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Sample records for subject specific white

  1. Tract-specific analysis of white matter pathways in healthy subjects: a pilot study using diffusion tensor MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasmin, Hasina; Abe, Osamu; Nakata, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Naoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Goto, Masami; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    To date, very scant data is available regarding normal diffusion properties of white matter (WM) fibers. The present study aimed to initiate the establishment of a database of normal diffusion tensor metrics of cerebral WM fibers, including the uncinate fasciculus (UF), posterior cingulum (PC), fornix, and corticospinal tract (CST) for healthy adults using tract-specific analysis by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). We also attempted to clarify whether age and laterality exerted any effects on this study group. DTT of WM fibers were generated for 100 healthy subjects, then mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the tracts were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate age relationships. Paired t testing was used to compare hemispheric asymmetry. Interobserver correlation tests were also performed. Our results showed FA values for UF (right, 0.42 {+-} 0.03; left, 0.40{+-}0.03), PC (0.51 {+-} 0.06, 0.52 {+-} 0.06), fornix (0.37 {+-} 0.06, 0.38 {+-} 0.06), CST (0.70 {+-} 0.06, 0.69 {+-} 0.07), and MD values for UF (0.81 {+-} 0.03, 0.82 {+-} 0.04), PC (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.72 {+-} 0.04), fornix (1.86 {+-} 0.32, 1.94 {+-} 0.37), and CST (0.72 {+-} 0.03, 0.74 {+-} 0.04). We identified a significant positive correlation between age and MD in the right UF and bilateral fornices, and a negative correlation between age and FA in bilateral fornices. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in FA of UF (right > left) and MD of CST (left > right). The results constitute a normative dataset for diffusion parameters of four WM tracts that can be used to identify, characterize, and establish the significance of changes in diseases affecting specific tracts. (orig.)

  2. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  3. 36 CFR 1260.56 - Is White House originated information subject to mandatory review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is White House originated... Mandatory Review § 1260.56 Is White House originated information subject to mandatory review? White House... administrations pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 2107 and 2111. Unless precluded by such laws or agreements, White House...

  4. Race and Physical Attractiveness as Criteria for White Subjects' Dating Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bem P.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments involving "desirability for a date" ratings of black and white stimulus persons who varied in attractiveness indicated white male and female subjects gave appreciable weight to race and attractiveness, but females gave race more weight than attractiveness, while attractiveness was given more weight than race by males. (Author)

  5. Age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanyu, Haruo; Asano, Tetsuichi; Ogawa, Kimikazu; Takasaki, Masaru; Shindo, Hiroaki; Kakizaki, Dai; Abe, Kimihiko

    1997-01-01

    To investigate age-related changes of diffusional anisotropy in the cerebral white matter, we performed diffusion-weighted MRI studies in 21 normal subjects aged 25 to 96 years. The anisotropic rations (ARs), defined as the apparent diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the nerve fibers to those parallel to the nerve fibers, were significantly higher in elderly than in young subjects in the anterior and posterior white matter surrounding the lateral ventricle. Moreover, significant correlation between age and AR was found in the anterior white matter. The ventricular index (VI) measured on MRI, as a quantitative indicator of brain atrophy, was significantly higher in elderly than younger subjects, and significantly correlated with AR in the anterior white matter. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the VI showed the highest correlation for AR. On the other hand, there was no significant correlations between ARs in the corpus callosum and age. These results suggest that morphological changes in the myelin and axon in the white matter occur in elderly normal subjects, probably due to neuronal loss with aging. (author)

  6. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Pariente, Jérémie; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Payoux, Pierre; Péran, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but also in healthy population. This binding; thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in healthy and pathological populations in white matter. Methods We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized PET-MRI registration method and an approach based on intensity histogram using several indexes. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matters using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. Results White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms was not decisive to discriminate groups, and indexes based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample in two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey but also in white matter. Conclusion These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using SUVr approach. Although it is not better than standard SUVr to discriminate AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. PMID:24573658

  7. Nocturnal blood pressure in normotensive subjects and those with white coat, primary, and secondary hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Middeke, M.; Schrader, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mean nocturnal blood pressure of patients with various forms of renal and endocrine hypertension with that in patients with primary and white coat hypertension, and normal blood pressure. DESIGN--Ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure over 24 hours in a prospective study. SETTING--Two German centres for outpatients with hypertension and kidney diseases. SUBJECTS--176 normotensive subjects, 490 patients with primary hypertension including mild and severe forms, 42 wi...

  8. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects. PMID:26247788

  9. Incidental white-matter foci on MRI in ''healthy'' subjects: evidence of subtle cognitive dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, K.A.; Schulte, C.; Girke, W.; Reischies, F.M.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    The clinical significance of incidental white-matter foci seen on MRI is controversial. Mainly using a computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, we tested the hypothesis that there is a clinical correlate of these foci. We studied 41 individuals aged 45-65 years with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorder, in whom no indication of central nervous system abnormalities was found on standardised neurological examination. A computer-assisted neuropsychological test battery, with the advantage of precise measuring of both time and deviation (e. g. in position memory tests), and rating scales for emotional dysfunction were administered; selected soft neurological signs were assessed. In 16 subjects (39 %) MRI showed high-signal foci in the white matter on spin-echo sequences. White-matter foci not adjacent to the lateral ventricles were found to be related to performance on immediate visual memory/visuoperceptual skills, visuomotor tracking/psychomotor speed and, to a lesser degree, learning capacity and abstract and conceptual reasoning skills. Subtle cognitive dysfunction would appear to be a clinical correlate of punctate white-matter foci on MRI of otherwise ''healty'' individuals. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Introspection of subjective feelings is sensitive and specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questienne, Laurence; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Gevers, Wim

    2018-02-01

    Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task. Participants were subsequently asked to report on either their experience of urge to err or on their feeling of visual conflict. Depending on the focus of the introspection, subjective reports specifically followed either the response conflict or the visual conflict. These results demonstrate that our introspective reports can be sensitive and that we are able to dissociate specific aspects of our phenomenal experiences in a valid manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice; Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre; Pariente, Jeremie; Barbeau, Emmanuel J.

    2014-01-01

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  12. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  13. Ocular Blood Flow Measurements in Healthy White Subjects Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Luft

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained.This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation. The mean blur rate (MBR, a measure of relative blood flow velocity, was obtained for different regions of the ONH. Eight parameters of ocular perfusion derived from the pulse-waveform analysis of MBR including blowout time (BOT and falling rate (FR were also recorded.Artifact-free LSFG images meeting the quality criteria for automated image analysis were obtainable in 93.8% without pupil dilation and in 98.8% with pharmacological pupil dilation. Measurements of MBR showed excellent repeatability with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.937 and were barely affected by pupil dilation. The majority of pulse-waveform derived variables exhibited equally high repeatability. MBR-related blood flow indices exhibited significant age dependence (p<0.001. FR (r = 0.747, p<0.001 and BOT (r = -0.714, p<0.001 most strongly correlated with age.LSFG represents a reliable method for the quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow in white subjects. Our data affirms that the LSFG-derived variables FR and BOT may be useful biomarkers for age-related changes in ocular perfusion.

  14. Modelling of subject specific based segmental dynamics of knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. M.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Huq, M. S.; Ahmad, M. K. I.

    2017-09-01

    This study determines segmental dynamics parameters based on subject specific method. Five hemiplegic patients participated in the study, two men and three women. Their ages ranged from 50 to 60 years, weights from 60 to 70 kg and heights from 145 to 170 cm. Sample group included patients with different side of stroke. The parameters of the segmental dynamics resembling the knee joint functions measured via measurement of Winter and its model generated via the employment Kane's equation of motion. Inertial parameters in the form of the anthropometry can be identified and measured by employing Standard Human Dimension on the subjects who are in hemiplegia condition. The inertial parameters are the location of centre of mass (COM) at the length of the limb segment, inertia moment around the COM and masses of shank and foot to generate accurate motion equations. This investigation has also managed to dig out a few advantages of employing the table of anthropometry in movement biomechanics of Winter's and Kane's equation of motion. A general procedure is presented to yield accurate measurement of estimation for the inertial parameters for the joint of the knee of certain subjects with stroke history.

  15. Time between plastic displacements of elasto-plastic oscillators subject to Gaussian white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2001-01-01

    A one degree of freedom elasto-plastic oscillator subject to stationary Gaussian white noise has a plastic displacement response process of intermittent character. During shorter or longer time intervals the oscillator vibrates within the elastic domain without undergoing any plastic displacements...... between the clumps of plastic displacements. This is needed for a complete description of the plastic displacement process. A quite accurate fast simulation procedure is presented based on an amplitude model to determine the short waiting times in the transient regime of the elastic vibrations existing...

  16. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  17. Dynamics of double-well Bose–Einstein condensates subject to external Gaussian white noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hanlei; Hao Yajiang; Gu Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Dynamical properties of the Bose–Einstein condensate in a double-well potential subject to Gaussian white noise are investigated by numerically solving the time-dependent Gross–Pitaevskii equation. The Gaussian white noise is used to describe influence of the random environmental disturbance on the double-well condensate. Dynamical evolutions from three different initial states, the Josephson oscillation state, the running phase and π-mode macroscopic quantum self-trapping states, are considered. It is shown that the system is rather robust with respect to the weak noise whose strength is small and change rate is high. If the evolution time is sufficiently long, the weak noise will finally drive the system to evolve from high-energy states to low-energy states, but in a manner rather different from the energy-dissipation effect. In the presence of strong noise with either large strength or slow change rate, the double-well condensate may exhibit very irregular dynamical behaviours. (paper)

  18. Subjective quality of videos displayed with local backlight dimming at different peak white and ambient light levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the influence of ambient light and peak white (maximum brightness) of a display on the subjective quality of videos shown with local backlight dimming is examined. A subjective experiment investigating those factors is set-up using high contrast test sequences. The results are firstly...

  19. Medical Image Processing for Fully Integrated Subject Specific Whole Brain Mesh Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due to the tortuous geometry and weak signal in small blood vessels. To overcome errors and accelerate the image processing time, we introduce an automatic image processing pipeline for constructing subject specific computational meshes for entire cerebral vasculature, including segmentation of ancillary structures; the grey and white matter, cerebrospinal fluid space, skull, and scalp. To demonstrate the validity of the new pipeline, we segmented the entire intracranial compartment with special attention of the angioarchitecture from magnetic resonance imaging acquired for two healthy volunteers. The raw images were processed through our pipeline for automatic segmentation and mesh generation. Due to partial volume effect and finite resolution, the computational meshes intersect with each other at respective interfaces. To eliminate anatomically inconsistent overlap, we utilized morphological operations to separate the structures with a physiologically sound gap spaces. The resulting meshes exhibit anatomically correct spatial extent and relative positions without intersections. For validation, we computed critical biometrics of the angioarchitecture, the cortical surfaces, ventricular system, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF spaces and compared against literature values. Volumina and surface areas of the computational mesh were found to be in physiological ranges. In conclusion, we present an automatic image processing pipeline to automate the segmentation of the main intracranial compartments including a subject-specific vascular trees. These computational meshes can be used in 3D immersive visualization for diagnosis, surgery planning with haptics

  20. Cross-sectional variations of white and grey matter in older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Chetouani

    2018-01-01

    Altogether, our findings show that cross-sectional variations in overall white brain matter are linked to the metabolism of Alzheimer-like cortical areas and to cognitive performance in older hypertensive patients with only subjective memory complaints. Additional relationships with central BP strengthen the hypothesis of a contributing pathogenic role of hypertension.

  1. {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of white matter signal hyperintensity areas in elderly subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constans, J M [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Meyerhoff, D J [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Norman, D [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Fein, G [Department of Veterans Affairs Psychiatry Service, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); [University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry; Weiner, M W [Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of California Magnetic Resonance Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States); [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; [DVA Medical Center, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Unit, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are commonly seen on MRI of elderly subjects. The purpose of this study was to characterize metabolic changes in the white matter of elderly subjects with extensive WMSH. We used water-suppressed proton ({sup 1}H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to compare six subjects with extensive WMSH with eight age-matched elderly subjects with minimal or absent WMSH, and phosphorus ({sup 31}P) MRSI to compare nine subjects with extensive WMSH and seven age-matched elderly subjects without extensive WMSH. Relative to region-matched tissue in elderly controls, extensive WMSH were associated with increased signal from choline-containing metabolites, no significant change of signal from N-acetylaspartate, and a trend to a decreased phosphomonoester (PME) resonance. These findings suggest that WMSH may be associated with an alteration of brain myelin phospholipids in the absence of axonal damage. There were no differences in energy phosphates, consistent with lack of ongoing brain ischemia. Within the group with extensive WMSH, PME resonance measures were significantly lower in WMSH than in contralateral normal-appearing white matter. These results provide information on pathophysiology of WMSH and a basis for comparison with WMSH in Alzheimer`s disease, vascular dementia, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases. (orig.). With 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. White matter tract-specific quantitative analysis in multiple sclerosis: Comparison of optic radiation reconstruction techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyu Wang

    Full Text Available The posterior visual pathway is commonly affected by multiple sclerosis (MS pathology that results in measurable clinical and electrophysiological impairment. Due to its highly structured retinotopic mapping, the visual pathway represents an ideal substrate for investigating patho-mechanisms in MS. Therefore, a reliable and robust imaging segmentation method for in-vivo delineation of the optic radiations (OR is needed. However, diffusion-based tractography approaches, which are typically used for OR segmentation are confounded by the presence of focal white matter lesions. Current solutions require complex acquisition paradigms and demand expert image analysis, limiting application in both clinical trials and clinical practice. In the current study, using data acquired in a clinical setting on a 3T scanner, we optimised and compared two approaches for optic radiation (OR reconstruction: individual probabilistic tractography-based and template-based methods. OR segmentation results were applied to subjects with MS and volumetric and diffusivity parameters were compared between OR segmentation techniques. Despite differences in reconstructed OR volumes, both OR lesion volume and OR diffusivity measurements in MS subjects were highly comparable using optimised probabilistic tractography-based, and template-based, methods. The choice of OR reconstruction technique should be determined primarily by the research question and the nature of the available dataset. Template-based approaches are particularly suited to the semi-automated analysis of large image datasets and have utility even in the absence of dMRI acquisitions. Individual tractography methods, while more complex than template based OR reconstruction, permit measurement of diffusivity changes along fibre bundles that are affected by specific MS lesions or other focal pathologies.

  3. The Effects of Hearing Aids on Localization of White Noise by Blind Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Bruce R.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to observe the effects of hearing aids on the ability of 20 blind veterans to localize white noise. In all cases, Ss performed more poorly on a localization task while wearing a hearing aid. (Author)

  4. White matter organization in cervical spinal cord relates differently to age and control of grip force in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Feydy, Antoine; Maier, Marc A

    2010-03-17

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to elucidate relations between CNS structure and function. We hypothesized that the degree of spinal white matter organization relates to the accuracy of control of grip force. Healthy subjects of different age were studied using DTI and visuomotor tracking of precision grip force. The latter is a prime component of manual dexterity. A regional analysis of spinal white matter [fractional anisotropy (FA)] across multiple cervical levels (C2-C3, C4-C5, and C6-C7) and in different regions of interest (left and right lateral or medial spinal cord) was performed. FA was highest at the C2-C3 level, higher on the right than the left side, and higher in the lateral than in the medial spinal cord (p level in the lateral spinal cord, in which the corticospinal tract innervates spinal circuitry controlling hand and digit muscles. FA of the medial spinal cord correlated consistently with age across all cervical levels, whereas FA of the lateral spinal cord did not. The results suggest (1) a functionally relevant specialization of lateral spinal cord white matter and (2) an increased sensitivity to age-related decline in medial spinal cord white matter in healthy subjects.

  5. Optical scatterometry system for detecting specific line edge roughness of resist gratings subjected to detector noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Min; Li, Jia-Han; Cheng, Hsin-Hung; Wang, Fu-Min; Shen, Yu-Tian; Tsai, Kuen-Yu; Shieh, Jason J; Chen, Alek C

    2014-01-01

    The Fourier scatterometry model was used to measure the ZEP 520A electron beam resist lines with specific line edge roughness (LER). By obtaining the pupils via an objective lens, the angle-resolved diffraction spectrum was collected efficiently without additional mechanical scanning. The concavity of the pupil was considered as the weight function in specimen recognition. A series of white noises was examined in the model, and the tolerant white noise levels for different system numerical apertures (NAs) were reported. Our numerical results show that the scatterometry model of a higher NA can identify a target with a higher white noise level. Moreover, the fabricated ZEP 520A electron beam resist gratings with LER were measured by using our model, and the fitting results were matched with scanning electron microscope measurements. (paper)

  6. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system.

  7. Optimal multitrial prediction combination and subject-specific adaptation for minimal training brain switch designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spyrou, L.; Blokland, Y.M.; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Bruhn, J.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A

  8. Tissue- Specific Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in White- and Red-Fleshed Grape Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Xie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yan73, a teinturier (dyer grape variety in China, is one of the few Vitis vinifera cultivars with red-coloured berry flesh. To examine the tissue-specific expression of genes associated with berry colour in Yan73, we analysed the differential accumulation of anthocyanins in the skin and flesh tissues of two red-skinned grape varieties with either red (Yan73 or white flesh (Muscat Hamburg based on HPLC-MS analysis, as well as the differential expression of 18 anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in both varieties by quantitative RT-PCR. The results revealed that the transcripts of GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3, UFGT, MYBA1, F3′5′H, F3H1 and LDOX were barely detectable in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg. In particular, GST, OMT, AM3, CHS3 and F3H1 showed approximately 50-fold downregulation in the white flesh of Muscat Hamburg compared to the red flesh of Yan73. A correlation analysis between the accumulation of different types of anthocyanins and gene expression indicated that the cumulative expression of GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 was more closely associated with the acylated anthocyanins and the 3′5′-OH anthocyanins, while OMT and AM3 were more closely associated with the total anthocyanins and methoxylated anthocyanins. Therefore, the transcripts of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 explained most of the variation in the amount and composition of anthocyanins in skin and flesh of Yan73. The data suggest that the specific localization of anthocyanins in the flesh tissue of Yan73 is most likely due to the tissue-specific expression of OMT, AM3, GST, F3′5′H, LDOX and MYBA1 in the flesh.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging identifies deficits in white matter microstructure in subjects with type 1 diabetes that correlate with reduced neurocognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodl, Christopher T; Franc, Daniel T; Rao, Jyothi P; Anderson, Fiona S; Thomas, William; Mueller, Bryon A; Lim, Kelvin O; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2008-11-01

    Long-standing type 1 diabetes is associated with deficits on neurocognitive testing that suggest central white matter dysfunction. This study investigated whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a type of magnetic resonance imaging that measures white matter integrity quantitatively, could identify white matter microstructural deficits in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes and whether these differences would be associated with deficits found by neurocognitive tests. Twenty-five subjects with type 1 diabetes for at least 15 years and 25 age- and sex-matched control subjects completed DTI on a 3.0 Tesla scanner and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Fractional anisotropy was calculated for the major white matter tracts of the brain. Diabetic subjects had significantly lower mean fractional anisotropy than control subjects in the posterior corona radiata and the optic radiation (P < 0.002). In type 1 diabetic subjects, reduced fractional anisotropy correlated with poorer performance on the copy portion of the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Drawing Test and the Grooved Peg Board Test, both of which are believed to assess white matter function. Reduced fractional anisotropy also correlated with duration of diabetes and increased A1C. A history of severe hypoglycemia did not correlate with fractional anisotropy. DTI can detect white matter microstructural deficits in subjects with long-standing type 1 diabetes. These deficits correlate with poorer performance on selected neurocognitive tests of white matter function.

  10. Intra-specific Differences in Root and Shoot Glucosinolate Profiles among White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var capitata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Biere, A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Dam, van N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot glucosinolate profiles of Brassicaceae are known to vary within species, across environmental conditions, and between developmental stages. Here we study whether root profiles follow the intra-specific, environmental, and developmental variation observed for aerial parts in white cabbage

  11. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Souza, T.M.; Boominathan, K.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequences of each of the PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Isolation of laccase gene-specific sequences from white rot and brown rot fungi by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, T M; Boominathan, K; Reddy, C A

    1996-01-01

    Degenerate primers corresponding to the consensus sequences of the copper-binding regions in the N-terminal domains of known basidiomycete laccases were used to isolate laccase gene-specific sequences from strains representing nine genera of wood rot fungi. All except three gave the expected PCR product of about 200 bp. Computer searches of the databases identified the sequence of each of the PCR products analyzed as a laccase gene sequence, suggesting the specificity of the primers. PCR products of the white rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum, Phlebia brevispora, and Trametes versicolor showed 65 to 74% nucleotide sequence similarity to each other; the similarity in deduced amino acid sequences was 83 to 91%. The PCR products of Lentinula edodes and Lentinus tigrinus, on the other hand, showed relatively low nucleotide and amino acid similarities (58 to 64 and 62 to 81%, respectively); however, these similarities were still much higher than when compared with the corresponding regions in the laccases of the ascomycete fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa. A few of the white rot fungi, as well as Gloeophyllum trabeum, a brown rot fungus, gave a 144-bp PCR fragment which had a nucleotide sequence similarity of 60 to 71%. Demonstration of laccase activity in G. trabeum and several other brown rot fungi was of particular interest because these organisms were not previously shown to produce laccases. PMID:8837429

  13. White Matter Microstructure in Subjects with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Katherine E.; Levitt, Jennifer G.; Loo, Sandra K.; Ly, Ronald; Yee, Victor; O'Neill, Joseph; Alger, Jeffry; Narr, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous voxel-based and regions-of-interest (ROI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have found above-normal mean diffusivity (MD) and below-normal fractional anisotropy (FA) in subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, findings remain mixed, and few studies have examined the contribution of ADHD…

  14. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3600 subjects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricceri, F.; Godschalk, R. W.; Peluso, M.; Philips, D. H.; Agudo, A.; Georgiadis, P.; Loft, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Raaschau-Nielsen, O.; Palli, D.; Perera, F.; Vermeulen, R.; Taioli, E.; Šrám, Radim; Munnia, A.; Rosa, F.; Allione, A.; Matullo, G.; Vineis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2010), s. 3174-3181 ISSN 1055-9965 Grant - others:European Union ECNIS(XE) FOOD-CT-2005-513943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : DNA adducts * biomarkers of exposure * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.190, year: 2010

  15. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  16. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery.

  17. Estimating the actual subject-specific genetic correlations in behavior genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2012-10-01

    Generalization of the standard behavior longitudinal genetic factor model for the analysis of interindividual phenotypic variation to a genetic state space model for the analysis of intraindividual variation enables the possibility to estimate subject-specific heritabilities.

  18. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, den P.J.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.; Wubbels, Th.

    2005-01-01

    A brief narrative description of the journal article, document, or resource. This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research, and effectiveness research, by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students'

  19. Methodological Aspects of Subjective Life Expectancy: Effects of Culture-Specific Reporting Heterogeneity Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; Smith, Jacqui

    2016-05-01

    Subjective life expectancy (SLE) has been suggested as a predictor of mortality and mortality-related behaviors. Although critical for culturally diverse societies, these findings do not consider cross-cultural methodological comparability. Culture-specific reporting heterogeneity is a well-known phenomenon introducing biases, and research on this issue with SLE is not established. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined reporting heterogeneity in SLE focusing on item nonresponse, focal points, and reports over time for five ethnic-cultural groups: non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, non-Hispanic other races, English-interviewed Hispanics, and Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. On item nonresponse, Spanish-interviewed Hispanics said, "I don't know," to SLE significantly more than any other groups. Nearly half of the respondents chose 0, 50, or 100, making them focal points. However, the focal points differed: 50 for Whites, 100 for Blacks, and 0 for Spanish-interviewed Hispanics. The relationship of SLE measured at two time points was higher for Whites than minorities. Moreover, those who said "I don't know" to SLE showed higher subsequent mortality than those who gave an answer. SLE was not a significant mortality predictor for Hispanics. Overall, SLE is not free from culture-specific reporting heterogeneity. This warrants further research about its culture-relevant measurement mechanisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  1. Allele frequencies of hemojuvelin gene (HJV I222N and G320V missense mutations in white and African American subjects from the general Alabama population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohannon Sean B

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for coding region mutations of the hemojuvelin gene (HJV in whites is a cause of early age-of-onset iron overload (juvenile hemochromatosis, and of hemochromatosis phenotypes in some young or middle-aged adults. HJV coding region mutations have also been identified recently in African American primary iron overload and control subjects. Primary iron overload unexplained by typical hemochromatosis-associated HFE genotypes is common in white and black adults in Alabama, and HJV I222N and G320V were detected in a white Alabama juvenile hemochromatosis index patient. Thus, we estimated the frequency of the HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V in adult whites and African Americans from Alabama general population convenience samples. Methods We evaluated the genomic DNA of 241 Alabama white and 124 African American adults who reported no history of hemochromatosis or iron overload to detect HJV missense mutations I222N and G320V using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. Analysis for HJV I222N was performed in 240 whites and 124 African Americans. Analysis for HJV G320V was performed in 241 whites and 118 African Americans. Results One of 240 white control subjects was heterozygous for HJV I222N; she was also heterozygous for HFE C282Y, but had normal serum iron measures and bone marrow iron stores. HJV I222N was not detected in 124 African American subjects. HJV G320V was not detected in 241 white or 118 African American subjects. Conclusions HJV I222N and G320V are probably uncommon causes or modifiers of primary iron overload in adult whites and African Americans in Alabama. Double heterozygosity for HJV I222N and HFE C282Y may not promote increased iron absorption.

  2. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  3. Regionally specific white matter disruptions of fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farid Abdul-Rahman

    Full Text Available Limbic circuitry disruptions have been implicated in the psychopathology and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, which may involve white matter disruptions of the major tracts of the limbic system, including the fornix and the cingulum. Our study aimed to investigate regionally specific abnormalities of the fornix and cingulum in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We determined the fractional anisotropy (FA, radial diffusivity (RD, and axial diffusivity (AD profiles along the fornix and cingulum tracts using a fibertracking technique and a brain mapping algorithm, the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM, in the DTI scans of 33 patients with schizophrenia and 31 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia showed reduction in FA and increase in RD in bilateral fornix, and increase in RD in left anterior cingulum when compared to healthy controls. In addition, tract-based analysis revealed specific loci of these white matter differences in schizophrenia, that is, FA reductions and AD and RD increases occur in the region of the left fornix further from the hippocampus, FA reductions and RD increases occur in the rostral portion of the left anterior cingulum, and RD and AD increases occur in the anterior segment of the left middle cingulum. In patients with schizophrenia, decreased FA in the specific loci of the left fornix and increased AD in the right cingulum adjoining the hippocampus correlated with greater severity of psychotic symptoms. These findings support precise disruptions of limbic-cortical integrity in schizophrenia and disruption of these structural networks may contribute towards the neural basis underlying the syndrome of schizophrenia and clinical symptomatology.

  4. Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Lin Shumei; Yanga Feng

    2005-01-01

    The product encoded by the wsv191 gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is homologous with non-specific nucleases (NSN) of other organisms. To functionally identify the protein, the wsv191 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein with 6His-tag at C-terminal. The fusion protein (termed as rWSSV-NSN) was purified using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denatured conditions, renatured and characterized by three methods. The results showed that rWSSV-NSN could hydrolyze both DNA and RNA. 5'-RACE result revealed that the transcription initiation site of the wsv191 gene was located at nucleotide residue G of the predicted ATG triplet. Therefore, we concluded that the next ATG should be the genuine translation initiation codon of the wsv191 gene. Western blot analysis revealed that the molecular mass of natural WSSV-NSN was 37 kDa

  5. Effects of a Bioavailable Arabinoxylan-enriched White Bread Flour on Postprandial Glucose Response in Normoglycemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Falchi, Anna; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Palladini, Giuseppina; Perlini, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The beneficial effects of soluble fibers on carbohydrate metabolism are well documented. In this regard, we tested an arabinoxylan-enriched white bread flour, obtained by a patented process by which the bran extracted from the milling process is enzymatically hydrolyzed in order to separate the soluble fraction fiber from the insoluble fiber. We recruited 24 healthy normoglycemic volunteers [Age 34-61 ± 12.5 y; Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.1 ± 2.5 kg/m(2); Waist circumference (WC) 84.43 ± 8.0 cm; Fat Mass (FM) 22.7 ± 8.0%] attending the Dietetics Outpatient Clinic of the Internal Medicine Department at IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Subjects acutely consumed arabinoxylan-enriched white bread (weight: 100 g) or isoenergetic control breads, in a double-blind crossover study design. Plasma glucose levels were measured just before bread administration and 30 minutes afterwards. The 30-minute peak postprandial glucose concentrations after arabinoxylan-enriched meals were significantly lower than after the control meal (107±4.6 mg/dL vs. 121 ± 5.2 mg/dL; p consumption of arabinoxylan-enriched bread will benefit patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton.

  7. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hypertension and white matter lesions are independently associated with apathetic behavior in healthy elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hiroshi; Takashima, Yuki; Mori, Takahiro; Hashimoto, Manabu; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Uchino, Akira; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apathy is defined as a syndrome of primary loss of motivation not attributable to emotional distress, intellectual impairment or consciousness disturbance. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of vascular risk factors and silent ischemic brain lesions on apathetic behavior of community-dwelling elderly subjects. Brain MRI and other medical examinations were performed on 222 non-demented community-dwelling elderly subjects (96 men and 126 women, average age 70.1 years). The apathy group was defined as the most apathetic quintile determined by Starkstein's apathy scale. Silent infarction, deep white matter lesions (DWMLs) and periventricular hyperintensities were detected in 12.2, 39.2 and 22.5%, respectively. Linear regression analysis (Pearson) revealed that the scores on the apathy scale correlated slightly but significantly with logarithmically transformed scores of the Modified Stroop Test (r=0.135, P=0.045), but not with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The apathy group tended to have more high blood pressure (141.6/82.6 vs. 136.1/79.6 mmHg), less prevalent hyperlipidemia (18 vs. 35%) and lower serum albumin. Multivariate analysis (the forward stepwise method of logistic analysis) revealed an independent correlation between the apathy and grade of DWMLs (odds ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.129-2.953 per grade) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (odds ratio 1.055, 95% CI 1.0 14-1.098 per mmHg) after adjusting for possible confounders. The mean apathy scale score in the DBP≥90 mmHg group was significantly lower (more apathetic) than that in the DBP<80 group (P=0.011, analysis of covariance). This study showed that hypertension and DWMLs are independently associated with apathy in healthy elderly subjects. (author)

  10. Modelling and subject-specific validation of the heart-arterial tree system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, Andrea; Camporeale, Carlo; Tosello, Francesco; Canuto, Claudio; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    A modeling approach integrated with a novel subject-specific characterization is here proposed for the assessment of hemodynamic values of the arterial tree. A 1D model is adopted to characterize large-to-medium arteries, while the left ventricle, aortic valve and distal micro-circulation sectors are described by lumped submodels. A new velocity profile and a new formulation of the non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relation suitable for the {Q, A} modeling are also proposed. The model is firstly verified semi-quantitatively against literature data. A simple but effective procedure for obtaining subject-specific model characterization from non-invasive measurements is then designed. A detailed subject-specific validation against in vivo measurements from a population of six healthy young men is also performed. Several key quantities of heart dynamics-mean ejected flow, ejection fraction, and left-ventricular end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes-and the pressure waveforms (at the central, radial, brachial, femoral, and posterior tibial sites) are compared with measured data. Mean errors around 5 and 8%, obtained for the heart and arterial quantities, respectively, testify the effectiveness of the model and its subject-specific characterization.

  11. The specifics of the Russian market of confectionery: subject-object certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsarenko Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of the Russian confectionery market. Determining the specificity of the market in Russia, identified and examined the components of this market with the help of subject - object orientation. As well as the actuality of considering new approaches to promote sales of confectionery products.

  12. Production and Processing of Subject-Verb Agreement in Monolingual Dutch Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…

  13. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to errors in musculo-skeletal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, V.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.

    2012-01-01

    Subject-specific musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity are an important tool for investigating various biomechanical problems, for instance the results of surgery such as joint replacements and tendon transfers. The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of errors in

  14. [Sensitivity and specificity of flicker perimetry with Pulsar. Comparison with achromatic (white-on-white) perimetry in glaucoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, K; Erb, C

    2013-02-01

    The early detection of functional glaucoma damage plays an increasingly more central role in the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma disease. Using selective perimetry detection of early glaucomatous defects is more likely and one of these methods is flicker perimetry with Pulsar. Flicker perimetry is used to analyze the temporal visual function in combination with spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity as opposed to standard automated perimetry which measures the differential light sensitivity with a non-specific stimulus. This study showed a higher sensitivity and specificity of Pulsar perimetry in comparison to achromatic perimetry in glaucoma patients.

  15. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  16. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Lloyd, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model. PMID:24074941

  17. Cause-specific contributions to black-white differences in male mortality from 1960 to 1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Between 1960 and 1995 the black-white difference in male life expectancy in the United States increased from 6.7 years to 8.2 years. To provide insights into why mortality trends have been more adverse for black men than for white men, we investigate which causes of death were principally responsible for changes in the black-white difference in male mortality at ages 15-64 between 1960 and 1995. We find that black-white differences in male mortality varied substantially during this period. The gap increased in the 1960s, declined in the 1970s, and widened in the 1980s-early 1990s. Our findings reveal considerable variation in black-white disparities by cause of death and by age, as well as changes in the relative importance of various causes of death to the black-white male mortality disparity over time. The results suggest that consequences of black-white differences in socioeconomic status, access to quality health care, living conditions, and residential segregation vary by cause of death.

  18. Automatic generation of a subject-specific model for accurate markerless motion capture and biomechanical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Stefano; Gambaretto, Emiliano; Mündermann, Lars; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    A novel approach for the automatic generation of a subject-specific model consisting of morphological and joint location information is described. The aim is to address the need for efficient and accurate model generation for markerless motion capture (MMC) and biomechanical studies. The algorithm applied and expanded on previous work on human shapes space by embedding location information for ten joint centers in a subject-specific free-form surface. The optimal locations of joint centers in the 3-D mesh were learned through linear regression over a set of nine subjects whose joint centers were known. The model was shown to be sufficiently accurate for both kinematic (joint centers) and morphological (shape of the body) information to allow accurate tracking with MMC systems. The automatic model generation algorithm was applied to 3-D meshes of different quality and resolution such as laser scans and visual hulls. The complete method was tested using nine subjects of different gender, body mass index (BMI), age, and ethnicity. Experimental training error and cross-validation errors were 19 and 25 mm, respectively, on average over the joints of the ten subjects analyzed in the study.

  19. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  20. Evaluation of pathogen-specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective - To develop a noninvasive biomarker based Mycobacterium bovis specific detection system to track infection in domestic and wild animals. Design – Experimental longitudinal study for discovery and cross sectional design for validation Animals - Yearling white-tailed deer fawns (n=8) were ...

  1. Tract-Specific Analyses of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Show Widespread White Matter Compromise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter compromise in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to reduced connectivity and impaired function of distributed networks. However, tract-specific evidence remains limited in ASD. We applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)…

  2. Instantaneous Metabolic Cost of Walking: Joint-Space Dynamic Model with Subject-Specific Heat Rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustyn Roberts

    Full Text Available A subject-specific model of instantaneous cost of transport (ICOT is introduced from the joint-space formulation of metabolic energy expenditure using the laws of thermodynamics and the principles of multibody system dynamics. Work and heat are formulated in generalized coordinates as functions of joint kinematic and dynamic variables. Generalized heat rates mapped from muscle energetics are estimated from experimental walking metabolic data for the whole body, including upper-body and bilateral data synchronization. Identified subject-specific energetic parameters-mass, height, (estimated maximum oxygen uptake, and (estimated maximum joint torques-are incorporated into the heat rate, as opposed to the traditional in vitro and subject-invariant muscle parameters. The total model metabolic energy expenditure values are within 5.7 ± 4.6% error of the measured values with strong (R2 > 0.90 inter- and intra-subject correlations. The model reliably predicts the characteristic convexity and magnitudes (0.326-0.348 of the experimental total COT (0.311-0.358 across different subjects and speeds. The ICOT as a function of time provides insights into gait energetic causes and effects (e.g., normalized comparison and sensitivity with respect to walking speed and phase-specific COT, which are unavailable from conventional metabolic measurements or muscle models. Using the joint-space variables from commonly measured or simulated data, the models enable real-time and phase-specific evaluations of transient or non-periodic general tasks that use a range of (aerobic energy pathway similar to that of steady-state walking.

  3. Specific terms glossary for subjects taught in Physical Culture first year career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isel Rodríguez Cruz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Contents comprehension is an important element in the learning process; present didactic ways demand from teaching styles that favor communicative competence in the students. Taking into account the relevance of this topic in the teaching learning process it was decided to develop the present work, which has the objective to offer the students a tool that allow them an efficient comprehension of the contents they receive in the Physical Culture first year career subjects. To fulfil the goal a glossary with specific terms of basketball, chess, swimming, athletics, basic gymnastics, and morphology was designed starting from the results of the initial diagnosis, the scientific observation, as well as the detail revision of the normative documents that rule Communicative Spanish subject. The glossary use favor the students´ texts comprehension development from the mentioned subject.

  4. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Epitope-Specific CD4+ T Cells Are Inflated in HIV+ CMV+ Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abana, Chike O; Pilkinton, Mark A; Gaudieri, Silvana; Chopra, Abha; McDonnell, Wyatt J; Wanjalla, Celestine; Barnett, Louise; Gangula, Rama; Hager, Cindy; Jung, Dae K; Engelhardt, Brian G; Jagasia, Madan H; Klenerman, Paul; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Koelle, David M; Kalams, Spyros A; Mallal, Simon A

    2017-11-01

    Select CMV epitopes drive life-long CD8 + T cell memory inflation, but the extent of CD4 memory inflation is poorly studied. CD4 + T cells specific for human CMV (HCMV) are elevated in HIV + HCMV + subjects. To determine whether HCMV epitope-specific CD4 + T cell memory inflation occurs during HIV infection, we used HLA-DR7 (DRB1*07:01) tetramers loaded with the glycoprotein B DYSNTHSTRYV (DYS) epitope to characterize circulating CD4 + T cells in coinfected HLA-DR7 + long-term nonprogressor HIV subjects with undetectable HCMV plasma viremia. DYS-specific CD4 + T cells were inflated among these HIV + subjects compared with those from an HIV - HCMV + HLA-DR7 + cohort or with HLA-DR7-restricted CD4 + T cells from the HIV-coinfected cohort that were specific for epitopes of HCMV phosphoprotein-65, tetanus toxoid precursor, EBV nuclear Ag 2, or HIV gag protein. Inflated DYS-specific CD4 + T cells consisted of effector memory or effector memory-RA + subsets with restricted TCRβ usage and nearly monoclonal CDR3 containing novel conserved amino acids. Expression of this near-monoclonal TCR in a Jurkat cell-transfection system validated fine DYS specificity. Inflated cells were polyfunctional, not senescent, and displayed high ex vivo levels of granzyme B, CX 3 CR1, CD38, or HLA-DR but less often coexpressed CD38 + and HLA-DR + The inflation mechanism did not involve apoptosis suppression, increased proliferation, or HIV gag cross-reactivity. Instead, the findings suggest that intermittent or chronic expression of epitopes, such as DYS, drive inflation of activated CD4 + T cells that home to endothelial cells and have the potential to mediate cytotoxicity and vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. White matter fibertracking in first-episode schizophrenia, schizoaffective patients and subjects at ultra-high risk of psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Nienke; Blaas, Jorik; Becker, Hiske E.; Dingemans, Peter M.; Akkerman, Erik M.; Majoie, Charles B.; van Amelsvoort, Therèse; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Linszen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of white matter pathology in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine whether white matter abnormalities found with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in previous schizophrenia studies are present in the early phase of the illness. DTI was performed at 3 T on 10

  6. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E.; del-Ama, Antonio J.; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C.; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton. PMID:29755336

  7. A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach to Subject-Specific Analysis of Knee Joint Laxity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael D.; Cyr, Adam J.; Ali, Azhar A.; Fitzpatrick, Clare K.; Rullkoetter, Paul J.; Maletsky, Lorin P.; Shelburne, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling complex knee biomechanics is a continual challenge, which has resulted in many models of varying levels of quality, complexity, and validation. Beyond modeling healthy knees, accurately mimicking pathologic knee mechanics, such as after cruciate rupture or meniscectomy, is difficult. Experimental tests of knee laxity can provide important information about ligament engagement and overall contributions to knee stability for development of subject-specific models to accurately simulate knee motion and loading. Our objective was to provide combined experimental tests and finite-element (FE) models of natural knee laxity that are subject-specific, have one-to-one experiment to model calibration, simulate ligament engagement in agreement with literature, and are adaptable for a variety of biomechanical investigations (e.g., cartilage contact, ligament strain, in vivo kinematics). Calibration involved perturbing ligament stiffness, initial ligament strain, and attachment location until model-predicted kinematics and ligament engagement matched experimental reports. Errors between model-predicted and experimental kinematics averaged ligaments agreed with literature descriptions. These results demonstrate the ability of our constraint models to be customized for multiple individuals and simultaneously call attention to the need to verify that ligament engagement is in good general agreement with literature. To facilitate further investigations of subject-specific or population based knee joint biomechanics, data collected during the experimental and modeling phases of this study are available for download by the research community. PMID:27306137

  8. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  9. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  10. [Subjective illness beliefs of Turkish migrants with mental disorders--specific characteristics compared to german patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Michael; Lujić, Claudia; Koch, Eckhardt; Wüsten, Bernd; Yürük, Nergüz; Gallhofer, Bernd

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge about culture- and migration-specific characteristics of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients is necessary for adequate treatment. Analysis of subjective illness beliefs in Turkish patients (F3; F4; n = 79) in comparison to matched Germans (n = 79) using a modified version of the Illness Perception Questionnaire IPQ-R. Differences were explored by t-tests and chi(2)-tests. Turkish patients believed significantly stronger in a chronical timeline of illness and in negative illness consequences, while German patients believed significantly stronger in treatment control and personal control. Turkish patients more often mentioned external causes of their disease compared to Germans. The results provide explanations of the deficient health care situation for Turkish migrants in Germany.

  11. Specifics of Educational Texts Selection for Schoolchildren Doing the Humanities Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Oblasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the new approach to educational text selection for the humanities teaching. Its specifics is based on the wide interpretation of educational texts, as the culture texts involved in cognitive learning activity and fulfilling the multiple tasks of the related subjects and personal development. The educational text is taken as a generalized model, its content and structure determining the scheme of a speech cognitive activity, as well as the meaning formation mechanism responsible for understanding and personal development. The texts and tasks selection is oriented on schoolchildren’s understanding with the reference to the psycholinguistic, psychological and hermeneutic approaches; information extraction and interpretation level related to the author’s and student’s context. The given approach could provide the basis for developing and structuring the textbooks content for the humanities subjects

  12. Sensitivity analysis of a validated subject-specific finite element model of the human craniofacial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedowski, T D; Fialkov, J; Whyne, C M

    2011-01-01

    Developing a more complete understanding of the mechanical response of the craniofacial skeleton (CFS) to physiological loads is fundamental to improving treatment for traumatic injuries, reconstruction due to neoplasia, and deformities. Characterization of the biomechanics of the CFS is challenging due to its highly complex structure and heterogeneity, motivating the utilization of experimentally validated computational models. As such, the objective of this study was to develop, experimentally validate, and parametrically analyse a patient-specific finite element (FE) model of the CFS to elucidate a better understanding of the factors that are of intrinsic importance to the skeletal structural behaviour of the human CFS. An FE model of a cadaveric craniofacial skeleton was created from subject-specific computed tomography data. The model was validated based on bone strain measurements taken under simulated physiological-like loading through the masseter and temporalis muscles (which are responsible for the majority of craniofacial physiologic loading due to mastication). The baseline subject-specific model using locally defined cortical bone thicknesses produced the strongest correlation to the experimental data (r2 = 0.73). Large effects on strain patterns arising from small parametric changes in cortical thickness suggest that the very thin bony structures present in the CFS are crucial to characterizing the local load distribution in the CFS accurately.

  13. The FachRef-Assistant: Personalised, subject specific, and transparent stock management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eike T. Spielberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a personalized web application for the weeding of printed resources: the FachRef-Assistant. It offers an extensive range of tools for evidence based stock management, based on the thorough analysis of usage statistics. Special attention is paid to the criteria individualization, transparency of the parameters used, and generic functions. Currently, it is designed to work with the Aleph-System from ExLibris, but efforts were spent to keep the application as generic as possible. For example, all procedures specific to the local library system have been collected in one Java package. The inclusion of library specific properties such as collections and systematics has been designed to be highly generic as well by mapping the individual entries onto an in-memory database. Hence simple adaption of the package and the mappings would render the FachRef-Assistant compatible to other library systems. The personalization of the application allows for the inclusion of subject specific usage properties as well as of variations between different collections within one subject area. The parameter sets used to analyse the stock and to prepare weeding and purchase proposal lists are included in the output XML-files to facilitate a high degree of transparency, objectivity and reproducibility.

  14. Subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge: Implications for alternatively and traditionally trained biology teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravgiala, Rebekah Rae

    Theories regarding the development of expertise hold implications for alternative and traditional certification programs and the teachers they train. The literature suggests that when compared to experts in the field of teaching, the behaviors of novices differ in ways that are directly attributed to their pedagogical content knowledge. However, few studies have examined how first and second year biology teachers entering the profession from traditional and alternative training differ in their demonstration of subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge. The research problem in this multicase, naturalistic inquiry investigated how subject-specific pedagogical content knowledge was manifested among first and second year biology teachers in the task of transforming subject matter into forms that are potentially meaningful to students when explicit formal training has been and has not been imparted to them as preservice teachers. Two first year and two second year biology teachers were the subjects of this investigation. Allen and Amber obtained their certification through an alternative summer training institute in consecutive years. Tiffany and Tricia obtained their certification through a traditional, graduate level training program in consecutive years. Both programs were offered at the same northeastern state university. Participants contributed to six data gathering techniques including an initial semi-structured interview, responses to the Conceptions of Teaching Science questionnaire (Hewson & Hewson, 1989), three videotaped biology lessons, evaluation of three corresponding lesson plans, and a final semi-structured interview conducted at the end of the investigation. An informal, end-of-study survey intended to offer participants an opportunity to disclose their thoughts and needs as first year teachers was also employed. Results indicate that while conceptions of teaching science may vary slightly among participants, there is no evidence to suggest that

  15. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to errors in musculo-skeletal geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; van der Krogt, M M; Koopman, H F J M; Verdonschot, N

    2012-09-21

    Subject-specific musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity are an important tool for investigating various biomechanical problems, for instance the results of surgery such as joint replacements and tendon transfers. The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of errors in musculo-skeletal geometry on subject-specific model results. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to quantify the effect of the perturbation of origin, insertion and via points of each of the 56 musculo-tendon parts contained in the model. We used two metrics, namely a Local Sensitivity Index (LSI) and an Overall Sensitivity Index (OSI), to distinguish the effect of the perturbation on the predicted force produced by only the perturbed musculo-tendon parts and by all the remaining musculo-tendon parts, respectively, during a simulated gait cycle. Results indicated that, for each musculo-tendon part, only two points show a significant sensitivity: its origin, or pseudo-origin, point and its insertion, or pseudo-insertion, point. The most sensitive points belong to those musculo-tendon parts that act as prime movers in the walking movement (insertion point of the Achilles Tendon: LSI=15.56%, OSI=7.17%; origin points of the Rectus Femoris: LSI=13.89%, OSI=2.44%) and as hip stabilizers (insertion points of the Gluteus Medius Anterior: LSI=17.92%, OSI=2.79%; insertion point of the Gluteus Minimus: LSI=21.71%, OSI=2.41%). The proposed priority list provides quantitative information to improve the predictive accuracy of subject-specific musculo-skeletal models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are subject-specific musculoskeletal models robust to the uncertainties in parameter identification?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Valente

    Full Text Available Subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling can be applied to study musculoskeletal disorders, allowing inclusion of personalized anatomy and properties. Independent of the tools used for model creation, there are unavoidable uncertainties associated with parameter identification, whose effect on model predictions is still not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to analyze the sensitivity of subject-specific model predictions (i.e., joint angles, joint moments, muscle and joint contact forces during walking to the uncertainties in the identification of body landmark positions, maximum muscle tension and musculotendon geometry. To this aim, we created an MRI-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limbs, defined as a 7-segment, 10-degree-of-freedom articulated linkage, actuated by 84 musculotendon units. We then performed a Monte-Carlo probabilistic analysis perturbing model parameters according to their uncertainty, and solving a typical inverse dynamics and static optimization problem using 500 models that included the different sets of perturbed variable values. Model creation and gait simulations were performed by using freely available software that we developed to standardize the process of model creation, integrate with OpenSim and create probabilistic simulations of movement. The uncertainties in input variables had a moderate effect on model predictions, as muscle and joint contact forces showed maximum standard deviation of 0.3 times body-weight and maximum range of 2.1 times body-weight. In addition, the output variables significantly correlated with few input variables (up to 7 out of 312 across the gait cycle, including the geometry definition of larger muscles and the maximum muscle tension in limited gait portions. Although we found subject-specific models not markedly sensitive to parameter identification, researchers should be aware of the model precision in relation to the intended application. In fact, force

  17. Gambling cognition and subjective well-being as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: a cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Oei, Tian Po

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to delineate various pathways whereby cognitive and emotional vulnerabilities triggered by stress would lead to disruptive gambling. A multiple mediation framework was proposed to specify that gambling cognition and subjective well-being would mediate the influence of perceived stress on problem gambling. The cross-cultural validity of the proposed framework was examined with 132 White gamblers in Australia and 154 Chinese gamblers in China. They completed psychological scales on perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, gambling refusal efficacy, negative affect, life satisfaction, and problem gambling. Compared to Chinese gamblers, White gamblers reported higher levels of perceived stress, gambling expectancy bias, and problem gambling as well as more pervasive negative affect and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results showed that the proposed multiple mediation framework fit the data better than two alternative plausible models. Life satisfaction and gambling refusal efficacy were two consistent mediators across White and Chinese gamblers. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. nmsBuilder: Freeware to create subject-specific musculoskeletal models for OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giordano; Crimi, Gianluigi; Vanella, Nicola; Schileo, Enrico; Taddei, Fulvia

    2017-12-01

    Musculoskeletal modeling and simulations of movement have been increasingly used in orthopedic and neurological scenarios, with increased attention to subject-specific applications. In general, musculoskeletal modeling applications have been facilitated by the development of dedicated software tools; however, subject-specific studies have been limited also by time-consuming modeling workflows and high skilled expertise required. In addition, no reference tools exist to standardize the process of musculoskeletal model creation and make it more efficient. Here we present a freely available software application, nmsBuilder 2.0, to create musculoskeletal models in the file format of OpenSim, a widely-used open-source platform for musculoskeletal modeling and simulation. nmsBuilder 2.0 is the result of a major refactoring of a previous implementation that moved a first step toward an efficient workflow for subject-specific model creation. nmsBuilder includes a graphical user interface that provides access to all functionalities, based on a framework for computer-aided medicine written in C++. The operations implemented can be used in a workflow to create OpenSim musculoskeletal models from 3D surfaces. A first step includes data processing to create supporting objects necessary to create models, e.g. surfaces, anatomical landmarks, reference systems; and a second step includes the creation of OpenSim objects, e.g. bodies, joints, muscles, and the corresponding model. We present a case study using nmsBuilder 2.0: the creation of an MRI-based musculoskeletal model of the lower limb. The model included four rigid bodies, five degrees of freedom and 43 musculotendon actuators, and was created from 3D surfaces of the segmented images of a healthy subject through the modeling workflow implemented in the software application. We have presented nmsBuilder 2.0 for the creation of musculoskeletal OpenSim models from image-based data, and made it freely available via nmsbuilder

  19. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  20. Specific activity isolation and determination of radioactive Estrogenic Substances in White Clover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupiales T, G.; Mejia M, G.

    1986-01-01

    Due to high number of leguminous that exhibit estrogenic activity, subterranean clover between others, which causes infertility in sheep that eat it. It has been considered that white clover (Trifolium repens, variety Ladino, is an specie of low estrogenic activity, however at Bogota City (Colombia) it has high estrogenic activity and may cause reduction in the dairy cattle fertility. Research done in the IAN (today Ingeominas) over this clover variety, showed that the radioactivity substances presents in the white clover have high activity for stradiol, affecting organs from mouse females; Isoflavonoids from vegetables have an anabolism and utero tropic action; estrogenic activity of clover leaves, was exponentially proportional to the amount of ultraviolet radioactivity, falling upon plants during leaves development stage

  1. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  2. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p modeled with a first order continuous autoregressive error term as evidenced by the variogram of the residuals and by a lack of association among residuals. The final model provides a parametric linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19

  3. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  4. Negotiating Worlds, Managing Subjectivities, and Redefining Selves: The Lived Experiences of African American Undergraduate Females at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ayana Ma-el

    2010-01-01

    A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…

  5. Sensitivity of a subject-specific musculoskeletal model to the uncertainties on the joint axes location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Saulo; Valente, Giordano; Viceconti, Marco; Taddei, Fulvia

    2015-01-01

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal models have become key tools in the clinical decision-making process. However, the sensitivity of the calculated solution to the unavoidable errors committed while deriving the model parameters from the available information is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to calculate the sensitivity of all the kinematics and kinetics variables to the inter-examiner uncertainty in the identification of the lower limb joint models. The study was based on the computer tomography of the entire lower-limb from a single donor and the motion capture from a body-matched volunteer. The hip, the knee and the ankle joint models were defined following the International Society of Biomechanics recommendations. Using a software interface, five expert anatomists identified on the donor's images the necessary bony locations five times with a three-day time interval. A detailed subject-specific musculoskeletal model was taken from an earlier study, and re-formulated to define the joint axes by inputting the necessary bony locations. Gait simulations were run using OpenSim within a Monte Carlo stochastic scheme, where the locations of the bony landmarks were varied randomly according to the estimated distributions. Trends for the joint angles, moments, and the muscle and joint forces did not substantially change after parameter perturbations. The highest variations were as follows: (a) 11° calculated for the hip rotation angle, (b) 1% BW × H calculated for the knee moment and (c) 0.33 BW calculated for the ankle plantarflexor muscles and the ankle joint forces. In conclusion, the identification of the joint axes from clinical images is a robust procedure for human movement modelling and simulation.

  6. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Zitella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20Hz, 90µs pulse width was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (-1.0 to -1.4mA. These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts, which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS.

  7. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  8. Source-specific social support and circulating inflammatory markers among white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Irie, Masahiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2014-06-01

    Despite known beneficial effects of social support on cardiovascular health, the pathway through which sources of support (supervisor, coworkers, family/friends) influence inflammatory markers is not completely understood. We investigated the independent and moderating associations between social support and inflammatory markers. A total of 137 male white-collar employees underwent a blood draw for measurement of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte and leukocyte counts, and completed a questionnaire on social support. Multivariable linear regression analyses controlling for covariates revealed that supervisor support was inversely associated with IL-6 (β = -0.24, p markers. Social support from the immediate supervisor may be a potential mechanism through which social support exerts beneficial effects on inflammatory markers in working men.

  9. Patient-specific 3D FLAIR for enhanced visualization of brain white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Refaat E; Pednekar, Amol S; Govindarajan, Koushik A; Sun, Xiaojun; Riascos, Roy F; Ramírez, María G; Hasan, Khader M; Lincoln, John A; Nelson, Flavia; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2017-08-01

    To improve the conspicuity of white matter lesions (WMLs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) using patient-specific optimization of single-slab 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixteen MS patients were enrolled in a prospective 3.0T MRI study. FLAIR inversion time and echo time were automatically optimized for each patient during the same scan session based on measurements of the relative proton density and relaxation times of the brain tissues. The optimization criterion was to maximize the contrast between gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), while suppressing cerebrospinal fluid. This criterion also helps increase the contrast between WMLs and WM. The performance of the patient-specific 3D FLAIR protocol relative to the fixed-parameter protocol was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patient-specific optimization achieved a statistically significant 41% increase in the GM-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.05) and 32% increase in the WML-WM contrast ratio (P < 0.01) compared with fixed-parameter FLAIR. The increase in WML-WM contrast ratio correlated strongly with echo time (P < 10 -11 ). Two experienced neuroradiologists indicated substantially higher lesion conspicuity on the patient-specific FLAIR images over conventional FLAIR in 3-4 cases (intrarater correlation coefficient ICC = 0.72). In no case was the image quality of patient-specific FLAIR considered inferior to conventional FLAIR by any of the raters (ICC = 0.32). Changes in proton density and relaxation times render fixed-parameter FLAIR suboptimal in terms of lesion contrast. Patient-specific optimization of 3D FLAIR increases lesion conspicuity without scan time penalty, and has potential to enhance the detection of subtle and small lesions in MS. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:557-564. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  10. Central Pressure Appraisal: Clinical Validation of a Subject-Specific Mathematical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tosello

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that aortic blood pressure has a superior prognostic value with respect to brachial pressure for cardiovascular events, but direct measurement is not feasible in daily clinical practice.The aim of the present study is the clinical validation of a multiscale mathematical model for non-invasive appraisal of central blood pressure from subject-specific characteristics.A total of 51 young male were selected for the present study. Aortic systolic and diastolic pressure were estimated with a mathematical model and were compared to the most-used non-invasive validated technique (SphygmoCor device, AtCor Medical, Australia. SphygmoCor was calibrated through diastolic and systolic brachial pressure obtained with a sphygmomanometer, while model inputs consist of brachial pressure, height, weight, age, left-ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes, and data from a pulse wave velocity study.Model-estimated systolic and diastolic central blood pressures resulted to be significantly related to SphygmoCor-assessed central systolic (r = 0.65 p <0.0001 and diastolic (r = 0.84 p<0.0001 blood pressures. The model showed a significant overestimation of systolic pressure (+7.8 (-2.2;14 mmHg, p = 0.0003 and a significant underestimation of diastolic values (-3.2 (-7.5;1.6, p = 0.004, which imply a significant overestimation of central pulse pressure. Interestingly, model prediction errors mirror the mean errors reported in large meta-analysis characterizing the use of the SphygmoCor when non-invasive calibration is performed.In conclusion, multi-scale mathematical model predictions result to be significantly related to SphygmoCor ones. Model-predicted systolic and diastolic aortic pressure resulted in difference of less than 10 mmHg in the 51% and 84% of the subjects, respectively, when compared with SphygmoCor-obtained pressures.

  11. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean; Insausti, Ricardo; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The hippocampal formation is a complex, heterogeneous structure that consists of a number of distinct, interacting subregions. Atrophy of these subregions is implied in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, most prominently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thanks to the increasing resolution of MR images and computational atlases, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subregions is becoming feasible in MRI scans. Here we introduce a generative model for dedicated longitudinal segmentation that relies on subject-specific atlases. The segmentations of the scans at the different time points are jointly computed using Bayesian inference. All time points are treated the same to avoid processing bias. We evaluate this approach using over 4700 scans from two publicly available datasets (ADNI and MIRIAD). In test-retest reliability experiments, the proposed method yielded significantly lower volume differences and significantly higher Dice overlaps than the cross-sectional approach for nearly every subregion (average across subregions: 4.5% vs. 6.5%, Dice overlap: 81.8% vs. 75.4%). The longitudinal algorithm also demonstrated increased sensitivity to group differences: in MIRIAD (69 subjects: 46 with AD and 23 controls), it found differences in atrophy rates between AD and controls that the cross sectional method could not detect in a number of subregions: right parasubiculum, left and right presubiculum, right subiculum, left dentate gyrus, left CA4, left HATA and right tail. In ADNI (836 subjects: 369 with AD, 215 with early cognitive impairment - eMCI - and 252 controls), all methods found significant differences between AD and controls, but the proposed longitudinal algorithm detected differences between controls and eMCI and differences between eMCI and AD that the cross sectional method could not find: left presubiculum, right subiculum, left and right parasubiculum, left and right HATA. Moreover, many of the differences that the cross-sectional method already found

  12. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects.

  13. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eGogol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.

  14. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162

  15. High-resolution subject-specific mitral valve imaging and modeling: experimental and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Milan; Bloodworth, Charles H; Einstein, Daniel R; Pierce, Eric L; Cochran, Richard P; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2016-12-01

    The diversity of mitral valve (MV) geometries and multitude of surgical options for correction of MV diseases necessitates the use of computational modeling. Numerical simulations of the MV would allow surgeons and engineers to evaluate repairs, devices, procedures, and concepts before performing them and before moving on to more costly testing modalities. Constructing, tuning, and validating these models rely upon extensive in vitro characterization of valve structure, function, and response to change due to diseases. Micro-computed tomography ([Formula: see text]CT) allows for unmatched spatial resolution for soft tissue imaging. However, it is still technically challenging to obtain an accurate geometry of the diastolic MV. We discuss here the development of a novel technique for treating MV specimens with glutaraldehyde fixative in order to minimize geometric distortions in preparation for [Formula: see text]CT scanning. The technique provides a resulting MV geometry which is significantly more detailed in chordal structure, accurate in leaflet shape, and closer to its physiological diastolic geometry. In this paper, computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are used to show the importance of more detailed subject-specific MV geometry with 3D chordal structure to simulate a proper closure validated against [Formula: see text]CT images of the closed valve. Two computational models, before and after use of the aforementioned technique, are used to simulate closure of the MV.

  16. White Blood Cell Count and Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Manson, JoAnn E; Lessin, Lawrence; Lin, Juan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Rohan, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count appears to predict total mortality and coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, but it is unclear to what extent the association reflects confounding by smoking, underlying illness, or comorbid conditions. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative to examine the associations of WBC count with total mortality, CHD mortality, and cancer mortality. WBC count was measured at baseline in 160,117 postmenopausal women and again in year 3 in 74,375 participants. Participants were followed for a mean of 16 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative mortality hazards associated with deciles of baseline WBC count and of the mean of baseline + year 3 WBC count. High deciles of both baseline and mean WBC count were positively associated with total mortality and CHD mortality, whereas the association with cancer mortality was weaker. The association of WBC count with mortality was independent of smoking and did not appear to be influenced by previous disease history. The potential clinical utility of this common laboratory test in predicting mortality risk warrants further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. White Grape Juice Elicits a Lower Breath Hydrogen Response Compared with Apple Juice in Healthy Human Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Wang, Qi; Slavin, Joanne

    2017-06-01

    Diets low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPS) are used to manage symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome. Although effective at reducing symptoms, the diet can be complex and restrictive. In addition, there are still large gaps in the literature and many foods with unclear effects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like fruit juice. Although many fruits are allowable on a low-FODMAP diet, consumption of all fruit juice is generally cautioned due to the large fructose load contained in juice, regardless of the glucose concentration. Very little research exists regarding the importance of limiting fructose load during a low-FODMAP diet; therefore, individuals following a low-FODMAP diet may be unnecessarily restricting their diets. To determine whether there is a difference in GI tolerance between juice from a high-FODMAP fruit (apple juice) and juice from a low-FODMAP fruit (white grape juice) in healthy human subjects. The goal is to provide insight into the role of juice in a low-FODMAP diet. A double-blind, randomized, controlled crossover study was conducted with 40 healthy adults. Fasted subjects consumed 12 oz of either apple juice or white grape juice. Breath hydrogen measures were taken at baseline, 1, 2, and 3 hours. Subjective GI tolerance surveys were completed at the same time intervals and at 12 and 24 hours. Breath hydrogen and GI symptoms were assessed with area under the curve analysis. Significance was determined with a two-sided t test with a P value juice resulted in a greater mean breath hydrogen area under the curve at 23.3 ppm/hour (95% CI 13.0 to 33.6) compared with white grape juice at 5.8 ppm/hour (95% CI -4.6 to 16.1) (Pjuices were well tolerated and neither produced any severe symptoms in healthy adults. White grape juice consumption resulted in only a small rise in breath hydrogen, which may suggest excluding foods only because of the high fructose load could be

  18. Development of a Subject-Specific Foot-Ground Contact Model for Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer N; Hass, Chris J; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2016-09-01

    largest errors in AP CoP occurred at the beginning and end of stance phase when the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) was small. Subject-specific deformable foot-ground contact models created using this approach should enable changes in foot-ground contact pattern to be predicted accurately by gait optimization studies, which may lead to improvements in personalized rehabilitation medicine.

  19. AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gitte; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Sparsø, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    been largely successful. We related seven frequent AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms to a range of metabolic traits, including type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The polymorphisms were genotyped in 7,683 white Danish subjects using Taqman allelic...... with dyslipidemia (P = 0.003 and P(corr) = 0.009). Thr248Met (rs4917) tended to associate with lower fasting and post-oral glucose tolerance test serum insulin release (P = 0.02, P(corr) = 0.1 for fasting and P = 0.04, P(corr) = 0.2 for area under the insulin curve) and improved insulin sensitivity estimated...

  20. Soft tissue artifact compensation in knee kinematics by multi-body optimization: Performance of subject-specific knee joint models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Julien; Dumas, Raphaël; Hagemeister, Nicola; de Guise, Jaques A

    2015-11-05

    Soft tissue artifact (STA) distort marker-based knee kinematics measures and make them difficult to use in clinical practice. None of the current methods designed to compensate for STA is suitable, but multi-body optimization (MBO) has demonstrated encouraging results and can be improved. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the performance of knee joint models, with anatomical and subject-specific kinematic constraints, used in MBO to reduce STA errors. Twenty subjects were recruited: 10 healthy and 10 osteoarthritis (OA) subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were evaluated by comparing dynamic knee kinematics recorded by a motion capture system (KneeKG™) and optimized with MBO to quasi-static knee kinematics measured by a low-dose, upright, biplanar radiographic imaging system (EOS(®)). Errors due to STA ranged from 1.6° to 22.4° for knee rotations and from 0.8 mm to 14.9 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects. Subject-specific knee joint models were most effective in compensating for STA in terms of abduction-adduction, inter-external rotation and antero-posterior displacement. Root mean square errors with subject-specific knee joint models ranged from 2.2±1.2° to 6.0±3.9° for knee rotations and from 2.4±1.1 mm to 4.3±2.4 mm for knee displacements in healthy and OA subjects, respectively. Our study shows that MBO can be improved with subject-specific knee joint models, and that the quality of the motion capture calibration is critical. Future investigations should focus on more refined knee joint models to reproduce specific OA knee geometry and physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Damage Alters how Specific Attributes are Weighed in Subjective Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Sefranek, Marcus; Fellows, Lesley K

    2017-10-23

    The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments. We asked how distinct attributes of visual artworks influenced the subjective value ratings of subjects with VMF damage, compared to healthy participants and a frontal lobe damaged control group. Subjects with VMF damage were less influenced by the energy (emotion, complexity) and color radiance (warmth, saturation) of the artwork, while they were similar to control groups in considering saliency, balance and concreteness. These dissociations argue that VMF is critical for allowing certain affective content to influence subjective value, while sparing the influence of perceptual or representational information. These distinctions are important for better defining the often-underspecified concept of subjective value and developing more detailed models of the brain mechanisms underlying decision behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  3. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer; Schoepf, Veronika; Burke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  4. Presence of a central vein within white matter lesions on susceptibility weighted imaging: a specific finding for multiple sclerosis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lummel, Nina; Boeckh-Behrens, Tobias; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schoepf, Veronika [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, MR Centre of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Burke, Michael [GE Healthcare, Solingen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Susceptibility weighted imaging depicts the perivenous extent of multiple sclerosis white matter lesions (MS-WML) in vivo by directly visualizing their centrally running vein. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity of this finding for MS. Fifteen patients with MS and 15 patients with microangiopathic white matter lesions (mWML) underwent 3T MRI, including a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) and a susceptibility weighted angiography (SWAN). All WMLs were identified on FLAIR and assigned to one of the following localizations: supratentorial peripheral, supratentorial periventricular, or infratentorial. Subsequently, the presence of a central vein within these lesions was assessed on SWAN. A total of 711 MS-WMLs and 1,119 m-WMLs were identified on FLAIR, all of which could also be visualized on SWAN. A central vein was detectable in 80% of the MS-WMLs and in 78% of the m-WMLs (in 73% and 76% of the peripheral, in 92% and 94% of the periventricular, and in 71% and 75% of the infratentorial MS-WMLs and m-WMLs, respectively). With regard to the supratentorial peripheral lesions, significantly more m-WMLs showed a central vein compared to the MS-WMLs. For the other localizations, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to the percentage of lesions with central vein. Our results indicate that the detection of a central vein within a WML should not be considered a specific finding for MS; it is also found in WMLs of other etiologies. (orig.)

  5. Subject-specific regional measures of water diffusion are associated with impairment in chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Ann S; Sadowsky, Cristina L; Smith, Seth A; van Zijl, Peter C M; Pekar, James J; Belegu, Visar

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to identify non-invasive imaging parameters that can serve as biomarkers for the integrity of the spinal cord, which is paramount to neurological function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices are sensitive to axonal and myelin damage, and have strong potential to serve as such biomarkers. However, averaging DTI indices over large regions of interest (ROIs), a common approach to analyzing the images of injured spinal cord, leads to loss of subject-specific information. We investigated if DTI-tractography-driven, subject-specific demarcation approach can yield measures that are more specific to impairment. In 18 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), subject-specific demarcation of the injury region was performed using DTI tractography, which yielded three regions relative to injury (RRI; regions superior to, at, and below injury epicenter). DTI indices averaged over each RRI were correlated with measures of residual motor and sensory function, obtained using the International Standard of Neurological Classification for Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI). Total ISNCSCI score (ISNCSCI-tot; sum of ISNCSCI motor and sensory scores) was significantly (p injury epicenter (IRRI), the degree of which exceeded that of those measured from the entire cervical cord-suggesting contribution from Wallerian degeneration. DTI tractography-driven, subject-specific injury demarcation approach provided measures that were more specific to impairment. Notably, DTI indices obtained from the IRRI region showed the highest specificity to impairment, demonstrating their strong potential as biomarkers for the SCI severity.

  6. Validating atlas-guided DOT: a comparison of diffuse optical tomography informed by atlas and subject-specific anatomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert J; Caffini, Matteo; Dubb, Jay; Fang, Qianqian; Custo, Anna; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Fischl, Bruce; Wells, William; Dan, Ippeita; Boas, David A

    2012-09-01

    We describe the validation of an anatomical brain atlas approach to the analysis of diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Using MRI data from 32 subjects, we compare the diffuse optical images of simulated cortical activation reconstructed using a registered atlas with those obtained using a subject's true anatomy. The error in localization of the simulated cortical activations when using a registered atlas is due to a combination of imperfect registration, anatomical differences between atlas and subject anatomies and the localization error associated with diffuse optical image reconstruction. When using a subject-specific MRI, any localization error is due to diffuse optical image reconstruction only. In this study we determine that using a registered anatomical brain atlas results in an average localization error of approximately 18 mm in Euclidean space. The corresponding error when the subject's own MRI is employed is 9.1 mm. In general, the cost of using atlas-guided DOT in place of subject-specific MRI-guided DOT is a doubling of the localization error. Our results show that despite this increase in error, reasonable anatomical localization is achievable even in cases where the subject-specific anatomy is unavailable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipidomic Adaptations in White and Brown Adipose Tissue in Response to Exercise Demonstrate Molecular Species-Specific Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis J. May

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylcholines (PC, phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and phosphatidylserines (PS in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.

  8. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  9. Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with Specific Language Impairment and/or Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G

    2014-04-01

    We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right

  10. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean

    2016-01-01

    and 23 controls), it found differences in atrophy rates between AD and controls that the cross sectional method could not detect in a number of subregions: right parasubiculum, left and right presubiculum, right subiculum, left dentate gyrus, left CA4, left HATA and right tail. In ADNI (836 subjects: 369...... not find: left presubiculum, right subiculum, left and right parasubiculum, left and right HATA. Moreover, many of the differences that the cross-sectional method already found were detected with higher significance. The presented algorithm will be made available as part of the open-source neuroimaging...... differences and significantly higher Dice overlaps than the cross-sectional approach for nearly every subregion (average across subregions: 4.5% vs. 6.5%, Dice overlap: 81.8% vs. 75.4%). The longitudinal algorithm also demonstrated increased sensitivity to group differences: in MIRIAD (69 subjects: 46 with AD...

  11. Enhanced subject-specific resting-state network detection and extraction with fast fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Burak; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Hennig, Jürgen; LeVan, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Resting-state networks have become an important tool for the study of brain function. An ultra-fast imaging technique that allows to measure brain function, called Magnetic Resonance Encephalography (MREG), achieves an order of magnitude higher temporal resolution than standard echo-planar imaging (EPI). This new sequence helps to correct physiological artifacts and improves the sensitivity of the fMRI analysis. In this study, EPI is compared with MREG in terms of capability to extract resting-state networks. Healthy controls underwent two consecutive resting-state scans, one with EPI and the other with MREG. Subject-level independent component analyses (ICA) were performed separately for each of the two datasets. Using Stanford FIND atlas parcels as network templates, the presence of ICA maps corresponding to each network was quantified in each subject. The number of detected individual networks was significantly higher in the MREG data set than for EPI. Moreover, using short time segments of MREG data, such as 50 seconds, one can still detect and track consistent networks. Fast fMRI thus results in an increased capability to extract distinct functional regions at the individual subject level for the same scan times, and also allow the extraction of consistent networks within shorter time intervals than when using EPI, which is notably relevant for the analysis of dynamic functional connectivity fluctuations. Hum Brain Mapp 38:817-830, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Subject-Specific Carpal Ligament Elongation in Extreme Positions, Grip, and the Dart Thrower's Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, Michael J.; Kamal, Robin N.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the radiocarpal and dorsal capsular ligaments limit end-range wrist motion or remain strained during midrange wrist motion. Fibers of these ligaments were modeled in the wrists of 12 subjects over multiple wrist positions that reflect high demand tasks and the dart thrower's motion. We found that many of the volar and dorsal ligaments were within 5% of their maximum length throughout the range of wrist motion. Our finding of wrist ligament recruitment during midrange and end-range wrist motion helps to explain the complex but remarkably similar intersubject patterns of carpal motion. PMID:26367853

  13. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  14. Validating subject-specific RF and thermal simulations in the calf muscle using MR-based temperature measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Ffj; Raaijmakers, Aje; Lagendijk, Jjw; van den Berg, Cat

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Ongoing discussions occur to translate the safety restrictions on MR scanners from specific absorption rate (SAR) to thermal dose. Therefore, this research focuses on the accuracy of thermal simulations in human subjects during an MR exam, which is fundamental information in that debate.

  15. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, V.; Krogt, M.M. van der; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle-tendon (MT) model parameters for each of

  16. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, Vincenzo; van der Krogt, Marjolein; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle–tendon (MT) model parameters for each of

  17. Activation of prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus in alcoholic subjects on exposure to alcohol-specific cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J

    2001-04-01

    Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.

  18. Indirect detection of an epitope-specific response to HIV-1 gp120 immunization in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Shmelkov

    Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.

  19. Subject-specific computer simulation model for determining elbow loading in one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Mark A; Glynn, Jonathan A; Mitchell, Sean R

    2011-11-01

    A subject-specific angle-driven computer model of a tennis player, combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts, was developed to determine the effect of ball-racket impacts on loading at the elbow for one-handed backhand groundstrokes. Matching subject-specific computer simulations of a typical topspin/slice one-handed backhand groundstroke performed by an elite tennis player were done with root mean square differences between performance and matching simulations of elbow loading for a topspin and slice one-handed backhand groundstroke is relatively small. In this study, the relatively small differences in elbow loading may be due to comparable angle-time histories at the wrist and elbow joints with the major kinematic differences occurring at the shoulder. Using a subject-specific angle-driven computer model combined with a forward dynamics, equipment-specific computer model of tennis ball-racket impacts allows peak internal loading, net impulse, and shock due to ball-racket impact to be calculated which would not otherwise be possible without impractical invasive techniques. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the factors that may increase elbow loading during tennis strokes.

  20. Subject-specific optimization of channel currents for multichannel transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Christopher C; Johnson, Nessa N; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) system using a multichannel coil array for high-resolution neuromodulation. We proposed a novel spatially-distributed stimulation strategy to significantly improve the focality of TMS. Computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the proposed approach and test the merits of multichannel TMS. Three different multichannel coil arrays were modeled in addition to a conventional figure-8 coil for comparison. Simulations were performed on finite element head models of six subjects constructed from anatomical MR images via an automated pipeline. Multichannel TMS arrays exhibited significantly more focal induced electric field magnitudes compared to the figure-8 coil. Additionally, electrical steering of stimulation sites without physical movement of the coil array was demonstrated.

  1. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  2. The estimation of branching curves in the presence of subject-specific random effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Angelo; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Guo, Wensheng

    2014-12-20

    Branching curves are a technique for modeling curves that change trajectory at a change (branching) point. Currently, the estimation framework is limited to independent data, and smoothing splines are used for estimation. This article aims to extend the branching curve framework to the longitudinal data setting where the branching point varies by subject. If the branching point is modeled as a random effect, then the longitudinal branching curve framework is a semiparametric nonlinear mixed effects model. Given existing issues with using random effects within a smoothing spline, we express the model as a B-spline based semiparametric nonlinear mixed effects model. Simple, clever smoothness constraints are enforced on the B-splines at the change point. The method is applied to Women's Health data where we model the shape of the labor curve (cervical dilation measured longitudinally) before and after treatment with oxytocin (a labor stimulant). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.

  4. Occurrence of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp culturing waters and its brunt in specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei with particular allusion to molecular verdicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.

  5. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Haritha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  6. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Peter C

    2011-08-12

    Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs) displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination). We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag) which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i) their size and (ii) which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 seeds was

  7. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennblom Trevor J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination. We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i their size and (ii which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1

  8. Site-specific effects of apolipoprotein E expression on diet-induced obesity and white adipose tissue metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziri, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Xepapadaki, Eva; Birli, Eleni; Karavia, Eleni A; Papakosta, Eugenia; Filou, Serafoula; Constantinou, Caterina; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2018-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been strongly implicated in the development of diet induced obesity. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of brain and peripherally expressed human apolipoprotein E3 (APOE3), the most common human isoform, to diet induced obesity. In our studies APOE3 knock-in (Apoe3 knock-in ), Apoe-deficient (apoe -/- ) and brain-specific expressing APOE3 (Apoe3 brain ) mice were fed western-type diet for 12week and biochemical analyses were performed. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of APOE3 to apoe -/- mice was employed, as a means to achieve APOE3 expression selectively in periphery, since peripherally expressed APOE does not cross blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Our data suggest a bimodal role of APOE3 in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial metabolic activation that is highly dependent on its site of expression and independent of postprandial dietary lipid deposition. Our findings indicate that brain APOE3 expression is associated with a potent inhibition of visceral WAT mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to significantly reduced substrate oxidation, increased fat accumulation and obesity. In contrast, peripherally expressed APOE3 is associated with a notable shift of substrate oxidation towards non-shivering thermogenesis in visceral WAT mitochondria, leading to resistance to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of Kinesio Taping on postural control in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Soheila; Rojhani-Shirazi, Zahra; Shokri, Esmaeil; García-Muro San José, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in postural control during upright standing in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and the effect of Kinesio taping on the postural control. Twenty subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The center of pressure excursion was evaluated before the intervention for both groups, and immediately after intervention for the low back pain group. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney test and repeated measure ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis of the data. There were significant differences in the center of pressure excursion between the low back pain group versus the healthy group. The results of the ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean COP displacement and velocity before Kinesio Taping, immediately after, and 24 h after in the low back pain group. There are poor postural control mechanisms in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain. Kinesio taping seems to change postural control immediately and have lasting effects until the day after. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Other subjects, other school? Strategies and practices in the context of specific schools for the deaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Camatti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The deaf community has recursively searched for specific schools for the deaf because it is a space where you could find safety and resistance conditions. Through this article, it seeks to understand how the assumptions that support the school institution are directed, given the nearness with the movements for the deaf. To accomplish this approach, we used excerpts from interviews with deaf, teachers and students from different specifically schools for the deaf of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The studies of the post-structuralist concern provided the theoretical tools that enabled the analysis. Through this research, it became clear how the deaf community falls within the school, making the assumptions of cultural capital legitimized in the school for the deaf. Nevertheless, it was possible to look at how the processes of discipline inherent in the educational institution happen the same way in the school for the deaf, even though it was taken by the deaf as the site of redemption and as its largest trench.

  11. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. Methods & Procedures This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Conclusions & Implications Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children

  12. High plasma apolipoprotein B identifies obese subjects who best ameliorate white adipose tissue dysfunction and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia after a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonnette, Simon; Saint-Pierre, Nathalie; Lamantia, Valerie; Leroux, Catherine; Provost, Viviane; Cyr, Yannick; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Faraj, May

    2018-06-18

    To optimize the prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D), high-risk obese subjects with the best metabolic recovery after a hypocaloric diet should be targeted. Apolipoprotein B lipoproteins (apoB lipoproteins) induce white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction, which in turn promotes postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia. The aim of this study was to explore whether high plasma apoB, or number of plasma apoB lipoproteins, identifies subjects who best ameliorate WAT dysfunction and related risk factors after a hypocaloric diet. Fifty-nine men and postmenopausal women [mean ± SD age: 58 ± 6 y; body mass index (kg/m2): 32.6 ± 4.6] completed a prospective study with a 6-mo hypocaloric diet (-500 kcal/d). Glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and insulin sensitivity (IS) were measured by 1-h intravenous glucose-tolerance test (IVGTT) followed by a 3-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, respectively. Ex vivo gynoid WAT function (i.e., hydrolysis and storage of 3H-triolein-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) and 6-h postprandial plasma clearance of a 13C-triolein-labeled high-fat meal were measured in a subsample (n = 25). Postintervention first-phase GIISIVGTT and total C-peptide secretion decreased in both sexes, whereas second-phase and total GIISIVGTT and clamp IS were ameliorated in men (P hypocaloric diet. We propose that subjects with high plasma apoB represent an optimal target group for the primary prevention of T2D by hypocaloric diets. This trial was registered at BioMed Central as ISRCTN14476404.

  13. Specific immunotherapy with allergoids in atopic subjects, hyporeactive to other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, G; Valcurone, G; Agostoni, A; Sacchi, G; Tassi, G C

    1986-01-01

    Allergoids comply with the therapeutic requirement to reach high doses of the injected allergen, since the modifications of the allergens cause a loss of allergenicity, though the immunogenicity is being retained. Considering that it is possible to use a starting dose 40 times higher in comparison with retard vaccines, we thought it very expedient to treat with allergoids 18 patients allergic to parietaria, and 12 patients allergic to grass pollen, who had shown no clinical improvement after immunotherapy, lasting for at least three years with retard vaccines. The therapeutic results obtained are the following: improvement in 66% of the parietaria allergic patients after the first year, and of the 72% in the second year, of the 75% of the grass pollen allergic patients after the first year and of the 83% in the second year. They can be interpreted as due to the fact that such patients are always poorly reactive to the doses of allergens commonly present in retard vaccines. On the contrary, they do react to allergoids, both due to the high amount of allergen administered, and to the fact that polymerization brings about a stronger epitopic expression matched by a higher immunogenic activity. Moreover, the data are also indicative for a good relationship between the antibody titer of antigen-specific blocking IgG and the clinical effectiveness valued by means of symptom and medication scores.

  14. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  15. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Ferraiuoli; Jonathan C. Taylor; Emily Martin; John W. Fenner; Andrew J. Narracott

    2017-01-01

    3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a ref...

  16. Absence of race- or gender-specific income disparities among full-time white and Asian general internists working for the Veterans Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2010-02-01

    Gender-based, but not race-based, income disparities exist among general internists who practice medicine in the private sector. The aim of this study was to assess whether race- or gender-based income disparities existed among full-time white and Asian general internists who worked for the Veterans Health Administration of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) between fiscal years 2004 and 2007, and whether any disparities changed after the VA enacted physician pay reform in early 2006. A retrospective study was conducted of all nonsupervisory, board-certified, full-time white or Asian VA general internists who did not change their location of practice between fiscal years 2004 and 2007. A longitudinal cohort design and linear regression modeling, adjusted for physician characteristics, were used to compare race- and gender-specific incomes in fiscal years 2004-2007. A total of 176 physicians were included in the study: 82 white males, 33 Asian males, 30 white females, and 31 Asian females. In all fiscal years examined, white males had the highest mean annual incomes, though not statistically significantly so. Regression analyses for fiscal years 2004 through 2006 revealed that physician age and years of service were predictive of total income. After physician pay reform was enacted, Asian male VA primary care physicians had higher annual incomes than did physicians in all other race or gender categories, after adjustment for age and years of VA service, though these differences were not statistically significant. No significant gender-based income disparities were noted among these white and Asian VA physicians. Our findings for white and Asian general internists suggest that the VA' s goal of maintaining a racially diverse workforce may have been effected, in part, through use of market pay among primary care general internists. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Knee medial and lateral contact forces in a musculoskeletal model with subject-specific contact point trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeighami, A; Aissaoui, R; Dumas, R

    2018-03-01

    Contact point (CP) trajectory is a crucial parameter in estimating medial/lateral tibio-femoral contact forces from the musculoskeletal (MSK) models. The objective of the present study was to develop a method to incorporate the subject-specific CP trajectories into the MSK model. Ten healthy subjects performed 45 s treadmill gait trials. The subject-specific CP trajectories were constructed on the tibia and femur as a function of extension-flexion using low-dose bi-plane X-ray images during a quasi-static squat. At each extension-flexion position, the tibia and femur CPs were superimposed in the three directions on the medial side, and in the anterior-posterior and proximal-distal directions on the lateral side to form the five kinematic constraints of the knee joint. The Lagrange multipliers associated to these constraints directly yielded the medial/lateral contact forces. The results from the personalized CP trajectory model were compared against the linear CP trajectory and sphere-on-plane CP trajectory models which were adapted from the commonly used MSK models. Changing the CP trajectory had a remarkable impact on the knee kinematics and changed the medial and lateral contact forces by 1.03 BW and 0.65 BW respectively, in certain subjects. The direction and magnitude of the medial/lateral contact force were highly variable among the subjects and the medial-lateral shift of the CPs alone could not determine the increase/decrease pattern of the contact forces. The suggested kinematic constraints are adaptable to the CP trajectories derived from a variety of joint models and those experimentally measured from the 3D imaging techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  19. A -30G>A polymorphism of the beta-cell-specific glucokinase promoter associates with hyperglycemia in the general population of whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Christian S; Ek, Jakob; Urhammer, Søren A

    2005-01-01

    of whites, as well as with features of the World Health Organization (WHO)-defined metabolic syndrome. The GCK -30G>A polymorphism was genotyped in the population-based Inter99 study cohort (5,965 subjects) and in 332 nondiabetic subjects and 1,063 patients with type 2 diabetes. In the Inter99 cohort......A graded relationship has been reported between fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels and the subsequent risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that the GCK -30G>A promoter polymorphism is associated with elevated glycemia in the middle-aged general population......, the GCK -30A allele was associated with increased fasting (P 1,325 subjects with the metabolic syndrome than among 1,679 subjects without any components...

  20. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a subject-specific, torque-driven computer simulation model of one-handed tennis backhand groundstrokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, Behzat B; King, Mark A; Mitchell, Sean R

    2011-11-01

    A torque-driven, subject-specific 3-D computer simulation model of the impact phase of one-handed tennis backhand strokes was evaluated by comparing performance and simulation results. Backhand strokes of an elite subject were recorded on an artificial tennis court. Over the 50-ms period after impact, good agreement was found with an overall RMS difference of 3.3° between matching simulation and performance in terms of joint and racket angles. Consistent with previous experimental research, the evaluation process showed that grip tightness and ball impact location are important factors that affect postimpact racket and arm kinematics. Associated with these factors, the model can be used for a better understanding of the eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors during one-handed backhand ground strokes, a hypothesized mechanism of tennis elbow.

  2. A Structured Review of Generic and Specific Instruments for Measuring the Subjectively Assessed Quality of Life of Seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kacmarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to offer a review of the instruments designed for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors. At present it is possible to notice an increase of interest in the issue of the quality of life of specific groups of population; in addition, there is a large number of tools for its measuring. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of generic and specific instruments for measuring quality of life of seniors which have been published in peer-reviewed journals and whose psychometric parameters have been verified. The search procedure formed a part of a larger retrieval search in which we analyzed 4829 abstracts in EBSCO and ProQuest Central full-text databases. We found 831 instruments which claimed to be measuring quality of life and were verified their reliability or validity. We identified 3 groups of instruments suitable for use in the senior age-group: generic methodologies applicable to adults in general, 7 generic tools and 9 specific tools designed exclusively for the senior age. The paper presents the measures designed for seniors who were analyzed and compared with regard to their psychometric parameters, purpose and theoretical framework utilized for their construction. In conclusion the authors of the study provide recommendations for the use of the selected methodologies for measuring the subjectively assessed quality of life of seniors.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  4. Cell and receptor type-specific alterations in markers of GABA neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morris, Harvey M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments in cognitive control, such as those involved in working memory, are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. This dysfunction appears to result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. In this paper, we review recent findings indicating that the altered DLPFC circuitry in subjects with schizophrenia reflects changes in the expression of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission. Specifically, using a combination of methods, we found that subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission, neuropeptide markers of specific subpopulations of GABA neurons, and certain subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. In particular, alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin suggested that GABA neurotransmission is impaired in the Martinotti subset of GABA neurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal cells. In contrast, none of the GABA-related transcripts assessed to date were altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications, suggesting that the effects observed in the human studies reflect the disease process and not its treatment. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia may be attributable to altered GABA neurotransmission in specific DLPFC microcircuits.

  5. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  6. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israt Ara Hossain

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD, were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004, postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042 and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003 as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046 and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039 in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P <0.001 after adjusting the effects of body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and HOMA%B in male subjects with NAFLD. In binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I (1.11-1.51, P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I (0.89-0.98, P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I (0.99-10.95, P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I (1.01-1.20, P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  7. Association between abnormal serum myelin-specific protein levels and white matter integrity in first-episode and drug-naïve patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Linling; Cheng, Yuqi; Jiang, Hongyan; Xu, Jian; Lu, Jin; Shen, Zonglin; Lu, Yi; Liu, Fang; Li, Luqiong; Xu, Xiufeng

    2018-05-01

    Although the structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) have been described in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), the neuropathological changes remain unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) levels and their correlations with WM integrity in first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients. We obtained diffusion tensor images of 102 first-episode, drug-naïve MDD patients and 81 age- and sex-matched controls. Serum MOG and MAG levels of all participants were measured and compared between the two groups. The correlations between WM integrity and MOG and MAG levels were examined. MOG and MAG serum levels were significantly higher in MDD patients than in controls. Patients with MDD also showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity in the WM of the bilateral thalamus, right hippocampus, right temporal lobe, and left pulvinar. At the whole-brain level, no regions showed any correlations of diffusivity parameters with MOG or MAG levels in healthy subjects. However, we observed two-way correlations between the MOG and MAG levels and the FA and mean diffusivity values in the WM of the left middle frontal lobe, right inferior parietal lobe, and right supplementary motor area in MDD patients. Further investigation with a larger sample size and longitudinal studies are required to better understand the neuropathology of WM integrity in MDD. Our findings represent the first evidence of a relationship between abnormal serum myelin-specific protein levels and impaired WM integrity, which may help to better understand the neurobiological mechanisms of MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of polyclonal antiserum specific to the 27.5 kDa envelope protein of white spot syndrome virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    You, Z.O.; Nadala, E.C.B.; Yang, J.S.; Hulten, van M.C.W.; Loh, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    A truncated version of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) 27.5 kDa envelope protein was expressed as a histidine tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The bacterial expression system allowed the production of up to 10 mg of purified recombinant protein per liter of bacterial culture. Antiserum

  9. Tissue-Specific Accumulation of Sulfur Compounds and Saponins in Different Parts of Garlic Cloves from Purple and White Ecotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diretto, Gianfranco; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Argandoña, Javier; Castillo, Purificación; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes; Ahrazem, Oussama

    2017-08-20

    This study set out to determine the distribution of sulfur compounds and saponin metabolites in different parts of garlic cloves. Three fractions from purple and white garlic ecotypes were obtained: the tunic (SS), internal (IS) and external (ES) parts of the clove. Liquid Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), together with bioinformatics including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering (HCL) and correlation network analyses were carried out. Results showed that the distribution of these metabolites in the different parts of garlic bulbs was different for the purple and the white ecotypes, with the main difference being a slightly higher number of sulfur compounds in purple garlic. The SS fraction in purple garlic had a higher content of sulfur metabolites, while the ES in white garlic was more enriched by these compounds. The correlation network indicated that diallyl disulfide was the most relevant metabolite with regards to sulfur compound metabolism in garlic. The total number of saponins was almost 40-fold higher in purple garlic than in the white variety, with ES having the highest content. Interestingly, five saponins including desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, proto-desgalactotigonin, proto-desgalactotigonin-rhamnose, voghieroside D1, sativoside B1-rhamnose and sativoside R1 were exclusive to the purple variety. Data obtained from saponin analyses revealed a very different network between white and purple garlic, thus suggesting a very robust and tight coregulation of saponin metabolism in garlic. Findings in this study point to the possibility of using tunics from purple garlic in the food and medical industries, since it contains many functional compounds which can be exploited as ingredients.

  10. Gender Specific Association of Serum Leptin and Insulinemic Indices with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Prediabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Israt Ara; Akter, Salima; Rahman, Mohammad Khalilur; Ali, Liaquat

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin plays a functional role in glucose tolerance through its effects on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity which also represent the risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The present study explored the gender specific association of serum leptin and insulinemic indices with NAFLD in Bangladeshi prediabetic subjects. Under a cross-sectional analytical design a total of 110 ultrasound examined prediabetic subjects, aged 25-68 years consisting of 57.3% male (55.6% non NAFLD and 44.4% NAFLD) and 42.7% female (57.4% non NAFLD and 42.6% NAFLD), were investigated. Insulin secretory function (HOMA%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) were calculated from homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Serum leptin showed significant positive correlation with fasting insulin (r = 0.530, P = 0.004), postprandial insulin (r = 0.384, P = 0.042) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.541, P = 0.003) as well as significant negative correlation with HOMA%S (r = -0.388, P = 0.046) and HOMA%B (r = -0.356, P = 0.039) in male prediabetic subjects with NAFLD. In multiple linear regression analysis, log transformed leptin showed significant positive association with HOMA-IR (β = 0.706, P binary logistic regression analysis, only log leptin [OR 1.29 95% (C.I) (1.11-1.51), P = 0.001] in male subjects as well as HOMA%B [OR 0.94 95% (C.I) (0.89-0.98), P = 0.012], HOMA-IR [OR 3.30 95% (C.I) (0.99-10.95), P = 0.049] and log leptin [OR 1.10 95% (C.I) (1.01-1.20), P = 0.026] in female subjects were found to be independent determinants of NAFLD after adjusting the BMI and TG. Serum leptin seems to have an association with NAFLD both in male and female prediabetic subjects and this association in turn, is mediated by insulin secretory dysfunction and insulin resistance among these subjects.

  11. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K.; Fatimah, A. B.; Aghwan, Z. A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out. PMID:25049968

  12. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nakyinsige

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS or gas stun-kill (GK. The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS. HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05 were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05 with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  13. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K; Fatimah, A B; Aghwan, Z A; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Sazili, A Q

    2014-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out.

  14. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ferraiuoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a reference geometry as the subject-specific anatomy is unknown prior to image acquisition. In this work, an optical method based on 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC techniques is used to reconstruct the shape of the surface of an ex vivo porcine heart. This technique requires two digital charge-coupled device (CCD cameras to provide full-field shape measurements and to generate a standard tessellation language (STL file of the sample surface. The aim of this work was to quantify the error of 3D-DIC shape measurements using the additive manufacturing process. The limitations of 3D printed object resolution, the discrepancy in reconstruction of the surface of cardiac soft tissue and a 3D printed model of the same surface were evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated the ability of the 3D-DIC technique to reconstruct localised and detailed features on the cardiac surface with sub-millimeter accuracy.

  15. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  16. Tract-specific fractional anisotropy predicts cognitive outcome in a community sample of middle-aged participants with white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Bargalló, Núria; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Cáceres, Cynthia; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) have been consistently related to cognitive dysfunction but the role of white matter (WM) damage in cognitive impairment is not fully determined. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising tool to explain impaired cognition related to WMLs. We investigated the separate association of high-grade periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in middle-aged individuals. We also assessed the predictive value to cognition of FA within specific WM tracts associated with high-grade WMLs. One hundred participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were divided into groups based on low- and high-grade WMLs. Voxel-by-voxel FA were compared between groups, with separate analyses for high-grade PVHs and DWMHs. The mean FA within areas showing differences between groups was extracted in each tract for linear regression analyses. Participants with high-grade PVHs and participants with high-grade DWMHs showed lower FA in different areas of specific tracts. Areas showing decreased FA in high-grade DWMHs predicted lower cognition, whereas areas with decreased FA in high-grade PVHs did not. The predictive value to cognition of specific WM tracts supports the involvement of cortico-subcortical circuits in cognitive deficits only in DWMHs.

  17. Dynamic Parameter Identification of Subject-Specific Body Segment Parameters Using Robotics Formalism: Case Study Head Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Miguel; Valera, Angel; Page, Alvaro; Besa, Antonio; Mata, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of body segment inertia parameters (BSIP) improves the assessment of dynamic analysis based on biomechanical models, which is of paramount importance in fields such as sport activities or impact crash test. Early approaches for BSIP identification rely on the experiments conducted on cadavers or through imaging techniques conducted on living subjects. Recent approaches for BSIP identification rely on inverse dynamic modeling. However, most of the approaches are focused on the entire body, and verification of BSIP for dynamic analysis for distal segment or chain of segments, which has proven to be of significant importance in impact test studies, is rarely established. Previous studies have suggested that BSIP should be obtained by using subject-specific identification techniques. To this end, our paper develops a novel approach for estimating subject-specific BSIP based on static and dynamics identification models (SIM, DIM). We test the validity of SIM and DIM by comparing the results using parameters obtained from a regression model proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230). Both SIM and DIM are developed considering robotics formalism. First, the static model allows the mass and center of gravity (COG) to be estimated. Second, the results from the static model are included in the dynamics equation allowing us to estimate the moment of inertia (MOI). As a case study, we applied the approach to evaluate the dynamics modeling of the head complex. Findings provide some insight into the validity not only of the proposed method but also of the application proposed by De Leva (1996, "Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanov's Segment Inertia Parameters," J. Biomech., 29(9), pp. 1223-1230) for dynamic modeling of body segments.

  18. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  19. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharipour, Mojgan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sadeghi, Masuomeh; Khosravi, Alireza; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2013-06-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp). Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures) and for those with and without MetS. The age and smoking adjusted changes in the CRP levels and WBC counts

  20. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; van der Krogt, M M; Koopman, H F J M; Verdonschot, N

    2016-06-14

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle-tendon (MT) model parameters for each of the 56 MT parts contained in a state-of-the-art MS model. We used two metrics, namely a Local Sensitivity Index (LSI) and an Overall Sensitivity Index (OSI), to distinguish the effect of the perturbation on the predicted force produced by the perturbed MT parts and by all the remaining MT parts, respectively, during a simulated gait cycle. Results indicated that sensitivity of the model depended on the specific role of each MT part during gait, and not merely on its size and length. Tendon slack length was the most sensitive parameter, followed by maximal isometric muscle force and optimal muscle fiber length, while nominal pennation angle showed very low sensitivity. The highest sensitivity values were found for the MT parts that act as prime movers of gait (Soleus: average OSI=5.27%, Rectus Femoris: average OSI=4.47%, Gastrocnemius: average OSI=3.77%, Vastus Lateralis: average OSI=1.36%, Biceps Femoris Caput Longum: average OSI=1.06%) and hip stabilizers (Gluteus Medius: average OSI=3.10%, Obturator Internus: average OSI=1.96%, Gluteus Minimus: average OSI=1.40%, Piriformis: average OSI=0.98%), followed by the Peroneal muscles (average OSI=2.20%) and Tibialis Anterior (average OSI=1.78%) some of which were not included in previous sensitivity studies. Finally, the proposed priority list provides quantitative information to indicate which MT parts and which MT parameters should be estimated most accurately to create detailed and reliable subject-specific MS models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaliyah Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  4. Non-parametric model selection for subject-specific topological organization of resting-state functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M; van Lew, Baldur; Oei, Nicole Y L; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Milles, J

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, graph theory has been successfully applied to study functional and anatomical connectivity networks in the human brain. Most of these networks have shown small-world topological characteristics: high efficiency in long distance communication between nodes, combined with highly interconnected local clusters of nodes. Moreover, functional studies performed at high resolutions have presented convincing evidence that resting-state functional connectivity networks exhibits (exponentially truncated) scale-free behavior. Such evidence, however, was mostly presented qualitatively, in terms of linear regressions of the degree distributions on log-log plots. Even when quantitative measures were given, these were usually limited to the r(2) correlation coefficient. However, the r(2) statistic is not an optimal estimator of explained variance, when dealing with (truncated) power-law models. Recent developments in statistics have introduced new non-parametric approaches, based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, for the problem of model selection. In this work, we have built on this idea to statistically tackle the issue of model selection for the degree distribution of functional connectivity at rest. The analysis, performed at voxel level and in a subject-specific fashion, confirmed the superiority of a truncated power-law model, showing high consistency across subjects. Moreover, the most highly connected voxels were found to be consistently part of the default mode network. Our results provide statistically sound support to the evidence previously presented in literature for a truncated power-law model of resting-state functional connectivity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok; Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Rosser, Tena; Paquette, Lisa; Nelson, Marvin D.; Haynes, Robin L.; Painter, Michael J.; Blueml, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rosser, Tena [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haynes, Robin L. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  7. Assessing the accuracy of subject-specific, muscle-model parameters determined by optimizing to match isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.

  8. Fiber tract-specific white matter lesion severity Findings in late-life depression and by AGTR1 A1166C genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Warren D; Zhao, Zheen; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Payne, Martha E; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, Ranga R; Hauser, Elizabeth; MacFall, James R

    2013-02-01

    Past work demonstrated that late-life depression is associated with greater severity of ischemic cerebral hyperintense white matter lesions, particularly frontal lesions. However, these lesions are also associated with other neuropsychiatric deficits, so these clinical relationships may depend on which fiber tracts are damaged. We examined the ratio of lesion to nonlesioned white matter tissue within multiple fiber tracts between depressed and nondepressed elders. We also sought to determine if the AGTR1 A1166C and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms contributed to vulnerability to lesion development in discrete tracts. The 3T structural MR images and blood samples for genetic analyses were acquired on 54 depressed and 37 nondepressed elders. Lesion maps were created through an automated tissue segmentation process and applied to a probabilistic white matter fiber tract atlas allowing for identification of the fraction of the tract occupied by lesion. The depressed cohort exhibited a significantly greater lesion ratio only in the left upper cingulum near the cingulate gyrus (F((1,86)) = 4.62, P = 0.0344), supporting past work implicating cingulate dysfunction in the pathogenesis of depression. In the 62 Caucasian subjects with genetic data, AGTR1 C1166 carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios across multiple tracts including the anterior thalamic radiation and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. In contrast, BDNF Met allele carriers exhibited greater lesion ratios only in the frontal corpus callosum. Although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons, this study supports our hypothesis and provides preliminary evidence that genetic differences related to vascular disease may increase lesion vulnerability differentially across fiber tracts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Winter, Kathryn; Sause, William; Gallagher, Michael J.; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Porter, Arthur; Bondy, Melissa

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  10. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    evaluation was based on the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE), a modified Alzheimer Diseases Assessment Scale for global cognitive functions, and compound Z scores for memory, executive functions, speed and motor control. WMH were rated according to the Fazekas scale; the number of lacunes was assessed...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter......OBJECTIVES: In cerebral small vessel disease, white-matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes are both related to cognition. Still, their respective contribution in older people remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the topographic distribution of lacunes and determine whether...

  11. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC) is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury. To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion. Longitudinal cohort study. From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels. Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester) underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich) sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002). Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively). A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC. Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  12. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  13. Subject-specific bone attenuation correction for brain PET/MR: can ZTE-MRI substitute CT scan accurately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Maya; Fernandez, Brice; Jaubert, Olivier; Soussan, Michael; Brulon, Vincent; Buvat, Irène; Comtat, Claude

    2017-10-01

    In brain PET/MR applications, accurate attenuation maps are required for accurate PET image quantification. An implemented attenuation correction (AC) method for brain imaging is the single-atlas approach that estimates an AC map from an averaged CT template. As an alternative, we propose to use a zero echo time (ZTE) pulse sequence to segment bone, air and soft tissue. A linear relationship between histogram normalized ZTE intensity and measured CT density in Hounsfield units (HU ) in bone has been established thanks to a CT-MR database of 16 patients. Continuous AC maps were computed based on the segmented ZTE by setting a fixed linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) to air and soft tissue and by using the linear relationship to generate continuous μ values for the bone. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, four other AC maps were generated: a ZTE derived AC map with a fixed LAC for the bone, an AC map based on the single-atlas approach as provided by the PET/MR manufacturer, a soft-tissue only AC map and, finally, the CT derived attenuation map used as the gold standard (CTAC). All these AC maps were used with different levels of smoothing for PET image reconstruction with and without time-of-flight (TOF). The subject-specific AC map generated by combining ZTE-based segmentation and linear scaling of the normalized ZTE signal into HU was found to be a good substitute for the measured CTAC map in brain PET/MR when used with a Gaussian smoothing kernel of 4~mm corresponding to the PET scanner intrinsic resolution. As expected TOF reduces AC error regardless of the AC method. The continuous ZTE-AC performed better than the other alternative MR derived AC methods, reducing the quantification error between the MRAC corrected PET image and the reference CTAC corrected PET image.

  14. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S Moore

    Full Text Available White-nose syndrome (WNS is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans, depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist

  15. Specific alterations in complement protein activity of little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) hibernating in white-nose syndrome affected sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marianne S; Reichard, Jonathan D; Murtha, Timothy D; Zahedi, Bita; Fallier, Renee M; Kunz, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is the most devastating condition ever reported for hibernating bats, causing widespread mortality in the northeastern United States. The syndrome is characterized by cutaneous lesions caused by a recently identified psychrophilic and keratinophylic fungus (Geomyces destructans), depleted fat reserves, atypical behavior, and damage to wings; however, the proximate cause of mortality is still uncertain. To assess relative levels of immunocompetence in bats hibernating in WNS-affected sites compared with levels in unaffected bats, we describe blood plasma complement protein activity in hibernating little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) based on microbicidal competence assays using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Blood plasma from bats collected during mid-hibernation at WNS-affected sites had higher bactericidal ability against E. coli and S. aureus, but lower fungicidal ability against C. albicans when compared with blood plasma from bats collected at unaffected sites. Within affected sites during mid-hibernation, we observed no difference in microbicidal ability between bats displaying obvious fungal infections compared to those without. Bactericidal ability against E. coli decreased significantly as hibernation progressed in bats collected from an affected site. Bactericidal ability against E. coli and fungicidal ability against C. albicans were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI) during late hibernation. We also compared complement activity against the three microbes within individuals and found that the ability of blood plasma from hibernating M. lucifugus to lyse microbial cells differed as follows: E. coli>S. aureus>C. albicans. Overall, bats affected by WNS experience both relatively elevated and reduced innate immune responses depending on the microbe tested, although the cause of observed immunological changes remains unknown. Additionally, considerable trade-offs may exist between energy

  16. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Gifted Students' Self-Perceptions of Ability in Specific Subject Domains: Factor Structure and Relationship with Above-Level Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatek, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Current self-concept theories suggest a multi-dimensional construct, with domain-specific self-concepts hierarchically related to global self-concept. The academic domain may be comprised of subject-specific domains that are related to performance in corresponding areas. Here, gifted students' responses to questions about how they compare with…

  18. Associations among workplace environment, self-regulation, and domain-specific physical activities among white-collar workers: a multilevel longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Otsuka, Yasumasa; Inoue, Shigeru

    2018-05-31

    Psychological and environmental determinants have been discussed for promoting physical activity among workers. However, few studies have investigated effects of both workplace environment and psychological determinants on physical activity. It is also unknown which domains of physical activities are promoted by these determinants. This study aimed to investigate main and interaction effects of workplace environment and individual self-regulation for physical activity on domain-specific physical activities among white-collar workers. A multi-site longitudinal study was conducted at baseline and about 5-month follow-up. A total of 49 worksites and employees within the worksites were recruited. Inclusion criteria for the worksites (a) were located in the Kanto area, Japan and (b) employed two or more employees. Employee inclusion criteria were (a) employed by the worksites, (b) aged 18 years or older, and (c) white-collar workers. For outcomes, three domain-specific physical activities (occupational, transport-related, and leisure-time) at baseline and follow-up were measured. For independent variables, self-regulation for physical activity, workplace environments (parking/bike, signs/bulletin boards/advertisements, stairs/elevators, physical activity/fitness facilities, work rules, written policies, and health promotion programs), and covariates at baseline were measured. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was conducted to investigate multilevel associations. Of the recruited worksites, 23 worksites and 562 employees, and 22 worksites and 459 employees completed the baseline and the follow-up surveys. As results of Hierarchical Linear Modeling, stairs/elevator (γ=3.80 [SE=1.80], ppsychological approaches to increase effect sizes to promote overall physical activity.

  19. White Ring; White ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Yuzawa, H. [Nikken Sekkei Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    White Ring is a citizen`s gymnasium used for figure skating and short track speed skating games of 18th Winter Olympic Games in 1998. White Ring is composed of a main-arena and a sub-arena. For the main-arena with an area 41mtimes66m, an ice link can be made by disengaging the potable floor and by flowing brine in the bridged polystyrene pipes embedded in the concrete floor. Due to the fortunate groundwater in this site, well water is used for the outside air treatment energy in 63% during heating and in 35% during cooling. Ammonia is used as a cooling medium for refrigerating facility. For the heating of audience area in the large space, heat load from the outside is reduced by enhancing the heat insulation performance of the roof of arena. The audience seats are locally heated using heaters. For the White Ring, high quality environment is realized for games through various functions of the large-scale roof of the large space. Success of the big event was expected. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  1. Interrelations between orthostatic postural deviations and subjects' age, sex, malocclusion, and specific signs and symptoms of functional pathologies of the temporomandibular system: a preliminary correlation and regression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Wagner Cesar; Hsing, Wu Tu

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationships between postural deviations and the temporomandibular system (TS) functional health are controversial and inconclusive. This study stems from the hypothesis that such inconclusiveness is due to authors considering functional pathologies of the TS (FPTS) as a whole, without taking into account subjects' specific FPTS signs and symptoms. Based on the author and collaborators' previous studies, the present study analyzed data on body posture from a sample of 50 subjects with (30) and without (20) FPTS. Correlation analyses were applied, taking as independent variables age, sex, Helkimo anamnestic, occlusal, and dysfunction indices, as well as FPTS specific signs and symptoms. Postural assessments of the head, cervical spine, shoulders, lumbar spine, and hips were the dependent variables. Linear regression equations were built that proved to partially predict the presence and magnitude of body posture deviations by drawing on subjects' characteristics and specific FPTS symptoms. Determination coefficients for these equations ranged from 0.082 to 0.199 in the univariate, and from 0.121 to 0.502 in the multivariate regression analyses. Results show that factors intrinsic to the subjects or the TS may potentially interfere in results of studies that analyze relationships between FPTS and body posture. Furthermore, a trend to specificity was found, e.g. the degree of cervical lordosis was found to correlate to age and FPTS degree of severity, suggesting that some TS pathological features, or malocclusion, age or sex, may be more strongly correlated than others with specific posture patterns.

  2. Maintenance of subjective health during a merger : the role of experienced change and pre-merger social support at work in white- and blue-collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaananen, A; Pahkin, K; Kalimo, R; Buunk, BP; Väänänen, A.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    Prospective research on psychosocial effects on employees' health associated with organizational mergers has been scarce. The first aim of this study was to explore the subjective health effects (exhaustion and functional incapacity) of an organizational merger among employees who had experienced a

  3. Cell and Receptor Type-Specific Alterations in Markers of GABA Neurotransmission in the Prefrontal Cortex of Subjects with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, David A.; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morris, Harvey M.

    2008-01-01

    Impairments in cognitive control, such as those involved in working memory, are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. This dysfunction appears to result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. In this paper, we review recent findings indicating that the altered DLPFC circuitry in subjects with schizophrenia reflects changes in the expression of genes that encode selective presynaptic and p...

  4. [Changes in phospholipids of the brain grey and white matter during in vitro autolysis in rats subjected to acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribanov, G A; Leshchenko, D V; Golovko, M Iu

    2004-01-01

    The development of autolysis in grey brain matter of albino rats was accompanied by desintegration of aminophospholipids with parallel increase of glycerophosphates (GLP) and phosphatidic acids (PA) on early stages of incubation and lysophospholipids (LPL) on later stages. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia decreased the level of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) with simultaneous accumulation of PA. Previous hypoxia altered the character of autolytic reorganizations of phospholipids. Oscillatory reciprocal reorganizations in the system PE > PS (phosphatidylserine) were observed at early stage (1 h) and at late stages of autolysis (24 h). At the same time increased transformation of phosphatidylcholines (PC) into sphingomyelins (SM) with simultaneous accumulation GLP was registered. During autolysis of brain white matter of control rats opposite oscillatory reorganizations of PE, PC, SM, PA with reduction of PE and simultaneous increase of LPL and PA level after 1 hour of incubation were observed. Reciprocal reactions of biotransformation in system PS > PE were revealed at 4th hour. Previous hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia reduced the level of total phospholipids as well as PS at simultaneous increase of LPL. Acute hypobaric hypoxic hypoxia increased autolytic transformations in system PC > SM and induced hydrolysis of PE, PC into LPL at late stages of autolysis.

  5. Soybean and sunflower oil-induced insulin resistance correlates with impaired GLUT4 protein expression and translocation specifically in white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Ana Cláudia; Anhê, Gabriel Forato; Eichler, Paula; Takahashi, Hilton Kenji; Furuya, Daniela Tomie; Okamoto, Maristela Mitiko; Curi, Rui; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres

    2010-03-01

    Free fatty acids are known for playing a crucial role in the development of insulin resistance. High fat intake is known for impairing insulin sensitivity; however, the effect of vegetable-oil injections have never been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of daily subcutaneous injections (100 microL) of soybean (SB) and sunflower (SF) oils, during 7 days. Both treated groups developed insulin resistance as assessed by insulin tolerance test. The mechanism underlying the SB- and SF-induced insulin resistance was shown to involve GLUT4. In SB- and SF-treated animals, the GLUT4 protein expression was reduced approximately 20% and 10 min after an acute in vivo stimulus with insulin, the plasma membrane GLUT4 content was approximately 60% lower in white adipose tissue (WAT). No effects were observed in skeletal muscle. Additionally, both oil treatments increased mainly the content of palmitic acid ( approximately 150%) in WAT, which can contribute to explain the GLUT4 regulations. Altogether, the present study collects evidence that those oil treatments might generate insulin resistance by targeting GLUT4 expression and translocation specifically in WAT. These alterations are likely to be caused due to the specific local increase in saturated fatty acids that occurred as a consequence of oil daily injections. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Accumulation of Phenylpropanoids by White, Blue, and Red Light Irradiation and Their Organ-Specific Distribution in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Yeon Bok; Li, Xiaohua; Choi, Su Ryun; Park, Suhyoung; Park, Jong Seok; Lim, Yong Pyo; Park, Sang Un

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated optimum light conditions for enhancing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and the distribution of phenylpropanoids in organs of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). Blue light caused a high accumulation of most phenolic compounds, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol, at 12 days after irradiation (DAI). This increase was coincident with a noticeable increase in expression levels of BrF3H, BrF3'H, BrFLS, and BrDFR. Red light led to the highest ferulic acid content at 12 DAI and to elevated expression of the corresponding genes during the early stages of irradiation. White light induced the highest accumulation of kaempferol and increased expression of BrPAL and BrDFR at 9 DAI. The phenylpropanoid content analysis in different organs revealed organ-specific accumulation of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. These results demonstrate that blue light is effective at increasing phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage, with leaves and flowers representing the most suitable organs for the production of specific phenylpropanoids.

  7. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  8. Neuropsychological correlates of remission in chronic schizophrenia subjects: The role of general and task-specific executive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Rabanea-Souza

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The present findings suggest that executive function deficits are present in chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, specific executive processes might be associated to symptom remission. Future studies examining prospectively first-episode, drug naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be especially elucidative.

  9. Skin reactions to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 specific antigens intradermally injected in healthy subjects and patients with cervical neoplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hende, Muriel; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte I. E.; van der Hulst, Jeanette M.; de Jong, Joan; Drijfhout, Jan W.; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Valentijn, A. Rob P. M.; Wafelman, Amon R.; Slappendel, Gijs M.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Offringa, Rienk; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Kenter, Gemma G.

    2008-01-01

    We have tested the safety and feasibility of a synthetic long peptide-based HPV16-specific skin test to detect cellular immune responses to HPV16 E2, E6 and E7 in vivo. Women with cervical neoplasia (n = 11) and healthy individuals (n = 19) were intradermally challenged with 8 different pools of

  10. High resolution bone material property assignment yields robust subject specific finite element models of complex thin bone structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakdel, Amirreza; Fialkov, Jeffrey; Whyne, Cari M

    2016-06-14

    Accurate finite element (FE) modeling of complex skeletal anatomy requires high resolution in both meshing and the heterogeneous mapping of material properties onto the generated mesh. This study introduces Node-based elastic Modulus Assignment with Partial-volume correction (NMAP) as a new approach for FE material property assignment to thin bone structures. The NMAP approach incorporates point spread function based deblurring of CT images, partial-volume correction of CT image voxel intensities and anisotropic interpolation and mapping of CT intensity assignment to FE mesh nodes. The NMAP procedure combined with a derived craniomaxillo-facial skeleton (CMFS) specific density-isotropic elastic modulus relationship was applied to produce specimen-specific FE models of 6 cadaveric heads. The NMAP procedure successfully generated models of the complex thin bone structures with surface elastic moduli reflective of cortical bone material properties. The specimen-specific CMFS FE models were able to accurately predict experimental strains measured under in vitro temporalis and masseter muscle loading (r=0.93, slope=1.01, n=5). The strength of this correlation represents a robust validation for CMFS FE modeling that can be used to better understand load transfer in this complex musculoskeletal system. The developed methodology offers a systematic process-flow able to address the complexity of the CMFS that can be further applied to create high-fidelity models of any musculoskeletal anatomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  12. Automatic generation of accurate subject-specific bone finite element models to be used in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Davinelli, Mario; Taddei, Fulvia; Cappello, Angelo

    2004-10-01

    Most of the finite element models of bones used in orthopaedic biomechanics research are based on generic anatomies. However, in many cases it would be useful to generate from CT data a separate finite element model for each subject of a study group. In a recent study a hexahedral mesh generator based on a grid projection algorithm was found very effective in terms of accuracy and automation. However, so far the use of this method has been documented only on data collected in vitro and only for long bones. The present study was aimed at verifying if this method represents a procedure for the generation of finite element models of human bones from data collected in vivo, robust, accurate, automatic and general enough to be used in clinical studies. Robustness, automation and numerical accuracy of the proposed method were assessed on five femoral CT data sets of patients affected by various pathologies. The generality of the method was verified by processing a femur, an ileum, a phalanx, a proximal femur reconstruction, and the micro-CT of a small sample of spongy bone. The method was found robust enough to cope with the variability of the five femurs, producing meshes with a numerical accuracy and a computational weight comparable to those found in vitro. Even when the method was used to process the other bones the levels of mesh conditioning remained within acceptable limits. Thus, it may be concluded that the method presents a generality sufficient to cope with almost any orthopaedic application.

  13. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strain specific variation of outer membrane proteins of wild Yersinia pestis strains subjected to different growth temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Yersinia pestis strains isolated from humans and one laboratory strain (EV76 were grown in rich media at 28§C and 37§C and their outer membrane protein composition compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page. Several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 34 kDa to 7 kDa were observed to change in relative abundance in samples grown at different temperatures. At least seven Y. pestis outer membrane proteins showed a temperature-dependent and strain-specific behaviour. Some differences between the outer membrane proteins of full-pathogenic wild isolates and the EV76 strain could aldso be detected and the relevance of this finding on the use of laboratory strains as a reference to the study of Y. pestis biological properties is discuted.

  15. Racializing white drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyne, Ragan

    2004-01-01

    While drag is primarily understood as a performance of gender, other performative categories such as race, class, and sexuality create drag meaning as well. Though other categories of identification are increasingly understood as essential elements of drag by performers of color, whiteness remains an unmarked category in the scholarship on drag performances by white queens. In this paper, I argue that drag by white queens must be understood as a performance of race as well as gender and that codes of gender excess are specifically constructed through the framework of these other axes of identity. This essay asks whether white performance by white queens necessarily reinscribes white supremacy through the performance of an unmarked white femininity, or might drag performance complicate (though not necessarily subvert) categories of race as well as gender? In this essay, I will suggest that camp drag performances, through the deployment of class as a crucial category of performative femininity, might indeed be a key site through which whiteness is denaturalized and its power challenged. Specifically, I will read on camp as a politicized mode of race, class and gender performance, focusing on the intersections of these categories of identity in the drag performance of Divine.

  16. The sensitivity and specificity of subjective memory complaints and the subjective memory rating scale, deterioration cognitive observee, mini-mental state examination, six-item screener and clock drawing test in dementia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlall, S; Chipps, J; Bhigjee, A I; Pillay, B J

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of dementia screening depends on the availability of suitable screening tools with good sensitivity and specificity to confidently distinguish normal age-related cognitive decline from dementia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminant validity of 7 screening measures for dementia. A sample of 140 participants aged ≥60 years living in a residential facility for the aged were assessed clinically and assigned caseness for dementia using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revised diagnostic criteria. Sensitivity and specificity of a selection of the following screening measures were tested using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for individual and combined tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Six-Item Screener (SIS), Subjective Memory Complaint, Subjective Memory Complaint Clinical (SMCC), Subjective Memory Rating Scale (SMRS), Deterioration Cognitive Observee (DECO) and the Clock Drawing Test (CDT). Using ROC analyses, the SMCC, MMSE and CDT were found to be 'moderately accurate' in screening for dementia with an area under the curve (AUC) >0.70. The AUCs for the SIS (0.526), SMRS (0.661) and DECO (0.687) classified these measures as being 'less accurate'. At recommended cutoff scores, the SMCC had a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 45.7%; the MMSE had a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 76.0%, and the CDT had a sensitivity of 44.4% and a specificity of 88.9%. Combining the SMCC and MMSE did not improve their predictive power except for a modest increase when using the sequential rule. The SMCC is composed of valid screening questions that have high sensitivity, are simple to administer and ideal for administration at the community or primary health care level as a first level of 'rule-out' screening. The MMSE can be included at a second stage of screening at the general hospital level and the CDT in specialist clinical settings. Sequential use of the

  17. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  18. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities. The LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanne; Ryberg, Charlotte; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated that corpus callosum atrophy is associated with global cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases, but few studies have investigated specific cognitive functions. Objective: To investigate the role of regional corpus callosum atrophy in mental speed...... of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. Results: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...... processing - namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores...

  19. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that corpus callosum atrophy is associated with global cognitive decline in neurodegenerative diseases, but few studies have investigated specific cognitive functions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of regional corpus callosum atrophy in mental speed...... of the total corpus callosum area and its subregions with cognitive performance were analysed using multiple linear regression, controlling for volume of WMH and other confounding factors. RESULTS: Atrophy of the total corpus callosum area was associated with poor performance in tests assessing speed of mental...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...

  20. Homo sapiens-Specific Binding Site Variants within Brain Exclusive Enhancers Are Subject to Accelerated Divergence across Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rabail; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2018-03-01

    Empirical assessments of human accelerated noncoding DNA frgaments have delineated presence of many cis-regulatory elements. Enhancers make up an important category of such accelerated cis-regulatory elements that efficiently control the spatiotemporal expression of many developmental genes. Establishing plausible reasons for accelerated enhancer sequence divergence in Homo sapiens has been termed significant in various previously published studies. This acceleration by including closely related primates and archaic human data has the potential to open up evolutionary avenues for deducing present-day brain structure. This study relied on empirically confirmed brain exclusive enhancers to avoid any misjudgments about their regulatory status and categorized among them a subset of enhancers with an exceptionally accelerated rate of lineage specific divergence in humans. In this assorted set, 13 distinct transcription factor binding sites were located that possessed unique existence in humans. Three of 13 such sites belonging to transcription factors SOX2, RUNX1/3, and FOS/JUND possessed single nucleotide variants that made them unique to H. sapiens upon comparisons with Neandertal and Denisovan orthologous sequences. These variants modifying the binding sites in modern human lineage were further substantiated as single nucleotide polymorphisms via exploiting 1000 Genomes Project Phase3 data. Long range haplotype based tests laid out evidence of positive selection to be governing in African population on two of the modern human motif modifying alleles with strongest results for SOX2 binding site. In sum, our study acknowledges acceleration in noncoding regulatory landscape of the genome and highlights functional parts within it to have undergone accelerated divergence in present-day human population.

  1. Mapping 3D breast lesions from full-field digital mammograms using subject-specific finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Oliver, A.; Diaz, O.; Diez, Y.; Gubern-Mérida, A.; Martí, R.; Martí, J.

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific finite element (FE) models of the breast have received increasing attention due to the potential capability of fusing images from different modalities. During the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to X-ray mammography registration procedure, the FE model is compressed mimicking the mammographic acquisition. Subsequently, suspicious lesions in the MRI volume can be projected into the 2D mammographic space. However, most registration algorithms do not provide the reverse information, avoiding to obtain the 3D geometrical information from the lesions localized in the mammograms. In this work we introduce a fast method to localize the 3D position of the lesion within the MRI, using both cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammographic projections, indexing the tetrahedral elements of the biomechanical model by means of an uniform grid. For each marked lesion in the Full-Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM), the X-ray path from source to the marker is calculated. Barycentric coordinates are computed in the tetrahedrons traversed by the ray. The list of elements and coordinates allows to localize two curves within the MRI and the closest point between both curves is taken as the 3D position of the lesion. The registration errors obtained in the mammographic space are 9.89 +/- 3.72 mm in CC- and 8.04 +/- 4.68 mm in MLO-projection and the error in the 3D MRI space is equal to 10.29 +/- 3.99 mm. Regarding the uniform grid, it is computed spending between 0.1 and 0.7 seconds. The average time spent to compute the 3D location of a lesion is about 8 ms.

  2. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  3. Kinetic studies of triiodothyronine (T3) in subjects with autonomous thyroid nodule using specific antiserum for the determination of labelled T3 in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, R.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Giannessi, D.; Pilo, A.; Toni, M.G.; Carpi, A.

    1976-01-01

    The triiodothyronine (T 3 ) kinetics have been evaluated using a 125 I-T 3 and single injection technique; five patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule clinically euthyroid, one hypothyroid patient and three control subjects have been studied. Serum-labelled T 3 concentration has been measured by a new method based on extraction of the hormone on small Sephadex G-25 columns, followed by elution with specific antiserum. The analysis of experimental data has been performed using noncompartmental treatment (integral approach). Single compartment analysis of the same data has been also done and results presented for comparison. Average value of metabolic clearance rate was 26.0 1/day in control subjects while larger values (range 28.9 - 53.4 1/day) were found in patients with autonomous nodule and total inhibition of extranodular parenchyma

  4. Prevalence, clinical profile, iron status, and subject-specific traits for excessive erythrocytosis in andean adults living permanently at 3,825 meters above sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Aldo; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Dávila-Román, Victor G; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Huicho, Luis; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is a prevalent condition in populations living at high altitudes (> 2,500 m above sea level). Few large population-based studies have explored the association between EE and multiple subject-specific traits including oxygen saturation, iron status indicators, and pulmonary function. We enrolled a sex-stratified and age-stratified sample of 1,065 high-altitude residents aged ≥ 35 years from Puno, Peru (3,825 m above sea level) and conducted a standardized questionnaire and physical examination that included spirometry, pulse oximetry, and a blood sample for multiple clinical markers. Our primary objectives were to estimate the prevalence of EE, characterize the clinical profile and iron status indicators of subjects with EE, and describe subject-specific traits associated with EE. Overall prevalence of EE was 4.5% (95% CI, 3.3%-6.0%). Oxygen saturation was significantly lower among EE than non-EE group subjects (85.3% vs 90.1%, P .09 for all values). In multivariable logistic regression, we found that age ≥ 65 years (OR = 2.45, 95% CI, 1.16-5.09), male sex (3.86, 1.78-9.08), having metabolic syndrome (2.66, 1.27-5.75) or being overweight (5.20, 1.95-16.77), pulse oximetry overweight (26.7%), followed by male sex (21.5%), pulse oximetry overweight or having metabolic syndrome were associated with an important fraction of cases in our study population.

  5. Beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C immunostimulate the non-specific immune response of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Sheng; Liau, Shu-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Ting; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2016-10-01

    This study mainly evaluated the effects of orally administered beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C on the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). In this study, we found that the white shrimp oral administration with 1 g/kg of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan effectively enhanced O2(-) production and phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Shrimp were oral administration with 0.2 g/kg of vitamin C presented beneficial nonspecific immune responses and enzyme activity and also observed in the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan treatment groups. Consequently, we compared the alterations in the immune activity between the beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C groups and the evidence illustrated that combination of beta 1,3/1,6-glucan and vitamin C presented an additive effect on inducing the nonspecific immune responses of white shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  7. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  8. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloger, Oliver; Völzke, Henry; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches. (paper)

  9. Use of electromyography to optimize Lokomat® settings for subject-specific gait rehabilitation in post-stroke hemiparetic patients: A proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherni, Yosra; Begon, Mickael; Chababe, Hicham; Moissenet, Florent

    2017-09-01

    While generic protocols exist for gait rehabilitation using robotic orthotics such as the Lokomat ® , several settings - guidance, body-weight support (BWS) and velocity - may be adjusted to individualize patient training. However, no systematic approach has yet emerged. Our objective was to assess the feasibility and effects of a systematic approach based on electromyography to determine subject-specific settings with application to the strengthening of the gluteus maximus muscle in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. Two male patients (61 and 65 years) with post-stroke hemiparesis performed up to 9 Lokomat ® trials by changing guidance and BWS while electromyography of the gluteus maximus was measured. For each subject, the settings that maximized gluteus maximus activity were used in 20 sessions of Lokomat ® training. Modified Functional Ambulation Classification (mFAC), 6-minutes walking test (6-MWT), and extensor strength were measured before and after training. The greatest gluteus maximus activity was observed at (Guidance: 70% -BWS: 20%) for Patient 1 and (Guidance: 80% - BWS: 30%) for Patient 2. In both patients, mFAC score increased from 4 to 7. The additional distance in 6-MWT increased beyond minimal clinically important difference (MCID=34.4m) reported for post-stroke patients. The isometric strength of hip extensors increased by 43 and 114%. Defining subject-specific settings for a Lokomat ® training was feasible and simple to implement. These two case reports suggest a benefit of this approach for muscle strengthening. It remains to demonstrate the superiority of such an approach for a wider population, compared to the use of a generic protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Subject-specific cardiovascular system model-based identification and diagnosis of septic shock with a minimally invasive data set: animal experiments and proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffrey Chase, J; Starfinger, Christina; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Dauby, Pierre C; Desaive, Thomas; Shaw, Geoffrey M

    2011-01-01

    A cardiovascular system (CVS) model and parameter identification method have previously been validated for identifying different cardiac and circulatory dysfunctions in simulation and using porcine models of pulmonary embolism, hypovolemia with PEEP titrations and induced endotoxic shock. However, these studies required both left and right heart catheters to collect the data required for subject-specific monitoring and diagnosis—a maximally invasive data set in a critical care setting although it does occur in practice. Hence, use of this model-based diagnostic would require significant additional invasive sensors for some subjects, which is unacceptable in some, if not all, cases. The main goal of this study is to prove the concept of using only measurements from one side of the heart (right) in a 'minimal' data set to identify an effective patient-specific model that can capture key clinical trends in endotoxic shock. This research extends existing methods to a reduced and minimal data set requiring only a single catheter and reducing the risk of infection and other complications—a very common, typical situation in critical care patients, particularly after cardiac surgery. The extended methods and assumptions that found it are developed and presented in a case study for the patient-specific parameter identification of pig-specific parameters in an animal model of induced endotoxic shock. This case study is used to define the impact of this minimal data set on the quality and accuracy of the model application for monitoring, detecting and diagnosing septic shock. Six anesthetized healthy pigs weighing 20–30 kg received a 0.5 mg kg −1 endotoxin infusion over a period of 30 min from T0 to T30. For this research, only right heart measurements were obtained. Errors for the identified model are within 8% when the model is identified from data, re-simulated and then compared to the experimentally measured data, including measurements not used in the

  11. How balance task-specific training contributes to improving physical function in older subjects undergoing rehabilitation following hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Brunati, Roberto; Capone, Antonio; Pagliari, Giulia; Secci, Claudio; Zatti, Giovanni; Ferrante, Simona

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation programme including balance task-specific training in improving physical function, pain, activities of daily living (ADL), balance and quality of life in subjects after a hip fracture. Randomized controlled trial. A total of 52 older subjects selected for internal fixation due to extra-capsular hip fracture were randomized to be included in an experimental ( n = 26) and control group ( n = 26). The experimental group underwent a rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training. The control group underwent general physiotherapy, including open kinetic chain exercises and walking training. Both groups individually followed programmes of 90-minute sessions five times/week for three weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), a Pain Numerical Rating Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, the Functional Independence Measure and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. The participants were evaluated before and after training, and after 12 months. Significant effects of time, group and time × group were found for all outcome measures in favour of the experimental group. A clinically important between-group difference of 25 points was achieved after training and at follow-up in terms of the primary outcome (WOMAC function before treatment, after treatment and at follow-up was 84.8 (3.7), 39.8 (4.9) and 35.7 (6.2) for the experimental group and 80.9 (5.7), 65.2 (7.1) and 61.0 (11.1) for the control group). An inpatient rehabilitation programme based on balance task-specific training is useful in improving physical function, pain, ADL and quality of life in older patients after hip fracture.

  12. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  13. Modeling interchild differences in pharmacokinetics on the basis of subject-specific data on physiology and hepatic CYP2E1 levels: A case study with toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nong, A.; McCarver, D.G.; Hines, R.N.; Krishnan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the magnitude of interindividual variability in the internal dose of toluene in children of various age groups, on the basis of subject-specific hepatic CYP2E1 content and physiology. The methodology involved the use of a previously validated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, in which the intrinsic clearance for hepatic metabolism (CL int ) was expressed in terms of the CYP2E1 content. The adult toluene PBPK model, with enzyme content-normalized CL int , facilitated the calculation of child-specific CL int based on knowledge of hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels. The child-specific physiological parameters, except liver volume, were computed with knowledge of age and body weight, whereas physicochemical parameters for toluene were kept age-invariant based on available data. The actual individual-specific liver volume (autopsy data) was also included in the model. The resulting model was used to simulate the blood concentration profiles in children exposed by inhalation, to 1 ppm toluene for 24 h. For this exposure scenario, the area under the venous blood concentration vs. time curve (AUC) ranged from 0.30 to 1.01 μg/ml x h in neonates with low CYP2E1 concentration (<3.69 pmol/mg protein). The simulations indicated that neonates with higher levels of CYP2E1 (4.33 to 55.93 pmol/mg protein) as well as older children would have lower AUC (0.16 to 0.43 μg/ml x h). The latter values were closer to those simulated for adults. Similar results were also obtained for 7 h exposure to 17 ppm toluene, a scenario previously evaluated in human volunteers. The interindividual variability factor for each subgroup of children and adults, calculated as the ratio of the 95th and 50th percentile values of AUC, was within a factor of 2. The 95th percentile value of the low metabolizing neonate group, however, was greater than the mean adult AUC by a factor of 3.9. This study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating

  14. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  15. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  16. African-American (AA) men with local-regional prostate cancer (PC) present with higher prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels than whites: results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Winter, K.; Sause, W.; Gallagher, M.J.; Perez, C.; Bondy, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To use pretreatment serum PSA levels as an 20), gleason score (2-5,6-7,7-10), race (whites and AAs), and two interactions viz (a) PSA by race (p=0.0012) and (b) PSA by total gleason score (p=0.0001). When race was replaced by educational status, or income, or both, the fits (0.8246,0.8197, and 0.7815, respectively) were not as good as the fit with race in the model. Conclusion: The findings of this nation-wide prospective registration study with a high percentage of AA patient participation confirms previous, smaller, geographically-limited studies (1,2,3) results that AA patients with non-metastatic PC present with a higher mean PSA values than whites. The multivariate findings imply that, for each level of total gleason score, there is a higher percentage of whites with PSA levels 20. Education and/or income as surrogates of sociological status could not completely explain the racial differences. Other reasons for health-care barriers among AAs need to be identified

  17. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  18. [Clinical-demographic factors associated with fear-avoidance in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain in Primary Care: secondary analysis of intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio; Clavero-Cano, Susana; Pérez-González, Rita; Martinez-Calderon, Javier; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro

    2018-01-30

    To describe some sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of subjects with Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain (NCLBP) in Primary Care, as well as to investigate their association with Fear-Avoidance (FA). Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of an intervention study. Basic Health Areas in Costa del Sol Health District (Málaga, Spain). An analysis was performed on 147 subjects with NCLBP from a previous intervention study database in Primary Care Physiotherapy (PCP). Characteristics: age 18-65; understanding of the Spanish language; absence of cognitive disorders, fibromyalgia or dorsolumbar surgery, and to be able to perform physical exercise. The main variable was FA level (FABQ and the FABQ-PA and FABQ-W) sub-scales. Clinical variables included: pain (NRPS-11), disability (RMQ), evolution, previous treatments and diagnostic imaging. The sociodemographic variables included: gender, age, educational level, and employment status. Just over half (51.7%) of the subjects had high FA on the FABQ-PA sub-scale. Sick leave (SL) [β=24.45 (P=.009 * ); β=13.03 (P=.016 * ); β=14.04 (P=.011 * ) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively]; primary studies level [β=15.09 (P=.01 * ); β=9.73 (P=.01 * ) for FABQ and FABQ-PA], and disability [β=1.45 (P<.001); β=0.61 (P<.001); β=0.68 (P<.001) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively] were associated with FA when they were modeled by multivariate regression. Some sociodemographic and clinical features of the NCLBP population are presented. Imaging tests (81.63%) and previous passive treatments (55.78%) could reflect problems of adherence to recommendations of CPGs. Sick leave, primary studies level, and disability were associated with FA. The findings should be interpreted in the light of possible limitations. Some suggestions for clinical practice are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  20. White matter hyperintensities and changes in white matter integrity in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liya; Mao, Hui; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Holder, Chad A.

    2011-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the relationship between WMHs and white matter changes in AD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and the sensitivity of each DTI index in distinguishing AD with WMHs. Forty-four subjects with WMHs were included. Subjects were classified into three groups based on the Scheltens rating scale: 15 AD patients with mild WMHs, 12 AD patients with severe WMHs, and 17 controls with mild WMHs. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (D R ), and axial diffusivity (D A ) were analyzed using the region of interest and tract-based spatial statistics methods. Sensitivity and specificity of DTI indices in distinguishing AD groups from the controls were evaluated. AD patients with mild WMHs exhibited differences from control subjects in most DTI indices in the medial temporal and frontal areas; however, differences in DTI indices from AD patients with mild WMHs and AD patients with severe WMHs were found in the parietal and occipital areas. FA and D R were more sensitive measurements than MD and D A in differentiating AD patients from controls, while MD was a more sensitive measurement in distinguishing AD patients with severe WMHs from those with mild WMHs. WMHs may contribute to the white matter changes in AD brains, specifically in temporal and frontal areas. Changes in parietal and occipital lobes may be related to the severity of WMHs. D R may serve as an imaging marker of myelin deficits associated with AD. (orig.)

  1. Sensory-specific satiety for a food is unaffected by the ad libitum intake of other foods during a meal. Is SSS subject to dishabituation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillon, S; Thomas, A; Havermans, R; Pénicaud, L; Brondel, L

    2013-04-01

    Sensory-specific satiety (SSS) is defined as a decrease in the pleasantness of a specific food that has just been eaten to satiation, while other non-eaten foods remain pleasant. The objectives of this study were the following: (1) to investigate whether SSS for a food is affected by the ad libitum intake of other foods presented sequentially during a meal, (2) to compare the development of SSS when foods are presented simultaneously or sequentially during a meal, and (3) to examine whether SSS is modified when foods are presented in an unusual order within a meal. Twelve participants participated in three tasting sessions. In session A, SSS for protein-, fat- and carbohydrate-rich sandwiches was measured after the ad libitum consumption of single type of each of these foods. In session B, SSS was measured for the same three foods consumed ad libitum but presented simultaneously. Session C was identical to session A, except that the presentation order of the three foods was reversed. The results indicate that once SSS for a given food is reached, the ad libitum consumption of other foods with different sensory characteristics does not decrease SSS, regardless of the order in which the foods are presented. Once reached, SSS is thus not subject to dishabituation during a meal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. D-A type sensor array for differentiation and identification of white wine varieties based on specific solvent effect activated by CT-LE transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingqi; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hao; Hou, Yue; Hou, Jingdan; Li, Zhongfeng; Yang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Han, Tianyu

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we synthesize a series of compounds with electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) units. They show general solvent effect in aprotic solvents, suggesting a charge transfer (CT) process. While in protic solvents including water, ethanol and methanol, the spectra exert no polarity-dependence but a remarkable hypochromatic shift together with the fading of CT band. Dynamic analysis implies that intermolecular hydrogen bond will be formed between carboxylic acid and protic solvent, boosting another deactivation pathway that jumps off a bigger energy gap, in other words, favoring the locally excited (LE) state emission. The CT-LE transition involves variations in both absorption and emission spectra, and further poses competition with other mechanisms including activated/restricted intramolecular rotation (IR/RIR). Inspired by the cross-reactivity, we turn our attention to the development of sensor array, in order to identify white wine varieties. The differential spectral responses are recorded, generating multiple factors including absorption wavelength (λab), emission wavelength (λem), absorbance (Abs.) and emission intensity (Int.). These factors are processed with principal component analysis (PCA), creating a three-dimensional fingerprint data base for white wines. The data points in the coordinate system are clustered into 10 different groups, demonstrating a clear differentiation of all the white wines. More importantly, as our final test for whether the sensor array can identify the counterfeits, an adulterated liquor sample, which is provided by police officers, is fingerprinted on the three-dimensional diagram. Its canonical factors fall into an area distinct from the adulterated wine, indicating a clear identification.

  3. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  4. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  5. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  6. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G; Donin, Angela S; Newton, Sian L; Furness, Cheryl A; Howard, Emma L; Gillings, Rachel D; Wells, Jonathan C K; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height(2)/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height(2)/Z+weight)}. Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can misrepresent these ethnic differences.

  7. Are Ethnic and Gender Specific Equations Needed to Derive Fat Free Mass from Bioelectrical Impedance in Children of South Asian, Black African-Caribbean and White European Origin? Results of the Assessment of Body Composition in Children Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Owen, Christopher G.; Donin, Angela S.; Newton, Sian L.; Furness, Cheryl A.; Howard, Emma L.; Gillings, Rachel D.; Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM) from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. Methods Cross-sectional study of children aged 8–10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500). Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z); B: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z); C: FFM = linear combination(height2/Z+weight)}. Results Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A). The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM) and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A). Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. Conclusions Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations can

  8. Keeping Minorities Happy: Hierarchy Maintenance and Whites' Decreased Support for Highly Identified White Politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Sora; Lowery, Brian S; Guillory, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that, to avoid provoking minorities, Whites will withhold their support for White political candidates who are highly identified with their race. In Study 1, we found that White Republicans were less supportive of White candidates the higher the perceived White identity of the candidate due to beliefs that such candidates would provoke racial minorities. In Study 2, we replicated this effect with a manipulation of candidates' White identity. Study 3 found that Whites reported less support for high-identity candidates when they were led to believe that the hierarchy was unstable rather than stable. Consistent with our hypothesis that those who have the most to lose are most likely to avoid provoking minorities, in Study 4, we found that Whites with high subjective socioeconomic status (SES) varied their support for provocative White candidates as a function of hierarchy stability, whereas those with low subjective SES did not.

  9. White Paranoia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørholt, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by Alain Robbe-Grillet’s novel La Jalousie (1957), the essay contends that Michael Haneke’s Caché (2005) takes its viewers inside a postcolonial white paranoia which is, arguably, the root cause of the exclusion, segregation and racist discrimination that many immigrants from the former ...

  10. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  11. Reproducibility of haemodynamical simulations in a subject-specific stented aneurysm model--a report on the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, A G; Augsburger, L; Cebral, J R; Ohta, M; Rüfenacht, D A; Balossino, R; Benndorf, G; Hose, D R; Marzo, A; Metcalfe, R; Mortier, P; Mut, F; Reymond, P; Socci, L; Verhegghe, B; Frangi, A F

    2008-07-19

    This paper presents the results of the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge (VISC) 2007, an international initiative whose aim was to establish the reproducibility of state-of-the-art haemodynamical simulation techniques in subject-specific stented models of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). IAs are pathological dilatations of the cerebral artery walls, which are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates due to subarachnoid haemorrhage following rupture. The deployment of a stent as flow diverter has recently been indicated as a promising treatment option, which has the potential to protect the aneurysm by reducing the action of haemodynamical forces and facilitating aneurysm thrombosis. The direct assessment of changes in aneurysm haemodynamics after stent deployment is hampered by limitations in existing imaging techniques and currently requires resorting to numerical simulations. Numerical simulations also have the potential to assist in the personalized selection of an optimal stent design prior to intervention. However, from the current literature it is difficult to assess the level of technological advancement and the reproducibility of haemodynamical predictions in stented patient-specific models. The VISC 2007 initiative engaged in the development of a multicentre-controlled benchmark to analyse differences induced by diverse grid generation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technologies. The challenge also represented an opportunity to provide a survey of available technologies currently adopted by international teams from both academic and industrial institutions for constructing computational models of stented aneurysms. The results demonstrate the ability of current strategies in consistently quantifying the performance of three commercial intracranial stents, and contribute to reinforce the confidence in haemodynamical simulation, thus taking a step forward towards the introduction of simulation tools to support diagnostics and

  12. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Ruddy, Bari H; Neelakkantan, Harini; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  13. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Ruddy, Bari H [University of Central Florida, FL (United States); Neelakkantan, Harini; Meeks, Sanford L [M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, FL (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A, E-mail: anand.santhanam@orlandohealth.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  14. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Neelakkantan, Harini; Ruddy, Bari H; Meeks, Sanford L; Kupelian, Patrick A

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  15. The role of white matter lesions in cognitive impairment of vascular origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.

    2003-01-01

    Abnormalities involving the cerebral white matter, in particular the centrum semiovale, are a subject of great current interest. Partly this is because modern neuroimaging methods detect white matter changes with increasing frequency in persons older than 60 years and also because these abnormalities may be associated with specific neuro behavioral deficits, including cognitive impairment. The significance of these changes, as well as their pathophysiological background is incompletely understood. The aim of this paper is to critically review the existing knowledge about the role of the white matter lesions, based on the critical analysis of over 100 publications (most appearing in the last decade). (author)

  16. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  17. HIV-1-Specific Antibody Response and Function after DNA Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost HIV Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Little is known about the humoral immune response against DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5 boost HIV vaccine among HIV-infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. Previous studies emphasized cellular immune responses; however, current research suggests both cellular and humoral responses are likely required for a successful therapeutic vaccine. Thus, we aimed to understand antibody response and function induced by vaccination of ART-treated HIV-1-infected patients with immune recovery. All subjects participated in EraMune 02, an open-label randomized clinical trial of ART intensification followed by a six plasmid DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB and rAd5 boost HIV vaccine with matching inserts. Antibody binding levels were determined with a recently developed microarray approach. We also analyzed neutralization efficiency and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. We found that the DNA prime-rAd5 boost vaccine induced a significant cross-clade HIV-specific antibody response, which correlated with antibody neutralization efficiency. However, despite the increase in antibody binding levels, the vaccine did not significantly stimulate neutralization or ADCC responses. This finding was also reflected by a lack of change in total CD4+ cell associated HIV DNA in those who received the vaccine. Our results have important implications for further therapeutic vaccine design and administration, especially in HIV-1 infected patients, as boosting of preexisting antibody responses are unlikely to lead to clearance of latent proviruses in the HIV reservoir.

  18. Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Li, Zheng; Tan, Beiping; Lao, Ye; Duan, Zhiyong; Sun, Wuwei; Dong, Xiaohui

    2014-12-01

    The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics or antibiotics), antibiotic control (basal diet supplemented with 0.3% florfenicol), basal diet supplemented with 5 × 10(9) cfu kg(-1) , 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) and 5 × 10(11) cfu kg(-1) probiotic S12 (PS1-3). Each diet was randomly fed to quadruplication groups of 40 shrimps (0.4 ± 0.01 g) reared in tanks. After an 8-week feeding, the survival rate of shrimps fed with PS1 and PS3 were the highest among all treatments (P Vibrio harveyi at 4-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PS2 and PS3 groups than that in the control. After being infected with V. harveyi at 8-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower in the probiotic and antibiotic groups than that in the control (P < 0.05). This study suggested that probiotics could be used as an effective immunopotentiator, the optimal dose of the probiotic strain S12 is 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Real-time subject-specific monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the soft tissues of the foot: a new approach in gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnitzky, G; Yizhar, Z; Gefen, A

    2006-01-01

    No technology is presently available to provide real-time information on internal deformations and stresses in plantar soft tissues of individuals during evaluation of the gait pattern. Because internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad are critical factors in foot injuries such as diabetic foot ulceration, this severely limits evaluation of patients. To allow such real-time subject-specific analysis, we developed a hierarchal modeling system which integrates a two-dimensional gross structural model of the foot (high-order model) with local finite element (FE) models of the plantar tissue padding the calcaneus and medial metatarsal heads (low-order models). The high-order whole-foot model provides real-time analytical evaluations of the time-dependent plantar fascia tensile forces during the stance phase. These force evaluations are transferred, together with foot-shoe local reaction forces, also measured in real time (under the calcaneus, medial metatarsals and hallux), to the low-order FE models of the plantar pad, where they serve as boundary conditions for analyses of local deformations and stresses in the plantar pad. After careful verification of our custom-made FE solver and of our foot model system with respect to previous literature and against experimental results from a synthetic foot phantom, we conducted human studies in which plantar tissue loading was evaluated in real time during treadmill gait in healthy individuals (N = 4). We concluded that internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad during gait cannot be predicted from merely measuring the foot-shoe force reactions. Internal loading of the plantar pad is constituted by a complex interaction between the anatomical structure and mechanical behavior of the foot skeleton and soft tissues, the body characteristics, the gait pattern and footwear. Real-time FE monitoring of internal deformations and stresses in the plantar pad is therefore required to identify elevated deformation

  20. Self-Esteem and Achievement Expectation for White and Negro Children. Curriculum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Fred

    The relationship between self-esteem, academic expectations, and ethnic group membership was studied in a New York City elementary school which had an approximately equal enrollment of Negro, white, and Spanish-background pupils. Subjects were 162 sixth-grade students who were tested with two projective tests and one specifically designed…

  1. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.145 Dried egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  2. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  3. Proteomics analysis of egg white proteins from different egg varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiapei; Liang, Yue; Omana, Dileep A; Kav, Nat N V; Wu, Jianping

    2012-01-11

    The market of specialty eggs, such as omega-3-enriched eggs, organic eggs, and free-range eggs, is continuously growing. The nutritional composition of egg yolk can be manipulated by feed diet; however, it is not known if there is any difference in the composition of egg white proteins among different egg varieties. The purpose of the study was to compare the egg white proteins among six different egg varieties using proteomics analysis. Egg white proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 89 protein spots were subjected to LC-MS/MS. A total of 23 proteins, belonging to Gallus gallus , were identified from 72 detected protein spots. A quiescence-specific protein precursor in egg white was identified for the first time in this study. Significant differences in the abundant levels of 19 proteins (from 65 protein spots) were observed among six egg varieties. Four proteins, ovalbumin-related protein Y, cystatin, avidin, and albumin precursor, were not different among these six egg varieties. These findings suggest that the abundance, but not the composition, of egg white proteins varied among the egg varieties.

  4. Narrative Constructions of Whiteness among White Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foste, Zak

    2017-01-01

    This critical narrative inquiry was guided by two overarching research questions. First, this study examined how white undergraduates interpreted and gave meaning to their white racial identities. This line of inquiry sought to understand how participants made sense of their white racial selves, the self in relation to people of color, and the…

  5. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of low back pain with non-specific lower extremity symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2015-02-01

    Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  8. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  9. Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasyn, Andre; Lassat, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (-58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (-59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Evaluation of the effect of the specific CCR1 antagonist CP-481715 on the clinical and cellular responses observed following epicutaneous nickel challenge in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Jeanett; Skov, Lone; Wang, Lisy

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CC-chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) is thought to be involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). CP-481715 is a specific antagonist of CCR1. OBJECTIVES: To determine the inhibitory effects of CP-418 715 in ACD by evaluating the clinical signs....... CONCLUSIONS: Blocking of CCR1 only partly inhibited clinical manifestations of ACD. Several chemokine receptors are likely relevant for the cellular influx observed in ACD lesions....

  11. SPECIFIC SUBJECTS OF LICENSE ACADEMIC PROGRAM - AN IMPORTANT STAGE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MILITARY LEADERS AT NATIONAL MILITARY UNIVERSITY, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  12. Reliability of Measuring Lumbar Lordosis, Flexion and Extension Using Dual Inclinometer in Healthy Subjects and Patients with Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Garmabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurate assessment of lumbar range of motion is of great value for both evaluating lumbar functions and monitoring treatment progress. Recent research indicates that there is no general consensus on the most valid and reliable method of measuring spinal range of motion. The purpose of this study was to determine the intra-rater reliability of lumbar flexion and extension measurements (within-day and between-days using the dual inclinometer technique.   Materials & Methods: Lumbar flexion and extension of 22 women (14 healthy and 8 with low back pain, were measured by the same examiner on three occasions. The first two measurements were taken with half an hour apart on the first occasion to assess the within-day reliability and the third measurement was taken one week later to assess the between-days reliability.  Results: Within-day lumbar lordosis, flexion and extension measurements using dual inclinometer technique were shown to be very reliable with high Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC values (ICC were 98%, 77% and 69% for lordosis, flexion and extension measurements, respectively in healthy subjects and 94%, 95% and 69% for lordosis, flexion and extension measurements, respectively in patients group. Between-Days measurements also demonstrated high reliability with the high values of ICC (ICC were 96%, 70% and 67% for lordosis, flexion and extension measurements, in healthy subjects and 91%, 71% and 66% for lordosis, flexion and extension measurements, respectively in patients group. Conclusion: The results indicated that, the dual inclinometer technique appears to be a highly reliable method for measuring lumbar lordosis, flexion and extension and can be used as a reliable tool in the assessment of lumbar range of motion and monitoring therapeutic interventions.

  13. Intra-individual variability in the urine concentrations of inhaled salmeterol in male subjects with reference to doping analysis – impact of urine specific gravity correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and a-hydroxysalmeterol during visits one and two were 12.6 and 21.8%, respectively. The intra-individual variability of salmeterol and a-hydroxysalmeterol in the urine concentrations were significantly higher when uncorrected for USG with 43.0 and 43.7% versus 20.4% (p...Since 2010, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced urinary thresholds for some beta2-agonists. In doping analysis urine samples of beta2-agonists are not corrected for the Urine Specific Gravity (USG) by the WADA laboratories. Several studies have observed high differences in the urine...

  14. Erick A. White | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2011 B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder Research Assistant, Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemical Engineering, 2006-2011 Field Team Erick A. White Photo of Erick A. White Erick White Chemical Reaction Engineer Erick.White@nrel.gov

  15. Hip shape is symmetric, non-dependent on limb dominance and gender-specific. Implications for femoroacetabular impingement. A 3D CT analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Castro, Miguel; Jans, Lennart; Marques, Rui M.; Gouveia, Nelia; Consciencia, Jose G.; Soldado, Francisco; Ayeni, Olufemi R.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the reference intervals (RefInt) of the quantitative morphometric parameters of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in asymptomatic hips with computed tomography (CT) and determine their dependence on age, side, limb dominance and sex. We prospectively included 590 patients and evaluated 1111 hips with semi-automated CT analysis. We calculated overall, side- and sex-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam [omega and alpha angle (α )] and pincer-type morphology [acetabular version (ACvers), lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) and cranio-caudal coverage]. Hip shape was symmetrical and did not depend on limb dominance. The 95% RefInt limits were sex-different for all cam-type parameters and extended beyond current abnormal thresholds. Specifically, the upper limits of RefInt for α at 12:00, 1:30 and 3:00 o'clock positions were 56 , 70 and 58 , respectively, and 45 for LCEA. Acetabular morphology varied between age groups, with a trend toward an LCEA/ACvers increase over time. Our morphometric measurements can be used to estimate normal hip morphology in asymptomatic individuals. Notably they extended beyond current thresholds used for FAI imaging diagnosis, which was most pronounced for cam-type parameters. We suggest the need to reassess α RefInt and consider a 60 threshold for the 12:00/3:00 positions and 65-70 for other antero-superior positions. (orig.)

  16. The mouthfeel of white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Smith, Paul A; Cicerale, Sara; Keast, Russell

    2017-07-05

    White wine mouthfeel which encompasses the tactile, chemosensory and taste attributes of perceived viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness is increasingly being recognized as an important component of overall white wine quality. This review summarizes the physiological basis for the perception of white wine mouthfeel and the direct and interactive effects of white wine composition, specifically those of low molecular weight phenolic compounds, polysaccharides, pH, ethanol, glycerol, dissolved carbon dioxide, and peptides. Ethyl alcohol concentration and pH play a direct role in determining most aspects of mouthfeel perception, and provide an overall framework on which the other minor wine components can interact to influence white wine mouthfeel. Phenolic compounds broadly impact on the mouthfeel by contributing to its viscosity, astringency, hotness and bitterness. Their breadth of influence likely results from their structural diversity which would allow them to activate multiple sensory mechanisms involved in mouthfeel perception. Conversely, polysaccharides have a small modulating effect on astringency and hotness perception, and glycerol does not affect perceived viscosity within the narrow concentration range found in white wine. Many of the major sensory attributes that contribute to the overall impression of mouthfeel are elicited by more than one class compound suggesting that different physiological mechanisms may be involved in the construct of mouthfeel percepts.

  17. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, Madrid (Spain); Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa [Peset Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina [San Juan Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan de Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  18. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca; Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina

    2015-01-01

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  19. Patient-specific quality assurance for the delivery of 60Co intensity modulated radiation therapy subject to a 0.35 T lateral magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L.; Green, Olga L.; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy device. Methods and materials The program consisted of the following components: 1) one-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15 cm3 cubic phantom, 2) two-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30×30×20 cm3 phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers, 3) quasi- three-dimensional (3D) diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber, 4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files, and 5) 3D Monte-Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Results The ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS) computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean difference (mean ± SD) was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102, range, −3.0 % to 2.9%). The film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30, range, 87.4% to 100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34, range, 95.8% to 100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1×1 mm2 showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18, range, 97.0% to100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. Conclusions We have developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay’s patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and

  20. Patient-specific quality assurance for the delivery of (60)Co intensity modulated radiation therapy subject to a 0.35-T lateral magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L; Green, Olga L; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging-guided RT device. The program consisted of: (1) a 1-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15-cm(3) cube-shaped phantom; (2) 2-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30- × 30- × 20-cm(3) phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers; (3) quasi-3D diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber; (4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files; and (5) 3D Monte Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS)-computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean ± SD difference was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102; range, -3.0%-2.9%). Film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS-computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30; range, 87.4%-100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean ± SD passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34; range, 95.8%-100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1 × 1 mm(2) showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18; range, 97.0%-100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. We developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay's patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and action limits for ViewRay's IMRT QA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient-Specific Quality Assurance for the Delivery of 60Co Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Subject to a 0.35-T Lateral Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H. Harold; Rodriguez, Vivian L.; Green, Olga L.; Hu, Yanle; Kashani, Rojano; Wooten, H. Omar; Yang, Deshan; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This work describes a patient-specific dosimetry quality assurance (QA) program for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using ViewRay, the first commercial magnetic resonance imaging-guided RT device. Methods and Materials: The program consisted of: (1) a 1-dimensional multipoint ionization chamber measurement using a customized 15-cm 3 cube-shaped phantom; (2) 2-dimensional (2D) radiographic film measurement using a 30- × 30- × 20-cm 3 phantom with multiple inserted ionization chambers; (3) quasi-3D diode array (ArcCHECK) measurement with a centrally inserted ionization chamber; (4) 2D fluence verification using machine delivery log files; and (5) 3D Monte Carlo (MC) dose reconstruction with machine delivery files and phantom CT. Results: Ionization chamber measurements agreed well with treatment planning system (TPS)-computed doses in all phantom geometries where the mean ± SD difference was 0.0% ± 1.3% (n=102; range, −3.0%-2.9%). Film measurements also showed excellent agreement with the TPS-computed 2D dose distributions where the mean passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 94.6% ± 3.4% (n=30; range, 87.4%-100%). For ArcCHECK measurements, the mean ± SD passing rate using 3% relative/3 mm gamma criteria was 98.9% ± 1.1% (n=34; range, 95.8%-100%). 2D fluence maps with a resolution of 1 × 1 mm 2 showed 100% passing rates for all plan deliveries (n=34). The MC reconstructed doses to the phantom agreed well with planned 3D doses where the mean passing rate using 3% absolute/3 mm gamma criteria was 99.0% ± 1.0% (n=18; range, 97.0%-100%), demonstrating the feasibility of evaluating the QA results in the patient geometry. Conclusions: We developed a dosimetry program for ViewRay's patient-specific IMRT QA. The methodology will be useful for other ViewRay users. The QA results presented here can assist the RT community to establish appropriate tolerance and action limits for ViewRay's IMRT

  2. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  3. Shale Gas Technology. White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    Shale gas is extracted using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. None of which are particularly new technologies or shale gas specific. In this white paper attention is paid to Horizontal drilling; Hydraulic fracturing or 'frackin'; Other 'unconventionals'; and Costs.

  4. The effects of whiteness on the health of whites in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malat, Jennifer; Mayorga-Gallo, Sarah; Williams, David R

    2018-02-01

    Whites in the USA are the dominant racial group, with greater than average access to most material and social rewards. Yet, while whites have better outcomes than other racial groups on some health indicators, whites paradoxically compare poorly on other measures. Further, whites in the USA also rank poorly in international health comparisons. In this paper, we present a framework that combines the concept of whiteness-a system that socially, economically, and ideologically benefits European descendants and disadvantages people in other groups-with research from a variety of fields in order to comprehensively model the social factors that influence whites' health. The framework we present describes how whiteness and capitalism in the USA shape societal conditions, individual social characteristics and experiences, and psychosocial responses to circumstances to influence health outcomes. We detail specific examples of how social policies supported by whiteness, the narratives of whiteness, and the privileges of whiteness may positively and negatively affect whites' health. In doing so, we suggest several areas for future research that can expand our understanding of how social factors affect health and can contribute to the patterns and paradoxes of whites' health. By expanding research to include theoretically-grounded analyses of the dominant group's health, we can achieve a more complete picture of how systems of racial inequity affect health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the subjective quality of life of children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) agree with their parents' proxy reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotsika, V; Coccossis, M; Vlassopoulos, M; Papaeleftheriou, E; Sakellariou, K; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Kokkevi, A; Skevington, S

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate agreement between child-parent proxy reports on quality of life (QoL) in children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD) and in a control group of typically developing children. One hundred and sixteen children aged 8-14 years with SpLD, and 312 same age typically developing children with their parents (one or both), respectively, completed the child and parent versions of the KINDL(R) questionnaire. Values were analyzed with ANOVA and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Significant mean differences were found between children with SpLD and their mother's proxy ratings. So, mothers reported significantly lower scores in the dimension of everyday functioning in school, but significantly higher scores regarding the child's physical and emotional well-being. For typically developing children, significant differences between children and parents' proxy ratings were found in physical well-being and self-esteem with both parents reporting higher scores. Concerning ICC, correlations were few and low in the SpLD group but more robust in the typically developing child-parent proxy ratings with values ranging from 0.22 to 0.46. In the case of SpLD, the child's problem area, which is reflected in the KINDL(R) dimension of everyday functioning in school, seems to be an issue of controversial value that may be differentially perceived by children and their mothers. Further, it can be argued that as mothers seemed to perceive in a more negative way the child's QoL at school, they were at the same time attempting to counterbalance their reactions by overestimating the child's physical and emotional well-being. Besides differences, there is a tendency even low for mothers and children with SpLD to converge toward similar perceptions regarding the child's physical and emotional well-being and satisfaction with friends that is showing some rather common understanding of the child's overall well-being and his

  6. Comparing a disease-specific and a generic health-related quality of life instrument in subjects with asthma from the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochat Thierry

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few epidemiologic studies have assessed health-related quality of life (HRQL of asthma patients from a general population and it is unclear which instrument is best suitable for this purpose. We investigated the validity of the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ and the SF-36 completed by individuals with asthma from the population-based SAPALDIA (Swiss study on air pollution and lung diseases in adults cohort. Methods The study included 258 participants with a physician-diagnosed asthma who had completed the AQLQ and SF-36. We assessed floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency reliability and cross-sectional validity with a priori hypotheses that correlations between the specific HRQL domains (e.g. "symptoms" or "physical functioning" and the corresponding external validation measures (respiratory symptoms, need for doctor visits, limitation in activities due to asthma and lung function would capture similar aspects and be correlated moderately (≥ 0.3 to strongly (≥ 0.5, whereas non-corresponding domains be correlated weakly with each other ( Results The AQLQ showed pronounced ceiling effects with all median domain scores above 6 (scores varied from 1–7. For the SF-36, ceiling effects were present in 5 out of 8 domains. Cronbach's alpha was >0.7 for all AQLQ and SF-36 domains. Correlations between the AQLQ domains "respiratory symptoms", "activity limitation" and "environmental exposure", and the validation measures ranged from 0.29–0.57. Correlations between the "emotional function" domain and the validation measures were also in this range (0.31–0.55 and not as low as we hypothesized. For the SF-36, correlations between "physical functioning" and "role physical", and the validation measures ranged from 0.25–0.56, whereas "role emotional" and "mental health" correlated with these measures from 0.01–0.23. Conclusion The AQLQ and the SF-36 showed fairly good internal consistency. Both instruments

  7. Black and White Differentials in Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Antonio A.; Clifford, Patrick R.

    1986-01-01

    Overviews vital statistics data, emphasizing differences in health status between the Black and White populations with respect to specific diseases and mortality. Discusses major causes of death among US Blacks. (GC)

  8. Calculations of B1 Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  9. Subjective time pressure: general or domain specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl

    2014-09-01

    Chronic time pressure has been identified as a pervasive societal problem, exacerbated by high demands of the labor market and the home. Yet time pressure has not been disaggregated and examined separately across home and work contexts, leaving many unanswered questions regarding the sources and potentially stressful consequences of time pressure. Using data collected in the United States General Social Survey waves 2002 and 2004, this study disaggregates time pressure into the domains of home and work, and asks whether considering time pressures within distinct work and home contexts reveals distinct predictors or associations with stress. Findings show that both predictors and stress associations differ across work and home pressures, revealing both methodological and theoretical implications for the study of time pressure and work and family life more generally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced binding of Pittsburgh Compound-B in areas of white matter hyperintensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Goodheart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid imaging agent, Pittsburgh Compound-B, binds with high affinity to β-amyloid (Aβ in the brain, and it is well established that PiB also shows non-specific retention in white matter (WM. However, little is known about retention of PiB in areas of white matter hyperintensities (WMH, abnormalities commonly seen in older adults. Further, it is hypothesized that WMH are related to both cognitive dysfunction and Aβ deposition. The goal of the present study was to explore PiB retention in both normal-appearing WM (NAWM and WMH in a group of elderly, cognitively normal individuals. In a group of cognitively normal elderly (n = 64; 86.5 ± 2.6 years two analyses were applied: (1 ROIs were placed over periventricular areas in which WMH caps are commonly seen on all subjects, regardless of WMH burden or size. (2 Subject-specific maps of NAWM and WMH were co-registered with the PiB-PET images and mean SUVR values were calculated in these NAWM and WMH maps. PiB retention was significantly reduced in the ROIs of subjects with high WMH compared to subjects with low WMH. Additionally, in subjects with high WMH, there was significantly lower PiB retention in subject-specific maps of WMH compared to NAWM, which was not observed in subjects with low WMH, likely because of the small size of WMH maps in this group. These data suggest that WM in areas of WMH binds PiB less effectively than does normal WM. Further exploration of this phenomenon may lead to insights about the molecular basis of the non-specific retention of amyloid tracers in white matter.

  11. "Compromises That We Make": Whiteness in the Dual Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Meg

    2017-01-01

    This case study of a two-way dual language school explores the role of whiteness in a bilingual space, specifically with regards to parent involvement. I ask how whiteness operates in this setting and how the school's response to parent involvement reflects and/or challenges white supremacy. Using the concept of "interest convergence"…

  12. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by freezing...

  13. White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra Daniela; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Ourique, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    White dwarf stars are the final stage of most stars, born single or in multiple systems. We discuss the identification, magnetic fields, and mass distribution for white dwarfs detected from spectra obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 13 in 2016, which lead to the increase in the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars from 5000 to 39000. This number includes only white dwarf stars with log g >= 6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dw...

  14. A hybrid multibreath wash-in wash-out lung function quantification scheme in human subjects using hyperpolarized 3 He MRI for simultaneous assessment of specific ventilation, alveolar oxygen tension, oxygen uptake, and air trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Hooman; Kadlecek, Stephen; Xin, Yi; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Gatens, Heather; Naji, Joseph; Ishii, Masaru; Cereda, Maurizio; Rossman, Milton; Rizi, Rahim

    2017-08-01

    To present a method for simultaneous acquisition of alveolar oxygen tension (P A O 2 ), specific ventilation (SV), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the human lung, allowing reinterpretation of the P A O 2 and SV maps to produce a map of oxygen uptake (R). An imaging scheme was designed with a series of identical normoxic HP gas wash-in breaths to measure ADC, SV, P A O 2 , and R in less than 2 min. Signal dynamics were fit to an iterative recursive model that regionally solved for these parameters. This measurement was successfully performed in 12 subjects classified in three healthy, smoker, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cohorts. The overall whole lung ADC, SV, P A O 2 , and R in healthy, smoker, and COPD subjects was 0.20 ± 0.03 cm 2 /s, 0.39 ± 0.06,113 ± 2 Torr, and 1.55 ± 0.35 Torr/s, respectively, in healthy subjects; 0.21 ± 0.03 cm 2 /s, 0.33 ± 0.06, 115.9 ± 4 Torr, and 0.97 ± 0.2 Torr/s, respectively, in smokers; and 0.25 ± 0.06 cm 2 /s, 0.23 ± 0.08, 114.8 ± 6.0Torr, and 0.94 ± 0.12 Torr/s, respectively, in subjects with COPD. Hetrogeneity of SV, P A O 2 , and R were indicators of both smoking-related changes and disease, and the severity of the disease correlated with the degree of this heterogeneity. Subjects with symptoms showed reduced oxygen uptake and specific ventilation. High-resolution, nearly coregistered and quantitative measures of lung function and structure were obtained with less than 1 L of HP gas. This hybrid multibreath technique produced measures of lung function that revealed clear differences among the cohorts and subjects and were confirmed by correlations with global lung measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:611-624, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  16. White matter integrity as a predictor of response to treatment in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Marques, Tiago; Taylor, Heather; Chaddock, Chris; Dell'acqua, Flavio; Handley, Rowena; Reinders, A A T Simone; Mondelli, Valeria; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Diforti, Marta; Simmons, Andrew; David, Anthony S; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M; Kapur, Shitij; Dazzan, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The integrity of brain white matter connections is central to a patient's ability to respond to pharmacological interventions. This study tested this hypothesis using a specific measure of white matter integrity, and examining its relationship to treatment response using a prospective design in patients within their first episode of psychosis. Diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired in 63 patients with first episode psychosis and 52 healthy control subjects (baseline). Response was assessed after 12 weeks and patients were classified as responders or non-responders according to treatment outcome. At this second time-point, they also underwent a second diffusion tensor imaging scan. Tract-based spatial statistics were used to assess fractional anisotropy as a marker of white matter integrity. At baseline, non-responders showed lower fractional anisotropy than both responders and healthy control subjects (P psychosis. These data, together with earlier findings on cortical grey matter, suggest that grey and white matter integrity at the start of treatment is an important moderator of response to antipsychotics. These findings can inform patient stratification to anticipate care needs, and raise the possibility that antipsychotics may restore white matter integrity as part of the therapeutic response.

  17. Droppin’ Knowledge on Race: Hip-Hop, White Adolescents, and Anti-Racism Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Netcoh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the author examines how Hip-Hop can be mobilized in anti-racism educational initatives.  The author claims that existing research on Hip-Hop and white adolescents suggests a negative corrleation between white youths' engagement with Hip-Hop and their understanding of how race and racism function in American society.  In response to this research, the author argues Hip-Hop's diverse racial discourses and ideologies must be made the subject of direct and critical inquiry in secondary and post-secondary classrooms to maximize its democratic potential.  The author outlines specific approaches for how teachers can employ Hip-Hop in anti-racism curricula in secondary and post-secondary classrooms.  Collectively, the essay serves as a preliminary investigation of Hip-Hop pedagogies of race and whiteness.

  18. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  19. Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religious meaning and subjective well-being. A major emphasis is placed on assessing race differences in the relationship between these constructs. Interviews were conducted with a nationwide sample of older White and older Black adults. Survey items were administered to assess a sense of meaning in life that is derived specifically from religion. Subjective well-being was measured with indices of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The findings suggest that older adults who derive a sense of meaning in life from religion tend to have higher levels of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism. The data further reveal that older Black adults are more likely to find meaning in religion than older White adults. In addition, the relationships among religious meaning, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism tend to be stronger for older African Americans persons than older White persons. Researchers have argued for some time that religion may be an important source of resilience for older Black adults, but it is not clear how these beneficial effects arise. The data from this study suggest that religious meaning may be an important factor.

  20. Active evolution of memory B-cells specific to viral gH/gL/pUL128/130/131 pentameric complex in healthy subjects with silent human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lin; Tang, Aimin; Meng, Weixu; Freed, Daniel C; He, Linling; Wang, Dai; Li, Fengsheng; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Gui, Xun; Schultz, Robbie D; Chen, Haotai; He, Xi; Swoyer, Ryan; Ha, Sha; Liu, Yaping; Morris, Charles D; Zhou, Yu; Wang, I-Ming; Zhao, Qinjian; Luo, Wenxin; Xia, Ningshao; Espeseth, Amy S; Hazuda, Daria J; Rupp, Richard E; Barrett, Alan D; Zhang, Ningyan; Zhu, Jiang; Fu, Tong-Ming; An, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-26

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients, and in utero infection that may lead to birth defects. No vaccine is currently available. HCMV infection in healthy subjects is generally asymptomatic, and virus persists as latent infection for life. Host immunity is effective against reactivation and super-infection with another strain. Thus, vaccine candidates able to elicit immune responses similar to those of natural infection may confer protection. Since neutralization is essential for prophylactic vaccines, it is important to understand how antiviral antibodies are developed in natural infection. We hypothesized that the developmental path of antibodies in seropositive subjects could be unveiled by interrogating host B-cell repertoires using unique genetic signature sequences of mAbs. Towards this goal, we isolated 56 mAbs from three healthy donors with different neutralizing titers. Antibodies specific to the gH/gL/pUL128/130/131 pentameric complex were more potent in neutralization than those to gB. Using these mAbs as probes, patterns of extended lineage development for B-cells and evidence of active antibody maturation were revealed in two donors with higher neutralizing titers. Importantly, such patterns were limited to mAbs specific to the pentamer, but none to gB. Thus, memory B-cells with antiviral function such as neutralization were active during latent infection in the two donors, and this activity was responsible for their higher neutralizing titers. Our results indicated that memory B-cells of neutralizing capacity could be frequently mobilized in host, probably responding to silent viral episodes, further suggesting that neutralizing antibodies could play a role in control of recurrent infection.

  1. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is ba...

  2. THE WHITE BLOOD ANCESTOR?

    OpenAIRE

    M.Arulmani; V.R.Hema Latha

    2014-01-01

    This scientific research article focus that “Red colour blood” of human shall be considered as the 3rd generation Blood and the Human on origin shall be considered having white colour Blood. The white colour blood of human Ancestor shall be considered composed of only ions of Photon, Electron, Proton and free from Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, Ozone.

  3. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  4. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  5. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  6. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  7. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  8. White matter connectivity and Internet gaming disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Sang Won; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2017-01-01

    Internet use and on-line game play stimulate corticostriatal-limbic circuitry in both healthy subjects and subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We hypothesized that increased fractional anisotropy (FA) with decreased radial diffusivity (RD) would be observed in IGD subjects, compared with healthy control subjects, and that these white matter indices would be associated with clinical variables including duration of illness and executive function. We screened 181 male patients in order to recruit a large number (n = 58) of IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity as well as 26 male healthy comparison subjects. Multiple diffusion-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Tract-based spatial statistics was applied to compare group differences in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics between IGD and healthy comparison subjects. IGD subjects had increased FA values within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation, right corticospinal tract, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right cingulum to hippocampus and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) as well as parallel decreases in RD value within forceps minor, right anterior thalamic radiation and IFOF relative to healthy control subjects. In addition, the duration of illness in IGD subjects was positively correlated with the FA values (integrity of white matter fibers) and negatively correlated with RD scores (diffusivity of axonal density) of whole brain white matter. In IGD subjects without psychiatric co-morbidity, our DTI results suggest that increased myelination (increased FA and decreased RD values) in right-sided frontal fiber tracts may be the result of extended game play. PMID:25899390

  9. Poorer right ventricular systolic function and exercise capacity in women after repair of tetralogy of fallot: a sex comparison of standard deviation scores based on sex-specific reference values in healthy control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikouch, Samir; Boethig, Dietmar; Peters, Brigitte; Kropf, Siegfried; Dubowy, Karl-Otto; Lange, Peter; Kuehne, Titus; Haverich, Axel; Beerbaum, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    In repaired congenital heart disease, there is increasing evidence of sex differences in cardiac remodeling, but there is a lack of comparable data for specific congenital heart defects such as in repaired tetralogy of Fallot. In a prospective multicenter study, a cohort of 272 contemporary patients (158 men; mean age, 14.3±3.3 years [range, 8-20 years]) with repaired tetralogy of Fallot underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for ventricular function and metabolic exercise testing. All data were transformed to standard deviation scores according to the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method by relating individual values to their respective 50th percentile (standard deviation score, 0) in sex-specific healthy control subjects. No sex differences were observed in age at repair, type of repair conducted, or overall hemodynamic results. Relative to sex-specific controls, repaired tetralogy of Fallot in women had larger right ventricular end-systolic volumes (standard deviation scores: women, 4.35; men, 3.25; P=0.001), lower right ventricular ejection fraction (women, -2.83; men, -2.12; P=0.011), lower right ventricular muscle mass (women, 1.58; men 2.45; P=0.001), poorer peak oxygen uptake (women, -1.65; men, -1.14; Pstandard deviation scores in repaired tetralogy of Fallot suggest that women perform poorer than men in terms of right ventricular systolic function as tested by cardiac magnetic resonance and exercise capacity. This effect cannot be explained by selection bias. Further outcome data are required from longitudinal cohort studies.

  10. The Embeddedness of White Fragility within White Pre-Service Principals' Reflections on White Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the prevalence of white fragility within the six white, pre-service principals' online responses to readings about white privilege. Six white, pre-service principals were asked to provide commentary to class readings on the relevance of white privilege to their preparation for future positions as principals. The findings showed…

  11. Hypermedicalization in White Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Josef

    2015-09-01

    The Nazis hijacked Germany's medical establishment and appropriated medical language to hegemonize their ideology. In White Noise, shifting medical information stifles the public into docility. In Nazi Germany the primacy of language and medical authority magnified the importance of academic doctors. The muddling of identities caused complex insecurities and the need for psychological doubles. In White Noise, Professor Gladney is driven by professional insecurities to enact a double in Murray. Through the manipulation of language and medical overreach the U.S., exemplified in the novel White Noise, has become a hypermedicalized society where the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath has eroded.

  12. ESCO White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA developed this white paper to explore energy performance contracting with Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) and its potential to be a best practice for installing solar thermal water heating systems in the commercial and industrial sector.

  13. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  14. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  15. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2006-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA th...

  16. Progenitors of white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drilling, J.S.; Schoenberner, D.

    1985-01-01

    Direct observational evidence is presented which indicates that the immediate progenitors of white dwarfs are the central stars of planetary nebulae (approximately 70%), other post-AGB objects (approximately 30%), and post-HB objects not massive enough to climb the AGB (approximately 0.3%). The combined birth rate for these objects is in satisfactory agreement with the death rate of main-sequence stars and the birth rate of white dwarfs

  17. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag and Env specific T-cell responses are not detected in HTLV-I-infected subjects using standard peptide screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R Brad; Leal, Fabio E; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Segurado, Aluisio C; Nixon, Douglas F; Ostrowski, Mario A; Kallas, Esper G

    2013-01-10

    An estimated 10-20 million individuals are infected with the retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). While the majority of these individuals remain asymptomatic, 0.3-4% develop a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease, termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP results in the progressive demyelination of the central nervous system and is a differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The etiology of HAM/TSP is unclear, but evidence points to a role for CNS-inflitrating T-cells in pathogenesis. Recently, the HTLV-1-Tax protein has been shown to induce transcription of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families W, H and K. Intriguingly, numerous studies have implicated these same HERV families in MS, though this association remains controversial. Here, we explore the hypothesis that HTLV-1-infection results in the induction of HERV antigen expression and the elicitation of HERV-specific T-cells responses which, in turn, may be reactive against neurons and other tissues. PBMC from 15 HTLV-1-infected subjects, 5 of whom presented with HAM/TSP, were comprehensively screened for T-cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning HERV-K(HML-2) Gag and Env. In addition, we screened for responses to peptides derived from diverse HERV families, selected based on predicted binding to predicted optimal epitopes. We observed a lack of responses to each of these peptide sets. Thus, although the limited scope of our screening prevents us from conclusively disproving our hypothesis, the current study does not provide data supporting a role for HERV-specific T-cell responses in HTLV-1 associated immunopathology.

  18. Black and white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeldovich, Ya.; Novikov, I.; Starobinskij, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius Rsub(r). At t>>Rsub(r)/c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius. (J.B.)

  19. Black and white holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldovich, Ya; Novikov, I; Starobinskii, A

    1978-07-01

    The theory is explained of the origination of white holes as a dual phenomenon with regard to the formation of black holes. Theoretically it is possible to derive the white hole by changing the sign of time in solving the general theory of relativity equation implying the black hole. The white hole represents the amount of particles formed in the vicinity of a singularity. For a distant observer, matter composed of these particles expands and the outer boundaries of this matter approach from the inside the gravitational radius R/sub r/. At t>>R/sub r//c all radiation or expulsion of matter terminates. For the outside observer the white hole exists for an unlimited length of time. In fact, however, it acquires the properties of a black hole and all processes in it cease. The qualitative difference between a white hole and a black hole is in that a white hole is formed as the result of an inner quantum explosion from the singularity to the gravitational radius and not as the result of a gravitational collapse, i.e., the shrinkage of diluted matter towards the gravitational radius.

  20. Distinct white matter abnormalities in different idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Concha, Luis; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald W

    2011-12-01

    By definition idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) is not associated with structural abnormalities on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, recent quantitative studies suggest white and gray matter alterations in IGE. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are white and/or gray matter structural differences between controls and two subsets of IGE, namely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only (IGE-GTC). We assessed white matter integrity and gray matter volume using diffusion tensor tractography-based analysis of fractional anisotropy and voxel-based morphometry, respectively, in 25 patients with IGE, all of whom had experienced generalized tonic-clonic convulsions. Specifically, 15 patients with JME and 10 patients with IGE-GTC were compared to two groups of similarly matched controls separately. Correlations between total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures and fractional anisotropy were investigated for both groups. Tractography revealed lower fractional anisotropy in specific tracts including the crus of the fornix, body of corpus callosum, uncinate fasciculi, superior longitudinal fasciculi, anterior limb of internal capsule, and corticospinal tracts in JME with respect to controls, whereas there were no fractional anisotropy differences in IGE-GTC. No correlation was found between fractional anisotropy and total lifetime generalized tonic-clonic seizures for either JME or IGE-GTC. Although false discovery rate-corrected voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no gray matter volume differences between patient and control groups, spatial extent cluster-corrected VBM analysis suggested a trend of gray matter volume reduction in frontal and central regions in both patient groups, more lateral in JME and more medial in IGE-GTC. The findings support the idea that the clinical syndromes of JME and IGE-GTC have unique anatomic substrates. The fact that the primary clinical

  1. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  2. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  3. Black-White variations in the lagged reciprocal relationship between religiosity and perceived control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Gary

    2013-06-01

    This national longitudinal data-based multi-population LISREL study, the most comprehensive assessment to date of racial variations in the (in)congruity between religiosity and perceived control, gauges variation among Black and White Americans in the lagged reciprocal relationship between religiosity dimensions and mastery. Racial variation in the reciprocal religiosity-perceived control relationship has hitherto gone un-addressed. Prior investigations have also typically utilised cross-sectional samples - often from regional or age-specific populations. The observed public religiosity-mastery relationship over time exhibits signs of mutual reinforcement among Blacks: public religiosity enhances Blacks' subsequent mastery, while prior mastery borderline-significantly enhances their public religiosity. The subjective religiosity-mastery relationship among Whites evinces a marginally countervailing pattern: Subjective religiosity diminishes Whites' mastery, while mastery borderline-significantly enhances their subjective religiosity. The inordinately positive public religiosity-effect on Blacks' mastery notably constitutes solid support for the " resource compensation " perspective on the impact of religiosity on mastery across dominant and subordinate groups.

  4. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  5. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cherman, Aleksey, E-mail: bedaque@umd.edu, E-mail: evanb@umd.edu, E-mail: a.cherman@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  6. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  7. Population characteristics of a central Appalachian white tailed deer herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Karl V. Miller; Karl V. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Reliable estimates of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population parameters are needed for effective population management. We used radiotelemetrv to compare survival and cause-specific mortality rates between male and female white-tailed deer and present reproductive data for a high-density deer herd in the central Appalachians of West Virginia during...

  8. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, John H.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Stark, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  9. Phenotype variations affect genetic association studies of degenerative disc disease: conclusions of analysis of genetic association of 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms with highly specific phenotypes for disc degeneration in 332 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Kanna, Rishi Mugesh; Senthil, Natesan; Raveendran, Muthuraja; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Chan, Danny; Subramaniam, Sakthikanal; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Although the influence of genetics on the process of disc degeneration is well recognized, in recently published studies, there is a wide variation in the race and selection criteria for such study populations. More importantly, the radiographic features of disc degeneration that are selected to represent the disc degeneration phenotype are variable in these studies. The study presented here evaluates the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of candidate genes and three distinct radiographic features that can be defined as the degenerative disc disease (DDD) phenotype. The study objectives were to examine the allelic diversity of 58 SNPs related to 35 candidate genes related to lumbar DDD, to evaluate the association in a hitherto unevaluated ethnic Indian population that represents more than one-sixth of the world population, and to analyze how genetic associations can vary in the same study subjects with the choice of phenotype. A cross-sectional, case-control study of an ethnic Indian population was carried out. Fifty-eight SNPs in 35 potential candidate genes were evaluated in 342 subjects and the associations were analyzed against three highly specific markers for DDD, namely disc degeneration by Pfirrmann grading, end-plate damage evaluated by total end-plate damage score, and annular tears evaluated by disc herniations and hyperintense zones. Genotyping of cases and controls was performed on a genome-wide SNP array to identify potential associated disease loci. The results from the genome-wide SNP array were then used to facilitate SNP selection and genotype validation was conducted using Sequenom-based genotyping. Eleven of the 58 SNPs provided evidence of association with one of the phenotypes. For annular tears, rs1042631 SNP of AGC1 and rs467691 SNP of ADAMTS5 were highly significantly associated (p<.01) and SNPs in NGFB, IL1B, IL18RAP, and MMP10 were also significantly associated (p<.05). The rs4076018 SNP of NGFB was highly

  10. WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    WHITE COLLAR CRIME - Investigations Presentation By  Dr. Nyagudi MusanduForensic Criminologist 2nd International Securityand Safety Conference and Exhibition, 16th April, 2010 a forum hosted by Events Management Solutions at the Sarit Centre, Nairobi, Kenya  

  11. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  12. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  13. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  14. Inter-Subject Variability of Axonal Injury in Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jeffrey B; Hart, Tessa; Whyte, John; Rabinowitz, Amanda; Detre, John A; Kim, Junghoon

    2017-07-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of cognitive morbidity worldwide for which reliable biomarkers are needed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a promising biomarker of traumatic axonal injury (TAI); however, existing studies have been limited by a primary reliance on group-level analytic methods not well suited to account for inter-subject variability. In this study, 42 adults with TBI of at least moderate severity were examined 3 months following injury and compared with 35 healthy controls. DTI data were used for both traditional group-level comparison and subject-specific analysis using the distribution-corrected Z-score (DisCo-Z) approach. Inter-subject variation in TAI was assessed in a threshold-invariant manner using a threshold-weighted overlap map derived from subject-specific analysis. Receiver operator curve analysis was used to examine the ability of subject-specific DTI analysis to identify TBI subjects with significantly impaired processing speed in comparison with region of interest-based fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements and clinical characteristics. Traditional group-wise analysis demonstrated widespread reductions of white matter FA within the TBI group (voxel-wise p traumatic deficits in processing speed. Significant group-level effects do not necessarily represent consistent effects at the individual level. Better accounting for inter-subject variability in neurobiological manifestations of TBI may substantially improve the ability to detect and classify patterns of injury.

  15. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  16. Spaceflight Effect on White Matter Structural Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica K.; Kopplemans, Vincent; Paternack, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports of elevated brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) counts and volume in postflight astronaut MRIs suggest that further examination of spaceflight's impact on the microstructure of brain white matter is warranted. To this end, retrospective longitudinal diffusion-weighted MRI scans obtained from 15 astronauts were evaluated. In light of the recent reports of microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and gray matter atrophy seen in astronauts, we applied a technique to estimate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics corrected for free water contamination. This approach enabled the analysis of white matter tissue-specific alterations that are unrelated to fluid shifts, occurring from before spaceflight to after landing. After spaceflight, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in an area encompassing the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Increased radial diffusivity (RD) and decreased axial diffusivity (AD) were also detected within overlapping regions. In addition, FA values in the corticospinal tract decreased and RD measures in the precentral gyrus white matter increased from before to after flight. The results show disrupted structural connectivity of white matter in tracts involved in visuospatial processing, vestibular function, and movement control as a result of spaceflight. The findings may help us understand the structural underpinnings of the extensive spaceflight-induced sensorimotor remodeling. Prospective longitudinal assessment of the white matter integrity in astronauts is needed to characterize the evolution of white matter microstructural changes associated with spaceflight, their behavioral consequences, and the time course of recovery. Supported by a grant from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, NASA NCC 9-58.

  17. A Comparison of Colour and Black and White T. V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol; Meisner, Alan

    The relative educational effectiveness of color vs. black and white television has not been exhaustively explored. While previous studies have concentrated on the factual retention of subject matter--bypassing the subjective attitudes--this study was designed to thoroughly analyze both areas. Using Osgood's Semantic Differential and the Liking…

  18. Plato: White and Non-white Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amo Sulaiman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plato’s dialogues, the Symposium, and Phaedrus, provide a reasonableexplanation of love. G. Vlastos and M. Nussbaum do not share such anopinion. The former contends that Plato’s view of love is about lovingonly a person’s beauty, but not the entire person; thus, it falls short of anappropriate explanation of love. The latter holds that a theory of love should be complete, and that Plato’s one is incomplete on the grounds that it does not account for personal love. These criticisms will be re-evaluated in light of the duality of love (the white and non-white horses—in Phaedrus as well as participants’ views in the Symposium; a re-assessment will weaken the mentioned objections. This paper contends that from the Symposium and Phaedrus, one can have a fruitful understanding of being in love, being out of love, falling inlove, loving for its own sake and being erotically in love. In order to account for these related issues of love it is important to consider Plato’s works in terms of his “official” and “unofficial” views. The former is construed as the doctrine of the lover or loving for its own sake: this is associates with Diotima’s views which are repeated by Socrates. With reference to the latter, it is possible to explain what personal love or being in love, being out of love, falling in love, and being erotically in love involve. Erotic love will be interpreted as an extension of our philosophical conception of love, related to views of love that are mentioned in the Symposium other than Socrates’ report of Diotima’s conceptions. This paper is divided into two parts: the first one will show views of love in the Symposium. That is, being in love, being out of love, falling in love and loving for its own sake will be discussed. In addition, the forementioned criticisms will be re-evaluated. In the second section, we will show that Aristophanes’ speech expresses erotic love, and then Kant’s objections will be

  19. Morphometric analysis of vascular pathology in the orbitofrontal cortex of older subjects with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Jiang, Wei; Konick, Lisa; Overholser, James C; Jurjus, George J; Stockmeier, Craig A; Steffens, David C; Krishnan, K Ranga R; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2013-09-01

    Late-life depression has been associated with risk for cerebrovascular pathology, as demonstrated in neuroimaging studies of older depressed patients, as well as mood disorder following cerebrovascular accidents. However, more research is needed on neuroanatomical changes in late-life depression, where there has been no clearly documented link to brain injury. Such studies should examine morphological changes in medium and small sized vessels that supply the cortical gray and white matter. The present study used a non-specific histological Nissl staining and a more vessel-specific immunolabeling with endothelial marker von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to estimate density and size of blood vessel segments in the orbitofrontal cortex of 16 older subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 9 non-psychiatric comparison subjects. The density of Nissl-stained vessel segments and of segments with perivascular spaces was higher in subjects with MDD than in comparison subjects in gray (GM) and white matter (WM). In GM, the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with cross-sectional areas greater than 800 µm2 was higher in MDD. In WM, only the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with patent perivascular spaces and diameters larger than 60 µm was higher in subjects with MDD. Also in the WM, only subjects with late-onset MDD presented a significantly higher density of vWF-positive segments than comparison subjects. In older subjects with MDD, there appear to be morphological changes that increase visibility of medium-sized vessel segments with some labeling techniques, and this increased visibility may be related to increased patency of perivascular spaces around arterioles. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF VASCULAR PATHOLOGY IN THE ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX OF ELDERLY SUBJECTS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose Javier; Jiang, Wei; Konick, Lisa; Overholser, James C.; Jurjus, George J.; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Steffens, David; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.; Rajkowska, Grazyna

    2012-01-01

    Objective Late-life depression has been associated with risk for cerebrovascular pathology, as demonstrated in neuroimaging studies of older depressed patients, as well as mood disorder following cerebrovascular accidents. However, more research is needed on neuroanatomical changes in late-life depression, where there has been no clearly documented link to brain injury. Such studies should examine morphological changes in medium and small sized vessels that supply the cortical gray and white matter. Methods The present study used a non-specific histological Nissl staining and a more vessel-specific immunolabeling with endothelial marker von Willebrand Factor (vWF) to estimate density and size of blood vessel segments in the orbitofrontal cortex of 16 elderly subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 9 non-psychiatric comparison subjects. Results The density of Nissl-stained vessel segments and of segments with perivascular spaces was higher in subjects with MDD than in comparison subjects in gray (GM) and white matter (WM). In GM, the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with cross-sectional areas greater than 800 μm2 was higher in MDD. In WM, only the density of vWF-immunoreactive segments with patent perivascular spaces and diameters larger than 60 μm was higher in subjects with MDD. Also in the WM, only subjects with late-onset MDD presented a significantly higher density of vWF-positive segments than comparison subjects. Conclusions In elderly subjects with MDD, there appear to be morphological changes that increase visibility of medium-sized vessel segments with some labeling techniques, and this increased visibility may be related to increased patency of perivascular spaces around arterioles. PMID:23208772

  1. Tract-oriented statistical group comparison of diffusion in sheet-like white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyksborg, Mark; Dyrby, T. B.; Sorensen, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    tube-like shapes, not always suitable for modelling the white matter tracts of the brain. The tract-oriented technique aimed at group studies, integrates the usage of multivariate features and outputs a single value of significance indicating tract-specific differences. This is in contrast to voxel...... based analysis techniques which outputs a significance per voxel basis, and requires multiple comparison correction. We demonstrate our technique by comparing a group of controls with a group of Multiple Sclerosis subjects obtaining significant differences on 11 different fascicle structures....

  2. Verbal working memory performance correlates with regional white matter structures in the frontoparietal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-10-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working memory performance has been suggested based on the analysis of individuals with varying pathologies. This study aimed to identify correlations between white matter and individual differences in verbal working memory performance in normal young subjects. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses using T1-weighted structural images as well as voxel-based analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) using diffusion tensor imaging. Using the letter span task, we measured verbal working memory performance in normal young adult men and women (mean age, 21.7 years, SD=1.44; 42 men and 13 women). We observed positive correlations between working memory performance and regional white matter volume (rWMV) in the frontoparietal regions. In addition, FA was found to be positively correlated with verbal working memory performance in a white matter region adjacent to the right precuneus. These regions are consistently recruited by working memory. Our findings suggest that, among normal young subjects, verbal working memory performance is associated with various regions that are recruited during working memory tasks, and this association is not limited to specific parts of the working memory network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation between white matter alterations and cognitive function decline in early Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Hongyan; Qi Ji; Wang Mingshi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter (WM) integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and its relationship with cognitive function decline. Methods: DTI was performed in 32 subjects, including 14 early AD patients and 18 elder controls (ON) with a 1.5 T MR scanner. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (b) values were computed and compared for 9 regions of interest (ROI). Eight standard neuropsychological tests were performed and compared between AD and ON to evaluate basic cognitive capacities of AD. Correlation analysis was applied between FA, D values and scores of neuropsychological tests for all subjects. Results: FA significantly decreased in splenium of the corpus callosum and the posterior parietal-temporal region (S2), and (D)-bar significantly increased in the splenium in AD patients (P<0.05). AD patients showed lower scores compared with ON in all neuropsychological tests (P<0.05). FA of the splenium and S2 positively correlated with several tests scores, while D of multiple ROIs negatively correlated with several tests scores (P<0.05). Conclusions: In the early stage of AD, neuropathology has effect not only on cognitive function, but also on white matter structure, and they have strong relationship. AD patients show white matter changes in specific regions, which reflect loss in cortico-cortical connections. (authors)

  4. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  5. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  6. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  7. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  8. Object technology: A white paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, S.R.; Arrowood, L.F.; Cain, W.D.; Stephens, W.M.; Vickers, B.D.

    1992-05-11

    Object-Oriented Technology (OOT), although not a new paradigm, has recently been prominently featured in the trade press and even general business publications. Indeed, the promises of object technology are alluring: the ability to handle complex design and engineering information through the full manufacturing production life cycle or to manipulate multimedia information, and the ability to improve programmer productivity in creating and maintaining high quality software. Groups at a number of the DOE facilities have been exploring the use of object technology for engineering, business, and other applications. In this white paper, the technology is explored thoroughly and compared with previous means of developing software and storing databases of information. Several specific projects within the DOE Complex are described, and the state of the commercial marketplace is indicated.

  9. Defence White Paper 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    nurtured, particularly in Australia’s highly competitive labour market. The Government recognises that Defence’s approach to its people must be... satisfaction , increase attraction and retention, improve cost-effectiveness and support the contemporary Total Force employment model. Defence White...improve job satisfaction and thereby increase attraction and retention in areas of critical skill. Recruiting 10.13 To ensure that we have the high

  10. White in architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Hašič, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, human beings are continuously in contact with colours and shapes. Some people are well aware of and understand their influence, while others are not aware or do not pay attention. Our feelings are often associated with certain colours. We tend to paint our living environment in mood-enhancing shades and cover ourselves with our favourite colours and materials. The colour that attracts my emotions is white, therefore I set out to dedicate my research to its nature and to find ...

  11. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm/sup 2/) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author).

  12. Age-related cerebral white matter changes on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Shotai; Koide, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Okada, Kazunori; Shimote, Kouichi; Tsunematsu, Tokugoro

    1989-01-01

    Changes of cerebral white matter on computed cranial tomography related to aging were studied in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. The subjects had no histories of cerebrovascular accidents and no abnormalities in the central nervous system were shown by physical examinations and CT scans. We measured the average attenuation values (CT numbers) of each elliptical region (165 pixels, 0.39cm 2 ) in the bilateral thalamus and twelve areas of deep white matter. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess the effects of age, cranial size and cranial bone CT numbers on the brain CT numbers. We also studied the association between brain CT numbers and brain atrophy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus. CT numbers of frontal white matter surrounding anterior horns decreased with aging in 70 subjects aged 30 to 94 years. No significant correlation between age and brain CT numbers was found in any other region by multivariate analysis, because of the prominent effect of cranial bone CT numbers on brain CT numbers. Although no age-related changes of white matter CT numbers was found in 41 subjects aged 30 to 65 years, there were significant negative correlations between age and white matter CT numbers at all regions in 29 subjects aged 66 to 94 years. Brain atrophy was associated with brain CT numbers. No association was found for hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Brain CT numbers decreased with aging even in neurologically healthy persons in older age. Brain CT numbers also decreased as cerebral atrophy advanced. (author)

  13. Decoding white coat hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Dennis A; Park, Alex

    2017-01-01

    There is arguably no less understood or more intriguing problem in hypertension that the “white coat” condition, the standard concept of which is significantly blood pressure reading obtained by medical personnel of authoritative standing than that obtained by more junior and less authoritative personnel and by the patients themselves. Using hospital-initiated ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, the while effect manifests as initial and ending pressure elevations, and, in treated patients, a low daytime profile. The effect is essentially systolic. Pure diastolic white coat hypertension appears to be exceedingly rare. On the basis of the studies, we believe that the white coat phenomenon is a common, periodic, neuro-endocrine reflex conditioned by anticipation of having the blood pressure taken and the fear of what this measurement may indicate concerning future illness. It does not change with time, or with prolonged association with the physician, particularly with advancing years, it may be superimposed upon essential hypertension, and in patients receiving hypertensive medication, blunting of the nighttime dip, which occurs in about half the patients, may be a compensatory mechanisms, rather than an indication of cardiovascular risk. Rather than the blunted dip, the morning surge or the widened pulse pressure, cardiovascular risk appears to be related to elevation of the average night time pressure. PMID:28352632

  14. White dwarf planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsor Amy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that planets may survive the late stages of stellar evolution, and the prospects for finding them around White Dwarfs, are growing. We discuss two aspects governing planetary survival through stellar evolution to the White Dwarf stage. First we discuss the case of a single planet, and its survival under the effects of stellar mass loss, radius expansion, and tidal orbital decay as the star evolves along the Asymptotic Giant Branch. We show that, for stars initially of 1 − 5 M⊙, any planets within about 1 − 5 AU will be engulfed, this distance depending on the stellar and planet masses and the planet's eccentricity. Planets engulfed by the star's envelope are unlikely to survive. Hence, planets surviving the Asymptotic Giant Branch phase will probably be found beyond ∼ 2 AU for a 1  M⊙ progenitor and ∼ 10 AU for a 5 M⊙ progenitor. We then discuss the evolution of two-planet systems around evolving stars. As stars lose mass, planet–planet interactions become stronger, and many systems stable on the Main Sequence become destabilised following evolution of the primary. The outcome of such instabilities is typically the ejection of one planet, with the survivor being left on an eccentric orbit. These eccentric planets could in turn be responsible for feeding planetesimals into the neighbourhood of White Dwarfs, causing observed pollution and circumstellar discs.

  15. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Herweg, Nora A.; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy whe...

  16. Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K

    2014-08-01

    The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. Copyright © 2014 David et al.

  17. White plan and crisis management. Help guide for the elaboration of extended white plans and of white plans for health establishments. Issue 2006, appendix to circular nr DHOS/CGR/2006/401 of 2006 September 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    White plans are specific emergency plans to be implemented in public and private health establishments. While introducing necessary modifications and taking public health policy effects into account, this document first defines crises and their management (levels of intervention from the local to the national level, typology of emergency plans, emergency medical chain, extended white plans). The second part proposes a set of sheets which aim to be a support in the elaboration of the extended white plan and of the white plan. The third part, based on professional contributions and lessons learned, addresses two important issues: firstly, the crisis management exercise, and secondly the hospital under tension and white plan triggering thresholds

  18. Stark Broadening and White Dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Milan S.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available White dwarf and pre-white dwarfs are the best types of stars for the application of Stark broadening research results in astrophysics, since in the atmospheres of these stars physical conditions are very favorable for this line broadening mechanism - in hot hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs Teff = 75 000–180 000 K and log g = 5.5–8 [cgs]. Even for much cooler DA and DB white dwarfs with the typical effective temperatures 10 000-20 000 K, Stark broadening is usually the dominant broadening mechanism. In this review, Stark broadening in white dwarf spectra is considered, and the attention is drawn to the STARK-B database (http://stark-b.obspm.fr/, containing the parameters needed for analysis and synthesis of white dwarf spectra, as well as for the collective efforts to develop the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center.

  19. An Optimized Clustering Approach for Automated Detection of White Matter Lesions in MRI Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anitha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Settings White Matter lesions (WMLs are small areas of dead cells found in parts of the brain. In general, it is difficult for medical experts to accurately quantify the WMLs due to decreased contrast between White Matter (WM and Grey Matter (GM. The aim of this paper is to
    automatically detect the White Matter Lesions which is present in the brains of elderly people. WML detection process includes the following stages: 1. Image preprocessing, 2. Clustering (Fuzzy c-means clustering, Geostatistical Possibilistic clustering and Geostatistical Fuzzy clustering and 3.Optimization using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The proposed system is tested on a database of 208 MRI images. GFCM yields high sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 94% and overall accuracy of 93% over FCM and GPC. The clustered brain images are then subjected to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO. The optimized result obtained from GFCM-PSO provides sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 94% and accuracy of 95%. The detection results reveals that GFCM and GFCMPSO better localizes the large regions of lesions and gives less false positive rate when compared to GPC and GPC-PSO which captures the largest loads of WMLs only in the upper ventral horns of the brain.

  20. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of periventricular white matter and hippocampus in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kızılgöz, Volkan; Aydın, Hasan; Tatar, İdil Güneş; Hekimoğlu, Baki; Ardıç, Sadık; Fırat, Hikmet; Dönmez, Cem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose the hypoxic impairment by Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), an advanced MR imaging technique, which could not be visualised by routine imaging methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). 20 OSA patients and 5 controls were included in this prospective research. MRS was performed on these 25 subjects to examine cerebral hypoxemia in specific regions (periventricular white matter and both hippocampi). Polysomnography was assumed as the gold standard. Statistical analysis was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. In the periventricular white matter, NAA/Cho ratio in OSA patients was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences between the OSA and the control group for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios for both hippocampal regions. Additionally, Cho/Cr ratio in the periventricular white matter region of OSA group was higher than in the control group (p<0.05). Hypoxic impairment induced by repeated episodes of apnea leads to significant neuronal damage in OSA patients. MRS provides valuable information in the assessment of hypoxic ischemic impairment by revealing important metabolite ratios for the specific areas of the brain

  1. Right Fronto-Subcortical White Matter Microstructure Predicts Cognitive Control Ability on the Go/No-go Task in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Kendra E; Lahey, Benjamin B; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Boyd, Brian D; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Werts, Katherine B; Plassard, Andrew J; Applegate, Brooks; Woodward, Neil D; Landman, Bennett A; Zald, David H

    2018-01-01

    Go/no-go tasks are widely used to index cognitive control. This construct has been linked to white matter microstructure in a circuit connecting the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and pre-supplementary motor area. However, the specificity of this association has not been tested. A general factor of white matter has been identified that is related to processing speed. Given the strong processing speed component in successful performance on the go/no-go task, this general factor could contribute to task performance, but the general factor has often not been accounted for in past studies of cognitive control. Further, studies on cognitive control have generally employed small unrepresentative case-control designs. The present study examined the relationship between go/no-go performance and white matter microstructure in a large community sample of 378 subjects that included participants with a range of both clinical and subclinical nonpsychotic psychopathology. We found that white matter microstructure properties in the right IFG-STN tract significantly predicted task performance, and remained significant after controlling for dimensional psychopathology. The general factor of white matter only reached statistical significance when controlling for dimensional psychopathology. Although the IFG-STN and general factor tracts were highly correlated, when both were included in the model, only the IFG-STN remained a significant predictor of performance. Overall, these findings suggest that while a general factor of white matter can be identified in a young community sample, white matter microstructure properties in the right IFG-STN tract show a specific relationship to cognitive control. The findings highlight the importance of examining both specific and general correlates of cognition, especially in tasks with a speeded component.

  2. [Was Snow White a transsexual?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A; Mormont, C

    2002-01-01

    modalities in the transsexual dynamics. Nevertheless, one can ask oneself about the possibility of a request based on a desire rather than on a defense, or even on the existence of a defensive process diametrically opposed to the counter-phobic attitude and which, instead of actively provoking the dreaded reality, would privilege its avoidance and the search of passivity. This latter hypothesis has the advantage of being rather easy to explore with the Rorschach because, according to Exner, the predominance of passive compared to active human movement responses (which he terms the Snow White Syndrome) indicates the propensity to escape into passive fantasies and the tendency to avoid the initiative for behaviour or decision-making, if other people can do it in the subject's place (12). Our results largely confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of an opposite mechanism, as a third of subjects (n = 26) presented Snow White Syndrome. According to Exner, these transsexuals are typically characterized by hiding into a world of make believe, avoiding all responsibility, as well as any decision-making. This passivity in our Snow White Syndrome group was all the more remarkable in that, on the whole, it infiltrated into all the movement responses and seemed to define a rigid style of thinking and mental elaboration, in addition to a suggestive content of passivity. However, this condition cannot be associated with a general lack of dynamism or energy. In fact, the treatment of information, which provides data concerning the motivation to treat a stimulus field of the stimulus--whether this concerns the capture (L) of the stimulus or the elaboration (DQ+) of the response--displayed a sufficient amount of motivation. Furthermore, internal resources (EA) were considerable and were brought into play whenever it was necessary to adopt a behaviour or make a decision. Furthermore, based on these Rorschach findings, we note that in transsexuals with Snow White Syndrome, there is a

  3. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Betsy B

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phase 2® is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread. Methods An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests to the white bread control. Results For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023 Conclusion Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345

  4. Lowering the glycemic index of white bread using a white bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; Singh, Betsy B; Barrett, Marilyn L; Preuss, Harry G

    2009-10-28

    Phase 2((R)) is a dietary supplement derived from the common white kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Phase 2 has been shown to inhibit alpha-amylase, the complex carbohydrate digesting enzyme, in vitro. The inhibition of alpha-amylase may result in the lowering of the effective Glycemic Index (GI) of certain foods. The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of Phase 2 would lower the GI of a commercially available high glycemic food (white bread). An open-label 6-arm crossover study was conducted with 13 randomized subjects. Standardized GI testing was performed on white bread with and without the addition of Phase 2 in capsule and powder form, each in dosages of 1500 mg, 2000 mg, and 3000 mg. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA of all seven treatment groups using unadjusted multiple comparisons (t tests) to the white bread control. For the capsule formulation, the 1500 mg dose had no effect on the GI and the 2000 mg and 3000 mg capsule doses caused insignificant reductions in GI. For the powder, the 1500 mg and 2000 mg doses caused insignificant reductions in the GI, and the 3000 mg dose had a significant effect (-20.23 or 34.11%, p = 0.023) Phase 2 white bean extract appears to be a novel and potentially effective method for reducing the GI of existing foods without modifying their ingredient profile. Trial Registration: ISRCTN50347345.

  5. White matter integrity in kleptomania: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Correia, Stephen; Brennan-Krohn, Thea

    2007-01-01

    This study's goal was to examine microstructural organization of frontal white matter in kleptomania. Ten females with DSM-IV kleptomania and 10 female controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Inferior frontal white matter was the a priori region of interest. Trace and fractional anisotropy (FA) were also calculated for frontal and posterior cortical regions in both subject groups. Kleptomania subjects had significantly higher mean frontal Trace, and significantly lower mean frontal FA than control subjects. Group differences remained significant when right and left frontal Trace and FA were analyzed. Groups did not differ significantly in posterior Trace or FA. Kleptomania may be associated with decreased white matter microstructural integrity in inferior frontal brain regions. PMID:16956753

  6. HbA1c and Risks of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Death in Subjects without Known Diabetes: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Ye, Ming-Xin; Cheng, Jia-Hao; Zhao, Yong; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Whether HbA1c levels are associated with mortality in subjects without known diabetes remains controversial. Moreover, the shape of the dose–response relationship on this topic is unclear. Therefore, a dose–response meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Twelve studies were included. The summary HR per 1% increase in HbA1c level was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.04] for all-cause mortality, 1.05 [95% CI = 1.02–1.07) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and 1.02 (95% CI = 0.99–1.07) for cancer mortality. After excluding subjects with undiagnosed diabetes, the aforementioned associations remained significant for CVD mortality only. After further excluding subjects with prediabetes, all aforementioned associations presented non-significance. Evidence of a non-linear association between HbA1c and mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer was found (all Pnon-linearity HbA1c less than around 5.7%, and rose steeply thereafter. In conclusion, higher HbA1c level is associated with increased mortality from all causes and CVD among subjects without known diabetes. However, this association is driven by those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes. The results regarding cancer mortality should be treated with caution due to limited studies. PMID:27045572

  7. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  8. Specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for analysis of residual allergenic food proteins in commercial bottled wine fined with egg white, milk, and nongrape-derived tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Jennifer M; Apostolou, Effie; de Leon, Maria P; Stockley, Creina S; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2008-01-23

    Regulations introduced by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand in December 2002 require all wine and wine product labels in Australia to identify the presence of a processing aid, additive or other ingredient, which is known to be a potential allergen. The objective of this study was to establish sensitive assays to detect and measure allergenic proteins from commonly used processing aids in final bottled wine. Sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed and established for the proteins casein, ovalbumin, and peanut. Lower limits of detection of these proteins were 8, 1, and 8 ng/mL, respectively. A panel of 153 commercially available bottled Australian wines were tested by these ELISA, and except for two red wines known to contain added whole eggs, residuals of these food allergens were not detected in any wine. These findings are consistent with a lack of residual potentially allergenic egg-, milk-, or nut-derived processing aids in final bottled wine produced in Australia according to good manufacturing practice at a concentration that could cause an adverse reaction in egg, milk, or peanut/tree-nut allergic adult consumers.

  9. Major Superficial White Matter Abnormalities in Huntington's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Owen R.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Squitieri, Ferdinando; Sanchez-Castaneda, Cristina; Narr, Katherine; Shattuck, David W.; Caltagirone, Carlo; Sabatini, Umberto; Di Paola, Margherita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The late myelinating superficial white matter at the juncture of the cortical gray and white matter comprising the intracortical myelin and short-range association fibers has not received attention in Huntington's disease. It is an area of the brain that is late myelinating and is sensitive to both normal aging and neurodegenerative disease effects. Therefore, it may be sensitive to Huntington's disease processes. Methods: Structural MRI data from 25 Pre-symptomatic subjects, 24 Huntington's disease patients and 49 healthy controls was run through a cortical pattern-matching program. The surface corresponding to the white matter directly below the cortical gray matter was then extracted. Individual subject's Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data was aligned to their structural MRI data. Diffusivity values along the white matter surface were then sampled at each vertex point. DTI measures with high spatial resolution across the superficial white matter surface were then analyzed with the General Linear Model to test for the effects of disease. Results: There was an overall increase in the axial and radial diffusivity across much of the superficial white matter (p < 0.001) in Pre-symptomatic subjects compared to controls. In Huntington's disease patients increased diffusivity covered essentially the whole brain (p < 0.001). Changes are correlated with genotype (CAG repeat number) and disease burden (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed broad abnormalities in superficial white matter even before symptoms are present in Huntington's disease. Since, the superficial white matter has a unique microstructure and function these abnormalities suggest it plays an important role in the disease. PMID:27242403

  10. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  11. Top emitting white OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, Patricia; Luessem, Bjoern; Leo, Karl [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, George-Baehr-Strasse 1, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Top emitting organic light emitting diodes (TOLEDs) provide a number of interesting opportunities for new applications, such as the opportunity to fabricate ITO-free devices by using opaque substrates. This makes it possible to manufacture low cost OLEDs for signage and lighting applications. A general top emitting device consists of highly reflecting metal contacts as anode and semitransparent cathode, the latter one for better outcouling reasons. In between several organic materials are deposited as charge transporting, blocking, and emission layers. Here, we show a top emitting white organic light emitting diode with silver electrodes arranged in a p-i-n structure with p- and n-doped charge transport layers. The centrical emission layer consists of two phosphorescent (red and green) and one fluorescent (blue) emitter systems separated by an ambipolar interlayer to avoid mutual exciton quenching. By adding an additional dielectric capping layer on top of the device stack, we achieve a reduction of the strong microcavity effects which appear due to the high reflection of both metal electrodes. Therefore, the outcoupled light shows broad and nearly angle-independent emission spectra, which is essential for white light emitting diodes.

  12. The White House saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frank Capra expressed his gratitude to the immigrant dream come true by creating a brilliant cinematic myth about the American political system, presenting it as an 'inherently good' when in the hands of honest and good people. His 'morality fairytales', 'fantasies of good will' imbued with belief in restoration of old-new principles, offer complex reflections on an idealised Americanism of the 1930s which have become the foundation of representations of the American political system. The Capraesque narrative - 'a blend of optimism, humor, patriotism, and, to those who really understand his work, (and darkness, despair, and the need to fight for things you care about...' (Bassinger 1982: 48 - as a combination of all-American values, ordinary people and historical figures, a democracy myth - has been extended by an endless network of intertextual echoes in film and TV production. Following the developmental lines - through political melodrama, melodramatic politics and political soap opera - one will be led from Capra to the series The West Wing (1996 - 2006, House of Cards (2013 - 2015 and Madame Secretary (2014 - ; from the comprehensive Washington Postcard (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, 1939 to the focal points at the White House; from Capra's comedy to the saga of the fight against terrorism led by the president and both ordinary and trained American citizens (White House Down, 2013, Roland Emmerich.

  13. White dwarfs and revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltas, Ippocratis D.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Lopes, Ilidio

    2018-05-01

    We use the most recent, complete and independent measurements of masses and radii of white dwarfs in binaries to bound the class of non-trivial modified gravity theories, viable after GW170817/GRB170817, using its effect on the mass-radius relation of the stars. We show that the uncertainty in the latest data is sufficiently small that residual evolutionary effects, most notably the effect of core composition, finite temperature and envelope structure, must now accounted for if correct conclusions about the nature of gravity are to be made. We model corrections resulting from finite temperature and envelopes to a base Hamada-Salpeter cold equation of state and derive consistent bounds on the possible modifications of gravity in the stars' interiors, finding that the parameter quantifying the strength of the modification Y< 0.14 at 95% confidence, an improvement of a factor of three with respect to previous bounds. Finally, our analysis reveals some fundamental degeneracies between the theory of gravity and the precise chemical makeup of white dwarfs.

  14. White piedra in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Sekaran, Anand; Antaya, Richard J; Davis, Amy; Imaeda, Suguru; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2006-12-01

    White piedra is a fungal infection of the hair shaft caused by species of Trichosporon. Rarely has this infection been reported in the United States. Historically, infected individuals required shaving of their hair to achieve clearance of the infection. We sought to describe 8 cases of Trichosporon scalp infections seen in the northeastern United States. We conducted chart review and prospective evaluation of 7 girls and 1 boy seen in two dermatology practices in New Haven, Conn, and New York, NY. Seven girls, ages 4 to 16 years old, and one 4-year-old boy were determined to have Trichosporon scalp infection, all through culture. Of the 8 children who were available for follow-up, 7 had clearance of their infection with a combination of oral azole antifungal medication and azole antifungal shampoo, without shaving the scalp hair. This was a sample of patients from a localized region of the United States. White piedra is emerging as a commonly seen hair and scalp infection in the northeastern United States. Contrary to prior publications, scalp and hair infection may be successfully treated with a combination of oral azole antifungals and shampoos without shaving the scalp.

  15. Socioeconomic status, white matter, and executive function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-10-01

    A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic status (SES) to children's brain structure. Few studies, however, have specifically investigated relations of SES to white matter structure. Further, although several studies have demonstrated that family SES is related to development of brain areas that support executive functions (EF), less is known about the role that white matter structure plays in the relation of SES to EF. One possibility is that white matter differences may partially explain SES disparities in EF (i.e., a mediating relationship). Alternatively, SES may differentially shape brain-behavior relations such that the relation of white matter structure to EF may differ as a function of SES (i.e., a moderating relationship). In a diverse sample of 1082 children and adolescents aged 3-21 years, we examined socioeconomic disparities in white matter macrostructure and microstructure. We further investigated relations between family SES, children's white matter volume and integrity in tracts supporting EF, and performance on EF tasks. Socioeconomic status was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) and volume in multiple white matter tracts. Additionally, family income moderated the relation between white matter structure and cognitive flexibility. Specifically, across multiple tracts of interest, lower FA or lower volume was associated with reduced cognitive flexibility among children from lower income families. In contrast, children from higher income families showed preserved cognitive flexibility in the face of low white matter FA or volume. SES factors did not mediate or moderate links between white matter and either working memory or inhibitory control. This work adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that the socioeconomic contexts in which children develop not only shape cognitive functioning and its underlying neurobiology, but may also shape the relations between brain and behavior.

  16. The Cardiovascular Risk of White-Coat Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring...... in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes), this study compared daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with conventional blood pressure measurements in 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. METHODS: European Society Hypertension guidelines were used as a 5-stage risk score...

  17. Tract specific analysis in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yaqiong; Coloigner, Julie; Qu, Xiaoping; Choi, Soyoung; Bush, Adam; Borzage, Matt; Vu, Chau; Lepore, Natasha; Wood, John

    2015-12-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder in which the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells is abnormal. It affects numerous people in the world and leads to a shorter life span, pain, anemia, serious infections and neurocognitive decline. Tract-Specific Analysis (TSA) is a statistical method to evaluate white matter alterations due to neurocognitive diseases, using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Here, for the first time, TSA is used to compare 11 major brain white matter (WM) tracts between SCD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Alterations are found in the corpus callosum (CC), the cortico-spinal tract (CST), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), and uncinated fasciculus (UNC). Based on previous studies on the neurocognitive functions of these tracts, the significant areas found in this paper might be related to several cognitive impairments and depression, both of which are observed in SCD patients.

  18. Pulsations in white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Van Grootel, Valérie; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Dupret, Marc-Antoine

    2017-01-01

    I will present a description of the six distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs that are currently known. Pulsations are present at various stages of the evolution (from hot, pre-white dwarfs to cool white dwarfs), at various stellar masses, and for various atmospheric compositions. In all of them, a mechanism linked to opacity changes along the evolution drives the oscillations. The existence of these oscillations offers the opportunity to apply asteroseismology for constraining physics ...

  19. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  20. MR imaging of white-matter diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Yuh, W.T.C.; Mathews, K.; Wiese, J.; Kao, S.; Schreiber, A.; Farner, R.; Smith, W.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging has become a valuable tool in the investigation of central nervous system abnormalities in children. This exhibit displays the MR imaging patterns in 30 children with diseases involving the white matter. Clinical, CT, and pathologic findings will be presented for comparison. The white matter disease entities studies include acquired white matter diseases, metabolic diseases, and phycomatoses. Specific examples include acute dissemination encephalomyelitis, anoxic encephalopathy, disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, demyelinating adrenoleukodystrophy, Krabbe disease, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Tay-Sachs disease, Gaucher disease, neurofibromatosis, and Sturge-Weber syndrome

  1. White Faculty Transforming Whiteness in the Classroom through Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this qualitative study is to present a conceptual framework of pedagogical practices reported by white faculty that serve to challenge the hegemony of whiteness in the university classroom. These transformative teaching practices surfaced through a review of racialized pedagogies discussed in the literature and in…

  2. Silvicultural guide for northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuelle Boulfroy; Eric Forget; Philip V. Hofmeyer; Laura S. Kenefic; Catherine Larouche; Guy Lessard; Jean-Martin Lussier; Fred Pinto; Jean-Claude Ruel; Aaron. Weiskittel

    2012-01-01

    Northern white-cedar (eastern white cedar; Thuja occidentalis L.) is an important tree species in the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, occurring both in pure stands and as a minor species in mixed stands of hardwoods or other softwoods. Yet practitioners have little and often contradictory information about cedar ecology and...

  3. White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old. The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within

  4. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    10 cohorts. To assess the relative contribution of genetic factors to progression of WML, we compared in 7 cohorts risk models including demographics, vascular risk factors plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been shown to be associated cross-sectionally with WML in the current......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...... associated with WML progression in elderly participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium. METHODS: Heritability of WML progression was calculated in the Framingham Heart Study. The genome-wide association study included 7773 elderly participants from...

  5. ILC Higgs White Paper

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, D.M.; Calancha, C.; Fujii, K.; Graf, N.; Haber, H.E.; Ishikawa, A.; Kanemura, S.; Kawada, S.; Kurata, M.; Miyamoto, A.; Neal, H.; Ono, H.; Potter, C.; Strube, J.; Suehara, T.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, J.; Tsumura, J.; Watanuki, S.; Weiglein, G.; Yagyu, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ILC Higgs White Paper is a review of Higgs Boson theory and experiment at the International Linear Collider (ILC). Theory topics include the Standard Model Higgs, the two-Higgs doublet model, alternative approaches to electroweak symmetry breaking, and precision goals for Higgs boson experiments. Experimental topics include the measurement of the Higgs cross section times branching ratio for various Higgs decay modes at ILC center of mass energies of 250, 500, and 1000 GeV, and the extraction of Higgs couplings and the total Higgs width from these measurements. Luminosity scenarios based on the ILC TDR machine design are used throughout. The gamma-gamma collider option at the ILC is also discussed.

  6. Magnetic white dwarfs: Observations, theory and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Kilic, Mukremin; Kepler, Souza Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Isolated magnetic white dwarfs have field strengths ranging from 103G to 109G, and constitute an interesting class of objects. The origin of the magnetic field is still the subject of a hot debate. Whether these fields are fossil, hence the remnants of original weak magnetic fields amplified during the course of the evolution of the progenitor of white dwarfs, or on the contrary, are the result of binary interactions or, finally, other physical mechanisms that could produce such large magnetic fields during the evolution of the white dwarf itself, remains to be elucidated. In this work, we review the current status and paradigms of magnetic fields in white dwarfs, from both the theoretical and observational points of view.

  7. Absolute negative mobility induced by white Poissonian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiechowicz, J; Łuczka, J; Hänggi, P

    2013-01-01

    We study the transport properties of inertial Brownian particles which move in a symmetric periodic potential and are subjected to both a symmetric, unbiased time-periodic external force and a biased Poissonian white shot noise (of non-zero average F) which is composed of a random sequence of δ-shaped pulses with random amplitudes. Upon varying the parameters of the white shot noise, one can conveniently manipulate the transport direction and the overall nonlinear response behavior. We find that within tailored parameter regimes the response is opposite to the applied average bias F of such white shot noise. This particular transport characteristic thus mimics that of a nonlinear absolute negative mobility (ANM) regime. Moreover, such white shot noise driven ANM is robust with respect to the statistics of the shot noise spikes. Our findings can be checked and corroborated experimentally by the use of a setup that consists of a single resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction device. (paper)

  8. Stochastic systems with cross-correlated Gaussian white noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cheng-Yu; Song Yu-Min; Zhou Peng; Yang Hai; Gao Yun

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates three stochastic systems with cross-correlation Gaussian white noises. Both steady state properties of the stochastic nonlinear systems and the nonequilibrium transitions induced by the cross-correlated noises are studied. The stationary solutions of the Fokker—Planck equation for three specific examples are analysed. It is shown explicitly that the cross-correlation of white noises can induce nonequilibrium transitions

  9. Is white-coat hypertension a harbinger of increased risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S

    2014-09-01

    White-coat hypertension is defined by elevated office and normal out-of-office blood pressure (home or ambulatory) in untreated subjects. This condition is common in clinical practice and requires appropriate work-up for detection and management. Many studies have examined the relationship between white-coat hypertension and cardiovascular risk but with marked heterogeneity in the definitions and methodology applied. Thus, the results have been inconsistent leading to confusion in scientific research and clinical practice. Some but not all the relevant studies suggested that white-coat hypertension is associated with subclinical target-organ damage, yet the cross-sectional design of these studies and the fact that these indices are only surrogate end points do not allow firm conclusions to be drawn. In recent years, longitudinal studies have examined the prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most of them indicate that white-coat hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects present a moderate-in most cases not significant-increase in risk. Meta-analyses of raw data from large databases, such as the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO) and the International Database on HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDHOCO) allowed separate powered analyses in untreated subjects and provided a clearer picture regarding the modest risk associated with white-coat hypertension, especially in the long term. White-coat hypertension is regarded as an intermediate phenotype between normotension and hypertension associated with increased risk of developing sustained hypertension, and therefore requires regular follow-up using nonpharmacological measures.

  10. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  11. Axion cooling of white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Isern, J.; Catalan, S.; Garcia--Berro, E.; Salaris, M.; Torres, S.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of white dwarfs is a simple gravothermal process. This process can be tested in two ways, through the luminosity function of these stars and through the secular variation of the period of pulsation of those stars that are variable. Here we show how the mass of the axion can be constrained using the white dwarf luminosity function.

  12. Optical appearance of white holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, K.; Roeder, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    The detailed optical properties of white holes are examined within the framework of geometrical optics. It is shown that the appearance of the objects most likely to be observed at late times is in fact determined by their early histories. These ccalculations indicate that one cannot invoke the simple concept of a stable white hole as a ''natural'' explanation of highly energetic astrophysical phenomena

  13. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-12-01

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. P3a from white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David W; Yee, Ryan B; Polich, John

    2012-08-01

    P3a and P3b event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were elicited with an auditory three-stimulus (target, distracter, and standard) discrimination task in which subjects responded only to the target. Distracter stimuli consisted of white noise or novel sounds with stimulus characteristics perceptually matched. Target/standard discrimination difficulty was manipulated by varying target/standard pitch differences to produce relatively easy, medium, and hard tasks. Error rate and response time increased with increases in task difficulty. P3a was larger for the white noise compared to novel sounds, maximum over the central/parietal recording sites, and did not differ in size across difficulty levels. P3b was unaffected by distracter type, decreased as task difficulty increased, and maximum over the parietal recording sites. The findings indicate that P3a from white noise is robust and should be useful for applied studies as it removes stimulus novelty variability. Theoretical perspectives are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relações entre processamento fonológico e linguagem escrita nos sujeitos com distúrbio específico de linguagem Relations between phonological processing and written language in subjects with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Nicolielo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar a ocorrência de alterações nas habilidades da linguagem escrita e nas habilidades do PF em criança com DEL; comparar o desempenho entre crianças com DEL e com DTL quanto às diferentes habilidades do PF; verificar se há associação entre as habilidades do Processamento Fonológico e as de linguagem escrita em crianças com DEL. MÉTODO: 40 sujeitos, sendo 20 com diagnóstico de DEL (GE e 20 com DTL (GC com idades entre 7 e 10 anos de ambos os sexos. Para avaliação das habilidades do PF foram aplicados os seguintes procedimentos: prova de repetição de não palavras para avaliação da Memória de Trabalho Fonológica, Teste de Nomeação Automatizada Rápida para avaliação do Acesso Lexical e Perfil de Habilidades Fonológicas para avaliação da Consciência Fonológica. A escrita e a leitura foram avaliadas por meio dos subtestes presentes no Teste de Análise de Leitura e Escrita (ditado e escrita espontânea; leitura de texto e de compreensão de texto, respectivamente. Para analise estatística foi utilizado o teste Qui Quadrado, sendo adotado nível de significância estatística PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of alterations in language skills and writing skills of Phonological Processing (PP in children with SLI, compare the performance between children with SLI and Typical Language Development on the different abilities of PP; check for association between PP and skills of written language in children with SLI. METHOD: 40 subjects, 20 with SLI (EG and 20 with TLD (CG aged between 7 and 10 year old for both genders. To assess the abilities of PP we applied the following tests: proof of non word repetitions to assess phonological working memory (PWM, Rapid Automated Naming test (RAN for evaluating Lexical Access (LA and Phonological Abilities Profile for assessing phonological awareness (PA. Writing and reading were evaluated using the subtests present in Test for Análising Reading and Writing Skills

  17. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  18. Spectropolarimetric Survey of Hydrogen-rich White Dwarf Stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, S.; Schmidt, G. D.; Wickramasinghe, D.T.; Koch, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 654, č. 1 (2007), s. 499-520 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/05/P186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : magnetic fields * white dwarf s Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.405, year: 2007

  19. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  20. Non-pharmacological modulation of cerebral white matter organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tina D; Mandl, Rene C W; Jepsen, Jens R M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Neuroplasticity is a well-described phenomenon, but effects of non-pharmacological interventions on white matter (WM) are unclear. Here we review associations between active non-pharmacological interventions and WM organization in healthy subjects and in psychiatric patients. METHOD...

  1. Spectroscopic Identification of Cool White Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 1 (2006), s. 402-415 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/05/P186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs * solar neighborhood * atmospheres Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.119, year: 2006

  2. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  3. Repair of white oak glued-laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert J. Ross

    1999-01-01

    Connections between steel side plates and white oak glued-laminated beams subjected to tension perpendicular-to-grain stresses were tested to failure. The beams were then repaired with five different configurations using two sizes of lag screws, with and without steel reinforcing plates. The repaired beams were re-tested to failure. Results indicate that in all...

  4. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: white sponge nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions White sponge nevus White sponge nevus Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description White sponge nevus is a condition characterized by the formation ...

  7. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Alicia Herweg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (experiment 1-3. In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (experiment 4. In a modified Posner task (experiment 5, the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  8. Differential effects of white noise in cognitive and perceptual tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herweg, Nora A; Bunzeck, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of noise on higher cognition have recently attracted attention. Hypothesizing an involvement of the mesolimbic dopamine system and its functional interactions with cortical areas, the current study aimed to demonstrate a facilitation of dopamine-dependent attentional and mnemonic functions by externally applying white noise in five behavioral experiments including a total sample of 167 healthy human subjects. During working memory, acoustic white noise impaired accuracy when presented during the maintenance period (Experiments 1-3). In a reward based long-term memory task, white noise accelerated perceptual judgments for scene images during encoding but left subsequent recognition memory unaffected (Experiment 4). In a modified Posner task (Experiment 5), the benefit due to white noise in attentional orienting correlated weakly with reward dependence, a personality trait that has been associated with the dopaminergic system. These results suggest that white noise has no general effect on cognitive functions. Instead, they indicate differential effects on perception and cognition depending on a variety of factors such as task demands and timing of white noise presentation.

  9. Y WHITE CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cervantes-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White Chit- wood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hidroponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos, e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nó- dulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82 % de variación y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13 % de variación. Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo.

  10. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Travis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1, an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4 were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3. We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18 and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total. Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  11. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  12. SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasavage, John P.; Lepine, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present early results from the SOAR + SMARTS Southern White Dwarf SURVEY (SSSWDS). Our initial sift of relatively bright (15 color relation of Oppenheimer et al. 2001 are obtained and permit prioritized follow-up. For confirmation of luminosity class, we use the SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon equipped with the Goodman Spectrograph and a moderate resolution grating. In tandem, we acquire multi-epoch, optical Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI photometry using the SMARTS 1.0m telescope atop CTIO. Combined with JHK from 2MASS, we compare the photometric SED to relevant white dwarf model atmospheres to estimate physical parameters (e.g., effective temperature, mass) and distance. For the nearest targets, specifically those within the RECONS (www.recons.org) horizon of 25 pc, we aim to obtain trigonometric parallaxes as part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation (CTIOPI) project being conducted at the SMARTS 0.9m telescope. To date, we have confirmed 100 relatively bright, new white dwarfs in the southern hemisphere. Of those, 13 are estimated to be within our 25 pc horizon-of-interest, including two that are estimated to be within 15 pc. Ongoing observations will boost these figures by the end of the project.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. G. Baker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola, limber pine (Pinus flexilis, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.

  14. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  15. The White Adolescent's Drug Odyssey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Douglas S.; Marel, Rozanne

    1980-01-01

    Presents a "typical" case history of a White middle-class teenager who becomes involved with marihuana and subsequently begins to abuse other drugs. Sociological findings from other research are interspersed in the anecdotal account. (GC)

  16. The odour of white bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, E.J.

    1973-01-01

    Volatile constituents of white bread were investigated. Different methods were used for isolating and concentrating components to avoid artefacts as far as possible. Especially good was enlarged vapour analysis. Ninety-four components were identified, including hydrocarbons, alcohols,

  17. Are hills like white elephants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Are Hills Like White Elephants?' is, of course, inspired by Hemingway; the tribute reflects on the abiding relevance of serious art in a changed world and extends the boundaries of his message to other human situations.

  18. White dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The physical properties and evolutionary state of the underlying white dwarfs in CVs are explored. Observations of 25 white dwarfs with effective temperature upper limits of 9000-75,000 K are discussed. Correlations between effective temperature, orbital period, accretion rate, and CV type with respect to the CV period gap are considered. Quasi-static and hydrodynamic evolutionary models are used to explain the surface temperature/luminosity distribution ratios. 42 references

  19. Evolution of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. Althaus

    2001-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the main results we have obtained for the study of the evoution of white dwarf stars. The calculations are carried out by means of a detailed evolutionary code based on an updated physical description. In particular, we briefly discuss the results for the evolution of white dwarfs of different stellar masses and chemical composition, and the evolution of whit e dwarfs in the framework of a varying gravitational constant G scenario as well.

  20. Economists and White House Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart E. Eizenstat

    1992-01-01

    While I served in the White House, [as Assistant to the President for Domestic Affairs and Policy and Executive Director of the White House Domestic Policy Staff from 1977-81], Ph.D. economists occupied the positions of Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Treasury, Director of the Council on Wage and Price Stability, the President's anti-inflation adviser, Chairman and Council Members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and many other senior positions throughout the gover...

  1. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  3. Does race matters in consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products? Insights from black and white South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, governments, policy-makers, and managers of private food companies and agribusinesses are interested in understanding how consumers will react to environmentally sustainable attributes and information on food product labels. This study examines consumers' stated preferences for water and carbon footprints labelled food products from the viewpoint of black and white South Africans. Discrete choice experimental data was collected from black and white consumers to possibly assess cross-ethnic variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable products. Two widely purchased livestock products were chosen for the choice experiment. We found that consumers' preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes vary significantly between black and white South Africans. Our findings revealed that there are profound heterogeneous consumer segments within black and white respondents. The heterogeneity within both sub-samples is better explained at the segment level, rather than at individual level. For both product categories, the findings revealed that there are more distinct consumer segments among black respondents, relative to white respondents. The black respondents consist of water sustainability advocates, carbon reduction advocates, keen environmentalist and environmental neutrals. The white respondents entail keen environmentalist, environmental cynics, and environmental neutrals. The inherent significant variations in preferences for environmentally sustainable attributes across segments and racial groups would help in formulating feasible, and segment-specific environmental sustainability policies and marketing strategies aimed at changing consumers' attitude towards environmentally sustainable products. Demographic targeting of consumer segments, sustainability awareness and segment-specific educational campaigns meant to enhance subjective and objective knowledge on environmental sustainability are important tools for food companies and

  4. Entanglement probabilities of polymers: a white noise functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernido, Christopher C; Carpio-Bernido, M Victoria

    2003-01-01

    The entanglement probabilities for a highly flexible polymer to wind n times around a straight polymer are evaluated using white noise analysis. To introduce the white noise functional approach, the one-dimensional random walk problem is taken as an example. The polymer entanglement scenario, viewed as a random walk on a plane, is then treated and the entanglement probabilities are obtained for a magnetic flux confined along the straight polymer, and a case where an entangled polymer is subjected to the potential V = f-dot(s)θ. In the absence of the magnetic flux and the potential V, the entanglement probabilities reduce to a result obtained by Wiegel

  5. Let's Talk about Race, Baby: How a White Professor Teaches White Students about White Privilege and Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Peter

    2008-01-01

    There are a variety of methods by which the themes of White privilege and racism can be presented to White students. By using the concept of racial identity a continuum of racism can be considered. Furthermore, addressing White privilege and racism in the context of a multicultural psychology course allows White students to have a greater…

  6. Temporal Lobe White Matter Asymmetry and Language Laterality in Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Breier, Joshua I.; Slater, Jeremy D.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; O’Neill, Thomas J.; Disano, Michael A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have advanced our knowledge of the organization of white matter subserving language function. It remains unclear, however, how DTI may be used to predict accurately a key feature of language organization: its asymmetric representation in one cerebral hemisphere. In this study of epilepsy patients with unambiguous lateralization on Wada testing (19 left and 4 right lateralized subjects; no bilateral subjects), the predictive value of DTI for classifying the dominant hemisphere for language was assessed relative to the existing standard - the intra-carotid Amytal (Wada) procedure. Our specific hypothesis is that language laterality in both unilateral left- and right-hemisphere language dominant subjects may be predicted by hemispheric asymmetry in the relative density of three white matter pathways terminating in the temporal lobe implicated in different aspects of language function: the arcuate (AF), uncinate (UF), and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF). Laterality indices computed from asymmetry of high anisotropy AF pathways, but not the other pathways, classified the majority (19 of 23) of patients using the Wada results as the standard. A logistic regression model incorporating information from DTI of the AF, fMRI activity in Broca’s area, and handedness was able to classify 22 of 23 (95.6%) patients correctly according to their Wada score. We conclude that evaluation of highly anisotropic components of the AF alone has significant predictive power for determining language laterality, and that this markedly asymmetric distribution in the dominant hemisphere may reflect enhanced connectivity between frontal and temporal sites to support fluent language processes. Given the small sample reported in this preliminary study, future research should assess this method on a larger group of patients, including subjects with bihemispheric dominance. PMID:19874899

  7. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  8. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Guo Xiaojuan; Qi Zhigang; Yao Li; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  9. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  10. Activities of asymmetric dimethylarginine-related enzymes in white adipose tissue are associated with circulating lipid biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Hiroaki

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asymmetric NG,NG-dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is regulated by the enzymatic participants of synthetic and metabolic processes, i.e., type I protein N-arginine methyltransferase (PRMT and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH. Previous reports have demonstrated that circulating ADMA levels can vary in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. White adipose tissue expresses the full enzymatic machinery necessary for ADMA production and metabolism; however, modulation of the activities of adipose ADMA-related enzymes in T2DM remains to be determined. Methods A rodent model of T2DM using 11- and 20-week old Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats was used. The expression and catalytic activity of PRMT1 and DDAH1 and 2 in the white adipose tissues (periepididymal, visceral and subcutaneous fats and femur skeletal muscle tissue were determined by immunoblotting, in vitro methyltransferase and in vitro citrulline assays. Results Non-obese diabetic GK rats showed low expression and activity of adipose PRMT1 compared to age-matched Wistar controls. Adipose tissues from the periepididymal, visceral and subcutaneous fats of GK rats had high DDAH1 expression and total DDAH activity, whereas the DDAH2 expression was lowered below the control value. This dynamic of ADMA-related enzymes in white adipose tissues was distinct from that of skeletal muscle tissue. GK rats had lower levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and triglycerides (TG than the control rats. In all subjects the adipose PRMT1 and DDAH activities were statistically correlated with the levels of serum NEFA and TG. Conclusion Activities of PRMT1 and DDAH in white adipose tissues were altered in diabetic GK rats in an organ-specific manner, which was reflected in the serum levels of NEFA and TG. Changes in adipose ADMA-related enzymes might play a part in the function of white adipose tissue.

  11. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlin, Lauren E.; Verstynen, Timothy D.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Voss, Michelle W.; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the beha...

  12. Subjective social status and intergroup attitudes among ethnic majority and minority children in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feddes, A.R.; Monteiro, M.B.; Justo, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    A measure of subjective social status (SSS) was examined among high (White), and low (Black and Roma) ethnic status children in Portugal within a developmental design including 6-8-year-old and 9-12-year-old children. White children favoured their ingroup over the Black and Roma out-groups on the

  13. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  14. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  15. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  16. Digging of 'Snow White' Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander began excavating a new trench, dubbed 'Snow White,' in a patch of Martian soil located near the center of a polygonal surface feature, nicknamed 'Cheshire Cat.' The trench is about 2 centimeters (.8 inches) deep and 30 centimeters (about 12 inches) long. The 'dump pile' is located at the top of the trench, the side farthest away from the lander, and has been dubbed 'Croquet Ground.' The digging site has been named 'Wonderland.' At this early stage of digging, the Phoenix team did not expect to find any of the white material seen in the first trench, now called 'Dodo-Goldilocks.' That trench showed white material at a depth of about 5 centimeters (2 inches). More digging of Snow White is planned for coming sols, or Martian days. The dark portion of this image is the shadow of the lander's solar panel; the bright areas within this region are not in shadow. Snow White was dug on Sol 22 (June 17, 2008) with Phoenix's Robotic Arm. This picture was acquired on the same day by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager. This image has been enhanced to brighten shaded areas. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Subjective estimates of colour attributes for surface colours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishak, I.G.H.; Bouma, H.; van Bussel, H.J.J.

    1970-01-01

    Subjective estimates of hue, saturation, and lightness are reported for sixty coloured Munsell samples, shown against seven backgrounds (black, grey, white, red, yellow, green, and blue) as judged by two observers. The results show the adequacy of this method for studies on colour appearance. The

  18. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  19. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  20. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  1. Food consumption and daily feeding periodicity : comparison between pelagic and demersal whiting in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    composition and energy density of the prey and spatial distribution of the whiting, demonstrates the need for a sampling design that includes both pelagic and demersal layers when quantifying the food consumption of whiting.(C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.......Pelagic North Sea whiting Merlagius merlangus fed at night, while demersal whiting fed by day. The estimated specific daily ration ranged from 4.38 to 7.84% in 1992 and from 3.99 to 10.31% in 1993 using the in situ rate of gastric evacuation. Using Anderson's evacuation model the specific daily...... ration ranged from 0.41 to 1.66% in 1992 and from 0.78 to 1.75% in 1993. The specific daily rations were significantly different where energy density of stomach content by length class of whiting was significantly different between the two layers and years. The fact that daily ration was related to prey...

  2. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simultaneous use of black, green, and white certificates systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bye, Torstein

    guidance for future investments in green and white electricity. In order to get clear cut results, specific assumptions of parameter values and functional forms are needed. An example of this, based on a calibrated model founded on Norwegian data, is provided in the article. Also, gains and losses in terms...

  4. Preliminary work in developing sawbolt grading systems for white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; Everette D. Rast

    1971-01-01

    This paper is principally a description of one technique used in the development of white oak (Quercus alba L.) sawbolt grades--not a final sawbolt grading system for the species over its range. This technique can be used by anyone in developing other bolt-grade specifications or in refining the system presented in this paper.

  5. Social imaginaries, sperm and whiteness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    media coverage of these new families, this article explores contemporary constructions of race, especially whiteness, and gender, and shows how imaginaries of Vikings, genes and white superiority circulate in British media and among British mothers. The article illustrates how a racial discourse, which......This article analyses narratives about so-called Viking babies and Viking sperm. Over the last few years an increasing number of British single women and lesbian couples have been creating families by becoming pregnant with Danish donor sperm, termed ‘Viking sperm’. Through analyses of British...

  6. Blanco White and Walter Scott Blanco white y Walter Scott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando DURÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first edition of Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley was published in Edinburgh in 1820. From the beginning of year 1823, José María Blanco White translated several excerpts from Ivanhoe in the numbers 1-3 of the magazine Variedades, owned by the publisher Rudolph Ackermann. in these articles and other later writings, the translator praised Scott as a model for a new way of painting history in a narrative. This paper studies his ideas on Scott’s historical novel, as well as his translation technique, compared with that of José Joaquín de Mora. En 1820 se publicó en Edimburgo la primera edición de Ivanhoe; a romance. By the author of Waverley. Desde comienzos de 1823, en los tres primeros números de su revista Variedades, promovida por el editor Rudolph Ackermann, José María Blanco White tradujo varios fragmentos de Ivanhoe entre grandes elogios. Asimismo, Blanco White tomó a Scott como modelo de referencia de una nueva manera de pintar la historia por medio de la novela en otros varios escritos críticos de años posteriores. El artículo estudia las ideas de Blanco White acerca de la novela histórica de Scott y su técnica como traductor, comparada con la de José Joaquín Mora.

  7. Working through Whiteness: White, Male College Students Challenging Racism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on Freire's conception of liberatory praxis to examine White male college students' becoming aware of racism and translating awareness into action. The participants developed racial cognizance via cross-racial contact and course content. They also tended to be open to interrogating racism and racial privilege due to…

  8. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  9. The Racial Divide in Support for the Death Penalty: Does White Racism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 National Election Study, this research investigates the sources of the racial divide in support for capital punishment with a specific focus on white racism. After delineating a measure of white racism, we explore whether it can account for why a majority of African Americans oppose the death penalty while most whites…

  10. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  11. Ideology of white racial supremacy: colonization and de-colonization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gibran Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review on how the ideology of white racial supremacy dehumanizes and colonizes the minds of Whites and Blacks in Brazil. For this aim I use critical references about whiteness to highlight dehumanization processes in Whites, and I make use of critical references of Black and African studies to examine specific dehumanization processes of the Black population. Furthermore, the work seeks to reflect on possibilities of mental humanization and de-colonization in both groups considering current policies of Affirmative Action in Education in Brazil.

  12. The effect of school quality on black-white health differences: evidence from segregated southern schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David; Golberstein, Ezra

    2013-12-01

    This study assesses the effect of black-white differences in school quality on black-white differences in health in later life resulting from the racial convergence in school quality for cohorts born between 1910 and 1950 in southern states with segregated schools. Using data from the 1984-2007 National Health Interview Surveys linked to race-specific data on school quality, we find that reductions in the black-white gap in school quality led to modest reductions in the black-white gap in disability.

  13. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  14. Analysis of piezoelectric energy harvester under modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Trentadue, Francesco; Maruccio, Claudio; Marano, Giuseppe C.

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive method for the electromechanical probabilistic analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesters subjected to modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise (WGN) at the base. Specifically, the dynamic excitation is simulated by means of an amplitude-modulated WGN, which is filtered through the Clough-Penzien filter. The considered piezoelectric harvester is a cantilever bimorph modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam with a concentrated mass at the free-end, and its global behavior is approximated by the fundamental vibration mode (which is tuned with the dominant frequency of the dynamic input). A resistive electrical load is considered in the circuit. Once the Lyapunov equation of the coupled electromechanical problem has been formulated, an original and efficient semi-analytical procedure is proposed to estimate mean and standard deviation of the electrical energy extracted from the piezoelectric layers.

  15. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  16. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  17. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  18. Rotation of White Dwarf Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    I discuss and consider the status of observational determinations of the rotation velocities of white dwarf stars via asteroseismology and spectroscopy. While these observations have important implications on our understanding of the angular momentum evolution of stars in their late stages of evolution, more direct methods are sorely needed to disentangle ambiguities.

  19. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  20. The Next White (NEW) Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrabal, F.; et al.

    2018-04-06

    Conceived to host 5 kg of xenon at a pressure of 15 bar in the fiducial volume, the NEXT- White (NEW) apparatus is currently the largest high pressure xenon gas TPC using electroluminescent amplification in the world. It is also a 1:2 scale model of the NEXT-100 detector scheduled to start searching for $\\beta\\beta 0\

  1. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  2. White adipose tissue: Getting nervous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.; Kreier, F.; Voshol, P. J.; Havekes, L. M.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R. M.; Romijn, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroendocrine research has altered the traditional perspective of white adipose tissue (WAT) as a passive store of triglycerides. In addition to fatty acids, WAT produces many hormones and can therefore be designated as a traditional endocrine gland actively participating in the integrative

  3. The Whiteness of Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two major debates in contemporary Australian discourses on the nation: climate change and whiteness studies. It is primarily concerned with establishing a framework for connecting the two discourses, and in that process it raises pivotal questions about how narratives about...

  4. The cool magnetic DAZ white dwarf NLTT 10480

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 532, August (2011), A7/1-A7/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300030908; GA AV ČR IAA301630901; GA ČR GAP209/10/0967; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarfs * individual star NLTT 10480 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.587, year: 2011

  5. Spectroscopic Observations of High Proper Motion DA White Dwarfs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arazimová, Eva; Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 86, - (2009), s. 297-300 ISSN 0373-3742. [National conference of astronomers of Serbia /15./. Beograd, 02.10.2008-05.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD205/08/H005; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarf s * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  6. On the Danger of Detecting Network States in White Noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hadrava, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, 12 February (2015), Article number 11 ISSN 1662-5188 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S; GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : EEG * microstates * networks * dynamics * resting-state * nonstationary connectivity * stationarity * white noise Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.653, year: 2015

  7. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  9. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  10. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

  11. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  12. Genetic Schizophrenia Risk Variants Jointly Modulate Total Brain and White Matter Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Afke F; Bakker, Steven C; van Haren, Neeltje E M

    2013-01-01

    with total brain volume (R(2)=.048, p=1.6×10(-4)) and white matter volume (R(2)=.051, p=8.6×10(-5)) equally in patients and control subjects. The number of (independent) SNPs that substantially influenced both disease risk and white matter (n=2020) was much smaller than the entire set of SNPs that modulated...... modulating schizophrenia and brain volume. METHODS: Odds ratios for genome-wide SNP data were calculated in the sample collected by the Psychiatric Genome-wide Association Study Consortium (8690 schizophrenia patients and 11,831 control subjects, excluding subjects from the present study). These were used...

  13. Study of white noise; Hakushoku zatsuon ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R; Tada, R [Teikoku Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A study was made on conditions available for white noise belonging to a finite power function with the use of a power spectrum conception. It was defined that a real variable function with a finite waveform energy was a finite energy function while that with a finite waveform power was a finite power function. A noncorrelative white noise was defined as a real variable function in which an autocorrelation function took a specific value at a certain point; however, the autocorrelation function was different between the finite energy function and the finite power function. In other words, the definition of white noise was such that `an energy spectrum was a fixed value` in the finite energy function, and that `a power spectrum was a fixed value` in the finite power function. It was pointed out, by Matsuyama (1994) with the use of the energy spectrum conception, that the white noise belonging to the finite energy function took only the form of `an arbitrary impulse function that all turned to zero except a certain point`. The same conclusion was obtained with respect to the white noise belonging to the finite power function. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  14. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  16. White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White Mango Scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis , Distribution and Severity Status in East and West Wollega Zones, ... Among the insect pests attacking mango plant, white mango scale is the most devastating insect pest. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. White blood cells (WBCs) fight infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ...

  18. Child abuse associates with an imbalance of oligodendrocyte-lineage cells in ventromedial prefrontal white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, A; Kim, J J; Wakid, M; Davoli, M-A; Turecki, G; Mechawar, N

    2017-11-21

    Child abuse (CA) is a major risk factor for depression, and strongly associates with suicidal behavior during adulthood. Neuroimaging studies have reported widespread changes in white matter integrity and brain connectivity in subjects with a history of CA. Although such observations could reflect changes in myelin and oligodendrocyte function, their cellular underpinnings have never been addressed. Using postmortem brain samples from depressed suicides with or without history of CA and matched controls (18 per group), we aimed to characterize the effects of CA on oligodendrocyte-lineage (OL) cells in the ventromedial prefrontal white matter. Using immunoblotting, double-labeling immunofluorescence and stereological estimates of stage-specific markers, we found that CA is associated with increased numbers of mature myelinating oligodendrocytes, accompanied by decreased numbers of more immature OL cells. This was paralleled by an increased expression of transcription factor MASH1, which is involved in the terminal differentiation of the OL, suggesting that CA may trigger an increased maturation, or bias the populations of OL cells toward a more mature phenotype. Some of these effects, which were absent in the brain of depressed suicides with no history of CA, were also found to recover with age, suggesting that changes in the balance of the OL may reflect a transient adaptive mechanism triggered by early-life adversity. In conclusion, our results indicate that CA in depressed suicides is associated with an imbalance of the OL in the ventromedial prefrontal white matter, an effect that could lead to myelin remodeling and long-term connectivity changes within the limbic network.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 November 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.231.

  19. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  20. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aihong; Li Kuncheng; Li Lin; Shan Baoci; Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE

  1. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  2. Response to Tim Barringer, A White Atlantic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Flint

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In my response to Tim Barringer’s piece, I emphasize the importance of extending one’s frame of reference when discussing transatlantic artistic connections to the consideration of as many different art forms as possible – including photography, and magazine and book illustrations – in order to get as full a picture as possible of the two-way flow in transatlantic artistic influences.This fuller picture notably extends the degree to which images of non-white subjects are seen to be in circulation. I also draw attention to the ways in which American and English artistic circles intersected outside as well as within these two countries, a point reinforced by looking at American women sculptors in Rome in the 1860s, paying particular attention to the work of the part African-American, part Native American sculptor, Edmonia Lewis. In her work can be seen a complex set of attitudes towards her subject matter that remind one forcefully of the many racial and cultural strands coming together in new American art.

  3. Explosive helium burning in white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokhlov, A.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Astronomicheskij Sovet)

    1984-04-01

    Helium burning kinetics in white dwarfs has been considered at constant temperatures T >= 10/sup 9/ K and densities rho >10/sup 5/ g/cm/sup 3/. It is found, that helium detonation in white dwarfs does not lead to formation of light (A < 56) elements. Thus, helium white dwarf model for supernova 1 is inconsistent with observations.

  4. Multiculturalism, Teaching Slavery, and White Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bery, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that multiculturalism, especially when it is led and controlled by Whites, and in the absence of collective anti-racist struggles, can reproduce the ontologies, epistemologies, and practices of white supremacy. I use a case study of a reenactment of Atlantic black slavery, produced by white teachers to investigate whether…

  5. White noise excitation in a hot plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masataka

    1977-01-01

    In a low frequency range, a property of white noise in a hot plasma is studied experimentally. A frequency component of white noise is observed to propagate with a phase velocity which is equal to the ion accoustic wave velocity. The white noise, which is launched in a plasma, is considered as the sum of ion acoustic waves. (auth.)

  6. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche Loui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  7. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Aspeitia, Miguel A. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Mexico (Mexico); Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of left angle λ right angle >or similar 84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ ≅ 82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others. (orig.)

  8. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A., E-mail: aspeitia@fisica.uaz.edu.mx [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av, Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, C.P. 03940, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad esquina con Paseo a la Bufa S/N, C.P. 98060, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-11-06

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV{sup 4}, with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV{sup 4}, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  9. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane–Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of <λ>≳84.818 MeV 4 , with a standard deviation σ≃82.021 MeV 4 , which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others

  10. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. White Nights rebuts Pravda claims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that another Russo-foreign joint venture under attack in the Moscow press has denied charges of impropriety and mismanagement in its operations. The White Nights joint venture last month came under scathing attack from Moscow newspaper Pravda, which alleged the venture has reneged on its promises, is virtually bankrupt, and mistreats Russian employees. White Nights is a joint venture owned 50% by Varyeganneftegaz (VNG), a Russian oil and gas enterprise, and 50% by Salomon Inc. unit Phibro Energy Inc., Greenwich, Conn., and Anglo-Suisse (U.S.S.R.) Ltd., a subsidiary of Anglo-Suisse Inc., Houston. The venture started operations Apr. 1, 1991, with a program of workovers, redevelopment, and horizontal wells in West Varyegan and Tagrinsk oil fields in western Siberia

  12. Asteroseismology of white dwarf stars

    OpenAIRE

    Córsico, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of low- and intermediate-mass stars that populate the Universe will end their lives as white dwarf stars. These ancient stellar remnants have encrypted inside a precious record of the evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, providing a wealth of information about the evolution of stars, star formation, and the age of a variety of stellar populations, such as our Galaxy and open and globular clusters. While some information like surface chemical composition, temperature and gravity ...

  13. The Blue Box White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Tippett, Benjamin K; Tsang, David

    2013-01-01

    This white paper is an explanation of Ben and Dave's TARDIS time machine, written for laypeople who are interested in time travel, but have no technical knowledge of Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. The first part of this paper is an introduction to the pertinent ideas from Einstein's theory of curved spacetime, followed by a review of other popular time machine spacetimes. We begin with an introduction to curvature and lightcones. We then explain the Alcubierre Warp Drive, the Morris...

  14. Black and White Women's Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Showunmi, Victoria; Atewologun, Doyin

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to literature on ethnic identity and experiences in the workplace leadership and identity by examining how race, gender and class may confer disadvantage or bestow privilege in accessing leadership positions and enacting the role of leader. We interviewed 130 white and BME women leaders in public and private sector organisations in the UK to gather their reflections on how they defined leadership, how their identities as leaders had developed and their experiences of en...

  15. WHITE CEMENT IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Y.C.P RAMANA BABU; B.SAI DOONDI; N. M .V .VAMSI KRISHNA; K.PRASANTHI

    2013-01-01

    India is one among the fast developing countries in the world in the areas of Infrastructure. Now a day, Carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the temporary atmospheric pollutants in the environment chiefly emitted from the fuel burning vehicles and street lights which lead to global warming and pose a major threat tothe survival and sustainable development. This paper deals with the principal purpose of use of white cement in pavement design which will take care of the Green hous...

  16. Making Whites from the Dark Side: Teaching Whiteness Studies at San Francisco State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Amy

    2013-01-01

    While whiteness studies at most institutions aims to expose the persistence of white supremacy to a disbelieving audience, whiteness studies within the College of Ethnic Studies (COES) at San Francisco State University (SFSU) begins with the assumption that racism still exists. The course then traces how whiteness is constructed and fortified to…

  17. Complexity in White Noise Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Takeyuki

    We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.

  18. High-sensitivity serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with or without myocardial infarction or periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, G Rutger; Pettersson, Thomas; Ohlsson, Ola; Renvert, Stefan

    2005-03-01

    Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsC-rp) is a non-specific marker of inflammation. Elevated hsC-rp levels are found in subjects with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Periodontitis may influence hsC-rp levels. To assess periodontal status and hsC-rp serum levels in consecutive subjects hospitalized and diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n=85) and in a group of carefully matched subjects (gender, age social, ethnic, and smoking habits) without clinical evidence of CVD (n=63). hsC-rp levels, other routine serum values, and clinical periodontal conditions were studied. Subjects with AMI had higher hsC-rp levels than control subjects (pperiodontitis (30% or more sites with>4.0 mm loss of alveolar bone) had serum hsC-rp>1.8 mg/l was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1-7.3, pperiodontal parameters in an explanatory model to hsC-rp values. Only the serum leucocyte (white blood cell (WBC)) counts were explanatory to hsC-rp values (beta standard coefficient=0.45, t=3.2, pperiodontitis (pperiodontitis in subjects with no evidence of CVD. (3) Periodontal parameters are not explanatory to elevated serum hsC-rp values if serum WBC and low-density lipoprotein counts are included in the regression model. Copyright 2005 Blackwell Munksgaard.

  19. White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in High-Altitude U-2 Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    SUBJECT TERMS MRI; white matter hyperintensities; hypobaric exposure; neurological decompression sickness 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...normal controls and did not increase with age in pilots, suggesting that hypobaric exposure produces white matter damage different from that occurring in...relapse we observed in 3 NDCS pilots after successful hyperbaric treatment (US Navy Treatment Table 6; 100% fraction of inspired oxygen; 2.8 atm absolute

  20. (Un)Disciplined futures: Women of color feminism as a disruptive to white affect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rojas, Claudia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues. This is done by engaging in a citational practice that results in an epistemic erasure of women of color feminist thought. The voices of women of color feminists are thus disqualified, and their theoretical contributions are not acknowledged as significant or relevant in conceptualizing affect, affective economies, and the social. By turning to the writings of women of color feminists, I demonstrate how their theories on embodiment, subjectivity, and social structures predate the institutionalization of White affect studies. Feminists of color from the past and present have and continue to theorize through a language of self their experiences as subjects embedded within matrices of violence, power, and pleasure. Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla write about the ways in which lesbian and queer women of color institute different affects that counter dominant structures of emotion, systems of power, and heterosexual modes of being. In developing conceptual methodologies, Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla are able to weave into the dominant discursive logic a language of self that both introduces new queer subjectivities, while reinterpreting existing forms of thought, thereby contesting mainstream economies of White affects and White affect studies. It is through a language of self that Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla develop

  1. Cigarette smoking is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gons, Rob A R; van Norden, Anouk G W; de Laat, Karlijn F; van Oudheusden, Lucas J B; van Uden, Inge W M; Zwiers, Marcel P; Norris, David G; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2011-07-01

    Cigarette smoking doubles the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Various pathophysiological pathways have been proposed to cause such a cognitive decline, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Smoking may affect the microstructural integrity of cerebral white matter. Diffusion tensor imaging is known to be sensitive for microstructural changes in cerebral white matter. We therefore cross-sectionally studied the relation between smoking behaviour (never, former, current) and diffusion tensor imaging parameters in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions as well as the relation between smoking behaviour and cognitive performance. A structured questionnaire was used to ascertain the amount and duration of smoking in 503 subjects with small-vessel disease, aged between 50 and 85 years. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological test battery. All subjects underwent 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Using diffusion tensor imaging, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were calculated in both normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions. A history of smoking was associated with significant higher values of mean diffusivity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter lesions (P-trend for smoking status = 0.02) and with poorer cognitive functioning compared with those who never smoked. Associations with smoking and loss of structural integrity appeared to be strongest in normal-appearing white matter. Furthermore, the duration of smoking cessation was positively related to lower values of mean diffusivity and higher values of fractional anisotropy in normal-appearing white matter [β = -0.004 (95% confidence interval -0.007 to 0.000; P = 0.03) and β = 0.019 (95% confidence interval 0.001-0.038; P = 0.04)]. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values in normal-appearing white matter of subjects who had quit smoking for >20 years were comparable with subjects who had never smoked. These data suggest

  2. White public regard: associations among eating disorder symptomatology, guilt, and White guilt in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Hubbard, Rebecca R; Tully, Carrie B; Utsey, Shawn O; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    As a novel investigation of the role of White racial identity, the current study explored the link between White guilt and disordered eating. Young adult women (N=375), 200 of whom self-identified as White. Measures assessed disordered eating, trait guilt, White guilt, and affect. White guilt is interrelated with disordered eating, particularly bulimic symptomatology. Distress tolerance and tendency to experience negative affect moderated the relation between White guilt and several disordered eating variables. Exploration of White guilt in clinical and research settings can inform understanding and treatment of disordered eating. © 2013.

  3. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  4. Sex-specific features of emphysema among current and former smokers with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Megan; Foreman, Marilyn; Dransfield, Mark T; Hansel, Nadia; Han, MeiLan K; Cho, Michael H; Bhatt, Surya P; Ramsdell, Joe; Lynch, David; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Edwin K; Washko, George; DeMeo, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that males with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have more emphysema than females. It is not known if these differences persist across degrees of COPD severity. Our aim was to identify sex-specific differences in quantitative emphysema within COPD subgroups based on COPD severity.We included non-Hispanic white and African-American subjects from the COPDGene study with at least 10 pack-years of smoking and COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometry grade II or greater. We examined sex-specific differences in log-transformed emphysema (log per cent low-attenuation area (%LAA)) by GOLD spirometry grade among subjects with early-onset COPD (25% emphysema).Compared with females, males had higher log %LAA: overall (1.97±1.4 versus 1.69±1.6, β=0.32 (0.04), p=1.34×10(-14)), and among non-Hispanic white (p=8.37×10(-14)) and African-American subjects (p=0.002). Females with early-onset COPD, severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV COPD had similar emphysema as males, but markedly fewer pack-years smoking (early-onset, p=0.01; severe emphysema and GOLD grade IV, psmokers with COPD who are particularly susceptible to parenchymal destruction. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  5. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  6. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  7. Episodic memory function is associated with multiple measures of white matter integrity in cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Neal Lockhart

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research indicates that white matter injury and integrity, measured respectively by white matter hyperintensities (WMH and fractional anisotropy (FA obtained from diffusion tensor imaging, differ with aging and cerebrovascular disease and are associated with episodic memory deficits in cognitively normal older adults. However, knowledge about tract-specific relationships between WMH, FA, and episodic memory in aging remains limited. We hypothesized that white matter connections between frontal cortex and subcortical structures as well as connections between frontal and temporo-parietal cortex would be most affected. In the current study, we examined relationships between WMH, FA and episodic memory in 15 young adults, 13 elders with minimal WMH and 15 elders with extensive WMH, using an episodic recognition memory test for object-color associations. Voxel-based statistics were used to identify voxel clusters where white matter measures were specifically associated with variations in episodic memory performance, and white matter tracts intersecting these clusters were analyzed to examine white matter-memory relationships. White matter injury and integrity measures were significantly associated with episodic memory in extensive regions of white matter, located predominantly in frontal, parietal, and subcortical regions. Template based tractography indicated that white matter injury, as measured by WMH, in the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory performance. Other tracts such as thalamo-frontal projections, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and dorsal cingulum bundle demonstrated strong negative associations as well. The results suggest that white matter injury to multiple pathways, including connections of frontal and temporal cortex and frontal-subcortical white matter tracts, plays a critical role in memory differences seen in older individuals.

  8. The dimensionality of between-person differences in white matter microstructure in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövdén, Martin; Laukka, Erika Jonsson; Rieckmann, Anna; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Jonsson, Tomas; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Between-person differences in white matter microstructure may partly generalize across the brain and partly play out differently for distinct tracts. We used diffusion-tensor imaging and structural equation modeling to investigate this issue in a sample of 260 adults aged 60-87 years. Mean fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity of seven white matter tracts in each hemisphere were quantified. Results showed good fit of a model positing that individual differences in white matter microstructure are structured according to tracts. A general factor, although accounting for variance in the measures, did not adequately represent the individual differences. This indicates the presence of a substantial amount of tract-specific individual differences in white matter microstructure. In addition, individual differences are to a varying degree shared between tracts, indicating that general factors also affect white matter microstructure. Age-related differences in white matter microstructure were present for all tracts. Correlations among tract factors did not generally increase as a function of age, suggesting that aging is not a process with homogenous effects on white matter microstructure across the brain. These findings highlight the need for future research to examine whether relations between white matter microstructure and diverse outcomes are specific or general. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. White dwarfs - the once and future suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1986-01-01

    The history and properties of white dwarfs (Bessel's conclusion that Sirius and Procyon have invisible companions, Clark's discovery of Sirius B, Adams and Russell's study of white dwarf spectra, Chandrasekhar's explanation of white dwarf structure by equations incorporating quantum mechanics and relativity) are treated. Formation of white dwarfs, degeneracy, binary white dwarfs (and novae and supernovae) are explained. A mystery nearly 50 years old regarding the spectrum of the star Greenwich +70 degrees-8247 has been solved: it involves a stationary line phenomenon and a magnetic field of 300-500 million gauss. Processes being studied in white dwarfs and white dwarf models include gravitational settling, accretion, dredge-up, radiation pressure, and diffusive hydrogen burning

  10. White constancy method for mobile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo

    2014-03-01

    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  11. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  12. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  13. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  14. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  15. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  16. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  17. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity.

  19. The Classical Pathways of Occipital Lobe Epileptic Propagation Revised in the Light of White Matter Dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Francesco; Hjortberg, Mats; Aldskogius, Håkan; Ryttlefors, Mats

    2015-01-01

    The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a specific direction, explaining the variable semiology of these rare epilepsy syndromes. Some new insights in occipital white matter anatomy are herein described by means of white matter dissection and compared to the classical epileptic patterns, mostly based on the central position of the primary visual cortex. The dissections showed a complex white matter architecture composed by vertical and longitudinal bundles, which are closely interconnected and segregated and are able to support specific high order functions with parallel bidirectional propagation of the electric signal. The same sublobar lesions may hyperactivate different white matter bundles reemphasizing the importance of the ictal semiology as a specific clinical demonstration of the subcortical networks recruited. Merging semiology, white matter anatomy, and electrophysiology may lead us to a better understanding of these complex syndromes and tailored therapeutic options based on individual white matter connectivity. PMID:26063964

  20. Executive dysfunctions in migraine with and without aura: what is the role of white matter lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pira, Francesco; Reggio, Ester; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Sanfilippo, Cristina; Maci, Tiziana; Cavallaro, Tiziana; Zappia, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging have been reported in migraine. The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation between these 2 variables exists. Forty-four subjects affected by migraine with or without aura were compared with 16 healthy subjects. A battery of neuropsychological tests assessing executive functions was administered to all subjects. Number and total volume of white matter lesions were assessed in the whole brain and in the frontal lobe. The performances of both groups of migraineurs, with and without aura, were significantly worse when compared with controls on Boston Scanning Test. Moreover, we found lower performances compared with controls respectively on Frontal Assessment Battery in patients with migraine with aura and on Controlled Oral Word Association Test in patients with migraine without aura. Nineteen patients (43.2%) and one control subject (6.2%) had white matter lesions. We did not find any significant correlation between white matter lesions load and neuropsychological performances. On the basis of our results, white matter lesions load on magnetic resonance imaging do not seem to contribute to neuropsychological performances deficit in migraineurs. © 2013 American Headache Society.