task value prior to participation and subjective task value based on experience (i.e., in hindsight. Benefits of using expectancy-value theory for future research on adults’ participation in education are discussed.

  14. Model abstraction addressing long-term simulations of chemical degradation of large-scale concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, D.; Perko, J.; Seetharam, S.; Mallants, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in real-size concrete structures typical of a near-surface radioactive waste disposal facility. The methodology consists of the abstraction of a so-called full (complicated) model accounting for the multicomponent - multi-scale nature of concrete to an abstracted (simplified) model which simulates chemical concrete degradation based on a single component in the aqueous and solid phase. The abstracted model is verified against chemical degradation fronts simulated with the full model under both diffusive and advective transport conditions. Implementation in the multi-physics simulation tool COMSOL allows simulation of the spatial-temporal evolution of chemical degradation fronts in large-scale concrete structures. (authors)

  15. Human biomonitoring after chemical incidents and during short-term maintenance work as a tool for exposure analysis and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, M; Van Weyenbergh, T; Verwerft, E; Van Pul, J; Lang, S; Oberlinner, C

    2014-12-15

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is frequently used for the analysis and assessment of exposure to chemicals under routine working conditions. In recent years, HBM has also been applied to monitor the exposure of the general population, and of emergency responders in the aftermath of chemical incidents. Two examples of targeted HBM programs in the chemical industry are described and discussed in this paper: (1) analysis and assessment of the exposure of firefighters and chemical workers after the spill of p-chloroaniline from a burning chemical barrel, and (2) biomonitoring of maintenance workers potentially exposed to benzene during regular turnarounds. The results of these investigations underline that human biomonitoring contributes substantially to comprehensive exposure analyses, human health risk assessments and communication. In addition, regular HBM surveillance and feedback can assist in the continuous improvement of workplace safety measures and exposure control. In conclusion, data on accidental or short-term exposure to hazardous chemicals are an important source of information for the further development of limit and assessment values, the validation of biomarkers and of targeted HBM programs for both routine monitoring and disaster management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term Effects of Different Irrigation Methods with Treated Wastewater on Soil Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Najafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reuse of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing due to an increased demand for water resources in different parts of the world. Almost 70% of deviated water from rivers and pumped groundwater is used for agriculture. If wastewater is used for irrigation in agriculture, then the amount of discharged water from natural sources will be decreased and the flow of wastewater to the environment and its ensuing pollution will be prevented. Using wastewater in applications such as irrigation of agricultural lands has caused an increase of some exchangeable ions, salts and suspended solids (organic and mineral in the soil and has significantly affected physical, chemical and biological features. Therefore, paying attention to the soil health is important during use of wastewater when it is the source of irrigation water. In such cases, there will be some worries about pollution of harvested products, contact of farm workers with pathogenes and environmental issues in the farm. In these conditions, attention to irrigation methods along with consideration of environmental protection standards is important. Materials and Methods: In this study, the effects of treated wastewater (TW irrigation were tested on some chemical properties of soil for three years under five different irrigation treatments. The treatments were as follows: surface furrow irrigation (FI, surface drip irrigation (SDI, subsurface drip irrigation in 30 cm depth (SDI30, subsurface drip irrigation in 60 cm depth (SDI60 and bubbler irrigation (BI. At the end of the experiment, soil samples were collected from a depth of 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm in order to measure the electrical conductivity (EC, pH, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, organic matter (OM and calcium carbonate equivalent (CaCO3. Results and Discussion: According to the results of soil analysis, the soil became more saline than the beginning by applying the treatments. Generally, in two plots of urban and

  17. Transcending Library Catalogs: A Comparative Study of Controlled Terms in Library of Congress Subject Headings and User-Generated Tags in LibraryThing for Transgender Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest power of folksonomies, especially when set against controlled vocabularies like the Library of Congress Subject Headings, lies in their capacity to empower user communities to name their own resources in their own terms. This article analyzes the potential and limitations of both folksonomies and controlled vocabularies for…

  18. Improved work ability and return to work following vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation of subjects on long-term sick leave

    OpenAIRE

    Braathen, Tore; Veiersted, Kaj Bo; Heggenes, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a vocational multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme for patients on long-term sick leave with respect to their work ability and return to work. Methods: A multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme was administered to an intervention group of 183 patients on long-term sick leave (mean 12.2 months). Effects of the treatment were compared with a control group (n = 96) recruited from the national sickness insurance record of patients on sick leave of 6??2 month...

  19. Experimental research subject and renovation of chemical processing facility (CPF) for advanced fast reactor fuel reprocessing technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tomozo; Shinozaki, Tadahiro; Nomura, Kazunori; Koma, Yoshikazu; Miyachi, Shigehiko; Ichige, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki; Nemoto, Shin-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In order to enhance economical efficiency, environmental impact and nuclear nonproliferation resistance, the Advanced Reprocessing Technology, such as simplification and optimization of process, and applicability evaluation of the innovative technology that was not adopted up to now, has been developed for the reprocessing of the irradiated fuel taken out from a fast reactor. Renovation of the hot cell interior equipments, establishment and updating of glove boxes, installation of various analytical equipments, etc. in the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) was done to utilize the CPF more positivity which is the center of the experimental field, where actual fuel can be used, for research and development towards establishment of the Advanced Reprocessing Technology development. The hot trials using the irradiated fuel pins of the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO' for studies on improved aqueous reprocessing technology, MA separation technology, dry process technology, etc. are scheduled to be carried out with these new equipments. (author)

  20. Frequent Prescribed Burning as a Long-term Practice in Longleaf Pine Forests Does Not Affect Detrital Chemical Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T Adam; Chow, Alex T; Hagan, Donald L; Wang, G Geoff; Bridges, William C; Dozier, James H

    2017-09-01

    The O horizon, or detrital layer, of forest soils is linked to long-term forest productivity and health. Fuel reduction techniques, such as prescribed fire, can alter the thickness and composition of this essential ecosystem component. Developing an understanding of the changes in the chemical composition of forest detritus due to prescribed fire is essential for forest managers and stakeholders seeking sustainable, resilient, and productive ecosystems. In this study, we evaluated fuel quantity, fuel structure, and detrital chemical composition in longleaf pine ( Miller) forests that have been frequently burned for the last 40 yr at the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center in Georgetown, SC. Our results suggest that frequent prescribed fire reduces forest fuel quantity ( burned detritus. Our burning activities varied in the short term, consisting of annual dormant, annual growing, and biennial dormant season burns. Seasonal distinctions were present for fuel quantity and vertical fuel structure, but these differences were not noted for the benzene/phenol ratio. These results are significant as more managers consider burning existing longleaf stands while determining effective management practices for longleaf stands yet to be established. Managers of such stands can be confident that frequent, low-intensity, low-severity prescribed burns in longleaf pine forests do little to affect the long-term chemical composition of forest detritus. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Title Epidemic Model of a Concept within the Subject Classes of Patents: A Case Study on the Term RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tavakolizade Ravari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research aims at studying the epidemic model of the term RFID within the classes of patents. Methodology: The research is descriptive and has been conducted based on the mathematical models of diseases. Research population consists of 35,627 granted patents from the USPTO database those which the terms RFID or Radio Frequency Identification occur in their titles or abstracts. Data analysis was performed through software like Excel, SPSS, and Ravar-Matrix. Findings show that the cumulative growth of sub-classes with the term RFID follows an S-logistic model. This is an evidence of natural growth rate for assigning the term RFID to the USPTO sub-classes over the years.  Other finding reveals that the term RFID has been entered into and exited from the sub-classes of patents like the SIS epidemic model of diseases. As a final conclusion, the most technical fields those that are susceptible for RFID technology, have been met this technology. On the base of SIS model, the epidemic of RFID technology has been reached a balance.

  2. Improving of the teaching methods of chemical subjects by using of teaching tests in high educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzahira Turebekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the information technologies may cause great pedagogical effect: using of computer opens the opportunity for organization of problem teaching developing the creative thinking, forming research, practical skills of students, creation of the steady positive motivation of the students. Technical facilities of the computer technology allow solving the teaching and research tasks in the chemistry come as original catalyst of creation of different types of information technology systems and projection on their basis the novel ways and methods of their application. Use of computer technology in education helps to support necessary educational level of students and pay attention to their independent work. The article represents that the computer testing can be widely used for control of knowledge and for teaching. Teaching testing arouses interest in subject and develops ability of self-preparation and self – education, provides in-door and out- door work.

  3. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  4. Neural networks engaged in short-term memory rehearsal are disrupted by irrelevant speech in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Franziska; Schröger, Erich; Lipka, Sigrid

    2004-01-02

    Rehearsal mechanisms in human short-term memory are increasingly understood in the light of both behavioural and neuroanatomical findings. However, little is known about the cooperation of participating brain structures and how such cooperations are affected when memory performance is disrupted. In this paper we use EEG coherence as a measure of synchronization to investigate rehearsal processes and their disruption by irrelevant speech in a delayed serial recall paradigm. Fronto-central and fronto-parietal theta (4-7.5 Hz), beta (13-20 Hz), and gamma (35-47 Hz) synchronizations are shown to be involved in our short-term memory task. Moreover, the impairment in serial recall due to irrelevant speech was preceded by a reduction of gamma band coherence. Results suggest that the irrelevant speech effect has its neural basis in the disruption of left-lateralized fronto-central networks. This stresses the importance of gamma band activity for short-term memory operations.

  5. Chemical variability of water and sediment over time and along a mountain river subjected to natural and human impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szarek-Gwiazda Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the variability of physico-chemical parameters in water, and heavy metal contents in water and sediment over time and along the Carpathian Biała Tarnowska River (southern Poland and related them to catchment geology, human impact and the effect of barriers as a side aspect. The river water was well oxygenated, had pH 7.7–9.5 and was characterised by low and average flow. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen did not change significantly, while the contents of major ions, NO3−, NH4+, Mn and Fe increased gradually along the river. The major ion contents were negatively, and nitrate, Mn, and Fe positively, correlated with the flow. We recognise correlations between nitrate, Fe and Mn to be good indicators of soil erosion processes in the catchment. River sediment was unpolluted by most of the studied metals (slightly polluted by Ni and Cd. The differences in the values of some parameters (pH and NH4+, PO43−, HCO3−, Mn, Cd and Pb concentrations in the water, and heavy metals in the sediment upstream and downstream of some of the barriers were determined. Spatiotemporal changes in the values of studied parameters and the results of statistical calculation indicate the impact of human activity in the catchment basin (land use, wastewater on the water chemistry.

  6. Which Group of Individuals are subjected to Get Long-Term Unemployed During and After a Recession? Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞÇI, Hacı; ÖZDEMİR, Ali; DARICI, Burak

    2018-01-01

    This study tests the effects of individual characteristics on the incidence of being long-term unemployed in Turkey using data from Turkey’s Household Labor Force Surveys of 2010 and 2011 which are the first two following years of Global Economic Recession. The results indicate that females are more likely to be long-term unemployed than males and this result hinders for “gender discrimination” against women. The results also indicate that increases in education as well as age increases the p...

  7. The effect of study-test modalities on the remembrance of subjective duration from long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian

    2002-07-31

    It was examined whether stimulus modality (auditory vs. visual) affects the retrieval of subjective duration from memory. In two experiments the temporal generalization paradigm was used. Participants had to decide whether the previously learned standard duration (400 ms) occurred in the context of comparison stimuli. Two major results were found. (1) Discrimination was more accurate if the training and testing stimuli were of the same modality than if they were of opposite modalities. (2) If both modality of learning and modality of testing were different, subjects systematically underestimated the test durations, i.e. temporal generalization gradients (the proportion of identifications of a stimulus as the standard, plotted against stimulus duration) shifted to the right. The observed shift is interpreted as a result of a delayed timing process.

  8. Changes in the chemical composition of the light crude by short-term weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, X.; Ma, Q.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the event of an oil spill, it is important to unambiguously identify the oil and link it to the known source in order to determine environmental impact and legal liability. The fate and behaviour of spilled oil depends on several physical, chemical and biological factors such as evaporation, dissolution, microbial degradation and photooxidation. The chemical composition of the spilled oil changes with weathering. The changes can have a significant effect on the oil's toxicity and can add to the difficulty of identifying spilled oil. This paper presents the results of changes in chemical composition of light crude oil by weathering under natural environmental conditions. Oil samples were analyzed on a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Light crude oil was obtained from the oil cabin of a tanker which spilled oil near the Dalian Sea near China in April 2005. It was shown that the saturated hydrocarbons of light crude oil distribute between n-C 8 and n-C 23 . The most abundant n-alkanes are found in the n-C 10 to n-C 16 . The main chemical compositions of the light crude oil are the n-alkanes and the isoprenoids. The aromatic compounds are subordinate chemical compositions of the light crude oil. A simulated weathering experiment showed that less than n-C 12 of the n-alkanes, toluene, 1,3-dimethyl benzene is lost after 1 day of weathering. The n-C 13 , n-C 14 , naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene are lost on the fifth day of weathering. N-C 15 alkane composition indicates some weatherproof capability. The ratios of n-C 17 /pristine and n-C 18 /phytane were unchanged and useful in identifying the source of the light crude oil during the first 8-day weathering period. By the twenty-first day of weathering, the chemical composition underwent extreme alteration, and the source of the pollution could not be determined by the ratios of pristine/phytane. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  9. Psychomotor and Memory Effects of Haloperidol, Olanzapine, and Paroxetine in Healthy Subjects After Short-Term Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  10. Psychomotor and memory effects of haloperidol, olanzapine, and paroxetine in healthy subjects after short-term administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  11. Possible Long Term Effects of Chemical Warfare Using Visual Evoked Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Riazi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have already addressed the effects of occupational organic solvent exposure on the visually evoked potentials (VEPs. Visual system is an important target for Sulphur Mustard (SM toxicity. A number of Iranian victims of Sulphur Mustard (SM agent were apprehensive about the delay effect of SM on their vision and a possible delay effect of SM on their visual cortex. This investigation was performed on 34 individuals with a history of chemical exposure and a control group of 15 normal people. The Toennies electro-diagnosis device was used and its signals were saved as the latencies. The mean of N75, N140 and P100 of victims of chemical warfare (VCWs and control group indicated no significant results (P>0.05. The VCWs did not show any visual symptoms and there was no clear deficit in their VEPs.

  12. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W.; Caicedo, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  13. Tribological performance evaluation of coated steels with TiNbCN subjected to tribo-chemical wear in Ringers solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero G, J.; Aperador, W. [Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Volta Research Group, 101-80 Bogota (Colombia); Caicedo, J. C., E-mail: g.ing.materiales@gmail.com [Universidad del Valle, Tribology Polymers, Powder Metallurgy and Processing of Solid Recycled Research Group, Cali (Colombia)

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of generating solutions against the deterioration of the joint prostheses, it was studied the tribo-corrosive behavior of titanium niobium carbonitride (TiNbCN) deposited on stainless steel AISI 316 LVM using the technique of magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition. The tests were performed in a balanced saline solution (Ringers solution) which represents the characteristics of the body fluids, using an equipment where the micro-abrasive wear is generated by the contact of micro particles in the system; the micro-abrasion-corrosion mechanism is described by means of the incorporation of an electrochemical cell consisting of three electrodes. Both the substrate and the coating, were subjected to micro-abrasive wear simultaneously with the electrochemical tests of Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS); subsequently of the tests, the specimens were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy characterizing the surface morphology. It was observed that the coating presents an increase in its corrosion and wear resistance with the presence of a simulated biological fluid. The samples were characterized via X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  14. A randomized lifestyle intervention with 5-year follow-up in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance: pronounced short-term impact but long-term adherence problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Bernt; Nilssön, Torbjörn K; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To compare data on cardiovascular risk factor changes in lipids, insulin, proinsulin, fibrinolysis, leptin and C-reactive protein, and on diabetes incidence, in relation to changes in lifestyle. METHODS: The study was a randomized lifestyle intervention trial conducted in northern Sweden......, and reduced the risk for type 2 diabetes, but the effects persisted only as long as the new lifestyle was maintained. Increased physical activity seemed to be the behaviour that was most easy to preserve....... between 1995 and 2000, in 168 individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and body mass index above 27 at start. The intensive intervention group (n = 83) was subjected to a 1-month residential lifestyle programme. The usual care group (n = 85) participated in a health examination ending...

  15. Long term effects of chemical weapons on health in Kurdistan of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizaye, K.

    2009-01-01

    Extensive exposure to chemical weapons such as mustard gas, nerve gas and cyanide caused high mortality, morbidity, injuries, and chronic side effects in vital organs, especially the respiratory tract. Chemical weapons were heavily used by Iraq against Iranian soldiers between 1984-1986. Then, against the Iraqi Kurd in Sheikh Wasan and Balisan valley, during April 1987 and in Halabja on 18th March 1988. Reports suggested that as many as 2.9 percent of the Kurdish population have been exposed to chemical weapon at some level. This case report describes a Kurdish lady who was exposed to mustard gas during a chemical attack in sheikh Wasan in Iraq. A thirty two years old woman wearing black clothes presented to our center at 1999 complaining from shortness of breath (SOB). Her condition started 12 years ago when the Iraqi Government attacked her village Sheikh Wasan by Chemical weapons which included Mustard gas and nerve gases such as Sarin, Tabun and VX in April 1987. She described how the gas smelled like garlic as it spread over the village. During the attack she suffered from sever SOB, cough, skin burn and eyes irritation and lacrimation. After several days of being without medical care, she received some medical attention by local medical staff at the area because the Iraqi authorities at that time refused and prohibited them from management at the major hospitals. After several days when she returned back to her home she found that several members of her family have died during the exposure to chemical gases. Among the dead people were her husband, her son, her brother in addition to other second and third degree relatives. Since that time she suffered from repeated attacks of cough and SOB and wheezing that were increased by exertion and cold exposure. The attacks were more sever with time and the SOB has interfered with her daily activity and even lastly she was suffering from SOB at rest and during sleep that made her unable to sleep lying down. Moreover

  16. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.H.; Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. ► Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. ► Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 °C and 500 °C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite (α Cr ) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  17. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel subjected to long-term annealing in the spinodal decomposition temperature range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.mo [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Kwok, C.T.; Chan, W.K.; Zeng, D. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term DLEPR data on duplex stainless steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spinodal decomposition remains unabated even after 15,000 h of annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of long-term annealing on healing has been investigated. - Abstract: The effect of thermal annealing up to 15,000 h between 300 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C on the corrosion resistance of the duplex stainless steel (DSS) 7MoPLUS has been investigated by using the DLEPR test. Spinodal decomposition in 7MoPLUS is unabated even after annealing for 15,000 h and no healing has been observed. The possible healing mechanisms in this temperature range (back diffusion of Cr atoms from the Cr-rich ferrite ({alpha}{sub Cr}) and diffusion of Cr atoms from the austenite) and its absence in the present steel have been discussed.

  18. Evaluation of various feedstuffs of ruminants in terms of chemical composition and metabolisable energy content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition and metabolisable energy (ME content of feedstuffs used in ruminant animals using in vitro method. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 feedstuffs used for ruminant feeding including cultivated non-leguminous fodders like maize, sorghum, pearl millet, and oat; leguminous fodders like cowpea and berseem; agro-industrial by-products such as wheat bran, deoiled rice bran, rice polish, wheat straw, and concentrates such as mustard oil cake, groundnut cake, soybean meal, cotton seed cake, grains like maize, oat, wheat, and barley were taken for this study. Chemical compositions and cell wall constituents of test feeds were determined in triplicate. The crude protein (CP content was calculated as nitrogen (N × 6.25. True dry matter digestibility (TDMD, true organic matter digestibility (TOMD, ME, and partitioning factor (PF values were determined by in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT. Results: The CP content of non-leguminous fodders varied from 7.29% (sorghum to 9.51% (maize, but leguminous fodders had less variation in CP. Oilseed cakes/meals had high CP and ether extract (EE content than other feedstuffs except rice polish, which had 12.80% EE. Wheat straw contained highest fiber fractions than the other ingredients. ME content was highest in grains (wheat-12.02 MJ/kg and lowest in wheat straw (4.65 MJ/kg and other roughages. TDMD of grains and oilseed cakes/meals were higher than the fodders and agro-industrial by-products. The same trend was observed for TOMD. Conclusions: It was concluded that the energy feeds showed a great variation in chemical composition and ME content. The results of this study demonstrated that the kinetics of gas production of energy feed sources differed among themselves. Evaluation of various feedstuffs is helpful in balanced ration formulation for field animals and under farm conditions for better utilization of these commonly available feed resources.

  19. Crop rotations and poultry litter impact dynamic soil chemical properties and soil biota long-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynamic soil physiochemical interactions with conservation agricultural practices and soil biota are largely unknown. Therefore, this study aims to quantify long-term (12-yr) impacts of cover crops, poultry litter, crop rotations, and conservation tillage and their interactions on soil physiochemica...

  20. Structural changes in chromosomes of peripheral blood lymphocytes in monkeys subjected to long-term daily irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosichenko, L.P.

    1976-01-01

    During the period that lasted from 4 to 11 years after the cessation of the long-term daily gamma-irradiation the frequency of chromosome rearrangements in peripheral blood lymphocytes of monkeys exceeded the control level. The number of rearrangements did not change significantly with different total irradiation doses (from 826 to 3677r). The main type of structural chromosome rearrangements were symmetrical chromosome exchanges. Abnormal cell clones in peripheral lymphocytes in monkeys irradiated with low doses exhibited no selective advantages during the periods of investigation

  1. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  2. Complexity of chemical graphs in terms of size, branching, and cyclicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, A T; Mills, D; Kodali, V; Basak, S C

    2006-08-01

    Chemical graph complexity depends on many factors, but the main ones are size, branching, and cyclicity. Some molecular descriptors embrace together all these three parameters, which cannot then be disentangled. The topological index J (and its refinements that include accounting for bond multiplicity and the presence of heteroatoms) was designed to compensate in a significant measure for graph size and cyclicity, and therefore it contains information mainly on branching. In order to separate these factors, two new indices (F and G) related with J are proposed, which allow to group together graphs with the same size into families of constitutional formulas differing in their branching and cyclicity. A comparison with other topological indices revealed that a few other topological indices vary similarly with index G, notably DN2S4 among the triplet indices, and TOTOP among the indices contained in the Molconn-Z program. This comparison involved all possible chemical graphs (i.e. connected planar graphs with vertex degrees not higher than four) with four through six vertices, and all possible alkanes with four through nine carbon atoms.

  3. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  4. EFFECTS OF PARBOILING AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RICE ON THE GLYCEMIC AND INSULINEMIC INDICES IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Parvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purposes: To observe the influence of parboiling, amylose content and gelatinization temperature of rice on plasma glucose and insulin responses in type 2 diabetic subjects because diabetic subjects are especially prescribed usage of starchy foods with low glycemic responses. Methods: Seventeen type 2 diabetic subjects ingested five test meals of 50g available carbohydrate as white bread, cooked rice with high (29% and low amylose content (13%, undergoing different processing and gelatinization temperatures. The diets were taken in a random order after a 10h overnight fast with approximately 7 days interval as wash out period. Results: The glycemic index (GI of all rice varieties were lower than that of white bread (p<0.001. Furthermore, GI of parboiled rice with a high amylose content was lower than that of parboiled low amylose rice (50±7 vs 71±5, p <0.01. No differences were observed between parboiled rice with high and low gelatinization temperature (50±7 vs 47± 4, nor between non-parboiled and parboiled rice (52±7 vs 50±7. Insulin responses to the five test foods did not differ significantly in the study subjects. Conclusions: In type 2 diabetic subjects the investigated rices were all low glycemic as compared to white bread, independent of parboiling and physico-chemical characteristics. The study showed that the amylose content, but not the gelatinization temperature, may be an useful criteria in selection of low GI rices irrespective of parboiling status. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(1: 12-16

  5. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  6. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    OpenAIRE

    Satinder Pal Singh; Ashok Kumar Jena; Vidya Rattan; Ashok Kumar Utreja

    2012-01-01

    Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 month...

  7. The effect of reduced atmospheric deposition on soil and soil solution chemistry at a site subjected to long-term acidification, Nacetin, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, F.; Hofmeister, J.; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruška, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 370, 2-3 (2006), s. 532-544 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/0058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : long-term monitoring Norway spruce * Recovery * Soil solution * Base cations * Nitrogen * Norway spruce Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2006

  8. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA,muscle strength, EMG and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, Charlotte; Aagaard, Per; Rosted, Anne

    2004-01-01

    , maximal isometric strength, RFD, and muscle activation in elderly men and women recovering from long-term muscle disuse and subsequent hip surgery. The improvement in both muscle mass and neural function is likely to have important functional implications for elderly individuals........ Thirty subjects completed the trial. In the strength-training group, significant increases were observed in maximal isometric muscle strength (24%, P impulse (27-32%, P

  9. Do Subjects with Whiplash-Associated Disorders Respond Differently in the Short-Term to Manual Therapy and Exercise than Those with Mechanical Neck Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Matteo; Catena, Antonella; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-04-01

    To compare the short-term effects of manual therapy and exercise on pain, related disability, range of motion, and pressure pain thresholds between subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders. Twenty-two subjects with mechanical neck pain and 28 with whiplash-associated disorders participated. Clinical and physical outcomes including neck pain intensity, neck-related disability, and pain area, as well as cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds over the upper trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles, were obtained at baseline and after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Each subject received six sessions of manual therapy and specific neck exercises. Mixed-model repeated measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used for the analyses. Subjects with whiplash-associated disorders exhibited higher neck-related disability ( P  = 0.021), larger pain area ( P  = 0.003), and lower pressure pain thresholds in the tibialis anterior muscle ( P  = 0.009) than those with mechanical neck pain. The adjusted ANCOVA revealed no between-group differences for any outcome (all P  > 0.15). A significant main effect of time was demonstrated for clinical outcomes and cervical range of motion with both groups experiencing similar improvements (all P   0.222). The current clinical trial found that subjects with mechanical neck pain and whiplash-associated disorders exhibited similar clinical and neurophysiological responses after a multimodal physical therapy intervention, suggesting that although greater signs of central sensitization are present in subjects with whiplash-associated disorders, this does not alter the response in the short term to manual therapy and exercises. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  11. Chemical protection against long term effects in mice exposed to supralethal doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisin, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Our results demonstrate that mixtures of radioprotectors increase the degree of protection against the short and the long term effects compared with that obtained with each substance given separately. The most potent mixtures of radioprotectors (AET, MEA, Cyst, GSH, 5-HT) yield for the long term survival a dose reduction factor of 2.1. Pulmonary lesions are most often the cause of death in protected mice irradiated with 13.5 Gy or more. At the time of death signs of sclerosis and atrophy in several tissues are associated with these lung lesions in most mice and increase with dose and time after exposure. The tissues most affected are the kidney, the alimentary tract, the liver and the lymphoid tissues [fr

  12. Intracellular degradation of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes using a long-term primary microglial culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussy, Cyrill; Hadad, Caroline; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-01-07

    Chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) have been used in proof-of-concept studies to alleviate debilitating neurological conditions. Previous in vivo observations in brain tissue have suggested that microglia - acting as resident macrophages of the brain - play a critical role in the internalization of f-CNTs and their partial in situ biodegradation following a stereotactic administration in the cortex. At the same time, several reports have indicated that immune cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils and even macrophages could participate in the processing of carbon nanomaterials via oxidation processes leading to degradation, with surface properties acting as modulators of CNT biodegradability. In this study we questioned whether degradability of f-CNTs within microglia could be modulated depending on the type of surface functionalization used. We investigated the kinetics of degradation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) functionalized via different chemical strategies that were internalized within isolated primary microglia over three months. A cellular model of rat primary microglia that can be maintained in cell culture for a long period of time was first developed. The Raman structural signature of the internalized f-CNTs was then studied directly in cells over a period of up to three months, following a single exposure to a non-cytotoxic concentration of three different f-CNTs (carboxylated, aminated and both carboxylated and aminated). Structural modifications suggesting partial but continuous degradation were observed for all nanotubes irrespective of their surface functionalization. Carboxylation was shown to promote more pronounced structural changes inside microglia over the first two weeks of the study.

  13. Proficiency in Positive versus Negative Emotion Identification and Subjective Well-being among Long-term Married Elderly Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ePetrican

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive versus negative emotions and a close partner’s well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1 and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson’s Disease (Study 2, which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female expressing one positive (i.e., happiness and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1’s neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance. Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive versus negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  14. Proficiency in positive vs. negative emotion identification and subjective well-being among long-term married elderly couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrican, Raluca; Moscovitch, Morris; Grady, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that positive emotions play a crucial role in shaping a healthy interpersonal climate. Inspired by this research, the current investigation sought to shed light on the link between proficiency in identifying positive vs. negative emotions and a close partner's well-being. To this end, we conducted two studies with neurologically intact elderly married couples (Study 1) and an age-matched clinical sample, comprising married couples in which one spouse had been diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (Study 2), which tends to hinder emotional expressivity. To assess proficiency in identifying emotions from whole body postures, we had participants in both studies complete a pointlight walker task, featuring four actors (two male, two female) expressing one positive (i.e., happiness) and three negative (i.e., sadness, anger, fear) basic emotions. Participants also filled out measures of subjective well-being. Among Study 1's neurologically intact spouses, greater expertise in identifying positive (but not negative) emotions was linked to greater partner life satisfaction (but not hedonic balance). Spouses of PD patients exhibited increased proficiency in identifying positive emotions relative to controls, possibly reflective of compensatory mechanisms. Complementarily, relative to controls, spouses of PD patients exhibited reduced proficiency in identifying negative emotions and a tendency to underestimate their intensity. Importantly, all of these effects attenuated with longer years from PD onset. Finally, there was evidence that it was increased partner expertise in identifying negative (rather than positive) emotional states that predicted greater life satisfaction levels among the PD patients and their spouses. Our results thus suggest that positive vs. negative emotions may play distinct roles in close relationship dynamics as a function of neurological status and disability trajectory.

  15. Effect of long-term intraperitoneal zinc administration on liver glycogen levels in diabetic rats subjected to acute forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, Mursel; Gunay, Mehmet; Akil, Mustafa; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2011-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of zinc administration on liver glycogen levels of rats in which diabetes was induced with streptozotocin and which were subjected to acute swimming exercise. The study was conducted on 80 adult Sprague-Dawley male rats, which were equally allocated to eight groups: group 1, general control; group 2, zinc-administrated control; group 3, zinc-administrated diabetic control; group 4, swimming control; group 5, zinc-administrated swimming; group 6, zinc-administrated diabetic swimming; group 7, diabetic swimming; group 8, diabetic control group. In order to induce diabetes, animals were injected with 40 mg/kg intraperitoneal (ip) streptozotocin. The injections were repeated in the same dose after 24 h. Animals which had blood glucose at or above 300 mg/dl 6 days after the last injections were accepted as diabetic. Zinc was administrated ip for 4 weeks as 6 mg/kg/day per rat. Hepatic tissue samples taken from the animals at the end of the study were fixed in 95% ethyl alcohol. Cross sections of 5 µm thickness, taken by the help of a microtome from the tissue samples buried in paraffin, were placed on a microscope slide and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and evaluated by light microscope. All microscopic images were transferred to a PC and assessed with the help of Clemex PE3.5 image analysis software. The lowest liver glycogen levels in the study were obtained in groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8. Liver glycogen levels in group 5 were higher than groups 3, 4, 6, 7, and 8, but lower than groups 1 and 2 (p swimming exercise were restored by zinc administration and that diabetes induced in rats prevented the protective effect of zinc.

  16. Long-term adherence to antimuscarinic drugs when treating overactive bladder in the older: Subjective reason and objective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Vladimirovich Kosilov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Comparison of subjective reasons for the refusal of antimuscarinic treatment and the state of objective economic, social, psychological and health status markers in the elderly with overactive bladder. Materials and Methods: One thousand seven hundred thirty-six (1,736 patients participated in the experiment: 1,036 or 59.7% of women, and 700 or 40.3% of men aged over 60 years (average age, 68.1 years who took antimuscarinic (AM drugs during the year. The control of objective parameters was carried out by studying patients’ medical records, the use of overactive bladder questionnaire short form and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Shor-Form Health Survey, voiding diaries, uroflowmetry, as well as income certificates from the Tax Inspectorate, support documentation for expenses on drugs. Results: Fifty-two point six percent (52.6% of patients preserved adherence to treatment during the first 6 months, 30.1% – during the follow-up period. The average time of reaching a 30-day break in the AM drugs administration was 174 days. In 36.5% of cases of the refusal of treatment, patients referred to medical reasons for the refusal, in 31.6% of cases disturbance was established in objective health status markers (differences were significant in 30% of the follow-up time. The percentage of refusals of treatment for social and psychological reasons (13.2% was significantly lower (p≤0.05, than the percentage of individuals with statuses altered objectively (21.9%. Conclusions: A significant share of elderly patients taking AM drugs when treating overactive bladder is inclined to overestimate the importance of health factors influencing their decisions and to underestimate the importance of social and psychological factors, and an urologist should take it into account for the efficacy evaluation.

  17. Intima-media thickness remodelling in hypertensive subjects with long-term well-controlled blood pressure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puato, Massimo; Boschetti, Giovanni; Rattazzi, Marcello; Zanon, Marta; Pesavento, Raffaele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Fania, Claudio; Benetti, Elisabetta; Palatini, Paolo; Pauletto, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate in a long follow-up the carotid artery remodelling in a cohort of young hypertensive subjects having good blood pressure (BP) control. We studied 20 grade I hypertensives (HT) by assessing the B-mode ultrasound of mean carotid intima-media thickness (mean-IMT) and maximum IMT (M-MAX) in each carotid artery segment (common, bulb, internal), bilaterally. We compared their ultrasound measurements with those recorded 5 and 10 years earlier. While the first 5-year follow-up was observational, in the second 5-year follow-up, lifestyle modifications and/or pharmacological therapy were started to obtain well-controlled BP levels. Office BP was measured at the time of the ultrasound studies and every 6 months during the follow-up. BP levels were: 10 years 144/91 mmHg, 5 years 143/90 mmHg and 129 ± 79 mmHg at the time of the study. In the first 5-year observational follow-up, both mean-IMT and M-MAX increased (Δ 0.116 and Δ 0.165 mm, respectively, p < 0.0005). In the 5-year intervention follow-up, characterized by well-controlled BP, mean-IMT slightly but significantly increased (Δ 0.084 mm, p = 0.004), whereas M-MAX remained stable (Δ 0.026 mm). In our HT, well-controlled BP levels were able to prevent pro-atherogenic remodelling (expressed by M-MAX). Conversely, good BP control slightly decreased but did not stop the progression in mean-IMT, which is likely to reflect some hypertrophy of the arterial media layer.

  18. Semi-passive, Chemical Oxidation Schemes for the Long-term Treatment of Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank W. Schwartz

    2005-12-13

    This research involves a combined experimental and modeling study that builds on our previous DOE-sponsored work in investigating how KMnO{sub 4} can be better used with in situ remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated ethylenes (e.g., PCE, TCE, DCE). This study aims to provide scientific basis for developing a new long-term, semi-passive ISCO scheme that uses controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a reactive barrier component. Specific objectives of the study are (1) to construct controlled release KMnO{sub 4} as a new reactive barrier component that could deliver permanganate at a controlled rate over long time periods of years, (2) to quantitatively describe release mechanisms associated with the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}, (3) to demonstrate efficacy of the new remediation scheme using proof-of-concept experiments, and (4) to design advanced forms of controlled release systems through numerical optimization. The new scheme operates in a long-term, semi-passive manner to control spreading of a dissolved contaminant plume with periodic replacement of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} installed in the subsurface. As a first step in developing this remedial concept, we manufactured various prototype controlled release KMnO{sub 4} forms. Then we demonstrated using column experiments that the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} could deliver small amount of permanganate into flowing water at controlled rates over long time periods of years. An analytical model was also used to estimate the diffusivities and durations of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4}. Finally, proof-of-concept flow-tank experiments were performed to demonstrate the efficacy of the controlled release KMnO{sub 4} scheme in controlling dissolved TCE plume in a long-term, semi-passive manner. Another important thrust of our research effort involved numerical optimization of controlled release systems. This study used a numerical model that is capable of describing release patterns of active

  19. Existing of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizal on The Corn Field Subjected by Long-term Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was determined in continuously cropping systems which had applied by organic and/or inorganic fertilizers for a long term (4 years application of corn and upland rice rotation. The experiment was established at Taman Bogo, Probolinggo sub-district, East Lampung district. The experiment were: control (without fertilizer, 20 Mg ha-1 chicken manure (CK, 20 Mg ha-1 green manure Glyricidium sp. (GM, 100 % inorganic fertilizers (IF (urea 300 kg ha-1, SP 36 200 kg ha-1, and KCl 100 kg ha-1, 50% CK + 50% IF, 50% GM + 50% IF, 75% CK + 25% IF, and 75% GM + 25% IF. Soil samples were taken at the first corn growing season (2001 and the eight corn growing season (2004. VAM fungi spores were examined by wet sieving methods. The results showed that application of chicken manure or its combination with inorganic fertilizers had higher VAM fungi spore. The dominant species of VAM fungi at all treatment was Glomus constrictum.

  20. Biosynthetic hydrogels--studies on chemical and physical characteristics on long-term cellular response for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankam, Finosh Gnanaprakasam; Muthu, Jayabalan

    2014-07-01

    Biosynthetic hydrogels can meet the drawbacks caused by natural and synthetic ones for biomedical applications. In the current article we present a novel biosynthetic alginate-poly(propylene fumarate) copolymer based chemically crosslinked hydrogel scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Partially crosslinked PA hydrogel and fully cross linked PA-A hydrogel scaffolds were prepared. The influence of chemical and physical (morphology and architecture of hydrogel) characteristics on the long term cellular response was studied. Both these hydrogels were cytocompatible and showed no genotoxicity upon contact with fibroblast cells. Both PA and PA-A were able to resist deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and sustain the viability of L929 cells. The hydrogel incubated oxidative stress induced cells were capable of maintaining the intra cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) expression to the normal level confirmed their protective effect. Relatively the PA hydrogel was found to be unstable in the cell culture medium. The PA-A hydrogel was able to withstand appreciable cyclic stretching. The cyclic stretching introduced complex macro and microarchitectural features with interconnected pores and more structured bound water which would provide long-term viability of around 250% after the 24th day of culture. All these qualities make PA-A hydrogel form a potent candidate for cardiac tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  2. Short-term chemical pretreatment cannot replace curettage in photodynamic therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Wiegell, Stine Regin; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2016-01-01

    pretreatment with curettage and two combination ointments containing calcipotriol/betamethasone and salicylic acid/betamethasone affect PpIX fluorescence after the application of methyl aminolevulinate MAL and 5-aminolevulinic acid (BF-200 ALA). METHODS: Four fields on the forearms of 30 healthy volunteers...... were pretreated with curettage or short-term application of calcipotriol/betamethasone or salicylic acid/betamethasone for 20 min. Two fields were not pretreated, thus serving as reference. After pretreatment, MAL or BF-200 ALA was applied for 24 h, and PpIX fluorescence was measured hourly from 1 to 5...... h and after 18, 21 and 24 h. RESULTS: Curettage significantly enhanced PpIX fluorescence for MAL from 1 to 21 h (P salicylic acid...

  3. The Short-Term Effect of Chest Physiotherapy on Spirometric Indices in Chemical Warfare Victims Exposed to Mustard Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABCTRACT Introduction & Objective: Chronic respiratory diseases are the most prevalent late sequels of sulfur mustard gas injury among Iranian chemical warfare victims. Chest physiotherapy is one of the useful methods in care, cure and infection prevention of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the short-term effect of chest physiotherapy on spirometric indices in chemical warfare victims exposed to sulfur mustard gas. Materials & Methods: In this study, 27 of the chemical warfare victims with respiratory diseases were selected. Chest physiotherapy including postural drainage percussion and vibration were used in four positions for all patients. Pulmonary function test (PFT was obtained before (baseline, immediately and 20 minute after the chest physiotherapy. The SPSS software was used for the data analysis of the collected data. Results: Results of this study showed the significant effect (p<0.01 of chest physiotherapy upon forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 (baseline mean, 44.19 immediately after intervention mean 47.3 and 20 minute after intervention mean 48.3 and forced vital capacity (FVC (baseline mean, 69.37 immediately after intervention mean, 73.67 20 minute after intervention 75.74. Chest physiotherapy had significant effect (p<0.01 in asthmatic bronchitis group and also had significant effect (p<0.05 in both severe and moderate groups. Conclusion: Chest physiotherapy was able to improve pulmonary function test indices in chemical warfare victims suffering from respiratory problems. The effect on asthmatic bronchitis group, as well as both severe and moderate groups, was significant.

  4. A short-term, comprehensive, yoga-based lifestyle intervention is efficacious in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.

  5. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term CPAP Treatment on Sleep Quality and Blood Pressure in Adherent Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Chen; Huang, Yi-Chih; Lan, Chou-Chin; Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Kuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Although CPAP is the first treatment choice for moderate-to-severe OSA, acceptance of and adherence to CPAP remain problematic. High CPAP adherence is generally defined as ≥4 h of use/night for ≥70% of the nights monitored. We investigated the long-term beneficial effects of CPAP on sleep quality and blood pressure in subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA according to high or low CPAP adherence. We retrospectively analyzed 121 subjects with moderate-to-severe OSA from August 2008 to July 2012. These subjects were divided into 3 groups: (1) no CPAP treatment (n = 29), (2) low CPAP adherence (n = 28), and (3) high CPAP adherence (n = 64). All subjects were followed up for at least 1 y. The 3 groups were compared regarding anthropometric and polysomnographic variables, presence of cardiovascular comorbidities, and blood pressure at baseline and at the last follow-up. The no-treatment group showed significant increases in oxygen desaturation index and blood pressure. The high-adherence group showed significant improvement in daytime sleepiness, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index, and blood pressure. Although the AHI was also significantly decreased after CPAP treatment in the low-adherence group, blood pressure remained unchanged. CPAP treatment had beneficial effects on both sleep quality and blood pressure only in subjects with OSA and high CPAP adherence who used CPAP for ≥4 h/night for ≥70% of nights monitored. Subjects with low CPAP adherence received beneficial effects on AHI, but not blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  6. A mechanistic model for long-term nuclear waste glass dissolution integrating chemical affinity and interfacial diffusion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teqi [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jivkov, Andrey P., E-mail: andrey.jivkov@manchester.ac.uk [Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Li, Weiping; Liang, Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Hui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Han, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: xyhan_nint@sina.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass in geological repository conditions is critical element of the analysis of repository retention function. Experimental observations of glass alterations provide a general agreement on the following regimes: inter-diffusion, hydrolysis process, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular conditions, resumption of alteration. Of these, the mechanisms controlling the rate drop and the residual rate remain a subject of dispute. This paper offers a critical review of the two most competitive models related to these regimes: affinity–limited dissolution and diffusion barrier. The limitations of these models are highlighted by comparison of their predictions with available experimental evidence. Based on the comprehensive discussion of the existing models, a new mechanistic model is proposed as a combination of the chemical affinity and diffusion barrier concepts. It is demonstrated how the model can explain experimental phenomena and data, for which the existing models are shown to be not fully adequate.

  7. [Long-term outcome analysis of subjective and objective parameters after breast reduction in 159 cases: Patients judge differently from plastic surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinga, Rik; Babst, Doris; Bodmer, Elvira S; Link, Bjoern C; Fritsche, Elmar; Hug, Urs

    2017-12-01

    This work assessed both subjective and objective postoperative parameters after breast reduction surgery and compared between patients and plastic surgeons. After an average postoperative observation period of 6.7 ± 2.7 (2 - 13) years, 159 out of 259 patients (61 %) were examined. The mean age at the time of surgery was 37 ± 14 (15 - 74) years. The postoperative anatomy of the breast and other anthropometric parameters were measured in cm with the patient in an upright position. The visual analogue scale (VAS) values for symmetry, size, shape, type of scar and overall satisfaction both from the patient's and from four plastic surgeons' perspectives were assessed and compared. Patients rated the postoperative result significantly better than surgeons. Good subjective ratings by patients for shape, symmetry and sensitivity correlated with high scores for overall assessment. Shape had the strongest influence on overall satisfaction (regression coefficient 0.357; p reduction surgery, long-term outcome is rated significantly better by patients than by plastic surgeons. Good subjective ratings by patients for shape, symmetry and sensitivity correlated with high scores for overall assessment. Shape had the strongest influence on overall satisfaction, followed by symmetry and sensitivity of the breast. Postoperative size of the breast, resection weight, type of scar, age or BMI was not of significant influence. Symmetry was the only assessed subjective parameter of this study that could be objectified by postoperative measurements. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Henning, Silvia; Decesari, Stefano; Henzing, Bas; Keskinen, Helmi; Sellegri, Karine; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Brito, Joel; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Kristensson, Adam; Kalivitis, Nikos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Carbone, Samara; Jefferson, Anne; Park, Minsu; Schlag, Patrick; Iwamoto, Yoko; Aalto, Pasi; Äijälä, Mikko; Bukowiecki, Nicolas; Ehn, Mikael; Frank, Göran; Fröhlich, Roman; Frumau, Arnoud; Herrmann, Erik; Herrmann, Hartmut; Holzinger, Rupert; Kos, Gerard; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Nenes, Athanasios; O'Dowd, Colin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Picard, David; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöschl, Ulrich; Poulain, Laurent; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Swietlicki, Erik; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Artaxo, Paulo; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ogren, John; Matsuki, Atsushi; Yum, Seong Soo; Stratmann, Frank; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here we present a data set - ready to be used for model validation - of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles > 20 nm) across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring), at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer), the rain forest (wet and dry season) or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn). The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6) and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2-0.3). We performed closure studies based on κ-Köhler theory

  9. Long-term effects of serial anodal tDCS on motion perception in subjects with occipital stroke measured in the unaffected visual hemifield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel C Olma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a novel neuromodulatory tool that has seen early transition to clinical trials, although the high variability of these findings necessitates further studies in clincally-relevant populations. The majority of evidence into effects of repeated tDCS is based on research in the human motor system, but it is unclear whether the long-term effects of serial tDCS are motor-specific or transferable to other brain areas. This study aimed to examine whether serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex can exogenously induce long-term neuroplastic changes in the visual cortex. However, when the visual cortex is affected by a cortical lesion, up-regulated endogenous neuroplastic adaptation processes may alter the susceptibility to tDCS. To this end, motion perception was investigated in the unaffected hemifield of subjects with unilateral visual cortex lesions. Twelve subjects with occipital ischaemic lesions participated in a within-subject, sham-controlled, double-blind study. MRI-registered sham or anodal tDCS (1.5 mA, 20 minutes was applied on five consecutive days over the visual cortex. Motion perception was tested before and after stimulation sessions and at 14- and 28-day follow-up. After a 16-day interval an identical study block with the other stimulation condition (anodal or sham tDCS followed. Serial anodal tDCS over the visual cortex resulted in an improvement in motion perception, a function attributed to MT/V5. This effect was still measurable at 14- and 28-day follow-up measurements. Thus, this may represent evidence for long-term tDCS-induced plasticity and has implications for the design of studies examining the time course of tDCS effects in both the visual and motor systems.

  10. Symptom Severity and Quality of Life Among Long-term Colorectal Cancer Survivors Compared With Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Tae L; Charles, Susan T; Gunaratne, Mekhala; Baxter, Nancy N; Cotterchio, Michelle; Cohen, Zane; Gallinger, Steven

    2018-03-01

    Data are lacking regarding physical functioning, psychological well-being, and quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors >10 years postdiagnosis. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported physical functioning, quality of life, and psychological well-being in long-term colorectal cancer survivors compared with age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey. The colorectal cancer survivors and unaffected control subjects were recruited from the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry. A population-based sample of colorectal cancer survivors (N = 296) and their age- and sex-matched unaffected control subjects (N = 255) were included. Survivors were, on average, 15 years postdiagnosis. Quality of life was measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General scale, bowel dysfunction with the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center scale, urinary dysfunction with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, fatigue with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale, and depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. In linear mixed-model analyses adjusting for income, education, race, and comorbid medical conditions, survivors reported good emotional, functional, physical, and overall quality of life, comparable to control subjects. Fatigue and urinary functioning did not differ significantly between survivors and control subjects. Survivors reported significantly higher social quality of life and lower depression compared with unaffected control subjects. The only area where survivors reported significantly worse deficits was in bowel dysfunction, but the magnitude of differences was relatively small. Generalizability is limited by moderately low participation rates. Findings are likely biased toward healthy participants. No baseline assessment was available to examine change in outcomes over time. Long-term

  11. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H N; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-10-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 healthy subjects received a single administration of a cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe cocktail, consisting of caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19) and warfarin (CYP2C9), on four occasions: an oral (1) and intravenous (2) administration after an overnight fast (control) and an oral (3) and intravenous (4) administration after 36 h of fasting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software NONMEM. Short-term fasting increased systemic caffeine clearance by 17% (p = 0.04) and metoprolol clearance by 13% (p < 0.01), whereas S-warfarin clearance decreased by 19% (p < 0.01). Fasting did not affect bioavailability. The study demonstrates that short-term fasting alters CYP-mediated drug metabolism in a non-uniform pattern without affecting oral bioavailability.

  12. Long-Term Effects of Chemical Warfare on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Chronic Medical Conditions in Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi-Aghdam, Hamideh; Shafie, Mehrzad; Khoshdel, Alireza; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Avakh, Farhad; Rahmani, Arash

    2018-04-24

    We investigated the association between exposure to chemical warfare and chronic mental/physical conditions. This was a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study on Iranian male veterans. Participants with neuropsychiatric disorders other than depressive/anxiety disorders, anatomical defects, or malignancies were excluded. Compared to non-exposed veterans, exposed veterans demonstrated significantly higher odds of PTSD [OR (95% CI) = 5.23 (1.98-13.85)], hypertension [OR (95% CI) = 5.57 (1.68-18.48)], coronary heart disease [OR (95% CI) = 6.8 (1.62-28.49)], and diabetes [OR (95% CI) = 3.88 (1.35-11.16)], and marginally higher odds of moderate to severe depressive symptoms [OR (95% CI) = 2.21 (0.93-5.28)]. This study provides preliminary evidence on association of exposure to chemical warfare with long-term mental disorders as well as chronic medical conditions.

  13. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satinder Pal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Materials and Methods: Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Results: Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (P<0.001. Counterclockwise rotation of the palatal plane took place after maxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Conclusions: Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  14. Treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary distraction in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Jena, Ashok Kumar; Rattan, Vidya; Utreja, Ashok Kumar

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the treatment outcome and long-term stability of skeletal changes following maxillary advancement with distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects of cleft lip and palate. Total 12 North Indian adult patients in the age range of 17-34 years with cleft lip and palate underwent advancement of maxilla by distraction osteogenesis. Lateral cephalograms recorded prior to distraction, at the end of distraction, 6 months after distraction, and at least 24 months (mean 25.5 ± 1.94 months) after distraction osteogenesis were used for the evaluation of treatment outcome and long-term stability of the skeletal changes. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, and post-hoc test were used, and P-value 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant level. Maxillary distraction resulted in significant advancement of maxilla (Pmaxillary distraction. The position of the mandible and facial heights were stable during distraction. During the first 6 months of the post-distraction period, the maxilla showed relapse of approximately 30%. However, after 6 months post distraction, the relapse was very negligible. Successful advancement of maxilla was achieved by distraction osteogenesis in adult subjects with cleft lip and palate. Most of the relapse occurred during the first 6 months of post-distraction period, and after that the outcomes were stable.

  15. List of U.S. Army Research Institute Research and Technical Publications for Public Release/Unlimited Distribution. Fiscal Year 2007 (October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007) With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index United States Army Research Institute for...Fiscal Year 2007 October 1, 2006 to September 30, 2007 With Author Index and Report Titles and Subject Terms Index CONTENTS Page Introduction...39 Author Index .................................................................................................................. 39

  16. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, David M.; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Lyskov, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV) responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women) with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry), HRV (heart rate monitor), and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS)) were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking). ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p = .001), according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power), even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p = .02). The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain. PMID:26557711

  18. Reactivity of Dual-Use Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    REACTIVITY OF DUAL-USE DECONTAMINANTS WITH CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS ECBC-TR-1384... Decontaminants with Chemical Warfare Agents 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Willis, Matthew P...extraction) of chemical warfare agents from materials. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent Liquid-phase

  19. Comparative short-term effects of two thoracic spinal manipulation techniques in subjects with chronic mechanical neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Méndez, Amaloha; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Gogorza-Arroitaonandia, Kristobal; Almazán-Campos, Ginés

    2014-08-01

    Spinal Manipulation (SM) has been purported to decrease pain and improve function in subjects with non-specific neck pain. Previous research has investigated which individuals with non-specific neck pain will be more likely to benefit from SM. It has not yet been proven whether or not the effectiveness of thoracic SM depends on the specific technique being used. This double-blind randomized trial has compared the short-term effects of two thoracic SM maneuvers in subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. Sixty participants were distributed randomly into two groups. One group received the Dog technique (n = 30), with the subject in supine position, and the other group underwent the Toggle-Recoil technique (n = 30), with the participant lying prone, T4 being the targeted area in both cases. Evaluations were made of self-reported neck pain (Visual Analogue Scale); neck mobility (Cervical Range of Motion); and pressure pain threshold at the cervical and thoracic levels (C4 and T4 spinous process) and over the site described for location of tense bands of the upper trapezius muscle. Measurements were taken before intervention, immediately afterward, and 20 min later. Both maneuvers improved neck mobility and mechanosensitivity and reduced pain in the short term. No major or clinical differences were found between the groups. In the between-groups comparison slightly better results were observed in the Toggle-Recoil group only for cervical extension (p = 0.009), right lateral flexion (p = 0.004) and left rotation (p < 0.05). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Power Spectral Analysis of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Healthy and Arrhythmia Subjects by the Adaptive Continuous Morlet Wavelet Transform

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    Ram Sewak SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Power spectral analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV can provide instant valuable information to understand the functioning of autonomic control over the cardiovascular system. In this study, an adaptive continuous Morlet wavelet transform (ACMWT method has been used to describe the time-frequency characteristics of the HRV using band power spectra and the median value of interquartile range. Adaptation of the method was based on the measurement of maximum energy concentration. The ACMWT has been validated on synthetic signals (i.e. stationary, non-stationary as slow varying and fast changing frequency with time modeled as closest to dynamic changes in HRV signals. This method has been also tested in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN to show its robustness towards the noise. From the results of testing on synthetic signals, the ACMWT was found to be an enhanced energy concentration estimator for assessment of power spectral of short-term HRV time series compared to adaptive Stockwell transform (AST, adaptive modified Stockwell transform (AMST, standard continuous Morlet wavelet transform (CMWT and Stockwell transform (ST estimators at statistical significance level of 5%. Further, the ACMWT was applied to real HRV data from Fantasia and MIT-BIH databases, grouped as healthy young group (HYG, healthy elderly group (HEG, arrhythmia controlled medication group (ARCMG, and supraventricular tachycardia group (SVTG subjects. The global results demonstrate that spectral indices of low frequency power (LFp and high frequency power (HFp of HRV were decreased in HEG compared to HYG subjects (p<0.0001. While LFp and HFp indices were increased in ARCMG compared to HEG (p<0.00001. The LFp and HFp components of HRV obtained from SVTG were reduced compared to other group subjects (p<0.00001.

  1. Subjective and objective peer approval evaluations and self-esteem development: A test of reciprocal, prospective, and long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Harris, Michelle A; Fend, Helmut A

    2016-10-01

    A large body of literature suggests a clear, concurrent association between peer approval and self-esteem in adolescence. However, little empirical work exists on either the prospective or reciprocal relation between peer approval and self-esteem during this age period. Moreover, it is unclear from past research whether both subjectively perceived peer approval and objectively measured peer approval are related to subsequent self-esteem over time (and vice versa) and whether these paths have long-term associations into adulthood. Using data from a large longitudinal study that covers a time span of 2 decades, we examined reciprocal, prospective relations between self-esteem and peer approval during ages 12-16 in addition to long-term relations between these variables and later social constructs at age 35. Cross-lagged regression analyses revealed small but persistent effect sizes from both types of peer approval to subsequent self-esteem in adolescence, controlling for prior self-esteem. However, effects in the reverse direction were not confirmed. These findings support the notion that peer relationships serve an important function for later self-esteem, consistent with many theoretical tenets of the importance of peers for building a strong identity. Finally, we found long-term relations between adult social constructs and adolescent objective and subjective peer approval as well as self-esteem. Therefore, not only do peer relationships play a role in self-esteem development across adolescence, but they remain impactful throughout adulthood. In sum, the current findings highlight the lasting, yet small link between peer relationships and self-esteem development and call for investigations of further influential factors for self-esteem over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. A gradual change between methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis during a long-term UASB treatment of sulfate-rich chemical wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang; Niu, Qigui; Li, Lu; Hu, Yong; Mribet, Chaimaa; Hojo, Toshimasa; Li, Yu-You

    2018-04-25

    The competition between methane-producing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria is an important topic in anaerobic wastewater treatment. In this study, an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) was operated for 330 days to evaluate the treatment performance of sulfate-rich wastewater. The effects of competition change between methane production and sulfate reduction on the organic removal efficiency, methane production, and electrons allocation were investigated. Synthetic wastewater was composed of ethanol and acetate with a chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO 4 2- of 1.0. As a result, the COD removal efficiency achieved in long-term treatment was higher than 90%. During the initial stage, methane production was the dominant reaction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) could only partially oxidize ethanol to acetate, and methane-producing archaea (MPA) utilized acetate for methane production. Methane production declined gradually over the long-term operation, whereas the sulfate-reducing efficiency increased. However, UASB performed well throughout the experiment because there was no significant inhibition. After the complete reduction of the sulfate, MPA converted the remaining COD into methane. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

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    Dai XJ

    2015-03-01

    .33; P=0.021. The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40 and in the left precuneus (PrC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC (BA30, 31. The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7 and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37 and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37. However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40. The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40. ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC value of the left IPL was 0.75, with a cutoff point of 0.834 (mean ALFF signal value. Further diagnostic analysis exhibited that the AUC alone discriminated SD status from RW status, with 75% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Conclusion: Long-term SD disturbed the spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern of DMN. Keywords: sleep deprivation, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, default-mode network, functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity, independent component analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve

  4. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all p<0.01). A statistically significant reduction in KTag was found in both groups after contact lens wear (all p<0.05). Significant reduction was found over time in CCA (p=0.001) and anterior corneal asphericity in both groups (p<0.001). Thickness at the thinnest corneal point increased significantly after CL wear (p<0.0001). Coma-like and total HOA root mean square (RMS) error were significantly reduced following CL wearing in both fitting approaches (all p<0.05). Short-term rigid gas-permeable CL wear flattens the anterior cornea, increases the thinnest corneal thickness and reduces anterior surface HOA in keratoconus subjects. Apical-touch was associated with greater corneal flattening in comparison to three-point-touch lens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  6. Long-term cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, particle number size distribution and chemical composition measurements at regionally representative observatories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schmale

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions (ACI constitute the single largest uncertainty in anthropogenic radiative forcing. To reduce the uncertainties and gain more confidence in the simulation of ACI, models need to be evaluated against observations, in particular against measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Here we present a data set – ready to be used for model validation – of long-term observations of CCN number concentrations, particle number size distributions and chemical composition from 12 sites on 3 continents. Studied environments include coastal background, rural background, alpine sites, remote forests and an urban surrounding. Expectedly, CCN characteristics are highly variable across site categories. However, they also vary within them, most strongly in the coastal background group, where CCN number concentrations can vary by up to a factor of 30 within one season. In terms of particle activation behaviour, most continental stations exhibit very similar activation ratios (relative to particles  > 20 nm across the range of 0.1 to 1.0 % supersaturation. At the coastal sites the transition from particles being CCN inactive to becoming CCN active occurs over a wider range of the supersaturation spectrum. Several stations show strong seasonal cycles of CCN number concentrations and particle number size distributions, e.g. at Barrow (Arctic haze in spring, at the alpine stations (stronger influence of polluted boundary layer air masses in summer, the rain forest (wet and dry season or Finokalia (wildfire influence in autumn. The rural background and urban sites exhibit relatively little variability throughout the year, while short-term variability can be high especially at the urban site. The average hygroscopicity parameter, κ, calculated from the chemical composition of submicron particles was highest at the coastal site of Mace Head (0.6 and lowest at the rain forest station ATTO (0.2–0.3. We performed closure

  7. Does the Temporal Asymmetry of Short-Term Heart Rate Variability Change during Regular Walking? A Pilot Study of Healthy Young Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinpei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration and deceleration patterns in heartbeat fluctuations distribute asymmetrically, which is known as heart rate asymmetry (HRA. It is hypothesized that HRA reflects the balancing regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. This study was designed to examine whether altered autonomic balance during exercise can lead to HRA changes. Sixteen healthy college students were enrolled, and each student undertook two 5-min ECG measurements: one in a resting seated position and another while walking on a treadmill at a regular speed of 5 km/h. The two measurements were conducted in a randomized order, and a 30-min rest was required between them. RR interval time series were extracted from the 5-min ECG data, and HRA (short-term was estimated using four established metrics, that is, Porta’s index (PI, Guzik’s index (GI, slope index (SI, and area index (AI, from both raw RR interval time series and the time series after wavelet detrending that removes the low-frequency component of <~0.03 Hz. Our pilot data showed a reduced PI but unchanged GI, SI, and AI during walking compared to resting seated position based on the raw data. Based on the wavelet-detrended data, reduced PI, SI, and AI were observed while GI still showed no significant changes. The reduced PI during walking based on both raw and detrended data which suggests less short-term HRA may underline the belief that vagal tone is withdrawn during low-intensity exercise. GI may not be sensitive to short-term HRA. The reduced SI and AI based on detrended data suggest that they may capture both short- and long-term HRA features and that the expected change in short-term HRA is amplified after removing the trend that is supposed to link to long-term component. Further studies with more subjects and longer measurements are warranted to validate our observations and to examine these additional hypotheses.

  8. Fel d 1-derived synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes show a long-term treatment effect in cat allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couroux, P; Patel, D; Armstrong, K; Larché, M; Hafner, R P

    2015-05-01

    Cat-PAD, the first in a new class of synthetic peptide immuno-regulatory epitopes (SPIREs), was shown to significantly improve rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms in subjects with cat allergy up to 1 year after the start of a short course of treatment. To evaluate the long-term effects of Cat-PAD on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms following standardized allergen challenge 2 years after treatment. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, subjects were exposed to cat allergen in an environmental exposure chamber (EEC) before and after treatment with two regimens of Cat-PAD (either eight doses of 3 nmol or four doses of 6 nmol) given intradermally over a 3-month period. In this follow-up study, changes from baseline in rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were reassessed 2 years after the start of treatment. The primary endpoint showed a mean reduction in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores of 3.85 units in the 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD group compared to placebo 2 years after the start of treatment (P = 0.13), and this difference was statistically significant in the secondary endpoint at the end of day 4 when the cumulative allergen challenge was greatest (P = 0.02). Consistent reductions in nasal symptoms of between 2 and 3 units were observed for 4 × 6 nmol Cat-PAD compared to placebo between the 2 and 3 h time points on days 1-4 of EEC challenge at 2 years (P Cat-PAD. This study is the first to provide evidence of a long-term therapeutic effect with this new class of SPIREs. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Short-Term Intra-Subject Variation in Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in COPD Patients and Healthy Controls and Its Effect on Disease Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs are of interest for their potential to diagnose disease non-invasively. However, most breath VOC studies have analyzed single breath samples from an individual and assumed them to be wholly consistent representative of the person. This provided the motivation for an investigation of the variability of breath profiles when three breath samples are taken over a short time period (two minute intervals between samples for 118 stable patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and 63 healthy controls and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The extent of the variation in VOC levels differed between COPD and healthy subjects and the patterns of variation differed for isoprene versus the bulk of other VOCs. In addition, machine learning approaches were applied to the breath data to establish whether these samples differed in their ability to discriminate COPD from healthy states and whether aggregation of multiple samples, into single data sets, could offer improved discrimination. The three breath samples gave similar classification accuracy to one another when evaluated separately (66.5% to 68.3% subjects classified correctly depending on the breath repetition used. Combining multiple breath samples into single data sets gave better discrimination (73.4% subjects classified correctly. Although accuracy is not sufficient for COPD diagnosis in a clinical setting, enhanced sampling and analysis may improve accuracy further. Variability in samples, and short-term effects of practice or exertion, need to be considered in any breath testing program to improve reliability and optimize discrimination.

  10. Matrix metalloproteinases regulate the formation of dendritic spine head protrusions during chemically induced long-term potentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Szepesi

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines are are small membranous protrusions that extend from neuronal dendrites and harbor the majority of excitatory synapses. Increasing evidence has shown that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, a family of extracellularly acting and Zn(2+-dependent endopeptidases, are able to rapidly modulate dendritic spine morphology. Spine head protrusions (SHPs are filopodia-like processes that extend from the dendritic spine head, representing a form of postsynaptic structural remodeling in response to altered neuronal activity. Herein, we show that chemically induced long-term potentiation (cLTP in dissociated hippocampal cultures upregulates MMP-9 activity that controls the formation of SHPs. Blocking of MMPs activity or microtubule dynamics abolishes the emergence of SHPs. In addition, autoactive recombinant MMP-9, promotes the formation of SHPs in organotypic hippocampal slices. Furthermore, spines with SHPs gained postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA receptors upon cLTP and the synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors was controlled by MMPs. The present results strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in the formation of SHPs and the control of postsynaptic receptor distribution upon cLTP.

  11. A comparison of three-dimensional nonequilibrium solution algorithms applied to hypersonic flows with stiff chemical source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1993-01-01

    Three solution algorithms, explicit underrelaxation, point implicit, and lower upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LUSGS), are used to compute nonequilibrium flow around the Apollo 4 return capsule at 62 km altitude. By varying the Mach number, the efficiency and robustness of the solution algorithms were tested for different levels of chemical stiffness. The performance of the solution algorithms degraded as the Mach number and stiffness of the flow increased. At Mach 15, 23, and 30, the LUSGS method produces an eight order of magnitude drop in the L2 norm of the energy residual in 1/3 to 1/2 the Cray C-90 computer time as compared to the point implicit and explicit under-relaxation methods. The explicit under-relaxation algorithm experienced convergence difficulties at Mach 23 and above. At Mach 40 the performance of the LUSGS algorithm deteriorates to the point it is out-performed by the point implicit method. The effects of the viscous terms are investigated. Grid dependency questions are explored.

  12. The Long-Term Study of Some mechanical and Chemical Properties of Polymer Modified Cement Waste Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatta, H.A.; Eskander, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    The present work is a new experimental trend to study the long-term durability of polymer/cement/borate waste forms in storage and disposal sites during the long period of time. The data obtained indicate that all the samples of polymer modified cement waste forms immersed in both distilled and ground water (for more than 2700 days) show a slight increase in the compressive strength values. The chemical stability of the immobilized borate waste forms in distilled and ground water was studied. The cumulative leach fraction in percentage, of Cs-137 isotope from the final solidified waste forms in case of using ground water was lower than that in distilled water for all samples used and the presence of polymer lowered the percent release of radioactive Cs-137 isotope in all samples studied . The leach coefficients (Lc) and the leach indices (Li) of radioactive cesium-137 isotope for cement borate and polymer modified cement waste forms were also calculated. It was found that the leach indices values greater than 6

  13. Aiming at super long term application of nuclear energy. Scope and subjects on the water cooled breeder reactor, the 'reduced moderation water reactor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Tatematsu, Kenji; Tanaka, Yoji

    2001-01-01

    In order to make possible on nuclear energy application for super long term, development of sodium cooling type fast breeder reactor (FBR) has been carried out before today. However, as it was found that its commercialization was technically and economically difficult beyond expectation, a number of nations withdrew from its development. And, as Japan has continued its development, scope of its actual application is not found yet. Now, a research and development on a water cooling type breeder reactor, the reduced moderation water reactor (RMWR)' using LWR technology has now been progressed under a center of JAERI. This RMWR is a reactor intending a jumping upgrade of conversion ratio by densely arranging fuel bars to shift neutron spectrum to faster region. The RMWR has a potential realizable on full-dress plutonium application at earlier timing through its high conversion ratio, high combustion degree, plutonium multi-recycling, and so on. And, it has also feasibility to solve uranium resource problem by realization of conversion ratio with more than 1.0, to contribute to super long term application of nuclear energy. Here was investigated on an effect of reactor core on RMWR, especially of its conversion ratio and plutonium loading on introduction effect as well as on how RMWR could be contributed to reduction of uranium resource consumption, by drawing some scenario on development of power generation reactor and fuel cycle in Japan under scope of super long term with more than 100 years in future. And, trial calculation on power generation cost of the RMWR was carried out to investigate some subjects at a viewpoint of upgrading on economy. (G.K.)

  14. Assessment of chemical and biochemical stabilization of organic C in soils from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobili, M; Contin, M; Mahieu, N; Randall, E W; Brookes, P C

    2008-01-01

    Biological and chemical stabilization of organic C was assessed in soils sampled from the long-term experiments at Rothamsted (UK), representing a wide range of carbon inputs and managements by extracting labile, non-humified organic matter (NH) and humic substances (HS). Four sequentially extracted humic substances fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) were extracted and characterized before and after a 215-day laboratory incubation at 25 degrees C from two arable soils, a woodland soil and an occasionally stubbed soil. The fractions corresponded to biochemically stabilised SOM extracted in 0.5M NaOH (free fulvic acids (FA) and humic acids (HA)) and chemically plus biochemically stabilised SOM extracted from the residue with 0.1M Na4P2O7 plus 0.1M NaOH (bound FA and HA). Our aim was to investigate the effects of chemical and biochemical stabilization on carbon sequestration. The non-humic to humic (NH/H) C ratio separated the soils into two distinct groups: arable soils (unless fertilised with farmyard manure) had an NH/H C ratio between 1.05 and 0.71, about twice that of the other soils (0.51-0.26). During incubation a slow, but detectable, decrease in the NH/H C ratio occurred in soils of C input equivalent or lower to 4Mgha(-1)y(-1), whereas the ratio remained practically constant in the other soils. Before incubation the free to bound humic C ratio increased linearly (R2=0.91) with C inputs in the soils from the Broadbalk experiment and decreased during incubation, showing that biochemical stabilization is less effective than chemical stabilization in preserving humic C. Changes in delta13C and delta15N after incubation were confined to the free FA fractions. The delta13C of free FA increased by 1.48 and 0.80 per thousand, respectively, in the stubbed and woodland soils, indicating a progressive biological transformation. On the contrary, a decrease was observed for the bound FA of both soils. Concomitantly, a Deltadelta15N of up to +3.52 per thousand was

  15. Assessing the ecological long-term impact of wastewater irrigation on soil and water based on bioassays and chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Hecht, Fabian; Schnellbacher, Nadine; Ternes, Thomas A; Wick, Arne; Wode, Florian; Coors, Anja

    2015-11-01

    The reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and groundwater recharge can counteract water scarcity and reduce pollution of surface waters, but assessing its environmental risk should likewise consider effects associated to the soil. The present study therefore aimed at determining the impact of wastewater irrigation on the habitat quality of water after soil passage and of soil after percolation by applying bioassays and chemical analysis. Lab-scale columns of four different soils encompassing standard European soil and three field soils of varying characteristics and pre-contamination were continuously percolated with treated wastewater to simulate long-term irrigation. Wastewater and its percolates were tested for immobilization of Daphnia magna and growth inhibition of green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and water lentils (Lemna minor). The observed phytotoxicity of the treated wastewater was mostly reduced by soil passage, but in some percolates also increased for green algae. Chemical analysis covering an extensive set of wastewater-born organic pollutants demonstrated that many of them were considerably reduced by soil passage, particularly through peaty soils. Taken together, these results indicated that wastewater-born phytotoxic substances may be removed by soil passage, while existing soil pollutants (e.g. metals) may leach and impair percolate quality. Soils with and without wastewater irrigation were tested for growth of plants (Avena sativa, Brassica napus) and soil bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis) and reproduction of collembolans (Folsomia candida) and oligochaetes (Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia fetida). The habitat quality of the standard and two field soils appeared to be deteriorated by wastewater percolation for at least one organism (enchytraeids, plants or bacteria), while for two pre-contaminated field soils it also was improved (for plants and/or enchytraeids). Wastewater percolation did not seem to raise soil concentrations

  16. Short- and medium-term effects of three fire fighting chemicals on the properties of a burnt soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto-Vazquez, A.; Gonzalez-Prieto, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of three fire fighting chemicals (FFC) on 11 chemical soil properties and on soil recovery (0-2 cm depth) was evaluated 1, 30, 90 and 365 days after a prescribed fire. Five treatments were considered: unburnt soil (United States) and burnt soil with 2 l m -2 of water alone (BS) or mixed with the foaming agent Auxquimica RFC-88 at 1% (BS + Fo), Firesorb at 1.5% (BS + Fi) and FR Cross ammonium polyphosphate at 20% (BS + Ap). At t = 1 day, soil pH increases in the order US 15 N decreased in all burnt soils (significatively in BS + Ap) due to the inputs of 15 N depleted ashes from leguminous vegetation. Compared with US, soil δ 15 N increased significantly in all burnt plots between t = 90 days (30 days in BS + Ap) and t = 365 days, suggesting a medium-term fire-triggered increment of N outputs ( 15 N depleted). As is habitually the case, there was a transient post-fire increase of NH 4 + -N levels (significative for BS + FFC plots) that lasted for 30 (BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi) to 90 days (BS + Ap). The high initial NH 4 + -N levels in BS + Ap (200x that of US; 9-18x those of BS, BS + Fo and BS + Fi), and its persistence can delay the post-fire vegetation recovery due to the toxicity of NH 4 + to seeds and seedlings. NO 3 -N levels changed significantly only in BS + Ap between t = 30 and t = 90 days due to the nitrification of its large NH 4 + -N pool. Except in BS + Ap, whose soil P levels were 70-140x (t = 1 days) and 10-20x (t = 365 days) higher than in the other treatments, available P content in BS and BS + FFC was not significatively higher than in US. The concentrations of available cations in BS and BS + FFC were higher (not always significatively, except for K) than in US until t = 90 days, likely due to ashes- and FFC-derived cations. Contrarily to divalent cations, monovalent cations (more soluble and easily leached) decreased slowly until t = 90 days

  17. Short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Naim; Müller-Holz, Matthias; Spoerl, Eberhard; Pillunat, Lutz E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of topical antiglaucoma medication on tear-film stability, tear secretion, and corneal sensitivity in healthy subjects. In this prospective, double-blind crossover trial, break-up time and basal secretion (Jones test) were measured 60 minutes before, and 30, 60, and 90 minutes after topical antiglaucoma drop application in 30 healthy subjects. Corneal sensitivity was measured 60 minutes before, and five, 10, and 15 minutes after drop application using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Reduction of break-up time in the latanoprost group was -23.8% after 30 minutes (P = 0.21), -26.7% after 60 minutes (P = 0.03) and -51.4% after 90 minutes (P ≤ 0.003), which was statistically significant. Reduction of break-up time in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. The Jones test revealed a significant reduction of basal secretion after application of brimonidine (-17.8%, P = 0.002; -22.5%, P < 0.001; -30.5%, P < 0.001), followed by apraclonidine (-10%, P = 0.06; -20.1%, P = 0.02; -22.1%, P = 0.002), latanoprost (-2.4%, P = 0.64; -18.6%, P = 0.001; -20.1%, P = 0.001) and dorzolamide (-0.5%, P = 0.9; 14.3%, P = 0.018; -17.3%, P = 0.004) at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drop application. Reduction of basal secretion in all other treatment groups was not statistically significant. Latanoprost showed the most statistically significant reduction in break-up time, and brimonidine showed the most significant reduction in basal secretion of all the glaucoma medications used in this study. In conclusion, our data may be helpful for treatment decisions in glaucoma patients who also suffer from ocular surface problems.

  18. A Global Assessment of the Chemical Recalcitrance of Seagrass Tissues: Implications for Long-Term Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey M. Trevathan-Tackett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems have recently been identified for their role in climate change mitigation due to their globally-significant carbon sinks; yet, the capacity of seagrasses to sequester carbon has been shown to vary greatly among seagrass ecosystems. The recalcitrant nature of seagrass tissues, or the resistance to degradation back into carbon dioxide, is one aspect thought to influence sediment carbon stocks. In this study, a global survey investigated how the macromolecular chemistry of seagrass leaves, sheaths/stems, rhizomes and roots varied across 23 species from 16 countries. The goal was to understand how this seagrass chemistry might influence the capacity of seagrasses to contribute to sediment carbon stocks. Three non-destructive analytical chemical analyses were used to investigate seagrass chemistry: thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and solid state 13C-NMR and infrared spectroscopy. A strong latitudinal influence on carbon quality was found, whereby temperate seagrasses contained 5% relatively more labile carbon, and tropical seagrasses contained 3% relatively more refractory carbon. Sheath/stem tissues significantly varied across taxa, with larger morphologies typically containing more refractory carbon than smaller morphologies. Rhizomes were characterized by a higher proportion of labile carbon (16% of total organic matter compared to 8–10% in other tissues; however, high rhizome biomass production and slower remineralization in anoxic sediments will likely enhance these below-ground tissues' contributions to long-term carbon stocks. Our study provides a standardized and global dataset on seagrass carbon quality across tissue types, taxa and geography that can be incorporated in carbon sequestration and storage models as well as ecosystem valuation and management strategies.

  19. Sources of atmospheric aerosol from long-term measurements (5 years) of chemical composition in Athens, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevopoulou, D; Liakakou, E; Gerasopoulos, E; Mihalopoulos, N

    2015-09-15

    To identify the sources of aerosols in Greater Athens Area (GAA), a total of 1510 daily samples of fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 10-2,5) aerosols were collected at a suburban site (Penteli), during a five year period (May 2008-April 2013) corresponding to the period before and during the financial crisis. In addition, aerosol sampling was also conducted in parallel at an urban site (Thissio), during specific, short-term campaigns during all seasons. In all these samples mass and chemical composition measurements were performed, the latest only at the fine fraction. Particulate organic matter (POM) and ionic masses (IM) are the main contributors of aerosol mass, equally contributing by accounting for about 24% of the fine aerosol mass. In the IM, nss-SO4(-2) is the prevailing specie followed by NO3(-) and NH4(+) and shows a decreasing trend during the 2008-2013 period similar to that observed for PM masses. The contribution of water in fine aerosol is equally significant (21 ± 2%), while during dust transport, the contribution of dust increases from 7 ± 2% to 31 ± 9%. Source apportionment (PCA and PMF) and mass closure exercises identified the presence of six sources of fine aerosols: secondary photochemistry, primary combustion, soil, biomass burning, sea salt and traffic. Finally, from winter 2012 to winter 2013 the contribution of POM to the urban aerosol mass is increased by almost 30%, reflecting the impact of wood combustion (dominant fuel for domestic heating) to air quality in Athens, which massively started in winter 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Lattice Compatibility Theory LCT: Physical and Chemical Arguments from the Growth Behavior of Doped Compounds in terms of Bandgap Distortion and Magnetic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical arguments for the recently discussed materials-related Lattice Compatibility Theory are presented. The discussed arguments are based on some differences of Mn ions incorporation kinetics inside some compounds. These differences have been evaluated and quantified in terms of alteration of bandgap edges, magnetic patterns, and Faraday effect.

  1. A vector/parallel method for a three-dimensional transport model coupled with bio-chemical terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.P. Sommeijer (Ben); J. Kok (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA so-called fractional step method is considered for the time integration of a three-dimensional transport-chemical model in shallow seas. In this method, the transport part and the chemical part are treated separately by appropriate integration techniques. This separation is motivated

  2. Chemical term correspondence between Japanese and American chemistry textbooks. II. Nippon to America no kagaku kyokasho ni okeru kagaku yogo no taio. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakihara, S. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan))

    1991-06-10

    This is a study on how chemical terms used in Japanese chemistry textbooks correspond to those in American textbooks. Examples in which English and Japanese chemical terms do not correspond are divided into 4 groups, and points to be noticed are described. As references, two kinds of most popular textbooks in the U.S. and three kinds of Japanese textbooks are mainly used. When chemical terms in either of American or Japanese textbooks do not correspond to or were not found in the other textbooks, several kinds of other dictionaries and textbooks are also investigated. As a result, it is found that there are some English terms which are apt to be mistranslated into Japanese. Some of English translations established in dictionaries and textbooks in Japan are not found in American textbooks. In the same way, some English terms often used in American textbooks do not appear in Japanese textbooks and dictionaries. These examples and notes seem to be useful for reading American textbooks or writing English abstracts of papers on chemistry. 16 refs.

  3. Plant Species Rather Than Climate Greatly Alters the Temporal Pattern of Litter Chemical Composition During Long-Term Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Chen, Na; Harmon, Mark E.; Li, Yuan; Cao, Xiaoyan; Chappell, Mark A.; Mao, Jingdong

    2015-10-01

    A feedback between decomposition and litter chemical composition occurs with decomposition altering composition that in turn influences the decomposition rate. Elucidating the temporal pattern of chemical composition is vital to understand this feedback, but the effects of plant species and climate on chemical changes remain poorly understood, especially over multiple years. In a 10-year decomposition experiment with litter of four species (Acer saccharum, Drypetes glauca, Pinus resinosa, and Thuja plicata) from four sites that range from the arctic to tropics, we determined the abundance of 11 litter chemical constituents that were grouped into waxes, carbohydrates, lignin/tannins, and proteins/peptides using advanced 13C solid-state NMR techniques. Decomposition generally led to an enrichment of waxes and a depletion of carbohydrates, whereas the changes of other chemical constituents were inconsistent. Inconsistent convergence in chemical compositions during decomposition was observed among different litter species across a range of site conditions, whereas one litter species converged under different climate conditions. Our data clearly demonstrate that plant species rather than climate greatly alters the temporal pattern of litter chemical composition, suggesting the decomposition-chemistry feedback varies among different plant species.

  4. Does nitrogen fertilization history affects short-term microbial responses and chemical properties of soils submitted to different glyphosate concentrations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Nivelle

    Full Text Available The use of nitrogen (N fertilizer and glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide, with agriculture holding the largest market share. The agronomic and socioeconomic utilities of glyphosate are well established; however, our knowledge of the potential effects of glyphosate applied in the presence or absence of long-term N fertilization on microbial functional activities and the availability of soil nutrients remains limited. Using an ex situ approach with soils that did (N+ or did not (N0 receive synthetic N fertilization for 6 years, we assessed the impact of different rates (no glyphosate, CK; field rate, FR; 100 × field rate, 100FR of glyphosate application on biological and chemical parameters. We observed that, after immediate application (1 day, the highest dose of glyphosate (100FR negatively affected the alkaline phosphatase (AlP activity in soils without N fertilization history and decreased the cation exchange capacity (CEC in N0 compared to CK and FR treatments with N+. Conversely, the 100FR application increased nitrate (NO3- and available phosphorus (PO43- regardless of N fertilization history. Then, after 8 and 15 days, the N+\\100FR and N+\\FR treatments exhibited the lowest values for dehydrogenase (DH and AlP activities, respectively, while urease (URE activity was mainly affected by N fertilization. After 15 days and irrespective of N fertilization history, the FR glyphosate application negatively affected the degradation of carbon substrates by microbial communities (expressed as the average well color development, AWCD. By contrast, the 100FR treatment positively affected AWCD, increasing PO43- by 5 and 16% and NO3- by 126 and 119% in the N+ and N0 treatments, respectively. In addition, the 100FR treatment resulted in an increase in the average net nitrification rate. Principal component analysis revealed that the 100FR glyphosate treatment selected microbial communities that were able to metabolize amine substrates

  5. Short-term effects of an anti-inflammatory treatment on clinical parameters and serum levels of C-reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines in subjects with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renvert, Stefan; Lindahl, Christel; Roos-Jansåker, Ann-Marie; Lessem, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common multifactorial disease, afflicting a very large proportion of the adult population. Periodontal disease secondarily causes increases in the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other markers of inflammation. An increased level of CRP reflects an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the current randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the short-term effect of a combination of dipyridamole and prednisolone (CRx-102) on the levels of high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, proinflammatory markers in blood, and clinical signs of periodontal disease. Fifty-seven patients with >/=10 pockets with probing depths >/=5 mm were randomized into two groups in this masked single-center placebo-controlled study: CRx-102 (n = 28) and placebo (n = 29). hs-CRP levels, inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, -1beta, -8, and -12, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma]), bleeding on probing (BOP), and changes in probing depths were evaluated. The subjects received mechanical non-surgical therapy after 42 days, and the study was completed after 49 days. At day 42, the differences in the hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6 levels between the two groups were statistically significant (P <0.05), whereas no difference was found for the other inflammatory markers. There was no change in probing depth or BOP between the two groups. The administration of CRx-102 resulted in significant decreases in hs-CRP, IFN-gamma, and IL-6, but it did not significantly change BOP or probing depths.

  6. The Effect of Exogenous Spermidine Concentration on Polyamine Metabolism and Salt Tolerance in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud) Subjected to Short-Term Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shucheng; Jin, Han; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress, particularly short-term salt stress, is among the most serious abiotic factors limiting plant survival and growth in China. It has been established that exogenous spermidine (Spd) stimulates plant tolerance to salt stress. The present study utilized two zoysiagrass cultivars commonly grown in China that exhibit either sensitive (cv. Z081) or tolerant (cv. Z057) adaptation capacity to salt stress. The two cultivars were subjected to 200 mM salt stress and treated with different exogenous Spd concentrations for 8 days. Polyamine [diamine putrescine (Put), tetraamine spermine (Spm), and Spd], H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and polyamine metabolic (ADC, ODC, SAMDC, PAO, and DAO) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) enzyme activities were measured. The results showed that salt stress induced increases in Spd and Spm contents and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC), and diamine oxidase (DAO) activities in both cultivars. Exogenous Spd application did not alter polyamine contents via regulation of polyamine-degrading enzymes, and an increase in polyamine biosynthetic enzyme levels was observed during the experiment. Increasing the concentration of exogenous Spd resulted in a tendency of the Spd and Spm contents and ODC, SAMDC, DAO, and antioxidant enzyme activities to first increase and then decrease in both cultivars. H2O2 and MDA levels significantly decreased in both cultivars treated with Spd. Additionally, in both cultivars, positive correlations between polyamine biosynthetic enzymes (ADC, SAMDC), DAO, and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), but negative correlations with H2O2 and MDA levels, and the Spd + Spm content were observed with an increase in the concentration of exogenous Spd.

  7. Guidelines for terms related to chemical speciations and fractionation of elements : definitions, structural aspects, and methodological approaches (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Templeton, D.M.; Ariese, F.; Cornelis, R.; Danielsson, L.G.; Muntau, H.; Leeuwen, van H.P.; Lobínski, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents definitions of concepts related to speciation of elements, more particularly speciation analysis and chemical species. Fractionation is distinguished from speciation analysis, and a general outline of fractionation procedures is given. We propose a categorization of species

  8. Long-term energy efficiency analysis requires solid energy statistics: The case of the German basic chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saygin, D.; Worrell, E.; Tam, C.; Trudeau, N.; Gielen, D.J.; Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing the chemical industry’s energy use is challenging because of the sector’s complexity and the prevailing uncertainty in energy use and production data. We develop an advanced bottom-up model (PIE-Plus) which encompasses the energy use of the 139 most important chemical processes. We apply this model in a case study to analyze the German basic chemical industry’s energy use and energy efficiency improvements in the period between 1995 and 2008. We compare our results with data from the German Energy Balances and with data published by the International Energy Agency (IEA). We find that our model covers 88% of the basic chemical industry’s total final energy use (including non-energy use) as reported in the German Energy Balances. The observed energy efficiency improvements range between 2.2 and 3.5% per year, i.e., they are on the higher side of the values typically reported in literature. Our results point to uncertainties in the basic chemical industry’s final energy use as reported in the energy statistics and the specific energy consumption values. More efforts are required to improve the quality of the national and international energy statistics to make them useable for reliable monitoring of energy efficiency improvements of the chemical industry. -- Highlights: ► An advanced model was developed to estimate German chemical industry’s energy use. ► For the base year (2000), model covers 88% of the sector’s total final energy use. ► Sector’s energy efficiency improved between 2.2 and 3.5%/yr between 1995 and 2008. ► Improved energy statistics are required for accurate monitoring of improvements.

  9. Effect of irradiation and chemical composition on deformation and fracture of steel of OH16N15 type during long-term test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averin, S.A.; Deniskin, Yu.S.; Shushlebin, V.V.; Panchenko, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal and radiation creep, as well as long-term strength of an austenitic stainless steel were investigated as a function of sulphur content and niobium addition. Interrelation between the grain boundary sleep and the intergranular fracture, and an important role of the surface in the nucleation and propagation of crack were revealed by quantitative structural and fractographic studies. Irradiation and chemical composition were found to influence these processes

  10. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  11. Effect of short-term low- and high-fat diets on low-density lipoprotein particle size in normolipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Valérie; Lamarche, Benoît; Charest, Amélie; Tremblay, André J; Couture, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to raise plasma cholesterol levels, an effect associated with the formation of large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. However, the impact of dietary intervention on time-course changes in LDL particle size has not been investigated. To test whether a short-term dietary intervention affects LDL particle size, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover study using an intensive dietary modification in 12 nonobese healthy men with normal plasma lipid profile. Participants were subjected to 2 isocaloric 3-day diets: high-fat diet (37% energy from fat and 50% from carbohydrates) and low-fat diet (25% energy from fat and 62% from carbohydrates). Plasma lipid levels and LDL particle size were assessed on fasting blood samples after 3 days of feeding on each diet. The LDL particles were characterized by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Compared with the low-fat diet, plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased (4.45 vs 4.78 mmol/L, P = .04; 2.48 vs 2.90 mmol/L, P = .005; and 1.29 vs 1.41 mmol/L, P = .005, respectively) following the 3-day high-fat diet. Plasma triglycerides and fasting apolipoprotein B-48 levels were significantly decreased after the high-fat diet compared with the low-fat diet (1.48 vs 1.01 mmol/L, P = .0003 and 9.6 vs 5.5 mg/L, P = .008, respectively). The high-fat diet was also associated with a significant increase in LDL particle size (255.0 vs 255.9 Å;P = .01) and a significant decrease in the proportion of small LDL particle (vs 44.6%, P = .01). As compared with a low-fat diet, the cholesterol-raising effect of a high-fat diet is associated with the formation of large LDL particles after only 3 days of feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Electric long-term behaviour of polyethylene insulations for medium-voltage cables cross-linked chemically or by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff, C.; Eberhardt, M.

    1989-01-01

    The electric long-term behaviour of cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) was studied at room temperature by measuring the channel operating time under needling and the total charge before channel operation. It is found that the decomposition products formed in CLPE act as tension stabilizers. They have a dominating influence on the electric long-term behaviour

  13. A DFT based equilibrium study of a chemical mixture Tachyhydrite and their lower hydrates for long term heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathak, A.D.; Gaastra - Nedea, S.V.; Zondag, H.A.; Rindt, C.C.M.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Chloride based salt hydrates are promising materials for seasonal heat storage. However, hydrolysis, a side reaction, deteriorates, their cycle stability. To improve the kinetics and durability, we have investigated the optimum operating conditions of a chemical mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2 hydrates.

  14. Assessment of Potential Long Term Health Effects on Army Human Test Subjects of Relevant Biological and Chemical Agents, Drugs, Medications and Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    status epilepticus , contributing to profound brain damage. The exposure of experimental ani- mals to tabun in convulsion-inducing doses may result in...Basolateral Amygdala after Soman-Induced Status Epilepticus : Relation to Anxiety-Like Be...to Nerve Agents: From Status Epilepticus to Neuroinflammation, Brain Damage, Neuro- genesis and Epilepsy." Neurotoxicology 33, no. 6 (2012): 1476-1490

  15. The Place of Subject Matter Knowledge in Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of South African Teachers Teaching the Amount of Substance and Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…

  16. 2.1 Man: subject of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This second chapter 'Man and environment' of the 7th state of the environment report of Austria describes the current situation of the protection of human health in terms of the European environmental policy and the main subjects of high relevance to it, such as air pollutants, water pollution, noise pollution, dangerous chemicals, food contamination, radiation protection, effects of climate change, plants, animal and habitats. (nevyjel)

  17. Social participation and subjective well-being of long-term unemployed : why is paid work so hard to substitute for?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, AC; Diener, E; Rahtz, DR

    2000-01-01

    In a study of SWB among 948 Dutch long-term unemployed, the two main questions were (I) do long-term unemployed learn To adjust, i.e. does the negative effect on SWB wear off over unemployment duration?; and (2) does social participation help adjustment and restoration of SWB? The effect of

  18. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Laureen A.; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Mathôt, Ron A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a

  19. Changes in Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Groundwater During a Long Term Pumping Test in Brestovica Karst Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezga, K.; Urbanc, J. [Geological Survey of Slovenia, Department of Hydrogeology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-15

    A pumping test of the Klarici water supply near Brestovica was performed in August 2008, in order to determine the karst groundwater resource capacity. Groundwater was pumped for a month with a total capacity of 470 L/s. During the experiment, sampling for chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater and surface water was carried out. Intensive pumping in dry meteorological conditions caused a lowering of the water table and changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of pumped water. Local meteoric waters are infiltrated into the aquifer at a lower mean altitude; therefore the {delta}{sup 18}O is enriched with the heavy oxygen isotope. The duration of pumping resulted in changes in the isotopic composition of oxygen due to a greater impact of the intergranular Soca River aquifer on the karst aquifer. On the basis of isotope composition it was possible to quantify the impact of the Soca River on the karst aquifer. (author)

  20. Changes in Chemical and Isotopic Composition of Groundwater during Long-Term Pumping Test in Brestovica Karst Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezga, Kim; Urbanc, Janko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the experimental pumping test, which was carried out in the dry summer period in August 2008 for 30 days, was to assess the groundwater resource quantity which could be pumped at the time of the highest water needs for the Slovene Coast and Karst areas. Further, we wanted to test the chemical status of groundwater to assure its suitability for further use and to assess the influence of the Soca River aquifer on this karst aquifer

  1. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Daishi; Somada, Yuka; Ijyu, Moriaki; Azechi, Sotaro; Nakaema, Fumiya; Arakaki, Takemitsu; Tanahara, Akira

    2010-05-01

    The economic development and population growth in recent Asia spread air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. The study of the long-range transported air pollution from Asian continent has gained a special attention in Japan because of increase in photochemical oxidants in relatively remote islands. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location in Asia is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants in East Asia because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. Bulk aerosol samples were collected on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the bulk aerosols collected at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS) using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, and total organic carbon analyzer, respectively. We will report water-soluble chemical components data of anions, cations and DOC in bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at CHAAMS during August, 2005 to April, 2010. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components showed that the concentrations were relatively low in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian Continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components were much higher compared to the other directions. In addition, we calculated background concentration of water-soluble chemical components at Okinawa

  2. Evolution of sorption properties in large-scale concrete structures accounting for long-term physical-chemical concrete degradation - 59297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Janez; Jacques, Diederik; Mallants, Dirk; Seetharam, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal facilities relies on the longevity of natural or engineered barriers designed to minimize the migration of contaminants from the facility into the environment. Especially near surface disposal facilities, such as planned by ONDRAF/NIRAS for the Dessel site in Belgium, long-term safety relies almost exclusively on the containment ability of the engineered barriers (EB) with concrete being the most important EB material used. Concrete is preferred over other materials mainly due to its favourable chemical properties resulting in a high chemical retention capacity, and owing to its good hydraulic isolation properties. However, due to the long time frames typically involved in safety assessment, the chemical, physical and mechanical properties of concrete evolve in time. The alterations in concrete mineralogy also cause changes in pH and sorption behaviour for many radionuclides during chemical degradation processes. Application of dynamic sorption of concrete requires an adequate knowledge of long-term concrete degradation processes, knowledge of the effect of changing mineralogy to sorption of radionuclides and knowledge of large-scale system behaviour over time. Moreover, when applied to safety assessment models, special attention is required to assure robustness and transparency of the implementation. The discussion in this paper focuses on the sorption properties of concrete; selection of data, rescaling issues and on the hypotheses used to build a robust and yet transparent dynamic model for large-scale concrete structures for assessing the long-term performance. In this paper we summarize the steps required for the appropriate use of sorption values for large-scale cementitious components accounting for long-term concrete degradation in safety assessment studies. Four steps were recognized through the safety assessment in the framework of the license application for the near-surface disposal facility in Dessel

  3. Chemical and anatomical changes in Liquidambar styraciflua L. xylem after long term exposure to elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keonhee; Labbé, Nicole; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Elder, Thomas; Rials, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical and chemical characteristics of sweetgum were studied after 11 years of elevated CO 2 (544 ppm, ambient at 391 ppm) exposure. Anatomically, branch xylem cells were larger for elevated CO 2 trees, and the cell wall thickness was thinner. Chemically, elevated CO 2 exposure did not impact the structural components of the stem wood, but non-structural components were significantly affected. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to detect differences between the CO 2 treatments by considering numerous structural and chemical variables, as well as tree size, and data from previously published sources (i.e., root biomass, production and turnover). The PCA results indicated a clear separation between trees exposed to ambient and elevated CO 2 conditions. Correlation loadings plots of the PCA revealed that stem structural components, ash, Ca, Mg, total phenolics, root biomass, production and turnover were the major responses that contribute to the separation between the elevated and ambient CO 2 treated trees. - Highlights: • First study of wood properties after 11 years of higher level of CO 2 treatment. • Elevated CO 2 exposure does not impact structural components of wood. • Total phenolics content and some inorganics were significantly affected. • Branch xylem cells were larger under elevated CO 2 . • Cell wall thickness was thinner under elevated CO 2 . - Elevated CO 2 in atmosphere did not impact the structural components yet altered some of non-structural components and anatomical properties after 11 years of exposure on sweetgum

  4. Short-term biological variation of clinical chemical values in dumeril's monitors (Varanus dumerili)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Howell, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma biochemical values are routinely used in the medical management of ill reptiles, and for monitoring the health of clinically normal animals. Laboratory tests, including clinical biochemical values, are subject to biological and analytical variation, the magnitude of which determines the ut...

  5. Electrical and chemical signals involved in short-term systemic photosynthetic responses of tobacco plants to local burning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváčková, V.; Krchňák, P.; Nauš, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Špundová, M.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 1 (2006), s. 235-244 ISSN 0032-0935 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0894 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Electrical signals * Gas exchange Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.963, year: 2006

  6. Analysis of chemical concepts as the basic of virtual laboratory development and process science skills in solubility and solubility product subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafrina, R.; Rohman, I.; Yuliani, G.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to analyze the concept characteristics of solubility and solubility products that will serve as the basis for the development of virtual laboratory and students' science process skills. Characteristics of the analyzed concepts include concept definitions, concept attributes, and types of concepts. The concept analysis method uses concept analysis according to Herron. The results of the concept analysis show that there are twelve chemical concepts that become the prerequisite concept before studying the solubility and solubility and five core concepts that students must understand in the solubility and Solubility product. As many as 58.3% of the definitions of the concepts contained in high school textbooks support students' science process skills, the rest of the definition of the concept is memorized. Concept attributes that meet three levels of chemical representation and can be poured into a virtual laboratory have a percentage of 66.6%. Type of concept, 83.3% is a concept based on principle; and 16.6% concepts that state the process. Meanwhile, the science process skills that can be developed based on concept analysis are the ability to observe, calculate, measure, predict, interpret, hypothesize, apply, classify, and inference.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  8. Pyridostigmine bromide and the long-term subjective health status of a sample of over 700 male Reserve Component Gulf War era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Walter R; Reppert, Earl J; Jurich, Anthony P; Bollman, Stephan R; Webb, Farrell J; Castelo, Carlos S; Stever, James C; Kaufman, Mark; Deng, Liang-Yu; Krehbiel, Michelle; Owens, Barbara L; Hall, Carolyn A; Brown, Beverlyn F Cay; Lash, Jeanne F; Fink, Carol J; Crow, Janet R; Bonjour, Gabriele N

    2002-06-01

    Data from a 1996-1997 survey of approximately 700 Reserve Component male veterans indicate that the consumption of pyridostigmine bromide pills, used as a pretreatment for potential exposure to the nerve agent Soman, was a significant predictor of declines in reported subjective health status after the war, even after controlling for a number of other possible factors. Reported reactions to vaccines and other medications also predicted declines in subjective health. While higher military rank generally predicted better health during and after the war, educational attainment, minority status, number of days in theater, and age generally did not predict changes in subjective health. Although servicemembers were directed to take three pills a day, veterans reported a range of compliance--less than a fourth (24%) followed the medical instructions compared to 61% who took fewer than three pills daily and 6% who took six or more pills a day. Implications for use of pyridostigmine bromide are discussed.

  9. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  10. Semisolid meal enriched in oat bran decreases plasma glucose and insulin levels, but does not change gastrointestinal peptide responses or short-term appetite in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika

    2011-01-01

    types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...

  11. Minor long-term changes in weight have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Hendel, Helle Westergren; Rasmussen, M H

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function.......To evaluate the long-term effect of changes in body composition induced by weight loss on insulin sensitivity (SI), non-insulin mediated glucose disposal, glucose effectiveness (SG)and beta-cell function....

  12. Accelerated long-term assessment of thermal and chemical stability of bio-based phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems incorporated with phase change materials (PCMs) have potential applications to control energy use by building envelopes. However, it is essential to evaluate long term performance of the PCMs and cost effectiveness prior to full scale implementation. For this rea...

  13. Microfluidic culture chamber for the long-term perfusion and precise chemical stimulation of organotypic brain tissue slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caicedo, H. H.; Vignes, M.; Brugg, B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a microfluidic perfusion-based culture system to study long-term in-vitro responses of organo-typic brain slices exposed to localized neurochemical stimulation. Using this microperfusion chamber we show that hip-pocampal organotypic brain slices cultures grown on nitrocellulose ...

  14. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as

  15. Subjective Experience, Heterophenomenology, or Neuroimaging? A Perspective on the Meaning and Application of Mental Disorder Terms, in Particular Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Increasing research efforts try to identify biological markers in order to support or eventually replace current practices of diagnosing mental disorders. Inasmuch as these disorders refer to subjective mental states, such efforts amount to their objectification. This gives rise to conceptual as well as empirical challenges: What kind of things are mental disorders? And how to deal with situations where subjective reports, clinical decisions, and brain scans contradict each other? The present paper starts out with a discussion of recent efforts to objectify beauty. Such attempts to quantify and localize psychological constructs in the brain are compared to earlier examples from the history of psychology. The paper then discusses personal and social implications of the objectification of subjective mental states, including mental disorders. The construct of Major Depressive Disorder, one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is then analyzed in more detail. It turns out that this is a very complex construct probably associated with highly heterogeneous actual instances of the disorder. It is then shown that it is unlikely to replace these symptoms' descriptions with patterns of brain activations, at least in the near future, given these patterns' empirical lack of specificity. The paper then discusses which of the disorder's core symptoms are more or less amenable to behavioral or neuroscientific investigation and analyses whether the heterophenomenological method can solve the problem. The conclusion is that the disorder construct is neither entirely subjective, nor completely objectifiable, and that clinical experts do well by continuing to take a pragmatical stance.

  16. Short term (14 days) consumption of insoluble wheat bran fibre-containing breakfast cereals improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function in a dose dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-04-22

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  17. Short Term (14 Days Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.

  18. Short Term (14 Days) Consumption of Insoluble Wheat Bran Fibre-Containing Breakfast Cereals Improves Subjective Digestive Feelings, General Wellbeing and Bowel Function in a Dose Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776

  19. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia

    2014-01-01

    routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c...

  20. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  1. The understanding of the R7T7 glass blocks long term behavior: chemical and transport coupling in fractured media; Comprehension de l'alteration a long terme des colis de verre R7T7: etude du couplage chimie transport dans un milieu fissure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomat, L

    2008-04-15

    The long term behavior of nuclear waste glass blocks depends highly on chemical reactions which occur at the surface in contact with water. Studies carried out on inactive fractured glass blocks show that fracture networks play a significant part in reactive surface area. Nevertheless, the complexity of results interpretation, due to a weak knowledge of fracture networks and local lixiviation conditions, does not allow us to comprehend the physical and chemical mechanisms involved. Model cracks are a key step to study chemical and transport coupling in fractured media. Crack lixiviation in aggressive conditions (pH{>=}11) show that the crack's position (horizontal or vertical) determines the dominant transport mechanism (respectively diffusion or convection induced by gravity). This gravity driven flow seems to be negligible in lower pH conditions. The convective velocity is estimated by a 1D model of reactive transport. Two other parameters are studied: the influence of thermal gradient and the influence of interconnected cracks on alteration. A strong retroactive effect of convection, due to thermal gradient, on the alteration kinetic is observed inside the crack. These works lead to a complete alteration experiment of a 163 crack network subject to a thermal gradient. The use of the geochemical software, HYTEC, within the framework of this study shows the potential of the software which is however limited by the kinetics law used. (author)

  2. Migration and chemical extractability of 137Cs and 90Sr in Swedish long-term experimental pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, S.; Strandmark, M.

    1999-01-01

    Vertical migration and chemical extractability were studied on two experimental pastures, a sandy soil and a clay soil, contaminated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr in 1961. Migration was studied by measuring the total nuclide content in soil samples to 55 cm depth, chemical extractability by sequential extraction. Both 137 Cs and 90 Sr were found at all depths in both soils, and 90 Sr had moved deeper than 137 Cs. 137 Cs was mainly found in the upper 10 cm, and no difference was seen between clay and sandy soil, due to retention in the root mat of the sandy soil. 90 Sr had moved deeper in sandy than in clay soil, the reason being the higher exchange capacity of the clay soil. Sequential extractions showed that 90 Sr was much more extractable than 137 Cs. 96-98% of 137 Cs was found in the HNO 3 and residual fractions. 137 Cs was more extractable in the sandy soil than in clay, and in the sandy soil the extractability of 137 Cs increased slightly with depth. Regarding 90 Sr, 63-75% was found in the easily exchangeable fractions, the higher figure was in clay soil. A large proportion, 18-30%, was extracted in the reducible fraction, showing that availability of 90 Sr might increase under reducing conditions. (au)

  3. The assessment of treated wastewater quality and the effects of mid-term irrigation on soil physical and chemical properties (case study: Bandargaz-treated wastewater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboosi, Kami

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of inflow and outflow wastewater of the Bandargaz wastewater treatment plant on the basis of the data collection of operation period and the samples taken during the study. Also the effects of mid-term use of the wastewater for irrigation (from 2005 to 2013) on soil physical and chemical characteristics were studied. For this purpose, 4 samples were taken from the inflow and outflow wastewater and 25 quality parameters were measured. Also, the four soil samples from a depth of 0-30 cm of two rice field irrigated with wastewater in the beginning and middle of the planting season and two samples from one adjacent rice field irrigated with fresh water were collected and their chemical and physical characteristics were determined. Average of electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, sodium adsorption ratio, chemical oxygen demand and 5 days biochemical oxygen demand in treated wastewater were 1.35 dS/m, 707 ppm, 0.93, 80 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. Results showed that although some restrictions exist about chlorine and bicarbonate, the treated wastewater is suitable for irrigation based on national and international standards and criteria. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused a little increase of soil salinity. However, it did not lead to increase of soil salinity beyond rice salinity threshold. Also, there were no restrictions on soil in the aspect of salinity and sodium hazard on the basis of many irrigated soil classifications. In comparison with fresh water, the mid-term use of wastewater caused the increase of total N, absorbable P and absorbable K in soil due to high concentration of those elements in treated wastewater.

  4. Long-term characteristics of geological conditions in Japan. Pt. 1. Fundamental concept for future's prediction of geological conditions and the subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Chigira, Masahiro.

    1997-01-01

    It is very important to evaluate the long-term stability of geological conditions such as volcanic activity, uplift-subsidence, earthquakes, faulting and sea level change when the long-term safety performance of HLW geological disposal is investigated. We proposed the extrapolation method using the geological date obtained in the geologic time of the last 500 ka to predict the future's tectonic movements in Japan. Furthermore, we extract geological conditions that would affect the long-term safety of HLW geological disposal with regard to direct and indirect radionuclide release scenarios. As a result, it was concluded that volcanic activity and tectonic movements including faulting and uplift-subsidence, should be considered and their surveying system and evaluating method should be developed. (author)

  5. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  6. Long-term manure amendments and chemical fertilizers enhanced soil organic carbon sequestration in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-maize (Zea mays L.) rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuiqing; Huang, Shaomin; Li, Jianwei; Guo, Doudou; Lin, Shan; Lu, Guoan

    2017-06-01

    The carbon sequestration potential is affected by cropping system and management practices, but soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential under fertilizations remains unclear in north China. This study examined SOC change, total C input to soil and, via integration of these estimates over years, carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE, the ratio of SOC change over C input) under no fertilization (control), chemical nitrogen fertilizer alone (N) or combined with phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (NP, NK, PK and NPK), or chemical fertilizers combined with low or high (1.5×) manure input (NPKM and 1.5NPKM). Results showed that, as compared with the initial condition, SOC content increased by 0.03, 0.06, 0.05, 0.09, 0.16, 0.26, 0.47 and 0.68 Mg C ha -1 year -1 under control, N, NK, PK, NP, NPK, NPKM and 1.5NPKM treatments respectively. Correspondingly, the C inputs of wheat and maize were 1.24, 1.34, 1.55, 1.33, 2.72, 2.96, 2.97 and 3.15 Mg ha -1 year -1 respectively. The long-term fertilization-induced CSE showed that about 11% of the gross C input was transformed into SOC pool. Overall, this study demonstrated that decade-long manure input combined with chemical fertilizers can maintain high crop yield and lead to SOC sequestration in north China. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  8. Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, GH

    2004-01-15

    Full Text Available of Food and Agriculture J Sci Food Agric 84:52?58 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.1609 Changes in chemical quality indices during long-term storage of palm-olein oil under heated storage and transport-type conditions Gretel H van der Merwe,1asteriskmath... Lourens M du Plessis1 and John RN Taylor2 1CSIR Bio/Chemtek, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2Department of Food Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa Abstract: Six quality indices, namely free fatty acids (FFA), peroxide...

  9. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables

  10. Long-term corrosion of rebars embedded in aerial and hydraulic binders - Mechanisms and crucial physico-chemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitty, Walter-John; Berger, Pascal; Dillmann, Philippe; L'Hostis, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of long-term behaviour of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear industry requires the comprehension of the mechanism involved in long-term corrosion. Yet, studies on archeological artefacts allowed to identify a typical layout constituted of four layers: the metal, the dense product layer (DPL), the transformed medium (TM) and the binder. Oxygen reaction sites were labelled using oxygen 18 ( 18 O) and it was evidenced that the cathodic sites are located at the metal/dense product layer interface. So, oxygen has to crossed the DPL to react at the M/DPL interface or inside the marblings, and measurements of the effective tritiated water (2.6 ± 0.1 x 10 -11 m 2 /s) and iodide (1.0 ± 0.3 x 10 -11 m 2 /s) diffusivity of this layer saturated with water were made. Indeed, these two molecules have a diffusivity in water very closed to oxygen diffusivity

  11. The origin and use of the terms competitive and non-competitive in interactions among chemical substances in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwain, H

    1986-01-01

    The terms competition and competitive were in use for appropriate types of interaction in human and animal behaviour from the seventeenth century. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they reached more technical uses in biology, especially in darwinian studies; and in chemistry in describing competing reactions, surface phenomena and the influence of substituent groupings in reactant molecules. Use of competitive and non-competitive to describe enzyme inhibitors had a specific beginning when J. B. S. Haldane (following premonitory work of others) applied the terms in 1927 and 1930 to types of inhibition already differentiated by Michaelis and co-workers. The theoretical background in kinetics and stereochemistry so acquired gave a firmness to the application of the terms in biochemistry. The first examples concerned glycosidases, especially beta-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase, and interactions of carbon monoxide and oxygen at iron-porphyrin systems. They were thus of interest in toxicology and in enzyme and carrier studies. The sphere of application of the biochemically-defined terms expanded greatly when, following investigation of sulphonamide action, it was realized that concepts of enzyme inhibition by structurally related compounds offered a route to understanding the action of existing medicaments and to the production of new ones. Ideas and terminology based on competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition and receptor occupancy have subsequently been applied in many ways. Examples include application to the analysis of feedback inhibition and other processes of metabolic control; to receptor relationships among neurotransmitters and medicaments; and to understanding interactions at sensory receptors.

  12. Reaction kinetics of chemical pollutants as a basis of risk estimates in terms of rad-equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberg, L.; Osterman-Golkar, S.

    1977-01-01

    Most mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals are electrophilic agents or are converted to electrophilic agents in vivo. A majority of the effective genotoxic compounds are alkylating or arylating. The dose-response curve for mutation induced by alkylating agents is indicated to contain a linear component in the region of low doses. In this region the mutagenic effectiveness per unit dose was found for several alkylating agents to be approximately proportional to the calculated rate of reaction at a certain low nucleophilic strength. This proportionality appears, by and large, to be independent on the nature of the alkyl group introduced. Hence it is possible to ascribe a genetic risk to the degree of alkylation of these centers. This risk may be expressed in rad-equivalents

  13. Chemically ignited thermonuclear reactions: A near-term means for a high specific impulse - High thrust propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1982-01-01

    A proposal for the fissionless ignition of small thermonuclear reactions is made which involves the combination of the magnetic booster target inertial fusion concept with the chemical implosion of metallic shells. The magnetic booster employs a very dense and magnetically confined low yield thermonuclear plasma to trigger an inertially confined high yield plasma. Fissionless ignition permits smaller yields than with fission- or fusion-induced fusion bombs, yields that are appropriate for use in a spacecraft propulsion system. Each bomb would release about 10 to the 18th erg or 100 tons of TNT, and with one explosion per second, an average thrust of 10 to the third tons and a specific impulse of about 3000 seconds can be expected

  14. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated With the Trend of Physical and Chemical Restraint Use Among Long-Term Care Facility Residents in Hong Kong: Data From an 11-Year Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kuen; Kwan, Joseph S K; Wai Kwan, Chi; Chong, Alice M L; Lai, Claudia K Y; Lou, Vivian W Q; Leung, Angela Y M; Liu, Justina Y W; Bai, Xue; Chi, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Negative effects of restraint use have been well-documented. However, the prevalence of restraints use has been high in long-term care facilities in Hong Kong compared with other countries and this goes against the basic principles of ethical and compassionate care for older people. The present study aimed to review the change in the prevalence of physical and chemical restraint use in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) over a period of 11 years in Hong Kong and to identify the major factors associated with their use. This is an observational study with data obtained from the Hong Kong Longitudinal Study on LTCF Residents between 2005 and 2015. Trained assessors (nurses, social workers, and therapists) used the Minimum Data Set Resident Assessment Instrument to collect the data from 10 residential LTCFs. Physical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following: full bedside rails on all open sides of bed, other types of bedside rails used, trunk restraint, limb restraint, or the use of chair to prevent rising during the past 7 days. Chemical restraint was defined as the use of any of the following medications: antipsychotic, antianxiety, or hypnotic agents during past 7 days, excluding elder residents with a diagnosis of psychiatric illness. Annual prevalence of restraint use over 11 years and factors that were associated with the use of physical and chemical restraints. We analyzed the data for 2896 older people (978 male individuals, mean age = 83.3 years). Between 2005 and 2015, the prevalence of restraint use was as follows: physical restraint use increased from 52.7% to 70.2%; chemical restraint use increased from 15.9% to 21.78%; and either physical or chemical restraint use increased from 57.9% to 75.7%. Physical restraint use was independently associated with older age, impaired activities of daily living or cognitive function, bowel and bladder incontinence, dementia, and negative mood. Chemical restraint use was independently associated

  16. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  17. Glycogenolysis during short-term fasting in malaria and healthy subjects - the potential regulatory role of glycogen content on glycogen breakdown: a hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, F.; Thien, H. V.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2004-01-01

    Background & aims: During short-term starvation ( <24h), glucose production decreases 10-20% due to a decrease in glycogenolysis. In the fed state glycogen regulates its rate of breakdown, in order to limit glycogen accumulation. Whether in the fasted state a similar mechanism exists to preserve

  18. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    alkaline mafic dykes from Swangkre-Rongmil,. East Garo Hills, Shillong plateau, northeast. India. 683. Basalts. Chemical evolution, petrogenesis, and regional chem- ical correlations of the flood basalt sequence in the central Deccan Traps, India.

  19. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  20. Chemical effects in the mine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The main objective of the workshop was to bring together, and get talking to each other, long-term safety modellers, geochemical modellers and experimenters working in the field of chemical effects, and to give an insight into their respective activity areas and problem constellations. Lectures on the following subjects were given: modelling of chemical effects in long-term safety analysis; influence of brines; corrosion experiments; sorption experiments; actinide chemistry experiments; geochemical modelling; requirements of safety analyses and geochemical modelling. The workshop concluded with a detailed discussion of the subjects raised and of interdisciplinary aspects. (orig./DG) [de

  1. Long-term urine biobanking: storage stability of clinical chemical parameters under moderate freezing conditions without use of preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Thomas; Montenegro-Bethancourt, Gabriela; Shi, Lijie

    2014-12-01

    To examine the long-term stability and validity of analyte concentrations of 21 clinical biochemistry parameters in 24-h urine samples stored for 12 or 15 yr at -22°C and preservative free. Healthy children's 24-h urine samples in which the respective analytes had been measured shortly after sample collection (baseline) were reanalyzed. Second measurement was performed after 12 yr (organic acids) and 15 yr (creatinine, urea, osmolality, iodine, nitrogen, anions, cations, acid-base parameters) with the same analytical methodology. Paired comparisons and correlations between the baseline and repeated measurements were done. Recovery rates were calculated. More than half of the analytes (creatinine, urea, iodine, nitrogen, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, ammonium, bicarbonate, citric & uric acid) showed measurement values after >10 yr of storage not significantly different from baseline. 15 of the 21 parameters were highly correlated (r=0.99) between baseline and second measurement. Poorest correlation was r=0.77 for oxalate. Recovery ranged from 73% (oxalate) to 105% (phosphate). Our results suggest high long-term stability and measurement validity for numerous clinical chemistry parameters stored at -22°C without addition of any urine preservative. Prospective storage of urine aliquots at -22°C for periods even exceeding 10 yr, appears to be an acceptable and valid tool in epidemiological settings for later quantification of several urine analytes. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of body mass index on short-term subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after mid-urethral sling surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weltz, Vibeke; Guldberg, Rikke; Larsen, Michael D.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: The objective was to evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the subjective improvement and risk of reoperation after first-time mid-urethral sling surgery. Methods: Data were retrieved from the national Danish Urogynaecological Database, including women...... was defined as any new surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence performed within the study period. Results: During the study period, 6,414 mid-urethral sling procedures were performed; 80.0% of these women filled out both pre- and post-surgical International Consultation on Incontinence...

  3. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding and insulin-stimulated FGF21 levels in subjects with low birth weight and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vienberg, Sara Gry; Brøns, Charlotte; Nilsson, Emma

    2012-01-01

    of type 2 diabetes and 26 control (normal birth weight (NBW)) young men were subjected to 5 days of high-fat (HF) overfeeding (+50%). Basal and clamp insulin-stimulated serum FGF21 levels were examined before and after the diet, and FGF21 mRNA expression was measured in muscle and fat biopsies......OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the physiological role of FGF21 during a dietary challenge in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty healthy low birth weight (LBW) with known risk...

  4. An investigation on the chemical stability and a novel strategy for long-term stabilization of diphenylalanine nanostructures in aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nezammahalleh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of diphenylalanine (FF microwires and microtubes in phosphate buffer solution was investigated and a novel strategy was developed for their chemical stabilization. This stability investigation was carried out by optical microscopy and by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. These microstructures dissolve in the solution depending upon their degree of FF saturation. The dissolution mechanisms of the structures in kinetically limited processes were found by accurately fitting the experimental dissolution data to a theoretical kinetic equation. The dissolution data were well fitted to the particular Avrami-Erofe’ev kinetic expression (R2 > 0.98. These findings suggest that the structures can be stabilized by a decrease in the hydration of the constituent molecules thorough a chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment. The stable microtubes were fabricated in a novel three step procedure consisting of the reduction of silver ions in unstable FF microtubes by a citrate reductant, the stabilization by chemical conformational induced transition upon heat treatment, and the consequent oxidation of the reduced silver by a persulfate oxidant. These materials were characterized by electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The long-term stability of both structures was also confirmed by optical microscopy and HPLC.

  5. A comparision of industrial and homemade bulgur in Turkey in terms of physical, chemical and nutritional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertaş Nilgün

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of functional and nutritional properties of bulgur is of paramount importance for the growth of healthy generations. In this study, physical, chemical, nutritional and sensorial qualities of bulgur produced at the industrial, homemade and laboratory scale in Turkey were determined and the results were compared. The ash content of bulgur samples was determined between 1.04 and 1.81%, the total protein contents of the samples were found between 11.90 and 14.47%. Evaluation of nutritional status of bulgur; the total phenolic contents value varied 449.82 to 1047.09 μg/g, the phytic acid values were found between 422.14 and 1173.56 mg/100 g. The mineral contents of the samples were analyzed, and all the bulgur samples contained lower amounts of cadmium and lead than JECFA limits. Homemade bulgur samples had a more aromatic taste and smell than industrially produced bulgur samples, and also industrially produced bulgur samples had lighter color than homemade bulgur.

  6. Short-Term Exercise Training Improves Insulin Sensitivity but Does Not Inhibit Inflammatory Pathways in Immune Cells from Insulin-Resistant Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Reyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  7. Short-term exercise training improves insulin sensitivity but does not inhibit inflammatory pathways in immune cells from insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Sara M; Tantiwong, Puntip; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Defronzo, Ralph A; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Exercise has an anti-inflammatory effect against, and immune cells play critical roles in the development, of insulin resistance and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD). Thus, the goal of this study was to determine whether exercise improves insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects by downregulating proinflammatory signaling in immune cells. Methods. Seventeen lean, 8 obese nondiabetic, and 11 obese type 2 diabetic individuals underwent an aerobic exercise program for 15 days and an insulin clamp before and after exercise. Peripheral mononuclear cells (PMNC) were obtained for determination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 protein content and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Results. Compared with that in lean individuals, TLR4 protein content was increased by 4.2-fold in diabetic subjects. This increase in TLR4 content was accompanied by a 3.0-fold increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Exercise improved insulin sensitivity in the lean, obese, and type 2 diabetes groups. However, exercise did not affect TLR content or ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions. TLR4 content and ERK phosphorylation are increased in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals. While exercise improves insulin sensitivity, this effect is not related to changes in TLR2/TLR4 content or ERK phosphorylation in PMNC of type 2 diabetic individuals.

  8. Autoradiographic demonstration of unscheduled DNA synthesis in oral tissues treated with chemical carcinogens in short-term organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, F.; Umemura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.

    1981-01-01

    A system in which oral tissues of inbred F344 adult rats and Syrian golden hamster embryos were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). For this, oral mucosa, submandibular gland, tooth germ and mandible in short-term organ cultures were treated with 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea plus (methyl- 3 H)thymidine. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected over the nuclei of cells of all these tissues except rat salivary gland after treatment with carcinogens. This autoradiographic method is suitable for detection of UDS in oral tissues in conditions mimicking those in vivo. Results obtained in this study indicated a potential use of this system for studies on the mechanism of carcinogenesis at a cellular level comparable to in vivo carcinogenesis studies on oral tissues. (author)

  9. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties in long term improved natural and traditional agroforestry management systems of cacao genotypes in Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; Canto, Manuel; Alegre, Julio; Loli, Oscar; Julca, Alberto; Baligar, Virupax

    2015-01-01

    Growing cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in an agroforestry system generates a productive use of the land, preserves the best conditions for physical, chemical and biological properties of tropical soils, and plays an important role in improving cacao production and fertility of degraded tropical soils. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two long term agroforestry systems of cacao management on soil physical and chemical properties in an area originally inhabited by 30 years old native secondary forest (SF). The two agroforestry systems adapted were: improved natural agroforestry system (INAS) where trees without economic value were selectively removed to provide 50% shade and improved traditional agroforestry system (ITAS) where all native trees were cut and burnt in the location. For evaluation of the changes of soil physical and chemical properties with time due to the imposed cacao management systems, plots of 10 cacao genotypes (ICS95, UF613, CCN51, ICT1112, ICT1026, ICT2162, ICT2171, ICT2142, H35, U30) and one plot with a spontaneous hybrid were selected. Soil samples were taken at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm depths before the installation of the management systems (2004), and then followed at two years intervals. Bulk density, porosity, field capacity and wilting point varied significantly during the years of assessment in the different soil depths and under the systems assessed. Soil pH, CEC, exchangeable Mg and sum of the bases were higher in the INAS than the ITAS. In both systems, SOM, Ext. P, K and Fe, exch. K, Mg and Al+H decreased with years of cultivation; these changes were more evident in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Overall improvement of SOM and soil nutrient status was much higher in the ITAS than INAS. The levels of physical and chemical properties of soil under cacao genotypes showed a marked difference in both systems.

  10. Combined chemical and toxicological long-term monitoring for AhR agonists with SPMD-based virtual organisms in drinking water Danjiangkou Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxian; Song, Guoqiang; Li, Aimin; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Pfister, Gerd; Tong, Anthony Z; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2014-08-01

    SPMD-based virtual organisms (VOs) were employed for time-integrating, long-term sampling combined biological and chemical analyses for exposure assessment of hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) in a drinking water reservoir, China. The SPMDs were deployed at four and five sites in the Danjiangkou (DJK) reservoir over two periods of 26 and 31 d to sequester the hydrophobic contaminants in water. The chosen bioassay response for the extracts of the SPMDs, the induction of 7-ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) was assayed using a rat hepatoma cell line (H4IIE). The known aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists PAHs and PCBs were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS instrument. The cause-effect relationship between the observed AhR activities and chemical concentrations of detected AhR agonists was examined. The results show that the extracts from the SPMD samples could induce AhR activity significantly, whereas the chemically derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalent (TEQcal) was not correlated with the bioassay-derived TCDD equivalent (TEQbio). The known AhR agonists could only account for 2-10% of the observed AhR responses among which the contribution of PCBs could almost be neglected. Unidentified AhR-active compounds represented a greater proportion of the TCDD equivalent (TCDD-EQ) in SPMD samples from DJK. Based on the first assessment, the VO followed by the combination of chemical and biological analyses emerges as a resource efficient water monitoring device in ecotoxicological assessment for toxicologically relevant compounds which are readily available for uptake by resident aquatic biota in drinking water resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term orange juice consumption is associated with low LDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in normal and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the hypothesis that long-term orange juice consumption (≥ 12 months) was associated with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adult men and women with normal and moderately high cholesterol blood levels. Methods The sample consisted of 103 men (18–66 y) and 26 women (18–65 y); all were employees of an orange juice factory with daily access to free orange juice. The results showed that 41% of the individuals consumed 2 cups (480 mL) of orange juice per day for at least twelve months, while 59% of the volunteers are non-consumers of orange juice. Results Orange juice consumers with normal serum lipid levels had significantly lower total cholesterol (−11%, p juice consumers and non-consumers, but vitamin C and folate intake was higher in orange juice consumers. Conclusion Long-term orange juice consumers had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and LDL/HDL ratio and an improvement of folate and vitamin C in their diet. PMID:23919812

  12. Characterization of chemically induced ovarian carcinomas in an ethanol-preferring rat model: influence of long-term melatonin treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo A Chuffa

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH, they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC; Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of

  13. Long-Term Performance of Chemically and Physically Modified Activated Carbons in Air Cathodes of Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2014-07-31

    © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Activated carbon (AC) is a low-cost and effective catalyst for oxygen reduction in air cathodes of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but its performance must be maintained over time. AC was modified by three methods: 1)pyrolysis with iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (AC-Fe), 2)heat treatment (AC-heat), and 3)mixing with carbon black (AC-CB). The maximum power densities after one month with these AC cathodes were 35% higher with AC-Fe (1410±50mW m-2) and AC-heat (1400±20mW m-2), and 16% higher with AC-CB (1210±30mW m-2) than for plain AC (1040±20mW m-2), versus 1270±50mW m-2 for a Pt control. After 16months, the Pt cathodes produced only 250±10mW m-2. However, the AC-heat and AC-CB cathodes still produced 960-970mW m-2, whereas plain AC produced 860±60mW m-2. The performance of the AC cathodes was restored to >85% of the initial maximum power densities by cleaning with a weak acid solution. Based on cost considerations among the AC materials, AC-CB appears to be the best choice for long-term performance.

  14. Chemical and proteolysis-derived changes during long-term storage of lactose-hydrolyzed ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Jensen, Hanne B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Clausen, Morten R; Eggers, Nina; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-11-19

    Proteolytic activity in milk may release bitter-tasting peptides and generate free amino terminals that react with carbohydrates, which initiate Maillard reaction. Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) heat treatment inactivates the majority of proteolytic enzymes in milk. In lactose-hydrolyzed milk a β-galactosidase preparation is applied to the milk after heat treatment, which has proteolytic side activities that may induce quality deterioration of long-term-stored milk. In the present study proteolysis, glycation, and volatile compound formation were investigated in conventional (100% lactose), filtered (60% lactose), and lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose) UHT milk using reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteolysis was observed in all milk types. However, the degree of proteolysis was significantly higher in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to the conventional and filtered milk. The proteins most prone to proteolysis were β-CN and αs1-CN, which were clearly hydrolyzed after approximately 90 days of storage in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk.

  15. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to climate change in the 10 CMIP5 models. 395. Chemical. Influence of nutrient input on the trophic state of a tropical brackish ... Variability of surface ozone with cloud coverage over Kolkata, India ... due to solid earth tides. 603. Investigation ...

  16. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Self-assembly of a Co(II) dimer through H-bonding of water molecules to a 3D ... A density functional theory-based chemical potential equalisation approach to .... Electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide using o-dianisidine as ...

  17. Short-term efficacy of calcium fructoborate on subjects with knee discomfort: a comparative, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrzkowski Z

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zbigniew Pietrzkowski,1 Michael J Phelan,2 Robert Keller,3 Cynthia Shu,1 Ruby Argumedo,1 Tania Reyes-Izquierdo11FutureCeuticals, Inc., Applied BioClinical Laboratory; 2Department of Statistics, School of Information and Computer Science, University of California at Irvine; 3NutraClinical Inc., Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Calcium fructoborate (CFB at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009 and -8.9 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06 and -13.73 (P<0.0001 at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake.Keywords: CFB, joint discomfort, WOMAC score, McGill pain score

  18. Medium and Long-term Opportunities and Risks of the Biotechnological Production of Bulk Chemicals from Renewable Resources. The Potential of White Biotechnology. The BREW Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornburg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L. [Department of Science, Technology and Society NWS, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Huesing, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research FhG-ISl, Karlsruhe (Germany); Overbeek, L. [Plant Research International PRI, Wageningen (Netherlands); Terragni, F.; Recchia, E. [CERISS, Centro per I' Educazione, la Ricerca, I' lnformazione su Scienza e Society, Milan (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    This study investigates the medium and long-term opportunities and risks of the biotechnological production of organic chemicals. The objective is to gain better understanding of the techno-economic and the societal viability of White Biotechnology in the coming decades. The key research questions are which products could be made with White Biotechnology, whether these products can contribute to savings of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, under which conditions the products become economically viable, which risks may originate from the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in fermentation and what the public perception is. The main purpose of Chapter 2 is to provide an overview of emerging key White Biotechnology products and to explain which chemicals could be produced on their basis. For a selection of these products, detailed environmental and economic assessments are conducted in Chapter 3 (in specific terms, i.e. per tonne of product). Chapter 3 discusses also the so-called Generic Approach which is the methodology we developed and applied to assess future processes and processes, for which very little information is available. In Chapter 4, three scenario projections are developed for Europe (EU-25), thereby assuming benign, moderate and disadvantageous conditions for bio-based chemicals. The purpose of this chapter is hence to understand to which extent restructuring of the chemical sector might occur under which conditions. In Chapter 5, the risks related to the use of White Biotechnology are addressed. The main purpose of this chapter is to give insight into the main risk components influencing the overall risk and of the knowledge gaps. Both conventional risks (e.g., human toxicity and accidents) and risks related to generic modification (e.g., horizontal gene transfer) are analyzed. Since the public perception may play an important role for the implementation of White Biotechnology on a large scale, these issues are discussed in

  19. The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide in smelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Tomášová, Zdeňka; Komárek, Michael; Mihaljevič, Martin; Šebek, Ondřej; Michálková, Zuzana

    2015-04-09

    An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) and a Pb smelter-polluted agricultural soil amended with the AMO and incubated for 2 and 6 months were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH 3-8) to verify the chemical stabilization effect on metals and metalloids. The AMO stability in pure water was pH-dependent with the highest Mn release at pH 3 (47% dissolved) and the lowest at pH 8 (0.14% dissolved). Secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was formed at the AMO surfaces at pH>5. The AMO dissolved significantly less after 6 months of incubation. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that "labile" fraction of As, Pb and Sb in soil significantly decreased after AMO amendment. The pH-static experiments indicated that no effect on leaching was observed for Cd and Zn after AMO treatments, whereas the leaching of As, Cu, Pb and Sb decreased down to 20%, 35%, 7% and 11% of the control, respectively. The remediation efficiency was more pronounced under acidic conditions and the time of incubation generally led to increased retention of the targeted contaminants. The AMO was found to be a promising agent for the chemical stabilization of polluted soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Change in hydraulic properties and leaf traits of a tall rainforest tree species subjected to long-term throughfall exclusion in the perhumid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, B.; Leuschner, C.; Horna, V.; Moser, G.; Köhler, M.; Barus, H.

    2010-11-01

    In a throughfall displacement experiment on Sulawesi, Indonesia, three 0.16 ha stands of a premontane perhumid rainforest were exposed to a two-year soil desiccation period that reduced the soil moisture in the upper soil layers beyond the conventional wilting point. About 25 variables, including leaf morphological and chemical traits, stem diameter growth and hydraulic properties of the xylem in the trunk and terminal twigs, were investigated in trees of the tall-growing tree species Castanopsis acuminatissima (Fagaceae) by comparing desiccated roof plots with nearby control plots. We tested the hypotheses that this tall and productive species is particularly sensitive to drought, and the exposed upper sun canopy is more affected than the shade canopy. Hydraulic conductivity in the xylem of terminal twigs normalised to vessel lumen area was reduced by 25%, leaf area-specific conductivity by 10-33% during the desiccation treatment. Surprisingly, the leaves present at the end of the drought treatment were significantly larger, but not smaller in the roof plots, though reduced in number (about 30% less leaves per unit of twig sapwood area), which points to a drought effect on the leaf bud formation while the remaining leaves may have profited from a surplus of water. Mean vessel diameter and axial conductivity in the outermost xylem of the trunk were significantly reduced and wood density increased, while annual stem diameter increment decreased by 26%. In contradiction to our hypotheses, (i) we found no signs of major damage to the C. acuminatissima trees nor to any other drought sensitivity of tall trees, and (ii) the exposed upper canopy was not more drought susceptible than the shade canopy.

  1. Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Transport and Reactivity of Decontaminants to Provide Hazard Mitigation of Chemical Warfare Agents from Materials 5a...directions for future decontamination formulation approaches. 15. SUBJECT TERMS GD HD Decontamination Hazard mitigation VX Chemical warfare agent... DECONTAMINANTS TO PROVIDE HAZARD MITIGATION OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS FROM MATERIALS 1. INTRODUCTION Decontamination of materials is the

  2. The effect of reduced atmospheric deposition on soil and soil solution chemistry at a site subjected to long-term acidification, Nacetín, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulehle, Filip; Hofmeister, Jenýk; Cudlín, Pavel; Hruska, Jakub

    2006-11-01

    mineralization of organic matter after improvement of chemical parameters in the organic horizon (increase in pH and decrease in Al concentration). It seems that high mineralization of stored organic matter after decades of high acidic deposition could be an important factor affecting the high losses of nitrogen in spruce forest ecosystems.

  3. Interpreting on The Awakening in Terms of Lacan’s Subject Theory%以拉康的主体理论解读《觉醒》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江云琴

    2014-01-01

    Edna,the heroine of The Awakening,was not satisfied with the status of her life as a married woman with two children,therefore tried to explore a new and independent life through the liberation of her sexual desire and romantic love,but she ended by killing herself.From the perspective of Lacan’s theory of the three orders, Edna has gone through the psychological journey for three aspects:trying to break away from the socialized roles set by the Other in the symbolic,seeking solace in the imaginary order of sensual pleasures and romance,and fi-nally,facing up to the void at the core of the subject and walking into the sea to attain a union with the Mother.%《觉醒》中的女主人公埃德娜不满足于她为人妻为人母的生活现状,于是尝试着在身体欲望的解放和浪漫爱情中探寻一种新的自主的生活,但最终却走上自杀的道路。从拉康的主体三界理论来看,埃德娜经历了以下三个层面的心理历程:试图摆脱象征界大写他者法则所界定的社会化的角色,沉迷在想象界中身体感官的愉悦和爱情的幻象,面对实在界主体结构中心的“空无”,走入大海,试图回到生命最初的他者———母亲的怀抱。

  4. A comparison of the medium-term impact and recovery of the Pakistan floods and the Haiti earthquake: objective and subjective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William M; Kirsch, Thomas D; Doocy, Shannon; Perrin, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The 2010 Haiti earthquake and Pakistan floods were similar in their massive human impact. Although the specific events were very different, the humanitarian response to disasters is supposed to achieve the same ends. This paper contrasts the disaster effects and aims to contrast the medium-term response. In January 2011, similarly structured population-based surveys were carried out in the most affected areas using stratified cluster designs (80×20 in Pakistan and 60×20 in Haiti) with probability proportional to size sampling. Displacement persisted in Haiti and Pakistan at 53% and 39% of households, respectively. In Pakistan, 95% of households reported damage to their homes and loss of income or livelihoods, and in Haiti, the rates were 93% and 85%, respectively. Frequency of displacement, and income or livelihood loss, were significantly higher in Pakistan, whereas disaster-related deaths or injuries were significantly more prevalent in Haiti. Given the rise in disaster frequency and costs, and the volatility of humanitarian funding streams as a result of the recent global financial crisis, it is increasingly important to measure the impact of humanitarian response against the goal of a return to normalcy.

  5. Comparative potency of formulations of mometasone furoate in terms of inhibition of ′PIRHR′ in the forearm skin of normal human subjects measured with laser doppler velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhalli Prabhakar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Topical glucocorticoid formulations are widely used for effective treatment and control of a variety of dermatoses. Mometasone furoate is a newer corticoid that has high potency but low systemic toxicity. Pharmaceutical factors are known to significantly influence potency and systemic absorption of topically applied glucocorticoids. We studied the potency of "Elocon", a topical formulation of mometasone furoate, compared with two other branded formulations of the same corticoid. METHODS: Corticoid potency was measured by employing a pharmacodynamic parameter of an inhibitory effect of the corticoid on post-ischemic-reactive-hyperemic-response (PIRHR in human forearm skin under occlusive dressing. The PIRHR was expressed in terms of % increase in the skin blood flow (SBF as measured with laser doppler velocimetry (LDV. RESULTS : All three active branded formulations of mometasone furoate produced significant inhibition of PIRHR. The AUC(0-2min of PIRHR was ( Mean ± SEM , Control = 213.52 ± 11.80, Placebo = 209.77 ± 19.31, Formulation A = 119.83 ± 13.71, Formulation C = 53.67 ± 4.85 and Formulation D = 111.46 ± 22.87. Formulation "C" exhibited significantly higher topical anti-inflammatory potency than formulations "A" or "D". CONCLUSIONS: Thus, branded formulations of the same glucocorticoid, mometasone furoate significantly differed in their topical anti-inflammatory potency. "Elocon" was significantly more potent than the two other branded formulations studied.

  6. To what extend the dam dredging can influence the background level of metals in the Rhine River: using chemical and biological long-term monitoring to answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebrun Jérémie D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dredging generates remobilisation of sediments contaminated by non-degradable compounds such as metals, to which aquatic organisms can be exposed. This study aims at assessing the environmental impact of sediments remobilised in the Rhine River (France during the dredging of Marckolsheim dam by pumping/dilution in 2013 on metal speciation and organisms' exposure. The monitoring coupling chemical and biological tools was performed 2 years before dredging operation on 2 sampling sites, upstream and downstream from the discharge of pumping/dilution, to acquire data on the natural variability of labile (DGT as passive samplers, dissolved and particulate concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn in Rhine during full hydrological cycles. In parallel, size-calibrated zebra mussels were transplanted at both sites to monitor continuously metal bioavailability from particulate and dissolved fractions. This long-term monitoring allowed the establishment of reference baselines of Rhine water and mussels' contamination levels and subsequently, the detection of averred environmental changes due to the dredging. Indeed, Co and Mn accumulations in mussels exposed to the discharge were consistent with increasing labile species in Rhine whereas ones of Cr and Pb were likely due to an enhanced particulate bioavailability. Whatever the exposure route, the mussels recovered their basal metal contents 2 weeks after the end of dredging, suggesting a transient impact of sediment remobilisation on bioaccumulation. This long-term monitoring highlights the interest of coupling chemical and biological time-integrated tools for a better assessment of environmental risks because metallic exchanges between organisms and their media are complex and metal-specific.

  7. Critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place during the long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2011-01-01

    The critical flux and chemical cleaning-in-place (CIP) in a long-term operation of a pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment were investigated. Steady filtration under high flux (30 L/(m2 h)) was successfully achieved due to effective membrane fouling control by sub-critical flux operation and chemical CIP with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in both trans-membrane pressure (TMP) controlling mode (cleaning with high concentration NaClO of 2000-3000 mg/L in terms of effective chorine was performed when TMP rose to 15 kPa) and time controlling mode (cleanings were performed weekly and monthly respectively with low concentration NaClO (500-1000 mg/L) and high concentration NaClO (3000 mg/L)). Microscopic analysis on membrane fibers before and after high concentration NaClO was also conducted. Images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that NaClO CIP could effectively remove gel layer, the dominant fouling under sub-critical flux operation. Porosity measurements indicated that NaClO CIP could partially remove pore blockage fouling. The analyses from fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance accessory (ATR) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) demonstrated that protein-like macromolecular organics and inorganics were the important components of the fouling layer. The analysis of effluent quality before and after NaClO CIP showed no obvious effect on effluent quality. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Permeability recovery of fouled forward osmosis membranes by chemical cleaning during a long-term operation of anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactors treating low-strength wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Hu, Taozhan; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-10-15

    Anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) has gained increasing interests in wastewater treatment owing to its simultaneous recovery of biogas and water. However, the forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling was severe during a long-term operation of AnOMBRs. Here, we aim to recover the permeability of fouled FO membranes by chemical cleaning. Specifically speaking, an optimal chemical cleaning procedure was searched for fouled thin film composite polyamide FO (TFC-FO) membranes in a novel microfiltration (MF) assisted AnOMBR (AnMF-OMBR). The results indicated that citric acid, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA-2Na), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) had a low cleaning efficiency of less than 15%, while hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) could effectively remove foulants from the TFC-FO membrane surface (almost 100%) through oxidizing the functional group of the organic foulants and disintegrating the colloids and microbe flocs into fine particles. Nevertheless, the damage of H 2 O 2 to the TFC-FO membrane was observed when a high cleaning concentration and a long duration were applied. In this case, the optimal cleaning conditions including cleaning concentration and time for fouled TFC-FO membranes were selected through confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the flux recovery rate. The results suggested that the optimal cleaning procedure for fouled TFC-FO membranes was use of 0.5% H 2 O 2 at 25 °C for 6 h, and after that, the cleaned TFC-FO membrane had the same performance as a virgin one including water flux and rejection for organic matters and phosphorus during the operation of AnMF-OMBR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-Term Observations of Atmospheric CO2, O3 and BrO over the Transitioning Arctic Ocean Pack-ice: The O-Buoy Chemical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, P.

    2016-02-01

    Autonomous, sea ice-tethered O-Buoys have been deployed (2009-2016) across the Arctic sea ice for long-term atmospheric measurements (http://www.o-buoy.org). O-Buoys (15) provide in-situ concentrations of three sentinel atmospheric chemicals, ozone, CO2 and BrO, as well as meteorological parameters and imagery, over the frozen ocean. O-Buoys were designed to transmit daily data over a period of 2 years while deployed in sea ice, as part of automated ice-drifting stations that include snow/ice measurement systems (e.g. Ice Mass Balance buoys) and oceanographic measurements (e.g. Ice Tethered Profilers). Seasonal changes in Arctic atmospheric chemistry are influenced by changes in the characteristics and presence of the sea ice vs. open water as well as air mass trajectories, especially during the winter-spring and summer-fall transitions when sea ice is melting and freezing, respectively. The O-Buoy Chemical Network provides the unique opportunity to observe these transition periods in real-time with high temporal resolution, and to compare them with those collected on land-based monitoring stations located. Due to the logistical challenges of measurements over the Arctic Ocean region, most long term, in-situ observations of atmospheric chemistry have been made at coastal or island sites around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, leaving large spatial and temporal gaps that O-Buoys overcome. Advances in floatation, communications, power management, and sensor hardware have been made to overcome the challenges of diminished Arctic sea ice. O-Buoy data provide insights into enhanced seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in atmospheric composition, atmospheric boundary layer control on the amount of halogen activation, enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 signal over the more variable and porous pack ice, and to develop an integrated picture of the coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere system. As part of the Arctic Observing Network, we provide data to the community (www.aoncadis.org).

  10. Short-Term Red Wine Consumption Promotes Differential Effects on Plasma Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Sympathetic Activity, and Endothelial Function in Hypercholesterolemic, Hypertensive, and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana CM; Cesena, Fernando HY; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Coimbra, Silmara R; Benjó, Alexandre M; Krieger, Eduardo M; da Luz, Protasio Lemos

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the metabolic, hemodynamic, autonomic, and endothelial responses to short-term red wine consumption in subjects with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension, and healthy controls. METHODS: Subjects with hypercholesterolemia (n=10) or arterial hypertension (n=9), or healthy controls (n=7) were given red wine (250 mL/night) for 15 days. Analyses were performed before and after red wine intake. RESULTS: Red wine significantly increased the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol in the controls, but not in the other groups. The effects on hemodynamic measurements were mild, non-significantly more prominent in healthy subjects, and exhibited high interindividual variability. Across all participants, mean blood pressure decreased 7 mmHg (p <0.01) and systemic vascular resistance decreased 7% (p = 0.05). Heart rate and cardiac output did not significantly change in any group. Red wine enhanced muscle sympathetic fibular nerve activity in hypercholesterolemic and hypertensive patients, but not in controls. At baseline, brachial artery flow-mediated dilation was impaired in patients with hypercholesterolemia and arterial hypertension; red wine restored the dilation in the hypercholesterolemic group but not in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS: Red wine elicits different metabolic, autonomic, and endothelial responses among individuals with hypercholesterolemia or arterial hypertension and healthy controls. Our findings highlight the need to consider patient characteristics when evaluating the response to red wine. PMID:19488610

  11. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  12. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    , no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after......Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  13. Effects of short-term caloric restriction on circulating free IGF-I, acid-labile subunit, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Kjems, Lise Lund

    2006-01-01

    Decreased levels of GH and total IGF-I have been reported in obesity. It has been hypothesized that increased free (biologically active) IGF-I levels generated from IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) protease activity could be the mechanism for the low GH release in dieting obese subjects. However......, no published data exist on free IGF-I levels, acid labile subunit (ALS), or IGFBP protease activity in relation to GH release during a hypocaloric diet. The main purpose of this study was to determine free IGF-I, ALS, IGFBPs-1-4, and IGFBPs-1-3 protease activity in relation to 24-h GH release before and after...... a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD)....

  14. Seasonal behavior and long-term trends of tropospheric ozone, its precursors and chemical conditions over Iran: A view from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yunsoo; Souri, Amir Hossein

    2015-04-01

    To identify spatial and temporal variations over the Iranian region, this study analyzed tropospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), carbon monoxide (CO) columns from the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), and tropospheric column O3 (TCO) from OMI/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) satellites from 2005 to 2012. The study discovered high levels of HCHO (∼12 × 1015 molec./cm2) from plant isoprene emissions in the air above parts of the northern forest of Iran during the summer and from the oxidation of HCHO precursors emitted from petrochemical industrial facilities and biomass burning in South West Iran. This study showed that maximum NO2 levels (∼18 × 1015 molec./cm2) were concentrated in urban cities, indicating the predominance of anthropogenic sources. The results indicate that maximum concentrations were found in the winter, mainly because of weaker local winds and higher heating fuel consumption, in addition to lower hydroxyl radicals (OH). The high CO concentrations (∼2 × 1018 molec./cm2) in the early spring were inferred to mainly originate from a strong continental air mass from anthropogenic CO "hotspots" including regions around Caspian Sea, Europe, and North America, although the external sources of CO were partly suppressed by the Arabian anticyclone and topographic barriers. Variations in the TCO were seen to peak during the summer (∼40 DU), due to intensive solar radiation and stratospheric sources. This study also examined long-term trends in TCO and its precursors over a period of eight years in five urban cities in Iran. To perform the analysis, we estimated seasonal changes and inter-seasonal variations using least-squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE), which reduced uncertainty in the trend by 5-15%. The results showed significant increases in the levels of HCHO (∼0.08 ± 0.06 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), NO2 (∼0.08 ± 0.02 × 1015 molec./cm2 yr-1), and peak

  15. Monitoring of groundwater chemistry in terms of physical and chemical parameters of Gajraula, a semi-urbanized town of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bineet; Jain, Vikas; Mohan, Anuraag

    Groundwater happens to be a major source of drinking water for urban and rural India. With rapid growth in industrial sector, the shallow groundwater regime has become more vulnerable to industrial contamination and human activity. In this study, the drinking water quality of Gajraula and its suburbs, a semi-urbanized town of northern India, was assessed. The water samples from pre-identified 14 wells with different depths were analyzed for 2 years, i.e. 2008 and 2009. The samples were taken thrice a year in May (summers), August (monsoon) and December (winters). The compiled results were compared with recommended values of World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking water. The analysis showed that concentration levels of TDS, BOD, NO3- and Ca2+ exceeded the desirable limits of WHO and BIS in certain wells. The levels of trace metals Fe and Pb exceeded the limits in almost all the wells, while pH, Cl-, SO42-, Mg2+, Zn, Cr and Ni were well within the limits. The contamination levels in most cases were higher during summers as compared to monsoon and winters, which may be due to high build-up of dissolved solids. The quality of water from shallow hand pumps in vicinity to industries were unsuitable for human consumption as compared to public deep bore wells. Agro-chemicals, irrigation by effluent discharge and wastewater from commercial cum residential area were the main sources of groundwater pollution. A study based on long-term surveillance of water systems, incorporating individual exposure assessment of users of private wells, should be considered for a lasting solution.

  16. Long term corrosion of iron and non alloy or low alloy steels in clay soils. Physico-chemical characterisation and electrochemical study of archaeological analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Emmanuelle

    2002-01-01

    Archaeological objects of Gallo-Roman and Merovingian time, and from a battlefield of World War 1, were studied to better understand long term corrosion phenomena of iron in clay soils. This study is part of the French national program about nuclear waste deep repository, conducted by the ANDRA (French national Agency for Radioactive Waste Management). Iron archaeological analogues make a valuable contribution to the specifying of containers for long lived and high level wastes (HLWs), because they provide access to the considered time scale. The experimental issue is divided into two major parts: - a physico-chemical characterisation of corrosion products, by Raman spectroscopy; - an electrochemical study of the behaviour of the different corrosion layers. Although the metallic material is different between ancient artefacts (ferrite) and 1914-1918 remains (hypo-eutectoid steels), the same stable phases are identified in their corrosion products: mainly iron oxides and oxi-hydroxides. From a macroscopic point of view, these products are staggered into two layers: an internal one, and an external one, which contains soil markers. Under the microscope, a complex composite structure appears. Goethite a-FeOOH, which was identified on each object, is frequently in contact with the metal core. The average corrosion rate in the burial environment, deduced from the layers thickness, highlights a significant slowdown of corrosion after the first burial time, about one century. The electrochemical study showed the predominant role of transport phenomena in the pores of corrosion layers. The behaviour of the metal - internal layer system is well explained by a model of porous electrode (De Levie theory). Despite its porosity, the internal layer is protective, as it leads to a significant decrease of the corrosion rate (about ten time). (author) [fr

  17. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  18. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  19. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  20. Chemical and biochemical properties of Stagnic Albeluvisols organic matter as result of long-term agricultural management and native forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be as the most important factor in soil forming, development and continuous functioning. Sequestrated into SOM organic carbon concentrations, pools and residence time in soil, as well acting intensity of interconnected with SOM edaphon are soil type specific or characteristic to certain soil types. In depending on soil moisture regime, calcareousness and clay content for each soil type certain soil organic carbon (SOC) retaining capacity and its vertical distribution pattern are characteristic. However, land use change (crop rotation, continuous cropping, no-tillage, melioration, rewetting) has greatest influence mainly on fabric of epipedon and biological functions of soil cover. Stagnic Albeluvisols are largely distributed at Tartu County. They form here more than half from arable soils. The establishment of long-term field trial and forest research area in these regions for biochemical analysis of Stagnic Albeluvisols' organic matter is in all respects justified. In 1989, an international long-term experiment on the organic nitrogen or IOSDV (Internationale Organische Stickstoffdauerdiingungsversuche) with three-field crop rotation (potato - spring wheat - spring barley) was started at Eerika near Tartu (58° 22.5' N; 26° 39.8' E) on Stagnic Albeluvisol. The main aims of this study were to determine the long-term effects of cropping systems on physico-chemical properties of soils and their productivity. The design of this field experiment is similar to other European network of IOSDV experiments. Before the establishment of this experiment in 1989 it was in set-aside state (5-6 years) as field-grass fallow. It was used as arable land in condition of state farm during 1957-83. Average agrochemical characteristics of the plough horizon of soil in the year of establishment were the following: humus content 17.1 g kg-1, total nitrogen content 0.9 g kg-1, C:N ratio 11 and pHKCl 6.3. DL soluble phosphorus content was 44 mg

  1. Successful Isolation of Viable Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Human Adipose Tissue Subject to Long-Term Cryopreservation: Positive Implications for Adult Stem Cell-Based Therapeutics in Patients of Advanced Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M. Devitt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined cell isolation, viability, and growth in adipose-derived stem cells harvested from whole adipose tissue subject to different cryopreservation lengths (2–1159 days from patients of varying ages (26–62 years. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue was excised during abdominoplasties and was cryopreserved. The viability and number of adipose-derived stem cells isolated were measured after initial isolation and after 9, 18, and 28 days of growth. Data were analyzed with respect to cryopreservation duration and patient age. Significantly more viable cells were initially isolated from tissue cryopreserved 2 years, irrespective of patient age. However, this difference did not persist with continued growth and there were no significant differences in cell viability or growth at subsequent time points with respect to cryopreservation duration or patient age. Mesenchymal stem cell markers were maintained in all cohorts tested throughout the duration of the study. Consequently, longer cryopreservation negatively impacts initial live adipose-derived stem cell isolation; however, this effect is neutralized with continued cell growth. Patient age does not significantly impact stem cell isolation, viability, or growth. Cryopreservation of adipose tissue is an effective long-term banking method for isolation of adipose-derived stem cells in patients of varying ages.

  2. Ergonomics and Beyond: Understanding How Chemical and Heat Exposures and Physical Exertions at Work Affect Functional Ability, Injury, and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Shipp, Eva M; Trueblood, Amber B; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2016-08-01

    To honor Tom Waters's work on emerging occupational health issues, we review the literature on physical along with chemical exposures and their impact on functional outcomes. Many occupations present the opportunity for exposure to multiple hazardous exposures, including both physical and chemical factors. However, little is known about how these different factors affect functional ability and injury. The goal of this review is to examine the relationships between these exposures, impairment of the neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems, functional outcomes, and health problems with a focus on acute injury. Literature was identified using online databases, including PubMed, Ovid Medline, and Google Scholar. References from included articles were searched for additional relevant articles. This review documented the limited existing literature that discussed cognitive impairment and functional disorders via neurotoxicity for physical exposures (heat and repetitive loading) and chemical exposures (pesticides, volatile organic compounds [VOCs], and heavy metals). This review supports that workers are exposed to physical and chemical exposures that are associated with negative health effects, including functional impairment and injury. Innovation in exposure assessment with respect to quantifying the joint exposure to these different exposures is especially needed for developing risk assessment models and, ultimately, preventive measures. Along with physical exposures, chemical exposures need to be considered, alone and in combination, in assessing functional ability and occupationally related injuries. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  3. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  4. Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M.

    1995-09-01

    The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel's extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey

  5. Potential long-term chemical effects of diesel fuel emissions on a mining environment: A preliminary assessment based on data from a deep subsurface tunnel at Rainer Mesa, Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meike, A.; Bourcier, W.L.; Alai, M. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The general purpose of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMSCP) Introduced Materials Task is to understand and predict potential long-term modifications of natural water chemistry related to the construction and operation of a radioactive waste repository that may significantly affect performance of the waste packages. The present study focuses on diesel exhaust. Although chemical information on diesel exhaust exists in the literature, it is either not explicit or incomplete, and none of it establishes mechanisms that might be used to predict long-term behavior. In addition, the data regarding microbially mediated chemical reactions are not well correlated with the abiotic chemical data. To obtain some of the required long-term information, we chose a historical analog: the U12n tunnel at Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site. This choice was based on the tunnel`s extended (30-year) history of diesel usage, its geological similarity to Yucca Mountain, and its availability. The sample site within the tunnel was chosen based on visual inspection and on information gathered from miners who were present during tunnel operations. The thick layer of dark deposit at that site was assumed to consist primarily of rock powder and diesel exhaust. Surface samples and core samples were collected with an intent to analyze the deposit and to measure potential migration of chemical components into the rock. X-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra (EDS) analysis, secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis were used to measure both spatial distribution and concentration for the wide variety of chemical components that were expected based on our literature survey.

  6. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  7. Effects of different chemical materials and cultural methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 6

    2011-10-27

    Oct 27, 2011 ... which accounts for 53% of wheat production in China and about 15% of the total ... environment as it is mainly made from chemical mate- rials. ... yield and yield components in harvest in both years were deter- mined. The data were subjected to analyses of variance (ANOVA) ..... Long-term stability of.

  8. Algorithm For Hypersonic Flow In Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Grant

    1989-01-01

    Implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium. Implicit formulation chosen because overcomes limitation on mathematical stability encountered in explicit formulations. For dynamical portion of problem, Euler equations written in conservation-law form in Cartesian coordinate system for two-dimensional or axisymmetric flow. For chemical portion of problem, equilibrium state of gas at each point in computational grid determined by minimizing local Gibbs free energy, subject to local conservation of molecules, atoms, ions, and total enthalpy. Major advantage: resulting algorithm naturally stable and captures strong shocks without help of artificial-dissipation terms to damp out spurious numerical oscillations.

  9. Medium and long-term opportunities and risk of the biotechnological production of bulk chemicals from renewable resources - The potential of white biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.; Crank, M.; Dornberg, V.; Hermann, B.; Roes, L.; Hüsing, B.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Terragni, F.; Recchia, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report studies processes which convert biomass-derived feedstocks (e.g. fermentable sugar) into organic bulk chemicals (e.g. lactic acid, acetic acid, butanol and ethanol) by means of white biotechnology (e.g. fermentation or enzymatic conversion), either with or without genetically modified

  10. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2010-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using advanced laser-based highly sensitive spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been performed for the chemical speciation of actinide in an aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. (1) Development of TRLFS technology for chemical speciation of actinides, (2) Development of LIBD technology for measuring solubility of actinides, (3) Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, (4) Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, (5) Development of technology for the chemical speciation of actinides by CE, (6) Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, (7) Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces, (8) Determination of actinide source terms of spent nuclear fuel

  11. The semiempirical quantum chemical PM6 method augmented by dispersion and H-bonding correction terms describes reliably various types of non-covalent complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezáč, Jan; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Salahub, D.; Hobza, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2009), s. 1749-1760 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hydrogen bonding * dispersion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.804, year: 2009

  12. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  13. Letter from Kirk Kessler, EPS to Galo Jackson, USEPA. Subject: Results of the July 2011 Sampling in the Former Brunswick-Altamaha Canal South of the LCP Chemicals Site, Brunswick, Ga, Revision Dated April 19, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results report of sediment and fish tissue samples collected from the former Brunswick-Altamaha Canal, in a segment of the canal south of the LCP Chemicals Site in Brunswick, Georgia in July 2010. Region ID: 04 DocID: 10843428, DocDate: 04-19-2012

  14. A coupling alternative to reactive transport simulations for long-term prediction of chemical reactions in heterogeneous CO2 storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De Lucia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fully coupled, multi-phase reactive transport simulations of CO2 storage systems can be approximated by a simplified one-way coupling of hydrodynamics and reactive chemistry. The main characteristics of such systems, and hypotheses underlying the proposed alternative coupling, are (i that the presence of CO2 is the only driving force for chemical reactions and (ii that its migration in the reservoir is only marginally affected by immobilisation due to chemical reactions. In the simplified coupling, the exposure time to CO2 of each element of the hydrodynamic grid is estimated by non-reactive simulations and the reaction path of one single batch geochemical model is applied to each grid element during its exposure time. In heterogeneous settings, analytical scaling relationships provide the dependency of velocity and amount of reactions to porosity and gas saturation. The analysis of TOUGHREACT fully coupled reactive transport simulations of CO2 injection in saline aquifer, inspired to the Ketzin pilot site (Germany, both in homogeneous and heterogeneous settings, confirms that the reaction paths predicted by fully coupled simulations in every element of the grid show a high degree of self-similarity. A threshold value for the minimum concentration of dissolved CO2 considered chemically active is shown to mitigate the effects of the discrepancy between dissolved CO2 migration in non-reactive and fully coupled simulations. In real life, the optimal threshold value is unknown and has to be estimated, e.g. by means of 1-D or 2-D simulations, resulting in an uncertainty ultimately due to the process de-coupling. However, such uncertainty is more than acceptable given that the alternative coupling enables using grids of the order of millions of elements, profiting from much better description of heterogeneous reservoirs at a fraction of the calculation time of fully coupled models.

  15. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  16. Changes in soil physical and chemical properties following organic matter removal and compaction: 20-year response of the aspen Lake-States Long Term Soil Productivity installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Slesak; Brian J. Palik; Anthony W. D' Amato; Valerie J. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Soil functions that control plant resource availability can be altered by management activities such as increased organic matter (OM) removal and soil compaction during forest harvesting. The Long Term Soil Productivity study was established to evaluate how these practices influence soil and site productivity using experimental treatments that span a range of forest...

  17. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-01-15

    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  18. Identifying breakthrough technologies for the production of basic chemicals. A long term view on the sustainable production of ammonia, olefins and aromatics in the European region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, J.; Van Lieshout, M.; Croezen, H.

    2012-01-15

    The European Commission's Roadmap for a competitive and low carbon economy in 2050 indicates that greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in all sectors should be significantly reduced to meet the European Union (EU) objective of 80 to 95% greenhouse gas emission reductions by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The European Commission indicated in the Roadmap that the EU's industrial sectors should reduce emissions by 83 to 87% domestically by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. The objective of this study is to explore breakthrough abatement technologies in three processes in the European chemical industry that can considerably contribute to achieving the required greenhouse gas emission reductions. In this context we have assessed the processes for the production of: (1) Ammonia; (2) Olefins; (3) Aromatics (BTX). For all three processes possible breakthrough abatement technologies were found, allowing for reductions in GHG emissions varying between 50 and 100% compared to the conventional processes. Our finding regarding the chemical industry and our earlier findings regarding options in the steel, cement and pulp and paper industries show that promising breakthrough abatement technologies are available for European energy-intensive industries to contribute to a low-carbon economy. However, large scale deployment requires an integrated EU industry and energy policy allowing for a resource efficient and sustainable use of available biomass, CCS storage capacity and renewable energy capacity.

  19. Evaluation of processed green and ripe mango peel and pulp flours (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant compounds and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Wong, Lee Min; Bhat, Rajeev; Cheng, Lai Hoong

    2012-02-01

    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption. In the present study, the chemical composition, bioactive/antioxidant compounds and functional properties of green and ripe mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) peel and pulp flours were evaluated. Compared to commercial wheat flour, mango flours were significantly low in moisture and protein, but were high in crude fiber, fat and ash content. Mango flour showed a balance between soluble and insoluble dietary fiber proportions, with total dietary fiber content ranging from 3.2 to 5.94 g kg⁻¹. Mango flours exhibited high values for bioactive/antioxidant compounds compared to wheat flour. The water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity of mango flours ranged from 0.36 to 0.87 g kg⁻¹ and from 0.18 to 0.22 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Results of this study showed mango peel flour to be a rich source of dietary fiber with good antioxidant and functional properties, which could be a useful ingredient for new functional food formulations. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  1. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  2. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  3. Short-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Combined with Task-Related Training on Upper Extremity Function, Spasticity, and Grip Strength in Subjects with Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Chang-Yong; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training on arm function, spasticity, and grip strength in subjects with poststroke hemiplegia. Forty-five subjects with poststroke were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each with 15 subjects as follows: control group, whole-body vibration group, and whole-body vibration plus task-related training group. Outcome was evaluated by clinical evaluation and measurements of the grip strength before and 4 weeks after intervention. Our results show that there was a significantly greater increase in the Fugl-Meyer scale, maximal grip strength of the affected hand, and grip strength normalized to the less affected hand in subjects undergoing the whole-body vibration training compared with the control group after the test. Furthermore, there was a significantly greater increase in the Wolf motor function test and a decrease in the modified Ashworth spasticity total scores in subjects who underwent whole-body vibration plus task-related training compared with those in the other 2 groups after the test. The findings indicate that the use of whole-body vibration training combined with task-related training has more benefits on the improvement of arm function, spasticity, and maximal grip strength than conventional upper limb training alone or with whole-body vibration in people with poststroke hemiplegia.

  4. Long-term neurological and neuropsychological complications of sulfur mustard and Lewisite mixture poisoning in Chinese victims exposed to chemical warfare agents abandoned at the end of WWII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, O; Kituda, A; Fujii, M; Yoshinaka, T; Nakagawa, G; Suzuki, Y

    2018-09-01

    In August 2003, 44 victims were poisoned by chemical warfare agents (CWAs) leaked from five drums that were excavated at a construction site in Qiqihar, Northeast China. The drums were abandoned by the former Japanese imperial army during World War II and contained a mixture of Sulfur mustard (SM) and Lewisite. We carried out a total of six regular check-ups between 2006 and 2014, and from 2008 we added neurological evaluations including neuropsychological test and autonomic nervous function test in parallel with medical follow-up as much as was possible. Severe autonomic failure, such as hyperhidrosis, pollakiuria, diarrhoea, diminished libido, and asthenia appeared in almost all victims. Polyneuropathy occurred in 35% of the victims and constricted vision occurred in 20% of them. The rates of abnormal response on cold pressor test (CPT), active standing test (AST), Heart rate variability (CV R-R ), performed in 2014, were 63.1%, 31.6%, and 15.9%, respectively. On neuropsychological testing evaluated in 2010, a generalized cognitive decline was observed in 42% of the victims. Memories and visuospatial abilities were affected in the remaining victims. Finally, a 17-item PTSD questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory evaluated in 2014 revealed long-lasting severe PTSD symptoms and depression of the victims. Our findings suggest that an SM/Lewisite compound have significant adverse consequences directly in cognitive and emotional network and autonomic nervous systems in the brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Capsicum chinensis L. growth and nutraceutical properties are enhanced by biostimulants in a long-term period: chemical and metabolomic approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA eERTANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two biostimulants, one derived from alfalfa plants (AH and the other obtained from red grape (RG, were chemically characterised using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and Raman spectroscopies. Two doses (50 and 100 mL L-1 for RG, and 25 and 50 mL L-1 for AH of biostimulants were applied to Capsicum chinensis L. plants cultivated in pots inside a tunnel. The experimental design consisted of the factorial combination of treatment (no biostimulant, plus AH, plus RG at three doses (zero, low and high and two time-course applications (at the second and fourth week after transplantation and the effects were recorded at flowering and maturity. Both biostimulants contained different amounts of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine; the AH spectra exhibited amino acid functional groups in the peptidic structure, while the RG spectra showed the presence of polyphenols, such as resveratrol. These results revealed that at flowering, RG and AH increased the weights of fresh leaves and fruits and the number of green fruits, whereas at maturity, the biostimulants most affected the fresh weight and number of red fruits. At flowering, the leaves of the treated plants contained high amounts of epicatechin, ascorbic acid, quercetin and dihydrocapsaicin. At maturity, the leaves of the treated plants exhibited elevated amounts of fructose, glucose, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Moreover, green fruits exhibited a high content of chlorogenic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and antioxidant activity, while both AH- and RG-treated red fruits were highly endowed in capsaicin. The 1H high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectra of red fruits revealed that both products induced a high amount of NADP+, whereas RG also increased glucose, fumarate, ascorbate, thymidine and high molecular weight species. Our results suggested that AH and RG promoted plant growth and the production of

  6. Helminth infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar in the decade from 2005 to 2014: temporal trends and varying prevalence among subjects from different regional origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Boughattas, Sonia; Al-Thani, Asma; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Deshmukh, Anand

    2016-03-16

    Travel and migration from developing regions, where tropical diseases are common, to more developed industrialised nations can contribute to the introduction and subsequent spread of infections. With its rapidly expanding economy, Qatar has attracted vast numbers of immigrant workers in the last two decades, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many used to arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections. We analysed the prevalence of helminth infections in a dataset of 29,286 records of subjects referred for stool examination at the Hamad Medical Corporation over the course of a decade (2005 to 2014, inclusive). Overall prevalence of combined helminth infections was low (1.86 %) but there were significant temporal trends, age and sex effects and those arising from the region of origin of the subjects. The most common helminths were hookworms (overall prevalence 1.22 %), which accounted for 70.1 % of cases, and therefore patterns for combined helminth infections were largely driven by hookworms. In both cases, and also in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides, prevalence peaked in 2008, since when prevalence has been steadily falling. Helminth infections were largely concentrated among subjects from five Asian countries (Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan), and there was a highly biased prevalence in favour of male subjects in all cases. Prevalence of all three nematodes peaked in age class 7 (mean age 25.5 years, range = 20-29) and there were significant interactions between region of origin, sex of subjects and prevalence of hookworms. These results offer optimism that prevalence will continue to decline in the years ahead, especially if control is targeted at those most at risk of carrying infections.

  7. Chemical Engineering in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmeyer, Dennis A.; Meneghelli, Barry; Steinrock, Todd (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The aerospace industry has long been perceived as the domain of both physicists and mechanical engineers. This perception has endured even though the primary method of providing the thrust necessary to launch a rocket into space is chemical in nature. The chemical engineering and chemistry personnel behind the systems that provide access to space have labored in the shadows of the physicists and mechanical engineers. As exploration into the cosmos moves farther away from Earth, there is a very distinct need for new chemical processes to help provide the means for advanced space exploration. The state of the art in launch systems uses chemical propulsion systems, primarily liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, to provide the energy necessary to achieve orbit. As we move away from Earth, there are additional options for propulsion. Unfortunately, few of these options can compare to the speed or ease of use provided by the chemical propulsion agents. It is with great care and significant cost that gaseous compounds such as hydrogen and oxygen are liquefied and become dense enough to use for rocket fuel. These low-temperature liquids fall within a specialty area known as cryogenics. Cryogenics, the science and art of producing cold operating conditions for use on Earth, in orbit, or on some other nonterrestrial body, has become increasingly important to our ability to travel within our solar system. The production of cryogenic fuels and the long-term storage of these fluids are necessary for travel. As our explorations move farther away from Earth, we need to address how to produce the necessary fuels to make a round-trip. The cost and the size of these expeditions are extreme at best. If we take everything necessary for our survival for the round-trip, we invalidate any chance of travel in the near future. As with the early explorers on Earth, we need to harvest much of our energy and our life support from the celestial bodies. The in situ production of these energy

  8. Stereoselective quantification of methadone and a d(6)-labeled isotopomer using high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study in a methadone maintained subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David J R; Morton, Erin B; Heinkele, Georg; Mürdter, Thomas E; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-08-01

    There is evidence that the apparent oral clearance of rac-methadone is induced during the early phase of methadone maintenance treatment. However, it is not known if this is due to changes in bioavailability or if this phenomenon is stereoselective. This knowledge can be obtained by administering a dose of stable-labeled methadone at selected times during ongoing treatment. Therefore, the authors developed a stereoselective high performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass-spectrometry assay for the quantification of the enantiomers of methadone and a d(6)-labeled isotopomer. The compounds were quantified in a single assay after liquid-liquid extraction and stereoselective high performance liquid chromatograph with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detection. The following ions were monitored: m/z 310.15 for unlabeled methadone; m/z 316.15 for methadone-d(6); and m/z 313.15 for the methadone-d(3) (internal standard). Calibration curves ranged from 0.5 to 75 ng/mL for each compound. Extraction recovery was approximately 80% for all analytes, without evidence of differences between the unlabeled and stable-labeled compounds or concentration dependency. Minor ion promotion was observed (d(3)-labeled internal standard, with peak area ratios in extracted samples identical to control injections. The isotopomers did not alter each others' ionisation, even at 10:1 concentration ratios, and 10-fold diluted samples were within 10% of the nominal concentration. Assay performance was acceptable, with interassay and intra-assay bias and precision d(6) in a patient receiving chronic oral methadone maintenance therapy.

  9. Processing of CuInSe2-Based Solar Cells: Characterization of Deposition Processes in Terms of Chemical Reaction Analyses. Final Report, 6 May 1995 - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.J.; Stanbery, B.J.

    2001-07-16

    This project describes a novel rotating-disc reactor has been designed and built to enable modulated flux deposition of CuInSe2 and its related binary compounds. The reactor incorporates both a thermally activated source and a novel plasma-activated source of selenium vapor, which have been used for the growth of epitaxial and polycrystalline thin-film layers of CuInSe2. A comparison of the different selenium reactant sources has shown evidence of increases in its incorporation when using the plasma source, but no measurable change when the thermally activated source was used. We concluded that the chemical reactivity of selenium vapor from the plasma source is significantly greater than that provided by the other sources studied. Epitaxially grown CuInSe2 layers on GaAs, ZnTe, and SrF2 demonstrate the importance of nucleation effects on the morphology and crystallographic structure of the resulting materials. These studies have resulted in the first reported growth of the CuAu type-I crystallographic polytype of CuInSe2, and the first reported epitaxial growth of CuInSe2 on ZnTe. Polycrystalline binary (Cu,Se) and (In,Se) thin films have been grown, and the molar flux ratio of selenium to metals was varied. It is shown that all of the reported binary compounds in each of the corresponding binary phase fields can be synthesized by the modulated flux deposition technique implemented in the reactor by controlling this ratio and the substrate temperature. These results were employed to deposit bilayer thin films of specific (Cu,Se) and (In,Se) compounds with low melting-point temperature, which were used to verify the feasibility of synthesizing CuInSe2 by subsequent rapid-thermal processing. The studies of the influence of sodium during the initial stages of epitaxy have led to a new model to explain its influences based on the hypothesis that it behaves as a surfactant in the Cu-In-Se material system. This represents the first unified theory on the role of sodium

  10. Long-term real-time chemical characterization of submicron aerosols at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, A.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pey, J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Sosedova, Y.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2015-03-01

    Real-time measurements of inorganic (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride and black carbon (BC)) and organic submicron aerosols (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 1 μm) from a continental background site (Montsec, MSC, 1570 m a.s.l.) in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB) were conducted for 10 months (July 2011-April 2012). An aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM) was co-located with other online and offline PM1 measurements. Analyses of the hourly, diurnal, and seasonal variations are presented here, for the first time, for this region. Seasonal trends in PM1 components are attributed to variations in evolution of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, air mass origin, and meteorological conditions. In summer, the higher temperature and solar radiation increases convection, enhancing the growth of the PBL and the transport of anthropogenic pollutants towards high altitude sites. Furthermore, the regional recirculation of air masses over the WMB creates a continuous increase in the background concentrations of PM1 components and causes the formation of reservoir layers at relatively high altitudes. The combination of all these atmospheric processes results in a high variability of PM1 components, with poorly defined daily patterns, except for the organic aerosols (OA). OA was mostly composed (up to 90%) of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), split in two types: semivolatile (SV-OOA) and low-volatility (LV-OOA), the rest being hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA). The marked diurnal cycles of OA components regardless of the air mass origin indicates that they are not only associated with anthropogenic and long-range-transported secondary OA (SOA) but also with recently produced biogenic SOA. Very different conditions drive the aerosol phenomenology in winter at MSC. The thermal inversions and the lower vertical development of the PBL leave MSC in the free troposphere most of the day, being affected by PBL air masses only after midday, when the

  11. Chemical characteristic and toxicity assessment of particle associated PAHs for the short-term anthropogenic activity event: During the Chinese New Year's Festival in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guo-Liang; Liu, Gui-Rong; Tian, Ying-Ze; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Xing; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2014-06-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were simultaneously collected during a period which covered the Chinese New Year's (CNY) Festival. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured. The possible source contributions and toxicity risks were estimated for Festival and non-Festival periods. According to the diagnostic ratios and Multilinear Engine 2 (ME2), three sources were identified and their contributions were calculated: vehicle emission (48.97% for PM10, 53.56% for PM2.5), biomass & coal combustion (36.83% for PM10, 28.76% for PM2.5), and cook emission (22.29% for PM10, 27.23% for PM2.5). An interesting result was found: although the PAHs are not directly from the fireworks display, they were still indirectly influenced by biomass combustion which is affiliated with the fireworks display. Additionally, toxicity risks of different sources were estimated by Multilinear Engine 2-BaP equivalent (ME2-BaPE): vehicle emission (54.01% for PM10, 55.42% for PM2.5), cook emission (25.59% for PM10, 29.05% for PM2.5), and biomass & coal combustion source (20.90% for PM10, 14.28% for PM2.5). It is worth to be noticed that the toxicity contribution of cook emission was considerable in Festival period. The findings can provide useful information to protect the urban human health, as well as develop the effective air control strategies in special short-term anthropogenic activity event. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of SO/sub 2/ or NOx on toxic and genotoxic properties of chemical carcinogens. II. Short term in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, B L; Brendler, S; Klein, R G; Monarca, S; Pasquini, R; Schmezer, P; Zeller, W J

    1988-07-01

    Short term in vivo studies were performed to study biological effects of the common air pollutants SO2 or NOx and their influence on the genotoxic activities of nitrosamines. Hepatocytes and lung cells were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats which had inhaled 50 p.p.m. of SO2 or NOx for 2 weeks. After incubating the cells for 1 h, genotoxicity was determined in hepatocytes by measuring DNA single-strand breaks induced by N-nitroso-acetoxymethylmethylamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Parameters of toxicity (trypan blue exclusion and leakage of serum enzymes) were determined in both liver and lung cells also following 1 h incubation. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-D) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were determined in subcellular microsomal fractions isolated from lung and liver tissues. Finally, as a measure of overall toxicity, the activities of various serum enzymes were determined in the blood serum of the rats. It was found that the induction of DNA single-strand breaks by three nitrosamines was decreased in hepatocytes from SO2-treated animals. The viability of rat hepatocytes and of rat lung cells, as determined by trypan blue exclusion, was similar in all three treatment groups immediately after isolation, as well as after 1 h incubation with DMSO or with the nitrosamines. In contrast, the leakage of enzymes was different in hepatocytes of SO2-treated rats, since lactate dehydrogenase activity was decreased. Leakage of enzymes from the lung cells did not differ from group to group, but was lower than from hepatocytes. Foreign compound metabolizing enzymes were mainly decreased in NOx-treated animals, namely AHH, NDMA-D and GST in liver and GST in the lung. For SO2-treated animals NDMA-D was increased in liver and GST was decreased in lung.

  13. Effects of salinity and short-term elevated atmospheric CO2 on the chemical equilibrium between CO2 fixation and photosynthetic electron transport of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussin, Sayed; Geissler, Nicole; El-Far, Mervat M M; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2017-09-01

    The effect of water salinity on plant growth and photosynthetic traits of Stevia rebaudiana was investigated to determine its level and mechanisms of salinity tolerance. It was also attempted to assess how short-term elevated CO 2 concentration would influence the boundaries and mechanisms of its photosynthetic capacity. The plants were grown in gravel/hydroponic system under controlled greenhouse conditions and irrigated with four different salinity levels (0, 25, 50 and 100 mol m -3 NaCl). Low salinity did not significantly alter the plant fresh weight, which was substantially decreased by 67% at high salinity treatment. Salinity tolerance threshold was reached at 50 mol m -3  NaCl while C50 was between 50 and 100 mol m -3  NaCl, indicating that S. rebaudiana is a moderate salt tolerant species. Salt-induced growth reduction was apparently linked to a significant decline of about 47% in the photosynthetic rates (A net ) at high salinity treatment, leading consequently to a disequilibrium between CO 2 -assimilation and electron transport rates (indicated by enhanced ETR max /A gross ratio). Elevated atmospheric CO 2 enhanced CO 2 assimilation rates by 65% and 80% for control and high-salt-stressed plants respectively, likely due to significant increases in intercellular CO 2 concentration (indicated by enhanced C i /C a ). The priority for Stevia under elevated atmospheric CO 2 was not to save water but to maximize photosynthesis so that the PWUE was progressively improved and the threat of oxidative stress was diminished (decline in ETR max /A gross ). The results imply that elevated CO 2 level could ameliorate some of the detrimental effects of salinity, conferring higher tolerance and survival of S. rebaudiana, a highlydesired feature with the forthcoming era of global changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes - Relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA(1c) as markers of diabetic complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monnier, VM; Bautista, O; Kenny, D; Sell, DR; Fogarty, J; Dahms, W; Cleary, PA; Lachin, J; Genuth, S

    The relationships between long-term intensive control of glycemia and indicators of skin collagen glycation (furosine), glycoxidation (pentosidine and N-epsilon-[carboxymethyl]-lysine [CML]), and crosslinking (acid and pepsin solubility) were examined in 216 patients with type 1 diabetes from the

  15. Reduced insulin-like growth factor-I serum levels in formerly obese women subjected to laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or diet-induced long-term caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterberger, Maria C; Mattesich, Monika; Klaver, Elise; Piza-Katzer, Hildegunde; Zwerschke, Werner

    2011-11-01

    Life-span extension in laboratory rodents induced by long-term caloric restriction correlates with decreased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. Reduced activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I signaling system slows aging and increases longevity in mutant mouse models. In the present study, we show that long-term caloric restriction achieved by two different interventions for 4 years, either laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding or reducing diet, leads to reduced IGF-I serum levels in formerly obese women relative to normal-weight women eating ad libitum. Moreover, we present evidence that the long-term caloric restriction interventions reduce fasting growth hormone serum levels. The present study indicates that the activity of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis is reduced in long-term calorically restricted formerly obese humans. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the duration and severity of the caloric restriction intervention are important for the outcome on the growth hormone/IGF-I axis in humans.

  16. Long-term chemical analysis and organic aerosol source apportionment at nine sites in central Europe: source identification and uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Stefenelli, Giulia; Bozzetti, Carlo; Vlachou, Athanasia; Fermo, Paola; Gonzalez, Raquel; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Colombi, Cristina; Canonaco, Francesco; Hueglin, Christoph; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Bianchi, Federico; Slowik, Jay G.; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Long-term monitoring of organic aerosol is important for epidemiological studies, validation of atmospheric models, and air quality management. In this study, we apply a recently developed filter-based offline methodology using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to investigate the regional and seasonal differences of contributing organic aerosol sources. We present offline AMS measurements for particulate matter smaller than 10 µm at nine stations in central Europe with different exposure characteristics for the entire year of 2013 (819 samples). The focus of this study is a detailed source apportionment analysis (using positive matrix factorization, PMF) including in-depth assessment of the related uncertainties. Primary organic aerosol (POA) is separated in three components: hydrocarbon-like OA related to traffic emissions (HOA), cooking OA (COA), and biomass burning OA (BBOA). We observe enhanced production of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in summer, following the increase in biogenic emissions with temperature (summer oxygenated OA, SOOA). In addition, a SOA component was extracted that correlated with an anthropogenic secondary inorganic species that is dominant in winter (winter oxygenated OA, WOOA). A factor (sulfur-containing organic, SC-OA) explaining sulfur-containing fragments (CH3SO2+), which has an event-driven temporal behaviour, was also identified. The relative yearly average factor contributions range from 4 to 14 % for HOA, from 3 to 11 % for COA, from 11 to 59 % for BBOA, from 5 to 23 % for SC-OA, from 14 to 27 % for WOOA, and from 15 to 38 % for SOOA. The uncertainty of the relative average factor contribution lies between 2 and 12 % of OA. At the sites north of the alpine crest, the sum of HOA, COA, and BBOA (POA) contributes less to OA (POA / OA = 0.3) than at the southern alpine valley sites (0.6). BBOA is the main contributor to POA with 87 % in alpine valleys and 42 % north of the alpine crest. Furthermore, the influence of primary

  17. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  18. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Tatsuo; Adel, Mohamed; Takahashi, Masahiro; Haga, Shugo; Nagahama, Ryo; Nakashima, Misato; Furuhata, Mayu; Kamatani, Takaaki; Maki, Koutaro

    2017-01-01

    Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient's malocclusion. The patient's mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course. PMID:28744380

  19. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Yamaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient’s malocclusion. The patient’s mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course.

  20. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  1. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  2. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  3. Effects of short- and long-term Mediterranean-based dietary treatment on plasma LC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling of subjects with metabolic syndrome features: The Metabolic Syndrome Reduction in Navarra (RESMENA) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Martinez, José Alfredo; de la Iglesia, Rocio; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Poutanen, Kaisa; Hanhineva, Kati; Zulet, Maria de los Ángeles

    2015-04-01

    Adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics approach may contribute to identify beneficial associations of metabolic changes affected by Mediterranean diet-based interventions with inflammatory and oxidative-stress markers related to the etiology and development of the MetS. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight-MS metabolic profiling was applied to plasma from a 6-month randomized intervention with two sequential periods, a 2-month nutritional-learning intervention period, and a 4-month self-control period, with two energy-restricted diets; the RESMENA diet (based on the Mediterranean dietary pattern) and the Control diet (based on the American Heart Association guidelines), in 72 subjects with a high BMI and at least two features of MetS. The major contributing biomarkers of each sequential period were lipids, mainly phospholipids and lysophospholipids. Dependency network analysis showed a different pattern of associations between metabolic changes and clinical variables after 2 and 6 month of intervention, with a highly interconnected network during the nutritional-learning intervention period of the study. The 2-month RESMENA diet produced significant changes in the plasma metabolic profile of subjects with MetS features. However, at the end of the 6-month study, most of the associations between metabolic and clinical variables disappeared; suggesting that adherence to healthy dietary habits had declined during the self-control period. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Study of the the efficacy Magiran, Noormags and SID database in retrieval and relevance of Information Science and Knowledge subject by free keywords and Compare them in terms of the use of controlled keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Shahbazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, Speed and coverage are two important factors that are considered by databases. In fact, a database in a particular subject area can be valid when a large percentage of the area covered by the thematic keywords and consequently it can provide most of the resources with the resources for that subject. The present study was conducted based on analytical - survey method with the main objectives of comparing Noormagz, Magiran and SID databases according to the rate of information, knowledge retrieval, and relevance of thematic vocabulary by free and controlled Keywords as well as Secondary objectives of comparing the coverage and overlap of these three databases of indexed journals in the field of information science and knowledge. All journals in the field of information and knowledge science are approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, according to the latest list of valid publications of this ministry in March 2016 , and key words taken from the articles in these journals were considered population of this research. Searching and comparing selected thematic keywords in each of the study databases indicated that there are a huge difference regarding free and controlled vocabulary retrieval of information and knowledge science in Noormagz database compared to the other two sites. In addition, studying the thematic relevance of research data showed that the ability of this database for receiving other related articles is more than two other databases. Although the titles of journals in Magiran database were more than those two databases and this database compared to two other databases was more update, the number of journals published in Noormagz database were more than others.

  5. Emil Fischer and the "art of chemical experimentation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2017-03-01

    What did nineteenth-century chemists know? This essay uses Emil Fischer's classic study of the sugars in 1880s and 90s Germany to argue that chemists' knowledge was not primarily vested in the theories of valence, structure, and stereochemistry that have been the subject of so much historical and philosophical analysis of chemistry in this period. Nor can chemistry be reduced to a merely manipulative exercise requiring little or no intellectual input. Examining what chemists themselves termed the "art of chemical experimentation" reveals chemical practice as inseparable from its cognitive component, and it explains how chemists integrated theory with experiment through reason.

  6. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  7. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  8. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  9. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  10. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications

  11. Environmental/chemical thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, C.R.; Dailey, N.S.; Jordan, A.C.; Miller, K.C.; Owens, E.T.; Rickert, L.W.

    1978-06-01

    The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus approaches scientific language control problems from a multidisciplinary view. The Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI) was used as a base for the present thesaurus. The Environmental/Chemical Thesaurus, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, used as its source of new terms those major terms found in 13 Environmental Protection Agency data bases. The scope of this thesaurus includes not only environmental and biomedical sciences, but also the physical sciences with emphasis placed on chemistry. Specific chemical compounds are not included; only classes of chemicals are given. To adhere to this level of classification, drugs and pesticides are identified by class rather than by specific chemical name. An attempt was also made to expand the areas of sociology and economics. Terminology dealing with law, demography, and geography was expanded. Proper names of languages and races were excluded. Geographic terms were expanded to include proper names for oceans, continents, major lakes, rivers, and islands. Political divisions were added to allow for proper names of countries and states. With such a broad scope, terminology for specific sciences does not provide for indexing to the lowest levels in plant, animal, or chemical classifications.

  12. Chemical warfare in termites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šobotník, Jan; Jirošová, Anna; Hanus, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2010), s. 1012-1021 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600550614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Isoptera * chemical defense * exocrine gland * frontal gland Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2010

  13. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  14. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  15. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The termchemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  16. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities...... are highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework...

  17. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  18. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  19. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  20. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  1. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  2. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  3. Does SO{sub 2} fumigation change the chemical defense of woody plants: the effect of short-term SO{sub 2} fumigation on the metabolism of deciduous Salix Myrsinifolia plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Lavola, A.; Kainulainen, P. [University of Joensuu, Joensuu (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1995-08-01

    The effect of a moderate increase in atmospheric sulfur dioxide on the production of phenolic secondary chemicals, soluble sugars and phytomass distribution within plants was investigated in six willow ({ital Salix myrsinifolia Salisb}) clones. The plants were cultivated for 3 weeks under 0.11 ppm of SO{sub 2} (300{mu}g m{sup -3}). The production of salicin and chlorogenic acid was significantly reduced under increased SO{sub 2}. However, salicortin, 2{prime}-O-acetylsalicortin, (+)-catechin and two unknown phenolics did not show any clear trend. The increase in SO{sub 2} did not affect the glucose, fructose and sucrose contents. The final weight of the SO{sub 2}-treatment plants was significantly greater than that of the control plants: the leaf, stem and root phytomass was from 14 to 48% greater under increased SO{sub 2}. All the clones showed the same trend, although there was a significant variation in phytomass production. Results indicate, although not consistently, that even a short-term exposure of enhanced atmospheric SO{sub 2} may change moderately the accumulation pattern of willow phenolics. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  5. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  6. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  7. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  8. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  9. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  10. Chemicals in material cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Eriksson, Eva; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Material recycling has been found beneficial in terms of resource and energy performance and is greatly promoted throughout the world. A variety of chemicals is used in materials as additives and data on their presence is sparse. The present work dealt with paper as recyclable material and diisob...

  11. Chemical-induced Vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Chemical-induced depigmentation of the skin has been recognized for over 75 years, first as an occupational hazard but then extending to those using household commercial products as common as hair dyes. Since their discovery, these chemicals have been used therapeutically in patients with severe vitiligo to depigment their remaining skin and improve their appearance. The importance of recognizing this phenomenon was highlighted during an outbreak of vitiligo in Japan during the summer of 2013, when over 16,000 users of a new skin lightening cosmetic cream developed skin depigmentation at the site of contact with the cream and many in remote areas as well. Depigmenting chemicals appear to be analogs of the amino acid tyrosine that disrupt melanogenesis and result in autoimmunity and melanocyte destruction. Because chemical-induced depigmentation is clinically and histologically indistinguishable from non-chemically induced vitiligo, and because these chemicals appear to induce melanocyte autoimmunity, this phenomenon should be known as “chemical-induced vitiligo”, rather than less accurate terms that have been previously used. PMID:28317525

  12. Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelman, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Some concepts in condensed phase chemical kinetics which have emerged from a recent rigorous statistical mechanical treatment of condensed phase chemical reaction dynamics (S.A. Adelman, Adv. Chem. Phys.53:61 (1983)) are discussed in simple physical terms

  13. Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-15

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) measures particle mass loading and chemical composition in real time for non-refractory sub-micron aerosol particles. The ACSM is designed for long-term unattended deployment and routine monitoring applications.

  14. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  15. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  16. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  17. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  20. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  1. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  2. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  3. Design of tailor-made chemical blend using a decomposition-based computer-aided approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza; Gernaey, Krist; Manan, Z.A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer aided techniques form an efficient approach to solve chemical product design problems such as the design of blended liquid products (chemical blending). In chemical blending, one tries to find the best candidate, which satisfies the product targets defined in terms of desired product...... methodology for blended liquid products that identifies a set of feasible chemical blends. The blend design problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming (MINLP) model where the objective is to find the optimal blended gasoline or diesel product subject to types of chemicals...... and their compositions and a set of desired target properties of the blended product as design constraints. This blend design problem is solved using a decomposition approach, which eliminates infeasible and/or redundant candidates gradually through a hierarchy of (property) model based constraints. This decomposition...

  4. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  5. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  6. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  7. Planejamento e programação da produção em plantas multipropósito operando em batelada na indústria química Short term planning and scheduling for multipurpose batch chemical plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gimeno Latre

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, considera-se o problema de programação da produção a curto prazo em plantas químicas multipropósito operando em batelada, em que a produção da planta é determinada pela demanda a ser atendida. Nesta situação, a capacidade da planta não está bem definida porque depende do mix de produção. Propõe-se uma fase de planejamento que tem como objetivo a determinação do número de bateladas de cada tarefa necessárias para atender a produção, bem como a respectiva janela de tempo de processamento. Estas janelas permitem a análise do carregamento dos processadores e da factibilidade do plano, ou seja, o atendimento das datas de entrega, através de ferramentas desenvolvidas na área de Busca Orientada por Restrições. Esta análise é feita para uma atribuição fixa de tarefas a processadores introduzida pelo usuário. O sistema fornece informações para orientar o usuário na criação de diferentes cenários de atribuição. O resultado da fase de planejamento é formado por um conjunto de janelas de processamento que diminuem sensivelmente a dimensão do problema de programação da produção, como é discutido para duas abordagens: programação mista (Mixed Integer Linear Programming - MILP e Simulated Annealing.Short term scheduling in multipurpose batch chemical plants is specially complicated by the fact that plant capacity is not well defined due to the multipurpose nature of equipment units, allowing different routes. In order to reduce problem dimension, as well as allowing to analyze problem feasibility prior to spending time solving a large scheduling problem, a planning phase is proposed. At this level the objective is to determine a set of processing time windows for the batches necessary to fulfill final products' demand. The time windows allow analyzing equipment units load and plan feasibility in terms of satisfying final products due dates. To accomplish those tools from the area of Constrained

  8. Chemical pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaning materials such as chlorine bleach, during industrial accidents, or near swimming pools) Grain and fertilizer dust ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Chemical Emergencies ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  9. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  10. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction.

  11. Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Pakulska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extremely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. Med Pr 2015;66(1:99–117

  12. Recommended inorganic chemicals for calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.R.; Greenberg, R.R.; Pratt, K.W.; Rains, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    All analytical techniques depend on the use of calibration chemicals to relate analyte concentration to an instrumental parameter. A fundamental component in the preparation of calibration solutions is the weighing of a pure chemical or metal before preparing a solution standard. The analyst must be assured that the purity, stoichiometry, and assay of the chemical are known. These terms have different meanings, and each has an important influence. This report is intended to assist the analyst in the selection and use of chemical standards for instrumental calibration. Purity, stoichiometry, and preparation of solutions for different purposes are discussed, and a critical evaluation of the best materials available for each element is presented for use in preparing solutions or calibration standards. Information on the chemical form, source, purity, drying, and appropriate precautions is given. In some cases, multiple sources or chemical forms are available. Certain radioactive elements, the transuranic elements, and the noble gases are not considered

  13. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  14. Chemical evolutionary games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristotelous, Andreas C; Durrett, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Inspired by the use of hybrid cellular automata in modeling cancer, we introduce a generalization of evolutionary games in which cells produce and absorb chemicals, and the chemical concentrations dictate the death rates of cells and their fitnesses. Our long term aim is to understand how the details of the interactions in a system with n species and m chemicals translate into the qualitative behavior of the system. Here, we study two simple 2×2 games with two chemicals and revisit the two and three species versions of the one chemical colicin system studied earlier by Durrett and Levin (1997). We find that in the 2×2 examples, the behavior of our new spatial model can be predicted from that of the mean field differential equation using ideas of Durrett and Levin (1994). However, in the three species colicin model, the system with diffusion does not have the coexistence which occurs in the lattices model in which sites interact with only their nearest neighbors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  16. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  17. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  18. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  19. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  20. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  1. Long-term effects of alum-treated litter, untreated litter and NH4NO3 application on phosphorus speciation, distribution and reactivity in soils using K-edge XANES and chemical fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whereas soil test information on the fertility and chemistry of soils has been important to elaborate safe and sound agricultural practices, microscopic information can give a whole extra dimension to understand the chemical processes occurring in soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate t...

  2. CHEMICAL EFFECTS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS – DATA DICTIONARY (CEBS-DD): A COMPENDIUM OF TERMS FOR THE CAPTURE AND INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL STUDY DESIGN DESCRIPTION, CONVENTIONAL PHENOTYPES AND ‘OMICS’ DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A critical component in the design of the Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) Knowledgebase is a strategy to capture toxicogenomics study protocols and the toxicity endpoint data (clinical pathology and histopathology). A Study is generally an experiment carried out du...

  3. Processing of CuInSe{sub 2}-based solar cells: Characterization of deposition processes in terms of chemical reaction analyses. Phase 2 Annual Report, 6 May 1996--5 May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.

    1999-10-20

    This report describes research performed by the University of Florida during Phase 2 of this subcontract. First, to study CIGS, researchers adapted a contactless, nondestructive technique previously developed for measuring photogenerated excess carrier lifetimes in SOI wafers. This dual-beam optical modulation (DBOM) technique was used to investigate the differences between three alternative methods of depositing CdS (conventional chemical-bath deposition [CBD], metal-organic chemical vapor deposition [MOCVD], and sputtering). Second, a critical assessment of the Cu-In-Se thermochemical and phase diagram data using standard CALPHAD procedures is being performed. The outcome of this research will produce useful information on equilibrium vapor compositions (required annealing ambients, Sex fluxes from effusion cells), phase diagrams (conditions for melt-assisted growth), chemical potentials (driving forces for diffusion and chemical reactions), and consistent solution models (extents of solid solutions and extending phase diagrams). Third, an integrated facility to fabricate CIS PV devices was established that includes migration-enhanced epitaxy (MEE) for deposition of CIS, a rapid thermal processing furnace for absorber film formation, sputtering of ZnO, CBD or MOCVD of CdS, metallization, and pattern definition.

  4. Report on the FY 1999 survey on long-term energy technology strategy/basic survey for working out industrial technology strategy. Technology strategy by field - chemical/process field (chemical/process technology field); 1999 nendo choki energy gijutsu senryaku nado ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. Sangyo gijutsu senryaku sakutei kiban chosa (bun'yabetsu gijutsu senryaku (kagaku process bun'ya (kagaku process gijutsu bun'ya)))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    As to long-term energy technology strategy, the paper described the results of the FY 1999 survey of chemical/process technology. The future chemical technology should be transformed from the material production technology in which priority used to be given to convenience to new chemical technology in which the functions needed are to be created. The shortage of the developmental period and minimization of the waste are also desired by the use of new methods. For it, the industry/government/university should gather wisdom together and fulfil the requests from other industries of the country under the circumstances of the society which is aging, is decreasing in birthrate, and is being highly information-oriented. At the same time, the technology should be contributional to constructing the circulating type society which has environmental harmony. If not, it cannot be the technology which is recognized by the society. Efforts should be made for the fundamental technology development, technology to create the materials needed in the society, and development of new process technology to be recognized in the society. Further, the development of technology to meet the needs/restraints from the society should be promoted as seen in the environmental hormone. At the same time, the intellectual base should be prepared such as arrangement of the technology database for advancing smooth technology development. (NEDO)

  5. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  6. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  7. Sustainability in Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassey, Jarka; Haile, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe a concentrated strategy to embed sustainability teaching into a (chemical) engineering undergraduate curriculum throughout the whole programme. Innovative teaching approaches in subject-specific context are described and their efficiency investigated. Design/methodology/approach: The activities in…

  8. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  9. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  10. chemical and mineralogical characterization of lateritic iron ore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    2010-04-22

    Apr 22, 2010 ... The laterite iron ore deposit at Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria was studied chemically and mineralogically. The results of the chemical ... SAMPLE PREPARATION. The samples .... 2µm) and were subjected to X-ray diffraction using.

  11. Handbook of mechanical engineering terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalingam, KK

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from different sources, edited and grouped under twenty six parts and given alphabetically under each part for easy reference. The book will be a source of guidance and help to the students, staff and practising engineers in understanding and updating the subject matter. Contents: The Handbook of Mechanical Engineering terms contains short, precise definitions of about four thousand terms. These terms have been collected from differ

  12. Radiation protection. Terms and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    An alphabetical list in German is given of all terms and definitions important to radiation protection under consideration of all Austrian laws concerning this subject scope as also pertinent standards of ISO, DIN and OENORM.

  13. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre

    1984-11-08

    An account is first given of the observed chemical composition of objects in the Universe (Sun, Solar System, stars, gas clouds) and of important variations of composition from object to object. The initial composition is then discussed in terms of the Hot Big Bang cosmological theory, and the different types of nuclear reaction which are believed to have occurred in stars and to have modified this composition are considered. Finally, an account is given of the interpretation of the present observations in terms of the initial chemical composition and of galactic and stellar formation and evolution.

  14. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  15. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  16. Chemical thermodynamics of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.; Fuger, J.; Lemire, R.J.; Muller, A.B.; Nguyen-Trung Cregu, C.; Wanner, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive overview on the chemical thermodynamics of those elements that are of particular importance in the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems is provided. This is the first volume in a series of critical reviews to be published on this subject. The book provides an extensive compilation of chemical thermodynamic data for uranium. A description of procedures for activity corrections and uncertainty estimates is given. A critical discussion of data needed for nuclear waste management assessments, including areas where significant gaps of knowledge exist is presented. A detailed inventory of chemical thermodynamic data for inorganic compounds and complexes of uranium is listed. Data and their uncertainty limits are recommended for 74 aqueous complexes and 199 solid and 31 gaseous compounds containing uranium, and on 52 aqueous and 17 solid auxiliary species containing no uranium. The data are internally consistent and compatible with the CODATA Key Values. The book contains a detailed discussion of procedures used for activity factor corrections in aqueous solution, as well as including methods for making uncertainty estimates. The recommended data have been prepared for use in environmental geochemistry. Containing contributions written by experts the chapters cover various subject areas such a s: oxide and hydroxide compounds and complexes, the uranium nitrides, the solid uranium nitrates and the arsenic-containing uranium compounds, uranates, procedures for consistent estimation of entropies, gaseous and solid uranium halides, gaseous uranium oxides, solid phosphorous-containing uranium compounds, alkali metal uranates, uncertainties, standards and conventions, aqueous complexes, uranium minerals dealing with solubility products and ionic strength corrections. The book is intended for nuclear research establishments and consulting firms dealing with uranium mining and nuclear waste disposal, as well as academic and research institutes

  17. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  18. ASSESSING CHEMICAL HAZARDS AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT FOR PLANNING FUTURE DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.; MINETT, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the fiscal year (FY) 2006 assessment to evaluate potential chemical and radiological hazards associated with vessels and piping in the former plutonium process areas at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Evaluations by PFP engineers as design authorities for specific systems and other subject-matter experts were conducted to identify the chemical hazards associated with transitioning the process areas for the long-term layup of PFP before its eventual final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities in the main process facilities were suspended in September 2005 for a period of between 5 and 10 years. A previous assessment conducted in FY 2003 found that certain activities to mitigate chemical hazards could be deferred safely until the D and D of PFP, which had been scheduled to result in a slab-on-grade condition by 2009. As a result of necessary planning changes, however, D and D activities at PFP will be delayed until after the 2009 time frame. Given the extended project and plant life, it was determined that a review of the plant chemical hazards should be conducted. This review to determine the extended life impact of chemicals is called the ''Plutonium Finishing Plant Chemical Hazards Assessment, FY 2006''. This FY 2006 assessment addresses potential chemical and radiological hazard areas identified by facility personnel and subject-matter experts who reevaluated all the chemical systems (items) from the FY 2003 assessment. This paper provides the results of the FY 2006 chemical hazards assessment and describes the methodology used to assign a hazard ranking to the items reviewed

  19. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  20. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  1. Decrements in Intrinsic Motivation among Rewarded and Observer Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mark

    1983-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which overjustification effects in five- and ten-year-old subjects can be explained in terms of expectations deriving from the offer of a reward by the experimenter. (Author/MP)

  2. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  3. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  4. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  5. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  6. Long-term stable water vapor permeation barrier properties of SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at extremely low pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bum Ho; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the water vapor permeation barrier properties of 30-nm-thick SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayer structures grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 7 mTorr. The derived water vapor transmission rate was 1.12 × 10 −6 g/(m 2 day) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity, and this value was maintained up to 15 000 h of aging time. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the nanolaminated film was composed of an amorphous phase. A mixed phase was observed upon performing high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, which indicated that a thermodynamically stable structure was formed. It was revealed amorphous SiN/SiCN/SiN multilayer structures that are free from intermixed interface defects effectively block water vapor permeation into active layer

  7. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fission-product source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    This presentation consists of a review of fission-product source terms for light water reactor (LWR) fuel. A source term is the quantity of fission products released under specified conditions that can be used to calculate the consequences of the release. The source term usually defines release from breached fuel-rod cladding but could also describe release from the primary coolant system, the reactor containment shell, or the site boundary. The source term would be different for each locality, and the chemical and physical forms of the fission products could also differ

  9. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  10. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  11. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  12. Transfer of knowledge to the next generation for safety assurance-present state and subjects of organizational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Recently, many organizational accidents have occurred in the electric power, railroad, airline, chemical, food and medical industries due to a lack of knowledge and technology indispensable for effective management. This raises the question of how important transfer of technology and knowledge management is in organizations. This paper clarified present state and related subjects of this problem in terms of human and organizational factors and introduced some advanced cases for the solution so as to find a way to practice the situation-dependent combined approach of existing organizational training and latest knowledge science. (T. Tanaka)

  13. Chloride Ingress in Chemically Activated Calcined Clay-Based Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mwiti Marangu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride-laden environments pose serious durability concerns in cement based materials. This paper presents the findings of chloride ingress in chemically activated calcined Clay-Ordinary Portland Cement blended mortars. Results are also presented for compressive strength development and porosity tests. Sampled clays were incinerated at a temperature of 800°C for 4 hours. The resultant calcined clay was blended with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC at replacement level of 35% by mass of OPC to make test cement labeled PCC35. Mortar prisms measuring 40 mm × 40 mm × 160 mm were cast using PCC35 with 0.5 M Na2SO4 solution as a chemical activator instead of water. Compressive strength was determined at 28th day of curing. As a control, OPC, Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC, and PCC35 were similarly investigated without use of activator. After the 28th day of curing, mortar specimens were subjected to accelerated chloride ingress, porosity, compressive strength tests, and chloride profiling. Subsequently, apparent diffusion coefficients (Dapp were estimated from solutions to Fick’s second law of diffusion. Compressive strength increased after exposure to the chloride rich media in all cement categories. Chemically activated PCC35 exhibited higher compressive strength compared to nonactivated PCC35. However, chemically activated PCC35 had the least gain in compressive strength, lower porosity, and lower chloride ingress in terms of Dapp, compared to OPC, PPC, and nonactivated PCC35.

  14. Materials of 44. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: solid state chemistry; didactics of chemistry; electrochemistry; biologically active compounds; geochemistry; organic chemistry; physical chemistry; environment quality and protection; coordination chemistry; chemical technology; polymers; explosive materials; analytical chemistry; theoretical chemistry

  15. Functionalization of Hydrogenated Chemical Vapour Deposition-Grown Graphene by On-Surface Chemical Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drogowska, Karolina; Kovaříček, Petr; Kalbáč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 17 (2017), s. 4022-4022 ISSN 1521-3765 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Chemical vapor deposition * Hydrogenation * Graphene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  16. Influence of "Halo" and "Demon" Effects in Subjective Grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Gerald D.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon of "halo" effects in subjective grading was investigated. Two groups of three raters evaluated 20 term papers in introductory psychology. Term paper grades correlated significantly with course grades when information about previous academic performance was made available. When this information was not available, the…

  17. Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research: Advanced Search ... containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., .... and Applied Sciences, Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology, Nigerian Journal of Chemical Research ...

  18. Mutagenicity of chemicals in genetically modified animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems MI; van Benthem J; LEO

    2001-01-01

    The strategy for assessing human health risks of chemicals consists of a large number of tests in different research disciplines. Tests include acute and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, reproduction toxicity and carcinogenicity. Genotoxic properties of chemicals are assessed in short-term in vitro

  19. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  20. Information – is it Subjective or Objective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stanislaw Zaliwski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals first with the problems of defining information. It is concluded that it is a misunderstanding to take a term and then to look for a definition. Rather a different way ought to be taken: to find the phenomenon first and then assign a name to it. The view that information is the same thing as a structure is considered. Then the processes by which information is created are analyzed. The definition that information is detected difference is closely scrutinized and it is found that information can also be detected sameness. It is argued that information is relative to the observer and for the very reason of the way it is created it is subjective. That extends only to information acquired. The existence of subjective information, however, does not prove information cannot exist objectively.

  1. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives......? How do we understand the intra-activity of such elements in children’s night dreams? These are some of the questions discussed in this paper. I bring together Karen Barad’s agential realism and Giorgi Agamben’s concept of potentiality to enable and refine an analytical approach to real......-virtual enactments, thereby questioning the potentialities of gaming, of movies and of dreams as they enter intra-activities in the comprehensive set of apparatuses that enact gendered agency and relational practices. The analyses and conceptual refinements are based on empirical cases involving interviews...

  2. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  3. ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllynen, Paeivi; Kummu, Maria; Kangas, Tiina; Ilves, Mika; Immonen, Elina; Rysae, Jaana; Pirilae, Rauna; Lastumaeki, Anni; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi H.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of 14 C-PhIP (2 μM) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72 ± 0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of 14 C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90 ± 0.08 at 6 h, p 14 C-PhIP (R = - 0.81, p 14 C-PhIP in perfused human placenta. Also, PhIP may modify ABC transporter expression in choriocarinoma cells

  4. Teaching and Learning in Chemical Product Engineering - an Evolving par of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigild, Martin Etchells; Kiil, Søren; Wesselingh, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade Chemical Product Engineering has evolved as part of the Chemical Engineering Curriculum at several universities in Europe and America. At the DTU Chemical Product Engineering was introduced in 2000. This presentation will report on the experiences gained from teaching classes...... and preparing a text book on the subject. [1] Chemical Product Engineering is solidly based on chemical technical and engineering knowledge. Furthermore, the subject naturally calls for a holistic approach to teaching and learning and introduces elements which target transferable and professional engineering...... skills. Such skills are important in Chemical Product Engineering when dealing with open-ended problems, creative problem solutions, operating in a team working environment and exercising project management. In our course we emphasise team activites, formative feed back to the students as well as helping...

  5. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P

    2015-07-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  7. Radiation Dose Measurement Using Chemical Dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Sun; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Yu Ri; Han, Bum Soo

    2010-01-01

    The radiation dose can be estimated in various ways. Dose estimates can be obtained by either experiment or theoretical analysis. In experiments, radiation impact is assessed by measuring any change caused by energy deposition to the exposed matter, in terms of energy state (physical change), chemical production (chemical change) or biological abnormality (biological change). The chemical dosimetry is based on the implication that the energy deposited to the matter can be inferred from the consequential change in chemical production. The chemical dosimetry usually works on the sample that is an aqueous solution, a biological matter, or an organic substance. In this study, we estimated absorbed doses by quantitating chemical changes in matter caused by radiation exposure. Two different chemical dosimeters, Fricke and ECB (Ethanol-Chlorobenzene) dosimeter, were compared in several features including efficacy as dose indicator and effective dose range

  8. A Hybrid System for Subjectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rustamov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggested different structured hybrid systems for the sentence-level subjectivity analysis based on three supervised machine learning algorithms, namely, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Control System, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The suggested feature extraction algorithm in our experiment computes a feature vector using statistical textual terms frequencies in a training dataset not having the use of any lexical knowledge except tokenization. Taking into consideration this fact, the above-mentioned methods may be employed in other languages as these methods do not utilize the morphological, syntactical, and lexical analysis in the classification problems.

  9. Subjectivity and intersubjectivity between semiotics and phenomenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marsciani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A semiotic theory of subjectivity cannot prescind from a radical consideration of the intersubjective dimension, which, from the phenomenological perspective, represents the constitutive instance of the meaning of the world. The theory of signification has yet to come to terms with this fundamental option: the theory of enunciation, for example, is still tied to the alternative between an egological perception of the production of meaning and a truly intersubjective conception. A radically intersubjective understanding of the constitution of meaning must, in the theory of enunciation, include an authentic theory of alterity in which the production of communicative intentions can be described based on a more fundamental transcendental intentionality.

  10. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  11. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  12. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  13. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  14. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  15. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  16. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  17. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  18. Subjective Memory Immediately Following Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Ole; Nordanskog, Pia; Båve, Ullvi; Cao, Yang; Hammar, Åsa; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe the short-term rate of subjective memory worsening (SMW) and identify factors of importance for SMW in a large clinical sample treated for depression with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This register-based study included 1212 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Subjective memory worsening was defined as a 2-point worsening on the memory item of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale from before to within 1 week after treatment. Associations between patient characteristics and treatment factors were examined using logistic regression. Subjective memory worsening was experienced in 26%. It was more common in women than in men (31% vs 18%; P < 0.001) and more common in patients aged 18 to 39 years than in patients 65 years or older (32% vs 22%; P = 0.008). Patients with less subjective memory disturbances before ECT had a greater risk of SMW. Patients in remission after ECT had a lower risk of SMW. A brief pulse width stimulus gave higher risk of SMW compared with ultrabrief pulse (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.47). Subjective memory worsening is reported by a minority of patients. However, young women are at risk of experiencing SMW. Ultrabrief pulse width stimulus could be considered for patients treated with unilateral electrode placement who experience SMW. Each patient should be monitored with regard to symptoms and adverse effects, and treatment should be adjusted on an individual basis to maximize the clinical effect and with efforts to minimize the cognitive adverse effects.

  19. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  20. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  1. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  2. ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllynen, Päivi; Kummu, Maria; Kangas, Tiina; Ilves, Mika; Immonen, Elina; Rysä, Jaana; Pirilä, Rauna; Lastumäki, Anni; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2008-10-15

    We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of (14)C-PhIP (2 microM) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72+/-0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of (14)C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90+/-0.08 at 6 h, p<0.05) while the ABCC1/ABCC2 inhibitor probenecid had no effect (FM ratio at 6 h 0.75+/-0.10, p=0.84). There was a negative correlation between the expression of ABCG2 protein in perfused tissue and the FM ratio of (14)C-PhIP (R=-0.81, p<0.01) at the end of the perfusion. The expression of ABCC2 protein did not correlate with FM ratio of PhIP (R: -0.11, p=0.76). In addition, PhIP induced the expression of ABC transporters in BeWo cells at mRNA level. In conclusion, our data indicates that ABCG2 decreases placental transfer of (14)C-PhIP in perfused human placenta. Also, PhIP may modify ABC transporter expression in choriocarcinoma cells.

  3. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Photomixotrophic chemical production in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Morgan M; Atsumi, Shota

    2018-04-01

    The current global dependence on fossil fuels for both energy and chemical production has spurred concerns regarding long-term resource security and environmental detriments resulting from increased CO 2 levels. Through the installation of exogenous metabolic pathways, engineered cyanobacteria strains can directly fix CO 2 into industrially relevant chemicals currently produced from petroleum. This review highlights some of the studies that have successfully implemented photomixotrophic conditions to increase cyanobacterial chemical production. Supplementation with fixed carbon sources provides additional carbon building blocks and energy to enhance production and occasionally aid in growth. Photomixotrophic production has increased titers up to 5-fold over traditional autotrophic conditions, demonstrating promising applications for future commercialization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mesotherapy, Microneedling, and Chemical Peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Johnson C; Daniels, Mark A; Roth, Malcolm Z

    2016-07-01

    Mesotherapy, microneedling, and chemical peels are minimally invasive techniques used to combat facial aging. Chemical peeling is one of the oldest methods of facial rejuvenation. By using different chemicals in various combinations, strengths, and application techniques, plastic surgeons can tailor a patient's treatment for optimal, safe, and consistent results. Mesotherapy and microneedling have emerged in the plastic surgery literature with increasingly complex indications. Both techniques have increased in popularity although research into efficacy and long-term results is lagging. With a thorough understanding of patients and the modalities available, plastic surgeons can use the appropriate minimally invasive technique to provide patients with desired skin changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms.

  7. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 148 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains the Executive summary; Introduction; Summary of vulnerabilities; Management systems weaknesses; Commendable practices; Summary of management response plan; Conclusions; and a Glossary of chemical terms

  8. Weak Subjectivity, Trans-Subjectivity and the Power of Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2010), s. 391-406 ISSN 1387-2842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heidegger * Nietschean model of thought Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. Expected Term Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buraschi, Andrea; Piatti, Ilaria; Whelan, Paul

    We construct and study the cross-sectional properties of survey-based bond risk premia and compare them to their traditional statistical counterparts. We document large heterogeneity in skill, identify top forecasters, and learn about the importance of subjective risk premia in long-term bonds...... dynamics. The consensus is not a sufficient statistics of the cross-section of expectations and we propose an alternative real-time aggregate measure of risk premia consistent with Friedmans market selection hypothesis. We then use this measure to evaluate structural models and find support...

  10. Subjective figures and texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, S W; Cavanagh, P

    1985-01-01

    A texture discrimination task using the Ehrenstein illusion demonstrates that subjective brightness effects can play an essential role in early vision. The subjectively bright regions of the Ehrenstein can be organized either as discs or as stripes, depending on orientation. The accuracy of discrimination between variants of the Ehrenstein and control patterns was a direct function of the presence of the illusory brightness stripes, being high when they were present and low otherwise. It is argued that neither receptive field structure nor spatial-frequency content can adequately account for these results. We suggest that the subjective brightness illusions, rather than being a high-level, cognitive aspect of vision, are in fact the result of an early visual process.

  11. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  12. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U.

    2007-01-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  13. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  14. Na, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear waste glass: A micro-XAS/XRF/XRD and wet chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Enzo; Dähn, Rainer; Farges, François; Vespa, Marika

    2009-04-01

    trioctahedral Mg-clay minerals. Alternative models assuming other elements (Ni, Al, Fe) in addition to Mg in the second shell could not be fitted successfully. Aqueous concentration data were used to calculate the speciation of the leaching solutions. Saturation index (SI) calculations indicate undersaturation with respect to NiCO 3 and NiSO 4·7H 2O, but oversaturation with respect to β-Ni(OH) 2. The latter result is probably due to the omission of Ni borate and Ni silicate complexes in the speciation calculations, for which formation constants are not available. With the help of estimation techniques, we could infer that such complexes would dominate the Ni speciation and consequently reduce the SI below the saturation of β-Ni(OH) 2. The μ-XRF maps show that Cs is uniformly distributed in the MW glass, since no region with high Cs concentration could be detected. The Cs L III-edge μ-XAS spectra were all very similar independently of the degree of alteration, indicating similar coordination environments of Cs in the core regions of the glass as well as in the secondary clays. These spectra largely differ from that measured for pollucite (a potential secondary Cs-phase in altered glasses) implying that the coordination environments of Cs in the MW glass and in pollucite are fundamentally different. The present study shows that μ-XRF and μ-XAS are essential tools in determining the fate and the retention mechanisms of radionuclides released from nuclear waste during aqueous alteration. Our spectroscopic analyses allowed us to exclude formation of specific Ni and Cs secondary solids (e.g. nepouite, β-Ni(OH) 2, pollucite) during the aqueous alteration. Ni and Cs are instead distributed as trace elements in the alteration phases formed by major elements during the leaching process. Our results imply that solid solution and/or adsorption equilibria, rather than pure phase solubility equilibria, are the adequate chemical models to determine Ni and Cs aqueous concentrations in

  15. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  16. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels ...

  17. Chernobyl source term estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Harvey, T.F.; Lange, R.

    1990-09-01

    The Chernobyl source term available for long-range transport was estimated by integration of radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling and by reactor core radionuclide inventory estimation in conjunction with WASH-1400 release fractions associated with specific chemical groups. The model simulations revealed that the radioactive cloud became segmented during the first day, with the lower section heading toward Scandinavia and the upper part heading in a southeasterly direction with subsequent transport across Asia to Japan, the North Pacific, and the west coast of North America. By optimizing the agreement between the observed cloud arrival times and duration of peak concentrations measured over Europe, Japan, Kuwait, and the US with the model predicted concentrations, it was possible to derive source term estimates for those radionuclides measured in airborne radioactivity. This was extended to radionuclides that were largely unmeasured in the environment by performing a reactor core radionuclide inventory analysis to obtain release fractions for the various chemical transport groups. These analyses indicated that essentially all of the noble gases, 60% of the radioiodines, 40% of the radiocesium, 10% of the tellurium and about 1% or less of the more refractory elements were released. These estimates are in excellent agreement with those obtained on the basis of worldwide deposition measurements. The Chernobyl source term was several orders of magnitude greater than those associated with the Windscale and TMI reactor accidents. However, the 137 Cs from the Chernobyl event is about 6% of that released by the US and USSR atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, while the 131 I and 90 Sr released by the Chernobyl accident was only about 0.1% of that released by the weapon tests. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  19. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist’s Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently—or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education. PMID:28975909

  20. Does the Subject Content of the Pharmacy Degree Course Influence the Community Pharmacist's Views on Competencies for Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; De Paepe, Kristien; Pozo, Antonio Sánchez; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2015-09-01

    Do community pharmacists coming from different educational backgrounds rank the importance of competences for practice differently-or is the way in which they see their profession more influenced by practice than university education? A survey was carried out on 68 competences for pharmacy practice in seven countries with different pharmacy education systems in terms of the relative importance of the subject areas chemical and medicinal sciences. Community pharmacists were asked to rank the competences in terms of relative importance for practice; competences were divided into personal and patient-care competences. The ranking was very similar in the seven countries suggesting that evaluation of competences for practice is based more on professional experience than on prior university education. There were some differences for instance in research-related competences and these may be influenced, by education.

  1. Management of chemical disposal in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.T.; Deolekar, Shailesh

    2017-01-01

    Most of the activities in BARC are of radiological in nature and are regulated as per Atomic Energy Act 1962. The radioactive waste generated is managed safely as per Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Waste) Rules, 1987. However, many developmental activities related to nuclear fuel cycle and laboratories, which support the quality control aspects, generate inactive chemical waste. In addition, being multidisciplinary in nature, BARC carries out research in frontiers of chemical science for societal benefit and academic interest. All these scientific activities over the decades have resulted in accumulation of many partially used/surplus laboratory chemicals. These chemicals are in large varieties though small in terms of quantity. Although these chemicals do not have any further utility and commercial value, can add to potential hazards and hence require safe disposal. Considering this, BARC Safety Council(BSC) has re-constituted the 'Advisory Committee for Chemical Disposal (ACCD)' on March 18, 2016

  2. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. Abel's summation formula. Analogues of Euler and Poisson summa- tion formulae. 213 ... theorems of Wiener and Lévy on absolutely convergent Fourier series. 179. Brownian motion. Probabilistic representations of solutions to the heat equation. 321. Cesáro matrix. Necessary and sufficient conditions for.

  3. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  4. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  5. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  6. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  7. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  8. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  9. Chemical reactivity of cation-exchanged zeolites

    OpenAIRE

    Pidko, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites modified with metal cations have been extensively studied during the last two decades because of their wide application in different technologically important fields such as catalysis, adsorption and gas separation. Contrary to the well-understood mechanisms of chemical reactions catalyzed by Brønsted acid sites in the hydrogen forms of zeolites, the nature of chemical reactivity, and related, the structure of the metal-containing ions in cation-exchanged zeolites remains the subject...

  10. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  11. Materials of 47. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientific assemblies of Polish Chemical Society are the most important chemical meeting organised annually in Poland. Basic as well as application studies in all chemical branches have been extensively presented. The next subjects was proposed as scientific sessions and symposia topics: organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, technology and chemical engineering, polymer chemistry, solid state chemistry, catalysis, biological chemistry, chemistry and technology of coal, environmental protection, didactics of chemistry, history of chemistry, young scientist forum

  12. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  13. Subjective and objective outcomes in randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moustgaard, Helene; Bello, Segun; Miller, Franklin G

    2014-01-01

    explicitly defined the terms. CONCLUSION: The terms "subjective" and "objective" are ambiguous when used to describe outcomes in randomized clinical trials. We suggest that the terms should be defined explicitly when used in connection with the assessment of risk of bias in a clinical trial......OBJECTIVES: The degree of bias in randomized clinical trials varies depending on whether the outcome is subjective or objective. Assessment of the risk of bias in a clinical trial will therefore often involve categorization of the type of outcome. Our primary aim was to examine how the concepts...... "subjective outcome" and "objective outcome" are defined in methodological publications and clinical trial reports. To put this examination into perspective, we also provide an overview of how outcomes are classified more broadly. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of methodological publications...

  14. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  15. 46 CFR 4.03-7 - Chemical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical test. 4.03-7 Section 4.03-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC MARINE CASUALTIES AND INVESTIGATIONS Definitions § 4.03-7 Chemical test. The term chemical test means a scientifically recognized test...

  16. Summaries of the 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Annual 40. Scientific Assembly of Polish Chemical Society and Association of Engineers and Technicians of Chemical Industry has been held in Gdansk on 22-26 September 1997. The most valuable scientific results obtained in Polish Laboratories have been presented in 22 main sections and 7 symposia directed especially at following subjects: analytical chemistry, biochemistry, solid state chemistry and material science, physical chemistry, heteroorganic and coordination chemistry, medical and pharmaceutical chemistry, metalorganic chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, polymers chemistry, chemistry and environment protection, theoretical chemistry, chemical didactics, photochemistry, radiation chemistry and chemical kinetics, chemical engineering, catalysis, crystallochemistry, chemical technology, electrochemistry, and instrumental methods

  17. Molecular activation analysis for chemical speciation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai-Chifang

    1998-01-01

    The term of Molecular Activation Analysis (MAA) refers to an activation analysis method that is able to provide information about the chemical species of elements in system of interests, though its definition has remained to be assigned. Its development is strongly stimulated by the urgent need to know the chemical species of elements, because the total concentrations are often without any meaning when assessing health or environmental risks of trace elements.In practice, the MAA is a combination of conventional instrumental or radiochemical activation analysis and physical, chemical or biochemical separation techniques. The MAA is able to play a particular role in speciation studies. However, the critical point in the MAA is that it is not permitted to change the primitive chemical species of elements in systems, or the change has to be under control; in the meantime it is not allowed to form the 'new artifact' originally not present in systems. Some practical examples of MAA for chemical species research performed recently in our laboratory will be presented as follows: Chemical species of platinum group elements in sediment; Chemical species of iodine in marine algae; Chemical species of mercury in human tissues; Chemical species of selenium in corn; Chemical species of rare earth elements in natural plant, etc. The merits and limitations of MAA will be described as well. (author)

  18. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  19. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  20. Flows and chemical reactions in heterogeneous mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2014-01-01

    This book - a sequel of previous publications 'Flows and Chemical Reactions' and 'Chemical Reactions in Flows and Homogeneous Mixtures' - is devoted to flows with chemical reactions in heterogeneous environments.  Heterogeneous media in this volume include interfaces and lines. They may be the site of radiation. Each type of flow is the subject of a chapter in this volume. We consider first, in Chapter 1, the question of the generation of environments biphasic individuals: dusty gas, mist, bubble flow.  Chapter 2 is devoted to the study at the mesoscopic scale: particle-fluid exchange of mom