WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject specific features

  1. Feature Multi-Selection among Subjective Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sabato, Sivan; Kalai, Adam

    2013-01-01

    When dealing with subjective, noisy, or otherwise nebulous features, the "wisdom of crowds" suggests that one may benefit from multiple judgments of the same feature on the same object. We give theoretically-motivated `feature multi-selection' algorithms that choose, among a large set of candidate features, not only which features to judge but how many times to judge each one. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach for linear regression on a crowdsourced learning task of predicting...

  2. Youth job market specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Yu. Zhuravleva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers youth job market peculiarities, its specific features and regulation means, determines theoretical and application tasks of qualitative and quantitative comparison of vocations, which are highly in demand at the job market.

  3. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  4. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  5. The Diagnostic Method Features of Communication Subject Development (ORSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioznova E.V.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is familiarization with the development of questionnaire "Features of communication subject development" (ORSO. This new psychodiagnostic tool assesses communicative personality traits, its characteristics as the subject of communication. We present the theoretical foundation of the approach to the personality as a subject of communication, propose a structure of such subject, including two levels of properties: generic and specific. The latter include the responsibility in communication, unconditional acceptance of self, attitude to the partner as an absolute value. The questionnaire comprises five scales and measures the level of these features, as well as integrated communication success rate. The accuracy of responses is controlled by the scale of the adequacy of self-esteem. We describe communication styles, revealed by the ratio of the generic properties. The test is intended for men and women older than 12 years and allows to predict the success of communication with different partners in different situations and features of communicative behavior, attitudes, experiences of the respondent. We presented satisfactory performance criteria of test quality: reliability, validity and representativeness of the ORSO technique, provide examples of its application in scientific and applied purposes and prospects for future work.

  6. Do subjects with minimal motor features have prodromal PD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaping; Buchman, Aron S; Olanow, C W; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2018-02-08

    Understanding the pathological changes underlying mild motor features of the eldery and defining a patient population with prodromal Parkinson's disease (PD) are of great clinical importance. It remains unclear, however, how to accurately and specifically diagnose prodromal PD. We examined whether older adults with minimal parkinsonian motor features have nigrostriatal degeneration and α-synuclein pathology consistent with prodromal PD. Brain sections were obtained from older adults with a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=21) and without a clinical diagnosis of PD (N=27) who underwent motor examination proximate to death. Cases without PD were further dichotomized into no motor deficit (n=9) or minimal motor features (n-18) groups using a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. We performed quantitative unbiased stereological analyses of dopaminergic neurons/terminals and α-synuclein accumulation in the nigrostriatal system. In all subjects with minimal motor features, there were significant reductions in dopaminergic neurons and terminals in the substantia nigra and putamen that was intermediate between subjects with no motor deficit and PD. Phosphorylated α-synuclein inclusions were observed in the substantia nigra that were of similar density to what was seen in PD. Furthermore, there was greater Lewy neuritic pathology in the putamen relative to PD patients. Lastly, neurons with α-synuclein inclusions displayed reductions in tyrosine hydroxylase expression that was comparable in subjects with both minimal motor features and PD. Minimal motor features in older adults may represent prodromal PD and identify at risk individuals for testing putative neuroprotective interventions that could slow or prevent PD progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Neurological Association.

  7. Cross-Subject EEG Feature Selection for Emotion Recognition Using Transfer Recursive Feature Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhong; Wang, Yongxiong; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Using machine-learning methodologies to analyze EEG signals becomes increasingly attractive for recognizing human emotions because of the objectivity of physiological data and the capability of the learning principles on modeling emotion classifiers from heterogeneous features. However, the conventional subject-specific classifiers may induce additional burdens to each subject for preparing multiple-session EEG data as training sets. To this end, we developed a new EEG feature selection approach, transfer recursive feature elimination (T-RFE), to determine a set of the most robust EEG indicators with stable geometrical distribution across a group of training subjects and a specific testing subject. A validating set is introduced to independently determine the optimal hyper-parameter and the feature ranking of the T-RFE model aiming at controlling the overfitting. The effectiveness of the T-RFE algorithm for such cross-subject emotion classification paradigm has been validated by DEAP database. With a linear least square support vector machine classifier implemented, the performance of the T-RFE is compared against several conventional feature selection schemes and the statistical significant improvement has been found. The classification rate and F-score achieve 0.7867, 0.7526, 0.7875, and 0.8077 for arousal and valence dimensions, respectively, and outperform several recent reported works on the same database. In the end, the T-RFE based classifier is compared against two subject-generic classifiers in the literature. The investigation of the computational time for all classifiers indicates the accuracy improvement of the T-RFE is at the cost of the longer training time.

  8. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  9. Application Feature Model for Geometrical Specification of Assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, F.; Rosado, P.; Bruscas, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The work begins with the description of a Domain Meta-Model for collaborative and integrated product development based on a Feature Model that aggregates all Application Features required to support domain specific reasoning. These Application Features are conceived as an aggregation of several Object Features containing all the knowledge about the structure and geometric interface that are the solution for a certain function. Afterwards, the Specification Feature, as a specialisation of the ...

  10. WLCG-specific special features in GGUS

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Dimou, M; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    The user and operations support of the EGEE series of projects can be captioned "regional support with central coordination". Its central building block is the GGUS portal which acts as an entry point for users and support staff. It is also as an integration platform for the distributed support effort. As WLCG relies heavily on the EGEE infrastructure it is important that the support infrastructure covers the WLCG use cases of the grid. During the last year several special features have been implemented in the GGUS portal to meet the requirements of the LHC experiments needing to contact the WLCG grid infrastructure, especially their Tier 1 and Tier 2 centres. This paper summarises these special features, with particular focus on the alarm and team tickets and the direct ticket routing, in the context of the overall user and operations support infrastructure. Additionally we will present the management processes for the user support activity, detailing the options which the LHC VOs have to participate in this...

  11. [Asthmatic exacerbations: specific features in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, A; Pham-Thi, N

    2011-12-01

    Asthma concerns more than 10% of 10-year-old children. Despite the similarities between adult and childhood asthma, the pediatric population presents some specific characteristics, notably in relation to exacerbations. Asthma in the newborn infant is a specific entity, the definition of which has recently been officially recognized. In exacerbations, the most important trigger factors are respiratory virus infections, the strain having prognostic importance. The indoor and outdoor environments are risk factors, particularly high levels of atmospheric pollution. Nutrients seem to play a prognostic role through vitamin D or food allergy. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide and examination of induced sputum may help in diagnosis and adjustment of treatment but these tools are not yet effective as predictive factors in asthma exacerbations. Prevention, early management and continued education of children and their families remain the best methods to improve asthma control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Oily skin: specific features in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouveau-Richard, S; Zhu, W; Li, Y H; Zhang, Y Z; Yang, F Z; Yang, Z L; Lian, S; Qian, B Y; Ran, Y P; Bouillon, C; Chen, H D; de Lacharrière, O

    2007-02-01

    Inconsistent data are available on the various types of skin, their prevalence and characterization, particularly regarding Asian skins. This observation prompted to conduct a large study in China to assess the prevalence of oily skin and identify the specific factors related to that type of skin. The multicentre trial involved 1787 Chinese women in Shenyang, Harbin, Beijing, Chengdu and Suzhou, between 18 and 65 years of age. Data on history of acne, the presence of environmental factors and a detailed self-evaluation of the skin were collected using a standardized questionnaire. A clinical evaluation of facial skin oiliness was carried-out by a dermatologist at each centre. Sebum secretion was measured on the forehead using Sebumeter SM810. Statistical analysis (multiple correspondence analysis) of typology was conducted based on self-evaluation data. According to self-evaluation data, oily skin prevalence in the overall Chinese population of the study was 25.6%. Self-evaluation results were quite consistent with sebum measurements and with clinical assessment by dermatologist. Parameters associated with oily skin were (i) shiny skin and a past history of acne, (ii) irregular menstruation, and (iii) highly reactive or sensitive skin. Moreover, a clear and significant link was noted between oily skin and the ingestion of spicy or sweet food. Lastly, sebum levels were found to be twice as high in Beijing as in the other cities and were correlated to higher oily skin prevalence. The study demonstrated the capacity of women for proper self-evaluation of their skin type. It also suggests a potential link between nutritional factors such as spicy and/or sweet diets and oily skin as well as between sensitive and oily skin in this population.

  13. Individual-specific features of brain systems identified with resting state functional correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Evan M; Laumann, Timothy O; Adeyemo, Babatunde; Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; Dosenbach, Nico U F; Petersen, Steven E

    2017-02-01

    Recent work has made important advances in describing the large-scale systems-level organization of human cortex by analyzing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data averaged across groups of subjects. However, new findings have emerged suggesting that individuals' cortical systems are topologically complex, containing small but reliable features that cannot be observed in group-averaged datasets, due in part to variability in the position of such features along the cortical sheet. This previous work has reported only specific examples of these individual-specific system features; to date, such features have not been comprehensively described. Here we used fMRI to identify cortical system features in individual subjects within three large cross-subject datasets and one highly sampled within-subject dataset. We observed system features that have not been previously characterized, but 1) were reliably detected across many scanning sessions within a single individual, and 2) could be matched across many individuals. In total, we identified forty-three system features that did not match group-average systems, but that replicated across three independent datasets. We described the size and spatial distribution of each non-group feature. We further observed that some individuals were missing specific system features, suggesting individual differences in the system membership of cortical regions. Finally, we found that individual-specific system features could be used to increase subject-to-subject similarity. Together, this work identifies individual-specific features of human brain systems, thus providing a catalog of previously unobserved brain system features and laying the foundation for detailed examinations of brain connectivity in individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Uninterpretable features in comprehension: Subject-verb agreement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with these studies, this study tested the comprehension of subject-verb agreement and absolute pronouns by 37 isiXhosa-speaking children aged 4;0 to 6;0. The results of the study reveal an asymmetry between production and comprehension of the subject agreement marker (SM) and absolute pronouns as well as ...

  15. Differences in phonetogram features between male and female subjects with and without vocal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulter, A M; Schutte, H K; Miller, D G

    1995-12-01

    Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific factors on voice capacities may be ascertained by the analysis of phonetograms. To determine the influence of the factors gender and voice training, phonetograms of 224 subjects, subdivided accordingly into four groups, were analyzed in two different ways. One is based on the rescaling of phonetograms, whereas the other derives analytic variables from the features' shape, area, and dynamic range. Analysis showed that, regarding gender, male subjects are able to produce softer phonations, whereas female subjects produced louder phonations at specific parts of their comparable frequency ranges. Trained subjects have a larger enclosed area of the phonetogram, which is primarily based on extended soft voice capabilities in both genders and the significantly larger frequency range in trained female subjects. The shape analysis, performed with Fourier Descriptors, revealed differences for the factors gender and training.

  16. Processing of Feature Selectivity in Cortical Networks with Specific Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadra Sadeh

    Full Text Available Although non-specific at the onset of eye opening, networks in rodent visual cortex attain a non-random structure after eye opening, with a specific bias for connections between neurons of similar preferred orientations. As orientation selectivity is already present at eye opening, it remains unclear how this specificity in network wiring contributes to feature selectivity. Using large-scale inhibition-dominated spiking networks as a model, we show that feature-specific connectivity leads to a linear amplification of feedforward tuning, consistent with recent electrophysiological single-neuron recordings in rodent neocortex. Our results show that optimal amplification is achieved at an intermediate regime of specific connectivity. In this configuration a moderate increase of pairwise correlations is observed, consistent with recent experimental findings. Furthermore, we observed that feature-specific connectivity leads to the emergence of orientation-selective reverberating activity, and entails pattern completion in network responses. Our theoretical analysis provides a mechanistic understanding of subnetworks' responses to visual stimuli, and casts light on the regime of operation of sensory cortices in the presence of specific connectivity.

  17. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Chanal

    Full Text Available This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1 showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified than for controlled (introjected and external motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects.

  18. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects.

  19. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects. PMID:26247788

  20. Domain-specific language design requires feature descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); P. Klint (Paul)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractA domain-specific language (DSL) provides a notation tailored towards an application domain and is based on the relevant concepts and features of that domain. As such, a DSL is a means to describe and generate members of a family of programs in the domain. A prerequisite for the design

  1. METHODICAL ENSURING ELECTRONIC SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF DOCUMENTS: FEATURES OF EDITING SUBJECT HEADINGS IN ABIS ABSOTHEQUE UNICODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Бикова

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our article is consideration of questions of electronic subject analysis of documents and methodical ensuring editing subject headings in the electronic catalog. The main objective of our article – to show a technique of editing the dictionary of subject headings, to study and apply this technique in work of libraries of higher education institutions. Object of research is the thesaurus of subject headings of the electronic catalog of the Scientific Library of Odessa I. I. Mechnikov National University. To improve the efficiency and quality of the search capabilities of the electronic catalog needs constant work on its optimization, that is, technical editing of subject headings, the opening of new subject headings and subheadings.  In Scientific library the instruction, which regulates a technique of edition of subject headings, was developed and put into practice and establishes rationing of this process. The main finding of the work should be to improve the level of bibliographic service users and rationalization systematizer. The research findings have the practical value for employees of libraries.

  2. EEG topographies provide subject-specific correlates of motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, Elvira; Coscia, Martina; Minguillon, Jesus; Millán, José Del R; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Micera, Silvestro

    2017-10-16

    Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders. Here we examined whether and to what extent intrinsic brain activity contributes and plays a functional role during natural motor behaviors. For this we first extracted subject-specific EEG microstates and muscle synergies during reaching-and-grasping movements in healthy volunteers. We show that, in every subject, well-known resting-state microstates persist during movement execution with similar topographies and temporal characteristics, but are supplemented by novel task-related microstates. We then show that the subject-specific microstates' dynamical organization correlates with the activation of muscle synergies and can be used to decode individual grasping movements with high accuracy. These findings provide first evidence that spontaneous brain activity encodes detailed information about motor control, offering as such the prospect of a novel tool for the definition of subject-specific biomarkers of brain plasticity and recovery in neuro-motor disorders.

  3. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific ?

    OpenAIRE

    Julien Chanal; Frédéric Guay

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the ...

  4. Teaching university lecturers how to teach subject:specific writing

    OpenAIRE

    Manderstedt, Lena; Palo, Annbritt

    2015-01-01

    Teaching university lecturers how to teach subject-specific writingLena Manderstedt, Annbritt PaloStandards of student literacy are falling, due to an increased number of students described as non-traditional entrants not knowing how to write (Lea & Street, 1998). Extensive research into academic literacy practices has been carried out, including genre pedagogy (Martin, 2009), the effectiveness of feedback (Hattie & Timperley, 2007) and the role of assessment as a key to develop and i...

  5. Specific features of physical development in extremely premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Alyamovskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review deals with the specilic features of physical development in extremely premature infants weighing less than 1500 g at birth. It describes the regularities of an increment in basic physical development parameters (weight, height, and head circumference within the first year of life. Genetic factors, the specific features of a neonatal period, comorbidity, and different feeding types are shown to affect the increment rates of the physical development parameters. Emphasis is placed on the early initiation of enteral feeding and on the long-term use of fortified foods in low birthweight premature babies for the correction of energy deficiency resulting from preterm birth. The review shows that there is a relationship of the long-term outcomes of physical and psychomotor developments in low birthweight premature babies.

  6. Modelling of subject specific based segmental dynamics of knee joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. H. M.; Ibrahim, B. S. K. K.; Huq, M. S.; Ahmad, M. K. I.

    2017-09-01

    This study determines segmental dynamics parameters based on subject specific method. Five hemiplegic patients participated in the study, two men and three women. Their ages ranged from 50 to 60 years, weights from 60 to 70 kg and heights from 145 to 170 cm. Sample group included patients with different side of stroke. The parameters of the segmental dynamics resembling the knee joint functions measured via measurement of Winter and its model generated via the employment Kane's equation of motion. Inertial parameters in the form of the anthropometry can be identified and measured by employing Standard Human Dimension on the subjects who are in hemiplegia condition. The inertial parameters are the location of centre of mass (COM) at the length of the limb segment, inertia moment around the COM and masses of shank and foot to generate accurate motion equations. This investigation has also managed to dig out a few advantages of employing the table of anthropometry in movement biomechanics of Winter's and Kane's equation of motion. A general procedure is presented to yield accurate measurement of estimation for the inertial parameters for the joint of the knee of certain subjects with stroke history.

  7. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kharchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of new and improvement of existing theoretical and methodological basis of forming and developing the market of organic products, its correspondence to the present-day situation, determination of problems and ways of their solving, introduction in practical activity of Ukrainian enterprises. The main objective of the article is to determine the specific features of forming and developing organic products market in Ukraine, and the perspective directions of its development based on analysis and practice of functioning of such markets in the world. The environmentally sound products market in the world is being analyzed, some information on the countries with the most commodity turnover of organic products, structure of international market of organic products, volumes of sales of organic products in the European countries is provided. As a result of studying the modern trends of economic development the authors reach a conclusion on problems of standard introduction, investigate the European norms and requirements for organic products. The conducted research allows distinguishing the basic features of Ukrainian market of organic products: it quickly grows, which makes it especially appealing for the participants of market relations, however entry into this market requires considerable capital investments and is characterized by high risk; criteria for qualifying products as environmentally sound products are unstructured and unclear. The potential for growth of organic products market in Ukraine is examined.

  8. Specific features of goal setting in road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, V. I.; Danilov, O. F.; Petrov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    Road traffic safety (RTS) management is inherently a branch of cybernetics and therefore requires clear formalization of the task. The paper aims at identification of the specific features of goal setting in RTS management under the system approach. The paper presents the results of cybernetic modeling of the cause-to-effect mechanism of a road traffic accident (RTA); in here, the mechanism itself is viewed as a complex system. A designed management goal function is focused on minimizing the difficulty in achieving the target goal. Optimization of the target goal has been performed using the Lagrange principle. The created working algorithms have passed the soft testing. The key role of the obtained solution in the tactical and strategic RTS management is considered. The dynamics of the management effectiveness indicator has been analyzed based on the ten-year statistics for Russia.

  9. Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defew, Emma C.; Tolhurst, Trevor J.; Paterson, David M.

    The factors that influence the sediment stability and the transport of estuarine mudflats are not yet fully understood but knowledge of them is essential in coastal engineering applications and pollution ecology studies. The suggestion that variation in predictive models of sediment stability might be due to site-specific characteristics is investigated using data from four estuarine mudflats (Eden Estuary, Scotland, the Biezelingsche Ham, Zandkreek, and Molenplaat mudflats in The Netherlands). These estuaries differ in their environmental conditions, macrofaunal species composition and local features (e.g. Enteromorpha mats, migratory biofilms). Stable and unstable sediments were compared, and mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and granulometry of the sediments were significantly different between the two groups. Step-wise multiple linear regressions were applied to the sediment stability data of all sites to establish the influences on erosion threshold of microphytobenthic biomass, water content, granulometry, organic carbon content and the abundance of dominant macrofaunal species. The stability of each site was influenced by different factors. Sediment stability of the Eden Estuary was affected by the Enteromorpha bloom; Biezelingsche Ham was influenced by the highly migratory nature of the diatom biofilms and the abundance of Corophium volutator; the polychaete worm Arenicola marina had a net negative effect on sediment stability of the Zandkreek; and the Molenplaat was influenced by microphytobenthic biomass. This research highlights the need for site-specific calibration of models and suggests that a universal proxy parameter for sediment stability is unlikely to be obtained.

  10. Clinical features of otolith organ-specific vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Chisato; Suzuki, Sayaka; Kinoshita, Makoto; Egami, Naoya; Sugasawa, Keiko; Iwasaki, Shinichi

    2018-01-01

    To elucidate the clinical features and vestibular symptoms of patients with otolith organ dysfunction in the presence of normal function of the semicircular canals. We reviewed the clinical records of 277 consecutive new patients with balance disorders who underwent testing of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) as well as caloric testing and video head impulse testing (vHIT). We identified 76 patients who showed normal caloric responses and normal vHIT findings in each SCC plane, but abnormal responses in cVEMP and/or oVEMP testing. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) was the most common diagnosis. 37% of patients could not be categorized into any of the established clinical entities that could cause a balance disorder and did not show sensorineural hearing loss. The most common clinical manifestation in the idiopathic cases was recurrent rotatory vertigo with a duration of 1-12 h. The most common diagnosis of otolith organ-specific vestibular dysfunction was BPPV. The most common clinical manifestation in the idiopathic cases was recurrent rotatory vertigo. Specific dysfunction of the otolith organs occurs in association with some of the undiagnosed patients with recurrent rotatory vertigo. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal validation of general and specific structural features of personality pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Hopwood, Christopher J; Skodol, Andrew E; Morey, Leslie C

    2016-11-01

    Theorists have long argued that personality disorder (PD) is best understood in terms of general impairments shared across the disorders as well as more specific instantiations of pathology. A model based on this theoretical structure was proposed as part of the DSM-5 revision process. However, only recently has this structure been subjected to formal quantitative evaluation, with little in the way of validation efforts via external correlates or prospective longitudinal prediction. We used the Collaborative Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders dataset to: (a) estimate structural models that parse general from specific variance in personality disorder features, (b) examine patterns of growth in general and specific features over the course of 10 years, and (c) establish concurrent and dynamic longitudinal associations in PD features and a host of external validators including basic personality traits and psychosocial functioning scales. We found that general PD exhibited much lower absolute stability and was most strongly related to broad markers of psychosocial functioning, concurrently and longitudinally, whereas specific features had much higher mean stability and exhibited more circumscribed associations with functioning. However, both general and specific factors showed recognizable associations with normative and pathological traits. These results can inform efforts to refine the conceptualization and diagnosis of personality pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Defew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that influence the sediment stability and the transport of estuarine mudflats are not yet fully understood but knowledge of them is essential in coastal engineering applications and pollution ecology studies. The suggestion that variation in predictive models of sediment stability might be due to site-specific characteristics is investigated using data from four estuarine mudflats (Eden Estuary, Scotland, the Biezelingsche Ham, Zandkreek, and Molenplaat mudflats in The Netherlands. These estuaries differ in their environmental conditions, macrofaunal species composition and local features (e.g. Enteromorpha mats, migratory biofilms. Stable and unstable sediments were compared, and mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and granulometry of the sediments were significantly different between the two groups. Step-wise multiple linear regressions were applied to the sediment stability data of all sites to establish the influences on erosion threshold of microphytobenthic biomass, water content, granulometry, organic carbon content and the abundance of dominant macrofaunal species. The stability of each site was influenced by different factors. Sediment stability of the Eden Estuary was affected by the Enteromorpha bloom; Biezelingsche Ham was influenced by the highly migratory nature of the diatom biofilms and the abundance of Corophium volutator; the polychaete worm Arenicola marina had a net negative effect on sediment stability of the Zandkreek; and the Molenplaat was influenced by microphytobenthic biomass. This research highlights the need for site-specific calibration of models and suggests that a universal proxy parameter for sediment stability is unlikely to be obtained. Keywords: sediment stability; erosion threshold; cohesive strength meter; microphytobenthos; Enteromorpha spp.

  13. SPECIFIC CONSTITUTIONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN INFECTED WITH TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Yarovaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to define specific constitutional features of the children infected with tuberculosis 222 children in the age from 1 to 14 years old have been examined: 106 children with active tuberculosis; 54 children with remaining post-tuberculosis changes; 62 children infected with tuberculous mycobacteria. The following types of diatheses were identified: lymphohypoplastic, allergic, neuroarthritic, exudative-catarrhal. It has been found out that among those with active tuberculosis the children suffering from lymphohypoplastic and neuroarthritic diatheses prevail (17.0 ± 3.7%, and allergic diathesis is less common (10.4 ± 3.0% cases. Children with lymphohypoplastic diathesis have a complicated course of tuberculosis (27.8 ± 10.6% and more intensive intoxication syndrome (55.6 ± 11.7%. The frequency of allergic diathesis is higher in the children with remaining post-tuberculosis changes (29.6 ± 6.2% and those infected with tuberculosis (33.8 ± 6.1% compared to children with active tuberculosis (10.4 ± 3.0%.

  14. Translation initiation in Archaea: conserved and domain-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Dario; Londei, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Initiation is a critical step in translation, during which the ribosome lands on the start codon and sets the correct reading frame for mRNA decoding. The rate and efficiency of translation are largely determined by initiation, which is therefore the preferred target of translation regulation mechanisms. Initiation has incurred an extensive evolutionary divergence among the primary domains of cell descent. The Archaea, albeit prokaryotes, have an initiation mechanism and apparatus more complex than those of the Bacteria; the molecular details of archaeal initiation are just beginning to be unravelled. The most notable aspects of archaeal initiation are the presence of two, perhaps three, distinct mechanisms for mRNA-ribosome interaction and the presence of a relatively large set of IFs (initiation factors), several of which are shared exclusively with the Eukarya. Among these, the protein termed a/eIF2 (archaeal/eukaryotic IF2) and aIF6 (archaeal IF6) are of special interest, since they appear to play key regulatory roles in the Eukarya. Studies of the function of these factors in Archaea have uncovered new features that will help to elucidate their conserved and domain-specific functions.

  15. On the Specific Features of Temperature Evolution in Ultracold Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Dumin, Yu V

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical interpretation of the recent experimental studies of temperature evolution in the course of time in the freely-expanding ultracold plasma bunches, released from a magneto-optical trap, is discussed. The most interesting result is finding the asymptotics of the form T_e ~ t^{-(1.2 +/- 0.1)} instead of t^{-2}, which was expected for the rarefied monatomic gas during inertial expansion. As follows from our consideration, the substantially decelerated decay of the temperature can be well explained by the specific features of the equation of state for the ultracold plasmas with strong Coulomb's coupling, whereas a heat release due to inelastic processes (in particular, three-body recombination) does not play an appreciable role in the first approximation. This conclusion is confirmed both by approximate analytical estimates, based on the model of "virialization" of the charged-particle energies, and by the results of "ab initio" numerical simulation. Moreover, the simulation shows that the above-ment...

  16. Specific features of vowel-like signals of white whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel'Kovich, V. M.; Kreichi, S. A.

    2004-05-01

    The set of acoustic signals of White-Sea white whales comprises about 70 types of signals. Six of them occur most often and constitute 75% of the total number of signals produced by these animals. According to behavioral reactions, white whales distinguish each other by acoustic signals, which is also typical of other animal species and humans. To investigate this phenomenon, signals perceived as vowel-like sounds of speech, including sounds perceived as a “bleat,” were chosen A sample of 480 signals recorded in June and July, 2000, in the White Sea within a reproductive assemblage of white whales near the Large Solovetskii Island was studied. Signals were recorded on a digital data carrier (a SONY minidisk) in the frequency range of 0.06 20 kHz. The purpose of the study was to reveal the perceptive and acoustic features specific to individual animals. The study was carried out using the methods of structural analysis of vocal speech that are employed in lingual criminalistics to identify a speaking person. It was demonstrated that this approach allows one to group the signals by coincident perceptive and acoustic parameters with assigning individual attributes to single parameters. This provided an opportunity to separate conditionally about 40 different sources of acoustic signals according to the totality of coincidences, which corresponded to the number of white whales observed visually. Thus, the application of this method proves to be very promising for the acoustic identification of white whales and other marine mammals, this possibility being very important for biology.

  17. Subject-specific distortions in haptic perception of force direction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, F.E.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Gabrielse, F.L.; Lagerberg, B.W.J.; Verhoogt, T.K.; Wolfs, B.G.A.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that the accuracy of human haptic perception of force direction is not very high. We also found an effect of physical force direction on the error subjects made, resulting in ‘error patterns’. In the current study, we assessed the between- and within-subject variation

  18. Temporal specification and subject reference in Romanian subjunctive complements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aurelia Cotfas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the dependency of Romanian subjunctive complements on the semantic class of the matrix verb. It shows that different types of temporal dependency trigger different identity relations between the null embedded subject and the (subject antecedent in the main clause (cf. Farkas 1984. Volitional verbs are also looked at in terms of the restrictions they impose on the subjunctive complements they subcategorize for. Finally, following Landau’s (1999 classification of infinitive complements in English, Romanian subjunctives are argued to fall into two distinct classses exhibiting different properties in terms of subject reference and temporal dependency.

  19. Specific features of epilepsy in children with brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalmykova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of epilepsy in children and adolescents with brain tumors and to define the optimal tactics of management and antiepileptic therapy after surgical treatment. Patients and methods. Sixty-one patients aged 5 months to 15 years were examined. All the patients were diagnosed as having a brain tumor found in the presence of symptomatic epilepsy. They were all followed up for 5 years postsurgery or during their lifetime (in case of death. Comprehensive examination encompassing the assessment of history data and concomitant complaints, brain magnetic resonance imaging, video-EEC monitoring, and the neurological status (the presence of cognitive impairments and eye ground changes was done in all the cases. The probability of epileptic seizures in the clinical presentation of the disease, their semiology, and frequency were studied. Results and discussion. Epileptic seizures were the major complaint in all the patients at the first visit to their doctor. The disease occurred with status epilepticus in 9% of the patients. Different types of generalized seizures were more common (53%; p≥0.05. The tumor was located above the tentorium of the cerebellum in most examinees (77% and beneath it in the others (23%; p≤0.05. The significant clinical sign of a brain tumor in the epileptic children is focal neurological symptoms (72% of the cases. MRI was performed in children who had no focal neurological symptoms in the late periods. There was cerebrospinal fluid hypertension in 51% of the patients (p≥0.05 and cognitive impairments in 33% (p<0.05. The maximum number (74% of children with psycho-speech disorders and cognitive impairments were registered in the age group of 7–15 years. Eye ground changes characteristic of intracranial hypertension were identified in 19 epileptic children; they occurred in 27 patients more than 1 year after the onset of seizures. The late (few months-to-14 years diagnosis of a brain

  20. Enteroclysis in adult celiac disease: diagnostic value of specific radiographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomoschitz, F.; Schima, W.; Schober, E.; Turetschek, K. [Department of Radiology and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical and Experimental Radiologic Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Kaider, A. [Department of Medical Computer Sciences, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Vogelsang, H. [Department of Internal Medicine IV, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic findings at enteroclysis in adult patients with untreated celiac disease. Twenty-seven adult patients underwent enteroclysis because of unspecific intestinal symptoms before definitive biopsy proof of celiac disease. Enteroclysis of 123 subjects with similar clinical presentation, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, occult intestinal bleeding, and weight loss, who had a definitive diagnosis other than celiac disease, served as controls. The radiographic features previously described in the literature as indicative of adult celiac disease (i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds, increase of ileal folds, small bowel dilatation, flocculation) were evaluated in blinded fashion in all studies and the subjective likelihood of diagnosis of celiac disease was assessed. Assessing every finding separately, each feature proved to have a high specificity (78-100%) but low sensitivity (19-59%) for celiac disease. Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern was the single best feature (specificity 100%, 95% CI 97-100%; sensitivity 59%, 95% CI 40-78%); however, combination of criteria enables establishment of the diagnosis of celiac disease quite accurately (specificity 100%, 95% CI 98-100%; sensitivity 78%, 95% CI 58-91%). Reversal of jejunoileal fold pattern as a single finding as well as combination at least three of the following features, i.e., fold thickening, decrease of jejunal folds (''colonization''), increase of ileal folds (''jejunization''), dilatation, and flocculation, make enteroclysis an accurate tool for diagnosis of celiac disease in adult patients with suspected intestinal disease. (orig.)

  1. EEG-based recognition of video-induced emotions: selecting subject-independent feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortelainen, Jukka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are fundamental for everyday life affecting our communication, learning, perception, and decision making. Including emotions into the human-computer interaction (HCI) could be seen as a significant step forward offering a great potential for developing advanced future technologies. While the electrical activity of the brain is affected by emotions, offers electroencephalogram (EEG) an interesting channel to improve the HCI. In this paper, the selection of subject-independent feature set for EEG-based emotion recognition is studied. We investigate the effect of different feature sets in classifying person's arousal and valence while watching videos with emotional content. The classification performance is optimized by applying a sequential forward floating search algorithm for feature selection. The best classification rate (65.1% for arousal and 63.0% for valence) is obtained with a feature set containing power spectral features from the frequency band of 1-32 Hz. The proposed approach substantially improves the classification rate reported in the literature. In future, further analysis of the video-induced EEG changes including the topographical differences in the spectral features is needed.

  2. Acute Porphyrias in the USA: Features of 108 Subjects from Porphyria Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Maddukuri, Vinaya C.; Yazici, Cemal; Anderson, Karl E.; Bissell, D. Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph R.; Phillips, John D.; Naik, Hetanshi; Peter, Inga; Baillargeon, Gwen; Bossi, Krista; Gandolfo, Laura; Light, Carrie; Bishop, David; Desnick, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent descriptions of the clinical and laboratory features of subjects with acute porphyrias in the US are lacking. Our aim was to describe clinical, biochemical and genetic features of 108 subjects. Methods Between Sep 2010—Dec 2012, 108 subjects with acute porphyrias [90 acute intermittent porphyria, 9 hereditary coproporphyria, 9 variegate porphyria] were enrolled into an observational study. Genetic testing was performed at a central genetic testing laboratory and clinical information entered into a central data base. Selected features were compared to data for adults in the USA. Results Most subjects [88/108, 81%] were female with self-reported onset of symptoms in 2nd–4th decades of life. The most common symptom was abdominal pain. Appendectomies and cholecystectomies were common prior to a diagnosis of porphyria. The diagnosis was delayed by a mean of 15 years. Anxiety and depression were common, and 18% complained of chronic symptoms, especially neuropathic and other pains. The incidences of and systemic arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, seizure disorders, and psychiatric conditions were markedly increased. Mutations of the known causative genes were found in 102/105 of those tested, with novel mutations being found in 37 including in 7/8 subjects with hereditary coproporphyria. Therapy with intravenous hematin was the most effective therapy both for treatment of acute attacks and for prevention of recurrent attacks. Conclusions Acute porphyrias often remain undiagnosed for more than a decade after first symptoms develop. Intravenous hematin is the treatment of choice, both for treatment of acute attacks and for prevention of recurrent attacks. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01561157 PMID:25016127

  3. Acute porphyrias in the USA: features of 108 subjects from porphyrias consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Maddukuri, Vinaya C; Yazici, Cemal; Anderson, Karl E; Bissell, D Montgomery; Bloomer, Joseph R; Phillips, John D; Naik, Hetanshi; Peter, Inga; Baillargeon, Gwen; Bossi, Krista; Gandolfo, Laura; Light, Carrie; Bishop, David; Desnick, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Recent descriptions of the clinical and laboratory features of subjects with acute porphyrias in the US are lacking. Our aim was to describe clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of 108 subjects. Between September 2010 and December 2012, 108 subjects with acute porphyrias (90 acute intermittent porphyrias, 9 hereditary coproporphyrias, 9 variegate porphyrias) were enrolled into an observational study. Genetic testing was performed at a central genetic testing laboratory and clinical information entered into a central database. Selected features were compared with data for adults in the US. Most subjects (88/108, 81%) were female, with self-reported onset of symptoms in the second through fourth decades of life. The most common symptom was abdominal pain. Appendectomies and cholecystectomies were common before a diagnosis of porphyria. The diagnosis was delayed by a mean of 15 years. Anxiety and depression were common, and 18% complained of chronic symptoms, especially neuropathic and other pains. The incidences of systemic arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, seizure disorders, and psychiatric conditions were markedly increased. Mutations of the known causative genes were found in 102/105 of those tested, with novel mutations being found in 37, including in 7/8 subjects with hereditary coproporphyria. Therapy with intravenous hematin was the most effective therapy both for treatment of acute attacks and for prevention of recurrent attacks. Acute porphyrias often remain undiagnosed for more than a decade after first symptoms develop. Intravenous hematin is the treatment of choice, both for treatment of acute attacks and for prevention of recurrent attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Specific Features of Functioning of the Corporate Tax Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachyk Lesya P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies and reveals the essence of functional elements of corporate tax management, which are tax planning, tax analysis, tax accounting and reporting, tax control and tax monitoring. The article builds a functional model of corporate tax management that reflects interaction of its functional elements in the process of realisation of tax activity of economic subjects. Pursuant to this model, the corporate tax management is conducted in several stages, namely: development of alternative variants of tax activity, analysis of alternative variants of tax activity, selection of the optimal variant of tax activity, realisation of tax activity, control over realisation of tax activity and development of measures of increase of efficiency of tax management. Application of the functional model of corporate tax management, which envisages use of all instruments, allows optimisation of tax payments of economic subjects.

  5. Automatic selective feature retention in patient specific elastic surface registration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Rensburg, GJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available as is typically the case when skull geometries are considered. These differences in topology can arise from the geometry itself, such as a missing tooth or bullet wound in one skull with no equivalent trauma on the other, or as a result of post-processing when..., location of a crack or hole due to decay, a broken zygomatic arch, wound caused by some kind of trauma and even angle of the cut made during an autopsy unless it is the reason for the comparison. Aimed at only matching features relevant to a study also...

  6. Cardio-Metabolic Features of Type 2 Diabetes Subjects Discordant in the Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa Rah Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study is to investigate the cardio-metabolic parameters and surrogate markers of insulin resistance in a discordant group of type 2 diabetes (T2DM subjects who satisfy the Adults Treatment Panel (ATP III criteria, but not the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria, for metabolic syndrome (MetS.MethodsWe assessed the prevalence of MetS in T2DM subjects (n=167 who were selected from subjects registered at the diabetes center of Dong-A University Medical Center. We used the ATP III criteria and the IDF criteria for the diagnosis of MetS and sorted the subjects into 2 MetS groups: one group diagnosed per ATP III criteria (MetSa and one diagnosed per IDF criteria (MetSi. We then compared the clinical characteristics, metabolic parameters (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and uric acid values and co-morbidities (prevalence of microalbuminuria, fatty liver, and cardiovascular disease between the MetSa, MetSi, and discordant MetS groups.ResultsThe prevalence of MetS in the MetSa group (73.6% was higher than in the MetSi group (62.2%. The MetS prevalence in the discordant group was 11.4%. The discordant group showed no significant differences in clinical characteristics (except waist circumference and body mass index, metabolic parameters, or prevalence of co-morbidities, as compared with subjects with MetS by both criteria.ConclusionIn this study, cardio-metabolic features of the subjects diagnosed with MetS using ATP III criteria, but not IDF criteria, are not significantly different from those of subjects diagnosed with MetS using both criteria.

  7. Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Moyer, T

    1998-11-01

    Sociodemographic features, phenomenology, and psychiatric comorbidity of 30 subjects reporting pathological gambling behavior were examined. Twenty-three men and seven women were recruited by advertisement and word-of-mouth. They all scored higher than 5 points on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, indicating problematic gambling behaviors. They completed structured and semistructured assessments, including the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III-R disorders (DIS), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, Fourth Revision (PDQ-IV), and the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. The typical subject was a 44-year-old white married man with a mean income of $34,250 who visited a casino once or more weekly. All 30 subjects reported gambling more money than they intended to. Twenty subjects (67 percent) reported gambling as a current problem, and nine (30 percent) reported it as a past problem. Twenty-one subjects (70 percent) wanted to stop gambling but did not feel they could. According to DIS results, 18 subjects (60 percent) had a lifetime mood disorder, 19 (64 percent) a lifetime substance use disorder, and 12 (40 percent) a lifetime anxiety disorder. Based on the PDQ-IV, 26 subjects (87 percent) had a personality disorder, the most common being obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. The sample also had a relatively high rate of antisocial personality disorder. Impulse control disorders were common, especially compulsive buying and compulsive sexual behavior. The results confirm that individuals with pathological gambling suffer substantial psychiatric comorbidity. They support continued inclusion of pathological gambling in the diagnostic category of impulse control disorders.

  8. The relationship between porosity and specific surface in human cortical bone is subject specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours, C; Thomas, C D L; Clement, J G; Buenzli, P R; Pivonka, P

    2015-03-01

    A characteristic relationship for bone between bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and specific surface (BS/TV) has previously been proposed based on 2D histological measurements. This relationship has been suggested to be bone intrinsic, i.e., to not depend on bone type, bone site and health state. In these studies, only limited data comes from cortical bone. The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between BV/TV and BS/TV in human cortical bone using high-resolution micro-CT imaging and the correlations with subject-specific biometric data such as height, weight, age and sex. Images from femoral cortical bone samples of the Melbourne Femur Collection were obtained using synchrotron radiation micro-CT (SPring8, Japan). Sixteen bone samples from thirteen individuals were analysed in order to find bone volume fraction values ranging from 0.20 to 1. Finally, morphological models of the tissue microstructure were developed to help explain the relationship between BV/TV and BS/TV. Our experimental findings indicate that the BV/TV vs BS/TV relationship is subject specific rather than intrinsic. Sex and pore density were statistically correlated with the individual curves. However no correlation was found with body height, weight or age. Experimental cortical data points deviate from interpolating curves previously proposed in the literature. However, these curves are largely based on data points from trabecular bone samples. This finding challenges the universality of the curve: highly porous cortical bone is significantly different to trabecular bone of the same porosity. Finally, our morphological models suggest that changes in BV/TV within the same sample can be explained by an increase in pore area rather than in pore density. This is consistent with the proposed mechanisms of age-related endocortical bone loss. In addition, these morphological models highlight that the relationship between BV/TV and BS/TV is not linear at high BV/TV as suggested in the

  9. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The ascending aortic elasticity feature in normotensive subjects: evaluation with coronary CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenqian; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Weicui; Cheng, Guanxun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the ascending aortic elasticity feature, 118 normotensive subjects who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled. Two groups of parameters assessing elasticity were calculated based on the measurements of volume and area of ascending aorta. Multivariate analysis revealed that some factors including age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, smoking status and hyperlipidemia independently related to decreased aortic elasticity. Both measuring methods are applicable for evaluation of aortic elasticity. As the prevalence of CCTA, it is meaningful that CCTA can provide not only the structural details of ascending aorta but also functional information of the vessel elasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporation of Inter-Subject Information to Improve the Accuracy of Subject-Specific P300 Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minpeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Long; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhou, Peng; Wan, Baikun; Ming, Dong

    2016-05-01

    Although the inter-subject information has been demonstrated to be effective for a rapid calibration of the P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI), it has never been comprehensively tested to find if the incorporation of heterogeneous data could enhance the accuracy. This study aims to improve the subject-specific P300 classifier by adding other subject's data. A classifier calibration strategy, weighted ensemble learning generic information (WELGI), was developed, in which elementary classifiers were constructed by using both the intra- and inter-subject information and then integrated into a strong classifier with a weight assessment. 55 subjects were recruited to spell 20 characters offline using the conventional P300-based BCI, i.e. the P300-speller. Four different metrics, the P300 accuracy and precision, the round accuracy, and the character accuracy, were performed for a comprehensive investigation. The results revealed that the classifier constructed on the training dataset in combination with adding other subject's data was significantly superior to that without the inter-subject information. Therefore, the WELGI is an effective classifier calibration strategy which uses the inter-subject information to improve the accuracy of subject-specific P300 classifiers, and could also be applied to other BCI paradigms.

  12. [Patterns and specific features of immigration in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, F L

    1997-06-01

    "With...present international migration trends as its scenario, this article analyses the growth of immigration in Portugal, emphasising four main aspects: the balance between immigration and the recent resumption of emigration; the factors which have favoured the entry of immigrants; the composition of these immigrants in terms of country of origin; and the specific characteristics of Portuguese immigration in the context of the European Union." (EXCERPT)

  13. Objective and subjective binge eating in underweight eating disorders: associated features and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2012-04-01

    To define the utility of the DSM-IV-TR definition of binge eating, as it applies to anorexia nervosa (AN) and underweight eating disorder not otherwise specified (ED-NOS). We investigated the psychopathological features associated with bulimic episodes in 105 underweight individuals with eating disorders who reported regular objective bulimic episodes with or without subjective bulimic episodes (OBE group, n = 33), regular subjective bulimic episodes only (SBE group, n = 36) and neither objective nor subjective bulimic episodes (n = 36, no-RBE group). The Eating Disorder Examination (EDE), anxiety, depression, and personality tests were administered before and upon completion of inpatient cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) treatment 6 months later. Compared with the SBE group, OBE subjects had higher body mass index, and more frequent self-induced vomiting, while both OBE and SBE groups had more severe eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-directness than the no-RBE group. Dropout rates and outcomes in response to inpatient CBT were similar in the three groups. Despite a few significant differences at baseline, the similar outcome in response to CBT indicates that categorizing patients with underweight eating disorder on the basis of the type or frequency of bulimic episodes is of limited clinical utility. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Craniofacial features and specific oral characteristics of Down syndrome children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, V; Coelho, A; Areias, C; Macedo, P; Andrade, D

    2014-06-01

    This article intends to describe the characteristics of Down syndrome children in order to facilitate their management in the dental office. A review of literature was made limited to articles published between 2003 and 2013. The article is based on a literature search in PubMed and the authors' clinical experience with the patient group. Individuals with Down syndrome are clinically characterized by generalized hypotonia, neurological, cardiac and respiratory problems and changes in their stomatognathic system. Almost all these patients have an occlusal disharmony, including anterior open bite, anterior and posterior crossbite, anterior proclination and underdevelopment of the maxilla and the midface. Dental anomalies such as hypodontia, peg-shaped teeth and enamel hypocalcification are also found. The dentomaxillofacial features have clinical implications in speech, nutrition, posture, ventilation and aesthetics, with enormous consequences in growth, development and social integration. When planning the dental treatment of patients with Down syndrome, dental practitioners should always consider their general health, in order to achieve a holistic and interdisciplinary approach.

  15. The Specific Features of the Course of Critical Conditions in Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve treatment results in miners, by studying the specific features of the course of their critical conditions caused by severe traumatic injuries, and to develop differentiated intensive therapeutic regimens for detected abnormalities. Subjects and methods. A total of 1107 subjects were examined during the study. Central hemodynamic function was explored in 371 healthy miners with various lengths of underground mining; a control group included 30 healthy volunteers unexposed to occupational hazards. Examinations were made in 386 severe brain injury victims, including 218 victims with no length of underground work and 115 injured miners with an underground work length of more than 5 years. A control group comprised 53 apparently healthy donors. One hundred and twenty-two miners with severe thermal injury were examined. A control group consisted of 39 apparently healthy volunteers. One hundred and six victims with acute respiratory distress syndrome in the presence of severe concomitant injury were examined under mechanical ventilation. Sixty-three injured miners formed a study group; a comparison group included 43 subjects with no length of underground mining. Conclusion. Upon longer exposure to occupational hazards, the prenosological changes occur in the miners' organs and systems, which display a regular phasic pattern, fit in the picture of general adjustment syndrome, and determine the specific features of critical conditions. The peculiarities of the critical conditions caused by severe traumatic injuries in miners are the early development and high frequency of complications, the more severe course and late recovery of the body's lost functions, unlike the victims unexposed to occupational hazards. Differentiated intensive therapy for critical conditions in miners with severe traumatic injuries makes it possible to improve treatment results and to reduce death rates. 

  16. Specific IgE in tear fluid and features of allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Matsubara, Masao

    2013-09-01

    The level of specific class E immunoglobulins (IgE) in tear fluid is a useful diagnostic indicator for allergic conjunctivitis, but it is still unclear whether the measurement of tear fluid IgE is helpful for assessing the severity of allergic conjunctivitis. In this study, we evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of specific IgE and features of allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with allergic conjunctivitis (n = 55, allergic group) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 50, control group). Levels of specific IgE for cedar pollen, cat epithelium/dander and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were measured in tear fluid with the Immfast Check J1®. A severity score (0, 1, 2 or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions. The levels of specific IgE for both cedar pollen, and D. pteronyssinus were significantly higher in the allergic group compared with the control group (p conjunctivitis. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the class of cedar pollen IgE and any of the features of allergic conjunctivitis. This study demonstrated that measurement of specific IgE in tear fluid may be useful for determining the severity of allergic conjunctivitis induced by indoor allergens. Although measurement of IgE in tear fluid is only a supplemental tool for evaluating the clinical activity of allergic conjunctivitis, the test can be useful for detecting specific IgE antibodies responsible for this condition.

  17. Specific features of medicines safety and pharmacovigilance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Ambrose O; Pal, Shanthi N; Olsson, Sten; Dodoo, Alexander; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayami

    2012-02-01

    The thalidomide tragedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s served as a wakeup call and raised questions about the safety of medicinal products. The developed countries rose to the challenge putting in place systems to ensure the safety of medicines. However, this was not the case for low-resource settings because of prevailing factors inherent in them. This paper reviews some of these features and the current status of pharmacovigilance in Africa. The health systems in most of the 54 countries of Africa are essentially weak, lacking in basic infrastructure, personnel, equipment and facilities. The recent mass deployment of medicines to address diseases of public health significance in Africa poses additional challenges to the health system with notable safety concerns. Other safety issues of note include substandard and counterfeit medicines, medication errors and quality of medicinal products. The first national pharmacovigilance centres established in Africa with membership of the World Health Organization (WHO) international drug monitoring programme were in Morocco and South Africa in 1992. Of the 104 full member countries in the programme, there are now 24 African countries with a further nine countries as associate members. The pharmacovigilance systems operational in African countries are based essentially on spontaneous reporting facilitated by the introduction of the new tool Vigiflow. The individual case safety reports committed to the WHO global database (Vigibase) attest to the growth of pharmacovigilance in Africa with the number of reports rising from 2695 in 2000 to over 25,000 in 2010. There is need to engage the various identified challenges of the weak pharmacovigilance systems in the African setting and to focus efforts on how to provide resources, infrastructure and expertise. Raising the level of awareness among healthcare providers, developing training curricula for healthcare professionals, provisions for paediatric and geriatric

  18. Achilles tendon stress is more sensitive to subject-specific geometry than subject-specific material properties: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S

    2017-05-03

    This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm3 and 58±11mm2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific features of consumer's behaviour in new market economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lylyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite intuitive or deliberate realization of the necessity of being oriented towards the customer’ s needs, the marketing philosophy was not used similarly in real life by the enterprises of the new market-oriented countries, among which we traditionally find the Baltic countries (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Russia, the former Ugoslavian republics (Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Chernogoria and others. The article generalizes the factors, influencing the behavioral peculiarities of the consumers in the above-mentioned countries and specific ways of introduction of marketing technologies and it is supported by the reprinted materials or by the results of the comparative research, carried out by research institutions and professional associations.

  20. Specific features of measuring the ecologically adjusted gross regional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douginets Ganna V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article formulates a necessity of deepening and improvement of ecological and economic indicators and considers the existing indices and indicators of sustainable development. It conducts a comparative analysis of existing norms of calculation of the ecological tax and fees for environmental pollution. It marks main problems of nature management in Ukraine and their consequences, namely, negative impact on health of the population. It offers methods of measurement of the ecologically adjusted gross regional product (EGRP on the basis of improvement of the cost method. It analyses dependence of the regional welfare on the state of environment with the help of measuring the EGRP of Ukrainian regions. It studies the pressure on Ukrainian regions by components: pollution of aquatic environment, atmospheric air, land resources and rates of waste formation. It conducts grouping of regions by EGRP per capita with specification of positive and negative dynamics of the indicator.

  1. Sector specific features of innovative development in the Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasyuk I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day development of the Russian Federation is mostly shaped by the innovative development capacity of the national economy. Industry forms the core of such development. The paper presents the study of the current state of the innovative development in industry being the source of the basic innovations, as well as identifies the limitation factors. The authors have found out that low innovative activity of the industrial enterprises holds back the implementation of innovations in the related sectors, for instance, trade. It has also been found out that the course of the innovative development in the field of trade is also shaped by the sector-specific factors, which should be considered to adjust the innovation policy of a trading enterprise.

  2. Transformation of armed violence: specific features and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Balatska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations occurring in the world today became a result of globalization, information, changes in the international balance of power, and are reflected in all aspects of political development. One of the most pressing challenges of our time, a consequence of these processes, is the evolution of forms and methods of armed violence. This publication is devoted to determining the specific and major trends transforming the forms and methods of armed violence. Instead of the traditional military conflicts, new forms and means of armed confrontation emerge. Asymmetrical conflicts taking place with the participation of non-state parties and irregular armed groups, are quite common at the moment. «Hard power» methods associated with the use of direct violence are supplemented by means of «soft power». Violent but non-traditional (non-military means of confrontation widen, with informational and psychological influence becoming particularly prominent. Infotechnological and infopsychological methods of intervention have become an integral part of modern military-political confrontation, taking form of hybrid, network and network-centric warfare. The hybrid military conflicts are typically distinguished by asymmetry, latency, priority of small-scale combat actions and dynamic use of indirect violence. Network-centric warfare focused on achieving information superiority over the enemy, complex effects on the enemy’s physical, informational and cognitive domains, strategic flexibility and adaptability, priority of horizontal ties over traditional vertical hierarchy. Horizontal network infrastructure, consisting of multiple independent, highly specialized and geographically dispersed units, determines the effectiveness of network war strategy today. Apart from qualitative changes associated with emergence and proliferation of new forms of armed violence on a global scale, there is a definite global increase in its quantitative

  3. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  4. CURRENT PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: SPECIFIC FEATURES OF SYMPTOMATIC AND DISEASE MODIFYING EFFECTS. COMMUNICATION 1. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE SYMPTOMATIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT DRUGS TO TREAT KNEE OSTHEOARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Tsvetkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the symptomatic effect and tolerability of acetaminophen, glucosamine sulfate (GS, chondroitin sulfate (CS, and meloxicam in patents with knee osteoarthritis (OA. Subjects and methods. An 18-month open-label randomized prospective parallel-group trial enrolled 80 patients with knee OA who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria and signed the informed consent. They had Kellgren and Lawrence grades O-III OA with visual analogue scale pain intensity of ≥ 40 mm in the target knee, a body mass index of ≤ 35 kg/m2, and no clinical dysfunctions of vital organs and systems. The patients were randomized into 4 groups: 1 acetaminophen 2 g daily; 2 a standard GS regimen; 3 a standard CS regimen; 4 meloxicam 15 mg daily. The patients were followed up for 18 months. The effectiveness was evaluated by the WOMAC questionnaire, Leguesne index, and OMERACT-OARSI (D scenario during 8 visits. Laboratory and clinical examination as well as electrocardiography were performed. Adverse events were recorded during each visit.Results. After 4 weeks of treatment, symptomatic improvement was noted in all groups; however, the best effect was achieved by the use of meloxicam that ensured an obvious improvement in all patients. According to the OMERACT-OARSI criteria and changes in the WOMAC and Leguesne indices, the total efficacy of meloxicam was also highest. 20, 10, and 15% of the patients failed to respond to treatment in the acetaminophen, GS, and CS groups, respectively. Conclusion. The results of this trial suggest that it is expedient to use GS, CS, and meloxicam long, support the recent guidelines of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and OA (ESCEO, and can give proofs of the efficiency and safety of GS, CS, and meloxicam used in the treatment of knee OA.

  5. 19 CFR 103.11 - Specific Customs Service records subject to disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... following: Forms Catalog. Customs and other agency forms currently available from the Customs Service. Legal... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specific Customs Service records subject to... Information Under the FOIA § 103.11 Specific Customs Service records subject to disclosure. (a) Administrative...

  6. Features of manifestation and progression for critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zelinskiy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study was designed to assess the specific features of manifestation and progression for critical low limb ischemia in patients with abdominal aortic calcification. Methods. The total of 151 patients with low limb critical ischemia due to peripheral arterial disease were enrolled to the study cohort: 79 patients (study group with abdominal aortic calcification and 72 patients (control group without any signs of abdominal aortic wall calcification. Abdominal aortic calcification was detected by CT-imaging. The patients with diabetes mellitus and with chronic renal insufficiency were excluded from the study cohort. Results. Critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification manifested itself in the following features: predominant localization of lesions in the aorto-iliac position (68.4% vs. 33.3% in patients without abdominal aortic calcification; р<0.05, rapid progression of lower limb ischemia (its prevalence in the study group was 77.7% vs. 37.3% in the control group; р<0.01, expressed hypercoagulation combined with a decrease in the level of natural anticoagulants concentration (mean activity of antithrombin III in individuals with abdominal aortic calcification was 56.5±10.4% vs. 98.7±16.4% in patients without abdominal aortic calcification; р<0.001. Conclusion. The study findings have shown that critical lower limb ischemia in subjects with abdominal aortic calcification has specific futures of manifestation and clinical course that need to be considered when choosing the best treatment strategy.Received 24 April 2017. Revised 7 June 2017. Accepted 19 June 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  7. A subject-specific framework for in vivo myeloarchitectonic analysis using high resolution quantitative MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehnert, Miriam D; Dinse, Juliane; Schäfer, Andreas; Geyer, Stefan; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Turner, Robert; Tardif, Christine Lucas

    2016-01-15

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging can now resolve laminar features within the cerebral cortex in vivo. A variety of intracortical contrasts have been used to study the cortical myeloarchitecture with the purpose of mapping cortical areas in individual subjects. In this article, we first briefly review recent advances in MRI analysis of cortical microstructure to portray the potential and limitations of the current state-of-the-art. We then present an integrated framework for the analysis of intracortical structure, composed of novel image processing tools designed for high resolution cortical images. The main features of our framework are the segmentation of quantitative T1 maps to delineate the cortical boundaries (Bazin et al., 2014), and the use of an equivolume layering model to define an intracortical coordinate system that follows the anatomical layers of the cortex (Waehnert et al., 2014). We evaluate the framework with 150μm isotropic post mortem T2(∗)-weighted images and 0.5mm isotropic in vivo T1 maps, a quantitative index of myelin content. We study the laminar structure of the primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) in the post mortem and in vivo data, as well as the central sulcus region in vivo, in particular Brodmann areas 1, 3b and 4. We also investigate the impact of the layering models on the relationship between T1 and cortical curvature. Our experiments demonstrate that the equivolume intracortical surfaces and transcortical profiles best reflect the laminar structure of the cortex in areas of curvature in comparison to the state-of-the-art equidistant and Laplace implementations. This framework generates a subject specific intracortical coordinate system, the basis for subsequent architectonic analyses of the cortex. Any structural or functional contrast co-registered to the T1 maps, used to segment the cortex, can be sampled on the curved grid for analysis. This work represents an important step towards in vivo structural brain mapping

  8. Atlas-Based Automatic Generation of Subject-Specific Finite Element Tongue Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijar, Ahmad; Rohan, Pierre-Yves; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Generation of subject-specific 3D finite element (FE) models requires the processing of numerous medical images in order to precisely extract geometrical information about subject-specific anatomy. This processing remains extremely challenging. To overcome this difficulty, we present an automatic atlas-based method that generates subject-specific FE meshes via a 3D registration guided by Magnetic Resonance images. The method extracts a 3D transformation by registering the atlas' volume image to the subject's one, and establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the two volumes. The 3D transformation field deforms the atlas' mesh to generate the subject-specific FE mesh. To preserve the quality of the subject-specific mesh, a diffeomorphic non-rigid registration based on B-spline free-form deformations is used, which guarantees a non-folding and one-to-one transformation. Two evaluations of the method are provided. First, a publicly available CT-database is used to assess the capability to accurately capture the complexity of each subject-specific Lung's geometry. Second, FE tongue meshes are generated for two healthy volunteers and two patients suffering from tongue cancer using MR images. It is shown that the method generates an appropriate representation of the subject-specific geometry while preserving the quality of the FE meshes for subsequent FE analysis. To demonstrate the importance of our method in a clinical context, a subject-specific mesh is used to simulate tongue's biomechanical response to the activation of an important tongue muscle, before and after cancer surgery.

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  11. Subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling in the evaluation of shoulder muscle and joint function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Lee, Peter V S; Bryant, Adam L; Galea, Mary; Ackland, David C

    2016-11-07

    Upper limb muscle force estimation using Hill-type muscle models depends on musculotendon parameter values, which cannot be readily measured non-invasively. Generic and scaled-generic parameters may be quickly and easily employed, but these approaches do not account for an individual subject's joint torque capacity. The objective of the present study was to develop a subject-specific experimental testing and modeling framework to evaluate shoulder muscle and joint function during activities of daily living, and to assess the capacity of generic and scaled-generic musculotendon parameters to predict muscle and joint function. Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models of the shoulders of 6 healthy subjects were developed to calculate muscle and glenohumeral joint loading during abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, nose touching and reaching using subject-specific, scaled-generic and generic musculotendon parameters. Muscle and glenohumeral joint forces calculated using generic and scaled-generic models were significantly different to those of subject-specific models (pMuscles in generic musculoskeletal models operated further from the plateau of their force-length curves than those of scaled-generic and subject-specific models, while muscles in subject-specific models operated over a wider region of their force length curves than those of the generic or scaled-generic models, reflecting diversity of subject shoulder strength. The findings of this study suggest that generic and scaled-generic musculotendon parameters may not provide sufficient accuracy in prediction of shoulder muscle and joint loading when compared to models that employ subject-specific parameter-estimation approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An extensive analysis of various texture feature extractors to detect Diabetes Mellitus using facial specific regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Ting; Zhang, Bob; Yan Tang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Researchers have recently discovered that Diabetes Mellitus can be detected through non-invasive computerized method. However, the focus has been on facial block color features. In this paper, we extensively study the effects of texture features extracted from facial specific regions at detecting Diabetes Mellitus using eight texture extractors. The eight methods are from four texture feature families: (1) statistical texture feature family: Image Gray-scale Histogram, Gray-level Co-occurance Matrix, and Local Binary Pattern, (2) structural texture feature family: Voronoi Tessellation, (3) signal processing based texture feature family: Gaussian, Steerable, and Gabor filters, and (4) model based texture feature family: Markov Random Field. In order to determine the most appropriate extractor with optimal parameter(s), various parameter(s) of each extractor are experimented. For each extractor, the same dataset (284 Diabetes Mellitus and 231 Healthy samples), classifiers (k-Nearest Neighbors and Support Vector Machines), and validation method (10-fold cross validation) are used. According to the experiments, the first and third families achieved a better outcome at detecting Diabetes Mellitus than the other two. The best texture feature extractor for Diabetes Mellitus detection is the Image Gray-scale Histogram with bin number=256, obtaining an accuracy of 99.02%, a sensitivity of 99.64%, and a specificity of 98.26% by using SVM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Predicted Muscle Coordination with Subject-Specific Muscle Parameters for Individuals after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Knarr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is commonly seen in individuals after stroke, characterized by lower forces during a maximal volitional contraction. Accurate quantification of muscle weakness is paramount when evaluating individual performance and response to after stroke rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of subject-specific muscle force and activation deficits on predicted muscle coordination when using musculoskeletal models for individuals after stroke. Maximum force generating ability and central activation ratio of the paretic plantar flexors, dorsiflexors, and quadriceps muscle groups were obtained using burst superimposition for four individuals after stroke with a range of walking speeds. Two models were created per subject: one with generic and one with subject-specific activation and maximum isometric force parameters. The inclusion of subject-specific muscle data resulted in changes in the model-predicted muscle forces and activations which agree with previously reported compensation patterns and match more closely the timing of electromyography for the plantar flexor and hamstring muscles. This was the first study to create musculoskeletal simulations of individuals after stroke with subject-specific muscle force and activation data. The results of this study suggest that subject-specific muscle force and activation data enhance the ability of musculoskeletal simulations to accurately predict muscle coordination in individuals after stroke.

  14. A subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling framework to predict in vivo mechanics of total knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, M.A.; Vanheule, V.; Fluit, R.; Koopman, B.H.; Rasmussen, J.; Verdonschot, N.J.; Andersen, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal (MS) models should be able to integrate patient-specific MS architecture and undergo thorough validation prior to their introduction into clinical practice. We present a methodology to develop subject-specific models able to simultaneously predict muscle, ligament, and knee joint

  15. Subject-specific geometrical detail rather than cost function formulation affects hip loading calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Mariska; De Groote, Friedl; Bosmans, Lode; Bartels, Ward; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-11-01

    This study assessed the relative importance of introducing an increasing level of medical image-based subject-specific detail in bone and muscle geometry in the musculoskeletal model, on calculated hip contact forces during gait. These forces were compared to introducing minimization of hip contact forces in the optimization criterion. With an increasing level of subject-specific detail, specifically MRI-based geometry and wrapping surfaces representing the hip capsule, hip contact forces decreased and were more comparable to contact forces measured using instrumented prostheses (average difference of 0.69 BW at the first peak compared to 1.04 BW for the generic model). Inclusion of subject-specific wrapping surfaces in the model had a greater effect than altering the cost function definition.

  16. Inflation in Modern Russia: Theoretical Foundations, Specific Features of Manifestation and Regional Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Ilyashenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to characterize the development and specific features of inflation in Russia on the basis of its theoretical justification and practical analysis. The article discusses the monetarist and Keynesian approaches to the characterization of inflation. The paper shows that the equation of exchange from the quantity theory of money, which is the basis of the monetarist theory of inflation, does not allow to make an unambiguous conclusion about the direct relationship between money supply and price level in the economy. The authors give the theoretical substantiation of cost-push inflation from the position of microeconomic theory, which is denied by the representatives of the monetarist school. We characterize the specific features of inflation in the period of market transformations in Russia. The article shows the considerable role of the cost factors of cost-push inflation: the monopolization of the economy, rise in the prices of energy and raw materials. There is an absence of the direct relationship between inflation and money supply growth in large part of the period of the 2000. The authors determine the dependence between the exchange rate and inflation in the Russian economy, which is most evident during periods of significant devaluation of the national currency, as a rule, associated with a significant increase in world oil prices. The paper notes that the significant decline in aggregate demand that occurred in Russia in recent years have reduced the level of inflation in 2016. Despite this, the reduction of inflation and its transformation to slow cost-push inflation was combined with negative consequences for the economy: the decrease of investments and production development, reduction of the living standards of the population. The authors conducted the analysis of inflation on the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation, which has confirmed the significant role of causes of cost-push inflation in

  17. Personality Dimensions as Common and Broadband-Specific Features for Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hink, Laura K.; Rhee, Soo H.; Corley, Robin P.; Cosgrove, Victoria E.; Hewitt, John K.; Schulz-Heik, Robert J.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have suggested that the nature of the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders may be understood better by examining the associations between temperament or personality and these disorders. The present study examined neuroticism as a potential common feature underlying both internalizing and externalizing disorders and novelty seeking as a potential broad-band specific feature influencing externalizing disorders alone. Participants were 12- to 18-year-...

  18. Specific features of Bazhenov suite sediments in south-eastern Nurolsk sedimentary basin (Tomsk Oblast)

    OpenAIRE

    Nedolivko, Nataliya Mikhailovna; Perevertaylo (Perevertailo), Tatyana Gennadievna; Li Cunyi; Abramova, Raisa Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    The specific sediment features in Georgiev (J[3]kmgr), Bazhenov (J3vbg) and Kulomzin (K1bkl) suites, exposed by drilling in the S-E Nurolsk depression (Tomsk Oblast), were defined and described via petrographic, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence-microscopy analysis methods. The classification of agrillites was identified, the structure-texture features, composition, voids and bitumen types and their distribution were determined. It was defined that Bazhenov suite argillites are characteristi...

  19. Improving Protein Fold Recognition by Extracting Fold-specific Features from Predicted Residue-residue Contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2017-08-16

    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally-informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5%, and 78.8% at family, superfamily, and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level, and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed

  20. A legume-based hypocaloric diet reduces proinflammatory status and improves metabolic features in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Zulet, M Ángeles; Abete, Itziar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional composition of the dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables and inflammatory marker concentrations. This study assessed the effects of two hypocaloric diets (legume-restricted- vs. legume-based diet) on metabolic and inflammatory changes, accompanying weight loss. Thirty obese subjects (17 M/13F; BMI: 32.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2); 36 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of the following hypocaloric treatments (8 weeks): Calorie-restricted legume-free diet (Control: C-diet) or calorie-restricted legume-based diet (L-diet), prescribing 4 weekly different cooked-servings (160-235 g) of lentils, chickpeas, peas or beans. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood biochemical and inflammatory marker concentrations as well as dietary intake were measured at baseline and after the nutritional intervention. The L-diet achieved a greater body weight loss, when compared to the C-diet (-7.8 ± 2.9% vs. -5.3 ± 2.7%; p = 0.024). Total and LDL cholesterol levels and systolic BP were improved only when consuming the L-diet (p < 0.05). L-diet also resulted in a significant higher reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) and complement C3 (C3) concentrations (p < 0.05), compared to baseline and C-diet values. Interestingly, the reduction in the concentrations of CRP and C3 remained significantly higher to L-diet group, after adjusting by weight loss (p < 0.05). In addition, the reduction (%) in CRP concentrations was positively associated with decreases (%) in systolic BP and total cholesterol concentration specifically in the L-diet group, independent from weight loss (p < 0.05). The consumption of legumes (4 servings/week) within a hypocaloric diet resulted in a specific reduction in proinflammatory markers, such as CRP and C3 and a clinically significant improvement of some metabolic features (lipid profile and BP) in overweight/ obese subjects, which were in some cases independent from weight loss.

  1. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  2. An intelligent recovery progress evaluation system for ACL reconstructed subjects using integrated 3-D kinematics and EMG features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Owais A; Senanayake, S M N Arosha; Zaheer, Dansih

    2015-03-01

    An intelligent recovery evaluation system is presented for objective assessment and performance monitoring of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) subjects. The system acquires 3-D kinematics of tibiofemoral joint and electromyography (EMG) data from surrounding muscles during various ambulatory and balance testing activities through wireless body-mounted inertial and EMG sensors, respectively. An integrated feature set is generated based on different features extracted from data collected for each activity. The fuzzy clustering and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference techniques are applied to these integrated feature sets in order to provide different recovery progress assessment indicators (e.g., current stage of recovery, percentage of recovery progress as compared to healthy group, etc.) for ACL-R subjects. The system was trained and tested on data collected from a group of healthy and ACL-R subjects. For recovery stage identification, the average testing accuracy of the system was found above 95% (95-99%) for ambulatory activities and above 80% (80-84%) for balance testing activities. The overall recovery evaluation performed by the proposed system was found consistent with the assessment made by the physiotherapists using standard subjective/objective scores. The validated system can potentially be used as a decision supporting tool by physiatrists, physiotherapists, and clinicians for quantitative rehabilitation analysis of ACL-R subjects in conjunction with the existing recovery monitoring systems.

  3. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    OpenAIRE

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  4. PERSONALITY FEATURES AND DISORDER IN THE SUBJECTS IN THE NEW YORK HIGH-RISK PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Squires-Wheeler, Elizabeth; Skodol, Andrew E.; Adamo, Ulla Hilldoff; Bassett, Anne S.; Gewirtz, George R.; Honer, William G.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Roberts, Simone A.; Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L.

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five offspring of parents in two psychiatrically ill groups and of normal controls in the New York High-Risk Project (NYHRP) were assessed for Axis II personality traits and disorders as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R). These offspring include: subjects at high risk for schizophrenia (HRSz, n = 48), all of whom have a parent with schizophrenic disorder; subjects at high risk for affective disorder...

  5. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF YOUNG VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS IN MOTOR AND INTELECTUAL FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenko Vuković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Volleyball is a complex sport activity, which sets before its players numerous requirements relating the space of motor and intellectual abilities. The issue is the following: what is the relation between these two subsystems of anthropological space and/or are there are any differences in motor and intellectual functioning, between the population of female volleyball players and girls who do not train volleyball? A research of motor and intellectual abilities was carried out on the sample of 383 girls from the territory of Vojvodina, and the following towns: Subotica, Zrenjanin, Klek, Sremska Mitrovica, Sremski Karlovci and Novi Sad, 12-16 years old, out of which 194 do not practice organized physical activities and 189 volleyball players (at least three years in training process. The objective of the research was to establish specific features of young female volleyball players, in motor and intellectual functioning, in relation to the girls that do not practice organized physical activity. Testing of the structural differences in motor and intellectual functioning of two groups of girls was performed by application of canonical discriminant analysis, so we can conclude that there are differences on the qualitative level. Variables which mainly contributed to differences are the following: estimation of flexibility, speed of alternative arm movements, coordination and explosive strength of legs. On the sample of 15 – 16 year old girls, the difference between two groups on subjects and/or variable which are at the very top according to the significance of influences based on which the groups are discriminated, are variables for estimation of coordination and intellectual abilities, and which are known to be of a great significance for sport outplaying, to which we are directed as by analysis of the structure of moving so by analysis of situations in volleyball.

  6. The Specific Features of Artificial Ventilation in Premature Neonates with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Perepelitsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of artificial ventilation (AV after administration of the exogenous surfactants Curosurf and Surfactant BL in premature neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RSD. Subjects and methods. The paper presents the results of evaluation of the efficiency of therapy with exogenous surfactants, by examining the blood gas composition and AV parameters. The study included 122 premature neonates with severe RSD. According to the type of a used surfactant, two groups of neonates were identified: Group 1 comprised 67 neonates who were given Curosurf and Group 2 consisted of 55 neonates who had Surfactant BL. Results. The study has revealed some differences between the drugs. Four hours after administration of Curosurf, the neonates with RSD showed heterodirectional changes in partial blood oxygen tension; no abnormal changes in this index were found in most neonates; however, hyperoxia or hypoxia appeared in some newborn infants. After administration of Surfactant BL, no hyperoxia was virtually detected. Hyperoxia did not depend on the baseline oxygen fraction in the inspired gas mixture in most cases. The found changes were transient. To choose ventilation parameters was based on an attempt to bring partial blood oxygen tension closer to the normal values. The main task of the treatment was achieved: this was to carry out sparing AV in premature neonates, allowing no mechanical injury to the immature lung or ventilation complications. Conclusion. pO2 variability after administration of exogenous surfactants calls for a considerate attitude to the choice of AV parameters and an individual approach to a patient. The specific features of the pharmacological action of exogenous surfactants should be taken into account when they are used. In this connection, blood gas composition should be frequently investigated – particularly within the first 24 hours after administration of the agents in order to timely modify AV

  7. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-01-01

    The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, re...

  8. Hypertension Is a Key Feature of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects Aging with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Iguacel, Raquel; Negredo, Eugènia; Peck, Robert

    2016-01-01

    to predispose to these metabolic complications and to the excess risk of CVD observed in the HIV population. The metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a clustering of RF for CVD that includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Hypertension is a prevalent feature of the MS in HIV...

  9. Sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and children with mathematics learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Avital; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined the development of sensitivity to general and specific numerical features in typical achievers and in 6th and 8th graders with mathematics learning disability (MLD), using two effects in mental multiplication: operand-relatedness (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are related to the operands via a shared multiplication row) and decade-consistency (i.e., difficulty in avoiding errors that are operand related and also share a decade with the true result). Responses to decade-consistent products were quick but erroneous. In line with the processing sequence in adults, children first became sensitive to the general numerical feature of operand-relatedness (typical achievers--from 3rd grade; children with MLD in 8th grade) and only later to the specific feature of decade-consistency (typical achievers--from 4th grade, but only from 6th grade in a mature pattern). Implications of the numerical sensitivity in children with MLD are discussed.

  10. Specific Features of Infrastructure Provision of Tourism in the Kharkiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzhylov Leonіd I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main features and tendencies of development of the tourist infrastructure of the Kharkiv region and reveals main prospects and problems of infrastructure provision. It characterises specific features of development of tourism in the region. It conducts statistical analysis of distribution of the Kharkiv region population by age groups. It conducts analysis of volumes of tourist flows and sold services of activity of hotels and restaurants for the recent years. It studies the volume of investments into restaurant and hotel activity in the Kharkiv region. It analyses main problems the tourist infrastructure faces and shows their specific features and offers possible ways of their solution. The conducted analysis allows formation of prospective directions of support of the tourist infrastructure for intensification of development and increase of competitiveness of the domestic market of tourist services.

  11. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...

  12. Specific Features of Social Competence Development in the Future Music Teachers Working at Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzheksembekova, Menslu I.; Ibrayeva, Kamarsulu E.; Akhmetova, Aimkul K.; Urazalieva, Moldir A.; Sultangaliyeva, Elmira S.; Issametova, Klavdiya I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing specific features of social competence of future music teachers and the development of specialized techniques in order to improve the quality of motivational and cognitive components of student social competence. The sample involved 660 undergraduate students. The authors used a number of research methods, such as…

  13. A Feature-Based Contrastive Approach to the L2 Acquisition of Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the acquisition of the Russian indefinite determiners ("kakoj"-"to" "which"-"to" and "kakoj"-"nibud" "which"-"nibud'') encoding scopal specificity by English and Korean native speakers within the feature-based contrastive framework (Lardiere 2008, 2009).…

  14. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to errors in musculo-skeletal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, Vincenzo; van der Krogt, Marjolein; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Subject-specific musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity are an important tool for investigating various biomechanical problems, for instance the results of surgery such as joint replacements and tendon transfers. The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of errors in

  15. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean

    2016-01-01

    images and computational atlases, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subregions is becoming feasible in MRI scans. Here we introduce a generative model for dedicated longitudinal segmentation that relies on subject-specific atlases. The segmentations of the scans at the different time points...

  16. The specifics of the Russian market of confectionery: subject-object certainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsarenko Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a study of the Russian confectionery market. Determining the specificity of the market in Russia, identified and examined the components of this market with the help of subject - object orientation. As well as the actuality of considering new approaches to promote sales of confectionery products.

  17. Structural features, substrate specificity, kinetic properties of insect α-amylase and specificity of plant α-amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rimaljeet; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2014-11-01

    α-Amylase is an important digestive enzyme required for the optimal growth and development of insects. Several insect α-amylases had been purified and their physical and chemical properties were characterized. Insect α-amylases of different orders display variability in structure, properties and substrate specificity. Such diverse properties of amylases could be due to different feeding habits and gut environment of insects. In this review, structural features and properties of several insect α-amylases were compared. This could be helpful in exploring the diversity in characteristics of α-amylase between the members of the same class (insecta). Properties like pH optima are reflected in enzyme structural features. In plants, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) occur as part of natural defense mechanisms against pests by interfering in their digestion process and thus could also provide access to new pest management strategies. AIs are quite specific in their action; therefore, these could be employed according to their effectiveness against target amylases. Potential of transgenics with α-AIs has also been discussed for insect resistance and controlling infestation. The differences in structural features of insect α-amylases provided reasons for their efficient functioning at different pH and the specificity towards various substrates. Various proteinaceous and non-proteinaceous inhibitors discussed could be helpful in controlling pest infestation. In depth detailed studies are required on proteinaceous α-AI-α-amylase interaction at different pH's as well as the insect proteinase action on these inhibitors before selecting the α-AI for making transgenics resistant to particular insect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subject-specific knee joint geometry improves predictions of medial tibiofemoral contact forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Pauline; Sartori, Massimo; Besier, Thor F.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Delp, Scott L.; Banks, Scott A.; Pandy, Marcus G.; D’Lima, Darryl D.; Lloyd, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating tibiofemoral joint contact forces is important for understanding the initiation and progression of knee osteoarthritis. However, tibiofemoral contact force predictions are influenced by many factors including muscle forces and anatomical representations of the knee joint. This study aimed to investigate the influence of subject-specific geometry and knee joint kinematics on the prediction of tibiofemoral contact forces using a calibrated EMG-driven neuromusculoskeletal model of the knee. One participant fitted with an instrumented total knee replacement walked at a self-selected speed while medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces, ground reaction forces, whole-body kinematics, and lower-limb muscle activity were simultaneously measured. The combination of generic and subject-specific knee joint geometry and kinematics resulted in four different OpenSim models used to estimate muscle-tendon lengths and moment arms. The subject-specific geometric model was created from CT scans and the subject-specific knee joint kinematics representing the translation of the tibia relative to the femur was obtained from fluoroscopy. The EMG-driven model was calibrated using one walking trial, but with three different cost functions that tracked the knee flexion/extension moments with and without constraint over the estimated joint contact forces. The calibrated models then predicted the medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces for five other different walking trials. The use of subject-specific models with minimization of the peak tibiofemoral contact forces improved the accuracy of medial contact forces by 47% and lateral contact forces by 7%, respectively compared with the use of generic musculoskeletal model. PMID:24074941

  19. Dynamic features of the learning activity of the future teacher as a teacher interaction subject

    OpenAIRE

    Коць, Михайло Онисимович; Kots, Mykhailo O.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with theoretical analysis and empirical investigation of educational activity dynamics of future teachers. Activity, awareness, mutual commitment are peculiar to educational interactions by both sides – the students (student) – a teacher – who act as subjects where coordinated action is the result and amplifies by mental state of contact are grounded. Methodological meaning of the notion activity in relation to psychological research, primarily in principle activity o...

  20. Specific features of Bazhenov suite sediments in south-eastern Nurolsk sedimentary basin (Tomsk Oblast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolivko, N.; Perevertailo, T.; Cunyi, Li; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The specific sediment features in Georgiev (J3kmgr), Bazhenov (J3vbg) and Kulomzin (K1bkl) suites, exposed by drilling in the S-E Nurolsk depression (Tomsk Oblast), were defined and described via petrographic, X-ray diffraction and fluorescence-microscopy analysis methods. The classification of agrillites was identified, the structure-texture features, composition, voids and bitumen types and their distribution were determined. It was defined that Bazhenov suite argillites are characteristic of fine-dispersion, high biogenic silica content and scattered organic matter, enriched multi-composite syngenetic bitumen (from light to resin- asphaltine), as well as fractured surface where the migration of light bitumen occurs.

  1. Muscle Synergies Facilitate Computational Prediction of Subject-Specific Walking Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andrew J.; Eskinazi, Ilan; Jackson, Jennifer N.; Rao, Anil V.; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have explored a variety of neurorehabilitation approaches to restore normal walking function following a stroke. However, there is currently no objective means for prescribing and implementing treatments that are likely to maximize recovery of walking function for any particular patient. As a first step toward optimizing neurorehabilitation effectiveness, this study develops and evaluates a patient-specific synergy-controlled neuromusculoskeletal simulation framework that can predict walking motions for an individual post-stroke. The main question we addressed was whether driving a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model with muscle synergy controls (5 per leg) facilitates generation of accurate walking predictions compared to a model driven by muscle activation controls (35 per leg) or joint torque controls (5 per leg). To explore this question, we developed a subject-specific neuromusculoskeletal model of a single high-functioning hemiparetic subject using instrumented treadmill walking data collected at the subject’s self-selected speed of 0.5 m/s. The model included subject-specific representations of lower-body kinematic structure, foot–ground contact behavior, electromyography-driven muscle force generation, and neural control limitations and remaining capabilities. Using direct collocation optimal control and the subject-specific model, we evaluated the ability of the three control approaches to predict the subject’s walking kinematics and kinetics at two speeds (0.5 and 0.8 m/s) for which experimental data were available from the subject. We also evaluated whether synergy controls could predict a physically realistic gait period at one speed (1.1 m/s) for which no experimental data were available. All three control approaches predicted the subject’s walking kinematics and kinetics (including ground reaction forces) well for the model calibration speed of 0.5 m/s. However, only activation and synergy controls could predict the

  2. Automatic tissue segmentation of neonate brain MR Images with subject-specific atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, Marie; Budin, Francois; Prastawa, Marcel; Gerig, Guido; Lee, Kevin; Buss, Claudia; Lyall, Amanda; Zaldarriaga Consing, Kirsten; Styner, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Automatic tissue segmentation of the neonate brain using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is extremely important to study brain development and perform early diagnostics but is challenging due to high variability and inhomogeneity in contrast throughout the image due to incomplete myelination of the white matter tracts. For these reasons, current methods often totally fail or give unsatisfying results. Furthermore, most of the subcortical midbrain structures are misclassified due to a lack of contrast in these regions. We have developed a novel method that creates a probabilistic subject-specific atlas based on a population atlas currently containing a number of manually segmented cases. The generated subject-specific atlas is sharp and adapted to the subject that is being processed. We then segment brain tissue classes using the newly created atlas with a single-atlas expectation maximization based method. Our proposed method leads to a much lower failure rate in our experiments. The overall segmentation results are considerably improved when compared to using a non-subject-specific, population average atlas. Additionally, we have incorporated diffusion information obtained from Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI) to improve the detection of white matter that is not visible at this early age in structural MRI (sMRI) due to a lack of myelination. Although this necessitates the acquisition of an additional sequence, the diffusion information improves the white matter segmentation throughout the brain, especially for the mid-brain structures such as the corpus callosum and the internal capsule.

  3. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  4. DIFFERENCES IN PHONETOGRAM FEATURES BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE SUBJECTS WITH AND WITHOUT VOCAL TRAINING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SULTER, AM; SCHUTTE, HK; MILLER, DG

    1995-01-01

    Singing not only requires good voluntary control over phonation and a musical ear, it also demands certain capacities of the voice source. These capacities include a desirable range of sound intensity and frequency, which can be measured and represented in a phonetogram. The influence of specific

  5. [The specific features of tuberculosis in the biogeochemical subregions of the Republic of Chuvashia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuginova, Z D

    2004-01-01

    The specific features of the health status of the indigenous population, the risk factors of tuberculosis, which determine the different rates of mortality, the differences in the clinical picture of complications, concurrent diseases, the causes of death in relation to the biogeochemical conditions of the environment have been traced in the Republic of Chuvashia. With this, the differences are of great value in the content of trace elements and their ratios. The similar features in the basic epidemiological parameters have been found in the biogeochemically specific Aldan and Abyi districts of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). A long-term chronic experiment on inbred CBA mice has shown the value of the deficiency and excess of the trace element silicon in the formation of resistance to tuberculous infection. The findings have predetermined the feasibility of using the silicon preparation silicea in the combined treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with antituberculous agents that are highly effective and inexpensive.

  6. [Features of subjects purchasing Sildenafil at community pharmacies in Concepción, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennickent, Sigrid; Zurita, Libna; Vega, Mario; Villegas, Guiljardy

    2005-06-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a public health problem. Millions of men worldwide experience this condition, affecting their quality of life. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is the treatment of choice for erectile dysfunction. To study the characteristics of Sildenafil use among costumers of community pharmacies in Concepcion Chile. A structured interview about Sildenafil use was applied to subjects purchasing the drug in community pharmacies and that consented to participate. One hundred thirty eight males were studied. Forty six percent of patients were fifty years old or older. Most (47.1%) used Sildenafil for one year or more and 60.5% had no adverse events. Among those experiencing side effects, headache was experienced by 38.9%, flushing by 16.6% and gastrointestinal effects by 16.7%. Ninety percent of patients had a good evaluation of the drug in terms of benefits and tolerance. Thirty two percent of the subjects, had diseases associated to erectile dysfunction. Among these, 45% had diabetes mellitus, 29.5% had hypertension, and 18.2% had prostatic diseases. In 54% of cases, the drug was prescribed by a physician. Twenty two percent of patients experienced changes in the effect of the drug when it was simultaneously used with other drugs or meals. Thirty four percent of patients used other drugs. Among these, 43.3% were using antihypertensives, and 26.7% were using antidiabetic drugs. Considering the elevated age and the number of associated disease of patients using Sildenafil, the use of the drug under medical prescription must be emphasized to avoid untoward effects.

  7. Feature-specific imaging: Extensions to adaptive object recognition and active illumination based scene reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheti, Pawan K.

    Computational imaging (CI) systems are hybrid imagers in which the optical and post-processing sub-systems are jointly optimized to maximize the task-specific performance. In this dissertation we consider a form of CI system that measures the linear projections (i.e., features) of the scene optically, and it is commonly referred to as feature-specific imaging (FSI). Most of the previous work on FSI has been concerned with image reconstruction. Previous FSI techniques have also been non-adaptive and restricted to the use of ambient illumination. We consider two novel extensions of the FSI system in this work. We first present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face-recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. We present both statistical and information-theoretic adaptation mechanisms for the AFSI system. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is used to determine the number of measurements required for achieving a specified misclassification probability. We demonstrate that AFSI system requires significantly fewer measurements than static-FSI (SFSI) and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage. Experimental results validating the AFSI system are presented. Next we present a FSI system based on the use of structured light. Feature measurements are obtained by projecting spatially structured illumination onto an object and collecting all of the reflected light onto a single photodetector. We refer to this system as feature-specific structured imaging (FSSI). Principal component features are used to define the illumination patterns. The optimal LMMSE operator is used to generate object estimates from the measurements. We demonstrate that this new imaging approach reduces imager complexity and provides improved image

  8. Image driven subject-specific finite element models of spinal biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani-Pour, Sahand; Winlove, C Peter; Smith, Christopher W; Meakin, Judith R

    2016-04-11

    Finite element (FE) modelling is an established technique for investigating spinal biomechanics. Using image data to produce FE models with subject-specific geometry and displacement boundary conditions may help extend their use to the assessment spinal loading in individuals. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance images from nine participants in the supine, standing and sitting postures were obtained and 2D poroelastic FE models of the lumbar spine were created from the supine data. The rigid body translation and rotation of the vertebral bodies as the participant moved to standing or sitting were applied to the model. The resulting pore pressure in the centre of the L4/L5 disc was determined and the sensitivity to the material properties and vertebral body displacements was assessed. Although the limitations of using a 2D model mean the predicted pore pressures are unlikely to be accurate, the results showed that subject-specific variation in geometry and motion during postural change leads to variation in pore pressure. The model was sensitive to the Young׳s modulus of the annulus matrix, the permeability of the nucleus, and the vertical translation of the vertebrae. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using image data to drive subject-specific lumbar spine FE models and indicates where further development is required to provide a method for assessing spinal biomechanics in a wide range of individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subject-Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas-Based Brain MRI Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S; Prince, Jerry L; Pham, Dzung L

    2015-09-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject-specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole-brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available state-of-the art approaches.

  10. Subject Specific Sparse Dictionary Learning for Atlas Based Brain MRI Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Carass, Aaron; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry L.; Pham, Dzung L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative measurements from segmentations of human brain magnetic resonance (MR) images provide important biomarkers for normal aging and disease progression. In this paper, we propose a patch-based tissue classification method from MR images that uses a sparse dictionary learning approach and atlas priors. Training data for the method consists of an atlas MR image, prior information maps depicting where different tissues are expected to be located, and a hard segmentation. Unlike most atlas-based classification methods that require deformable registration of the atlas priors to the subject, only affine registration is required between the subject and training atlas. A subject specific patch dictionary is created by learning relevant patches from the atlas. Then the subject patches are modeled as sparse combinations of learned atlas patches leading to tissue memberships at each voxel. The combination of prior information in an example-based framework enables us to distinguish tissues having similar intensities but different spatial locations. We demonstrate the efficacy of the approach on the application of whole brain tissue segmentation in subjects with healthy anatomy and normal pressure hydrocephalus, as well as lesion segmentation in multiple sclerosis patients. For each application, quantitative comparisons are made against publicly available, state-of-the art approaches. PMID:26340685

  11. How sociodemographic features impact subjects' opinion on packages leaflets of medicines?

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    Carla Pires

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Packages leaflets (PLs are essential for the safe use and efficacy of medicines. Aims To quantify the opinion of users of medicines on PLs through the application of a self-administered Likert scale, taking into consideration subjects’ sociodemographic data. Methods Participants were enrolled from two Portuguese regions: urban/littoral (Lisbon and rural/interior (Centre. 503 participants were included: 53 per cent males, 45 per cent 12 years of schooling. A questionnaire was used to collect the sociodemographic data. A Likert scale was self-administered to rate the characteristics of 12 randomized PLs (6 from prescription medicines and 6 from over-the-counter medicines (August-December 2014. An invitation was send to several institutions (e.g., municipal councils. The inclusion criteria were: agreeing, be capable of reading/writing, and be more than 17 years old. Results In the Likert scores obtained, no significant differences were found related to region, sex, marital status, age group (≥65 years and other, and employment status of participants. By contrast, significant differences were found related to education (2=42.747; p 12 years of schooling, more regular reading habits (2 or more books/year, higher income and less frequent medicines use, showed a more negative global opinion on PLs. Conclusion Sociodemographic data are important to understand users’ opinion on PLs. It seems that more educated subjects are more demanding. A lower socio-economic status positively influenced the participants’ opinion, with subjects’ poorer education being a relevant factor in this population. A higher frequency of taking medicines also positively contributed to a better opinion, probably due to a greater familiarity with PLs.

  12. Putative monofunctional type I polyketide synthase units: a dinoflagellate-specific feature?

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    Karsten Eichholz

    Full Text Available Marine dinoflagellates (alveolata are microalgae of which some cause harmful algal blooms and produce a broad variety of most likely polyketide synthesis derived phycotoxins. Recently, novel polyketide synthesase (PKS transcripts have been described from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (gymnodiniales which are evolutionarily related to Type I PKS but were apparently expressed as monofunctional proteins, a feature typical of Type II PKS. Here, we investigated expression units of PKS I-like sequences in Alexandrium ostenfeldii (gonyaulacales and Heterocapsa triquetra (peridiniales at the transcript and protein level. The five full length transcripts we obtained were all characterized by polyadenylation, a 3' UTR and the dinoflagellate specific spliced leader sequence at the 5'end. Each of the five transcripts encoded a single ketoacylsynthase (KS domain showing high similarity to K. brevis KS sequences. The monofunctional structure was also confirmed using dinoflagellate specific KS antibodies in Western Blots. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of KS domains from diverse PKSs, dinoflagellate KSs formed a clade placed well within the protist Type I PKS clade between apicomplexa, haptophytes and chlorophytes. These findings indicate that the atypical PKS I structure, i.e., expression as putative monofunctional units, might be a dinoflagellate specific feature. In addition, the sequenced transcripts harbored a previously unknown, apparently dinoflagellate specific conserved N-terminal domain. We discuss the implications of this novel region with regard to the putative monofunctional organization of Type I PKS in dinoflagellates.

  13. Personality dimensions as common and broadband-specific features for internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hink, Laura K; Rhee, Soo H; Corley, Robin P; Cosgrove, Victoria E; Hewitt, John K; Schulz-Heik, Robert J; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2013-08-01

    Several researchers have suggested that the nature of the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders may be understood better by examining the associations between temperament or personality and these disorders. The present study examined neuroticism as a potential common feature underlying both internalizing and externalizing disorders and novelty seeking as a potential broad-band specific feature influencing externalizing disorders alone. Participants were 12- to 18-year-old twin pairs (635 monozygotic twin pairs and 691 dizygotic twin pairs; 48 % male and 52 % female) recruited from the Colorado Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence. Genetic and nonshared environmental influences shared in common with neuroticism influenced the covariation among distinct internalizing disorders, the covariation among distinct externalizing disorders, and the covariation between internalizing and externalizing disorders. Genetic influences shared in common with novelty seeking influenced the covariation among externalizing disorders and the covariation between major depressive disorder and externalizing disorders, but not the covariation among internalizing disorders or between anxiety disorders and externalizing disorders. Also, after accounting for genetic and environmental influences shared in common with neuroticism and novelty seeking, there were no significant common genetic or environmental influences among the disorders examined, suggesting that the covariance among the disorders is sufficiently explained by neuroticism and novelty seeking. We conclude that neuroticism is a heritable common feature of both internalizing disorders and externalizing disorders, and that novelty seeking is a heritable broad-band specific factor that distinguishes anxiety disorders from externalizing disorders.

  14. Spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Diane C Shakes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In most sexually reproducing organisms, the fundamental process of meiosis is implemented concurrently with two differentiation programs that occur at different rates and generate distinct cell types, sperm and oocytes. However, little is known about how the meiotic program is influenced by such contrasting developmental programs. Here we present a detailed timeline of late meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans using cytological and molecular landmarks to interrelate changes in chromosome dynamics with germ cell cellularization, spindle formation, and cell cycle transitions. This analysis expands our understanding C. elegans spermatogenesis, as it identifies multiple spermatogenesis-specific features of the meiotic program and provides a framework for comparative studies. Post-pachytene chromatin of spermatocytes is distinct from that of oocytes in both composition and morphology. Strikingly, C. elegans spermatogenesis includes a previously undescribed karyosome stage, a common but poorly understood feature of meiosis in many organisms. We find that karyosome formation, in which chromosomes form a constricted mass within an intact nuclear envelope, follows desynapsis, involves a global down-regulation of transcription, and may support the sequential activation of multiple kinases that prepare spermatocytes for meiotic divisions. In spermatocytes, the presence of centrioles alters both the relative timing of meiotic spindle assembly and its ultimate structure. These microtubule differences are accompanied by differences in kinetochores, which connect microtubules to chromosomes. The sperm-specific features of meiosis revealed here illuminate how the underlying molecular machinery required for meiosis is differentially regulated in each sex.

  15. Camouflaging in a complex environment--octopuses use specific features of their surroundings for background matching.

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    Noam Josef

    Full Text Available Living under intense predation pressure, octopuses evolved an effective and impressive camouflaging ability that exploits features of their surroundings to enable them to "blend in." To achieve such background matching, an animal may use general resemblance and reproduce characteristics of its entire surroundings, or it may imitate a specific object in its immediate environment. Using image analysis algorithms, we examined correlations between octopuses and their backgrounds. Field experiments show that when camouflaging, Octopus cyanea and O. vulgaris base their body patterns on selected features of nearby objects rather than attempting to match a large field of view. Such an approach enables the octopus to camouflage in partly occluded environments and to solve the problem of differences in appearance as a function of the viewing inclination of the observer.

  16. USER EMOTION IDENTIFICATION IN TWITTER USING SPECIFIC FEATURES: HASHTAG, EMOJI, EMOTICON, AND ADJECTIVE TERM

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    Yuita Arum Sari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Twitter is a social media application, which can give a sign for identifying user emotion. Identification of user emotion can be utilized in commercial domain, health, politic, and security problems. The problem of emotion identification in twit is the unstructured short text messages which lead the difficulty to figure out main features. In this paper, we propose a new framework for identifying the tendency of user emotions using specific features, i.e. hashtag, emoji, emoticon, and adjective term. Preprocessing is applied in the first phase, and then user emotions are identified by means of classification method using kNN. The proposed method can achieve good results, near ground truth, with accuracy of 92%.

  17. Specific features of clostridium difficile colitis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

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    Mihai Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Through its specific biological, epidemiological, diagnostic and infection management features, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI can be considered a major health concern, especially in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. In this particular infection, many IBD risk factors are triggered due to bowel inflammation, antibiotics use, microbiota changes, immunosuppressive therapy use and surgical intervention. Thus, each IBD and diarrhea patient must be tested for CDI. Clinical features show different initial infectious stages such as mild, fulminate and refractory. It has been shown that CDI presents recurrent episodes. CDI treatment consists of metronidazole, vancomycin or fidaxomicin, as well as prophylactic measures. It was recently shown that antibiotic doses must be gradually reduced in order to avoid CDI relapses. Fecal transplantation, effective in CDI management, remains controversial in CDI patients with concurrent IBD.

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of plain radiographic features of peripheral enthesopathy at major sites in psoriatic arthritis

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    Helliwell, P.S. [University of Leeds, Academic Unit of Musculoskeletal and Rehabilitation Medicine, Leeds (United Kingdom); Porter, G. [Airedale Hospital NHS Trust, Keighley, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    It has been proposed that the defining difference between rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy (including psoriatic arthritis) is the initial pathological lesion where the emphasis in psoriatic arthritis is on the enthesis and in rheumatoid arthritis on the synovium. Classical radiological descriptions of seronegative spondyloarthropathy include enthesopathy at major entheseal insertions characterised by erosions and exuberant new bone formation. In this study, the plain radiographic features of spondyloarthropathy are compared between psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthropathies and rheumatoid arthritis. The CASPAR study collected clinical, radiological and laboratory data on 588 patients with physician diagnosed psoriatic arthritis and 525 controls with other inflammatory arthritis, 70% of which had rheumatoid arthritis. Plain radiographs of the pelvis and heels were part of the study protocol, although radiographs of other potential entheseal sites such as the knee, elbow and shoulder, were interpreted if available. All radiographs were read blind by two observers working in tandem. Significant differences in entheseal erosion and entheseal new bone formation were found between psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy, rheumatoid arthritis and other diagnoses (entheseal erosion, chi-squared 20.8, p = 0.008; entheseal new bone formation, chi-squared 24.5, p = 0.001). These differences were mainly due to a higher proportion of these features in ankylosing spondylitis. No differences in the plain radiographic features of enthesopathy were found between psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis except in the case of entheseal new bone formation at sites of attachment of inguinal ligament, sartorius and rectus femoris muscles to the ilium (OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.13-8.02). Very few subjects with symptomatic heel involvement had radiographic changes and minimal differences were found between those with and without

  19. Large-scale subject-specific cerebral arterial tree modeling using automated parametric mesh generation for blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mahsa; Tangen, Kevin; Alaraj, Ali; Du, Xinjian; Charbel, Fady T; Linninger, Andreas A

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technique for automatic parametric mesh generation of subject-specific cerebral arterial trees. This technique generates high-quality and anatomically accurate computational meshes for fast blood flow simulations extending the scope of 3D vascular modeling to a large portion of cerebral arterial trees. For this purpose, a parametric meshing procedure was developed to automatically decompose the vascular skeleton, extract geometric features and generate hexahedral meshes using a body-fitted coordinate system that optimally follows the vascular network topology. To validate the anatomical accuracy of the reconstructed vasculature, we performed statistical analysis to quantify the alignment between parametric meshes and raw vascular images using receiver operating characteristic curve. Geometric accuracy evaluation showed an agreement with area under the curves value of 0.87 between the constructed mesh and raw MRA data sets. Parametric meshing yielded on-average, 36.6% and 21.7% orthogonal and equiangular skew quality improvement over the unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The parametric meshing and processing pipeline constitutes an automated technique to reconstruct and simulate blood flow throughout a large portion of the cerebral arterial tree down to the level of pial vessels. This study is the first step towards fast large-scale subject-specific hemodynamic analysis for clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Accuracy of 3D Optical Reconstruction and Additive Manufacturing Processes in Reproducing Detailed Subject-Specific Anatomy

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    Paolo Ferraiuoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction and 3D printing of subject-specific anatomy is a promising technology for supporting clinicians in the visualisation of disease progression and planning for surgical intervention. In this context, the 3D model is typically obtained from segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, computed tomography (CT or echocardiography images. Although these modalities allow imaging of the tissues in vivo, assessment of quality of the reconstruction is limited by the lack of a reference geometry as the subject-specific anatomy is unknown prior to image acquisition. In this work, an optical method based on 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC techniques is used to reconstruct the shape of the surface of an ex vivo porcine heart. This technique requires two digital charge-coupled device (CCD cameras to provide full-field shape measurements and to generate a standard tessellation language (STL file of the sample surface. The aim of this work was to quantify the error of 3D-DIC shape measurements using the additive manufacturing process. The limitations of 3D printed object resolution, the discrepancy in reconstruction of the surface of cardiac soft tissue and a 3D printed model of the same surface were evaluated. The results obtained demonstrated the ability of the 3D-DIC technique to reconstruct localised and detailed features on the cardiac surface with sub-millimeter accuracy.

  1. Production and processing of subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. An SLI group (6-8 years old), an age-matched group with typical development, and a language-matched, younger, typically developing (TD) group participated in the study. Using an elicitation task, the authors tested use of third person singular inflection after verbs that ended in obstruents (plosive, fricative) or nonobstruents (sonorant). The authors used a self-paced listening task to test sensitivity to subject-verb agreement violations. Omission was more frequent after obstruents than nonobstruents; the younger TD group used inflection less often after plosives than fricatives, unlike the SLI group. The SLI group did not detect subject-verb agreement violations if the ungrammatical structure contained a frequent error (omission), but if the ungrammatical structure contained an infrequent error (substitution), subject-verb agreement violations were noticed. The use of agreement inflection by children with TD or SLI is affected by verb phonology. Differential effects in the 2 groups are consistent with a delayed development in Dutch SLI. Parallels between productive and receptive abilities point to weak lexical agreement inflection representations in Dutch SLI.

  2. Conformational and physicochemical DNA features specific for transcription factor binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, J V; Ponomarenko, M P; Frolov, A S; Vorobyev, D G; Overton, G C; Kolchanov, N A

    1999-01-01

    A reliable recognition of transcription factor binding sites is essential for analysis of regulatory genomic sequences. The experimental data make evident an important role of DNA conformational features for site functioning. However, Internet-available tools for revealing conformational and physicochemical DNA features significant for the site functioning and subsequent use of these features for site recognition have not been developed up to now. We suggest an approach for revealing significant conformational and physicochemical properties of functional sites implemented in the database B-DNA-VIDEO. This database is designed to study the sets of various transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence that transcription factor binding sites are characterized by specific sets of significant conformational and physicochemical DNA properties. For a fixed site, by using the B-DNA features selected for this site recognition, the C-program recognizing this site may be generated, control tested and stored in the database B-DNA-VIDEO. Each B-DNA-VIDEO entry links to the Web-applet recognizing the site, whose significant B-DNA features are stored in this entry as the 'site recognition programs'. The pairwise linked entry-applet pairs are compiled within the B-DNA-VIDEO system, which is simultaneously the database and the program tools package applicable immediately for recognizing the sites stored in the database. Indeed, this is the novelty. Hence, B-DNA-VIDEO is the Web resource of both 'searching for static data' and 'active computation' type, that is why it was called an 'activated database'. B-DNA-VIDEO is available at http://wwwmgs.bionet.nsc.ru/systems/BDNAVideo/ and the mirror site at http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/mgs/systems/c onsfreq/.

  3. Subject-specific modulation of local field potential spectral power during brain-machine interface control in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kelvin; Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L.; Gastpar, Michael C.; Carmena, Jose M.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have predominantly utilized spike activity as the control signal. However, an increasing number of studies have shown the utility of local field potentials (LFPs) for decoding motor related signals. Currently, it is unclear how well different LFP frequencies can serve as features for continuous, closed-loop BMI control. Approach. We demonstrate 2D continuous LFP-based BMI control using closed-loop decoder adaptation, which adapts decoder parameters to subject-specific LFP feature modulations during BMI control. We trained two macaque monkeys to control a 2D cursor in a center-out task by modulating LFP power in the 0-150 Hz range. Main results. While both monkeys attained control, they used different strategies involving different frequency bands. One monkey primarily utilized the low-frequency spectrum (0-80 Hz), which was highly correlated between channels, and obtained proficient performance even with a single channel. In contrast, the other monkey relied more on higher frequencies (80-150 Hz), which were less correlated between channels, and had greater difficulty with control as the number of channels decreased. We then restricted the monkeys to use only various sub-ranges (0-40, 40-80, and 80-150 Hz) of the 0-150 Hz band. Interestingly, although both monkeys performed better with some sub-ranges than others, they were able to achieve BMI control with all sub-ranges after decoder adaptation, demonstrating broad flexibility in the frequencies that could potentially be used for LFP-based BMI control. Significance. Overall, our results demonstrate proficient, continuous BMI control using LFPs and provide insight into the subject-specific spectral patterns of LFP activity modulated during control.

  4. Specifics of Educational Texts Selection for Schoolchildren Doing the Humanities Subjects

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    T. V. Oblasova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the new approach to educational text selection for the humanities teaching. Its specifics is based on the wide interpretation of educational texts, as the culture texts involved in cognitive learning activity and fulfilling the multiple tasks of the related subjects and personal development. The educational text is taken as a generalized model, its content and structure determining the scheme of a speech cognitive activity, as well as the meaning formation mechanism responsible for understanding and personal development. The texts and tasks selection is oriented on schoolchildren’s understanding with the reference to the psycholinguistic, psychological and hermeneutic approaches; information extraction and interpretation level related to the author’s and student’s context. The given approach could provide the basis for developing and structuring the textbooks content for the humanities subjects

  5. Specifics of Educational Texts Selection for Schoolchildren Doing the Humanities Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Oblasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the new approach to educational text selection for the humanities teaching. Its specifics is based on the wide interpretation of educational texts, as the culture texts involved in cognitive learning activity and fulfilling the multiple tasks of the related subjects and personal development. The educational text is taken as a generalized model, its content and structure determining the scheme of a speech cognitive activity, as well as the meaning formation mechanism responsible for understanding and personal development. The texts and tasks selection is oriented on schoolchildren’s understanding with the reference to the psycholinguistic, psychological and hermeneutic approaches; information extraction and interpretation level related to the author’s and student’s context. The given approach could provide the basis for developing and structuring the textbooks content for the humanities subjects

  6. Relevance of non-specific MRI features in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sunil; Tandon, Ruchika

    2017-08-01

    Rarity of specific MRI features like 'hot-cross bun' sign and 'hyperintense putamen rim' reduce diagnostic utility of MRI in MSA. We therefore, studied some non-specific MRI features in addition to the specific ones, to find their diagnostic utility. Clinical and MRI features of 53 indoor and outdoor patients with MSA were analyzed in the context of its Parkinsonian (MSA-P) and cerebellar (MSA-C) variants. Of 53 cases (mean age: 59.53±9.74years), 16 (30.2%) had MSA-C and 37 (69.8%) had MSA-P. Midbrain atrophy was found in 37 (69.8%) MSA patients (70.3% of MSA-P and 68.8% of MSA-C), cerebellar atrophy in 45 (84.9%) MSA patients (81.1% of MSA-P and 93.8% of MSA-C), 'hot-cross bun' sign in 13 (24.5%) MSA patients (27% of MSA-P and 18.8% of MSA-C), hyperintense putamen rim in 19 (35.8%) MSA patients (37.8% of MSA-P and 31.3% of MSA-C) and corpus callosal atrophy in 39 (73.6%) MSA patients (75.7% of MSA-P and 68.8% MSA-C). The midbrain atrophy was mainly lateral tegmental and resembled a positive 'Morning glory' sign in 16 (30.2%). "Hot cross bun" sign and "hyperintense putamen rim" sign were rarely seen in MSA. Combination of mid brain atrophy, corpus callosum atrophy and cerebellar atrophy was more commonly observed in both MSA-C and MSA-P and may be taken as of diagnostic significance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Airflow in a Multiscale Subject-Specific Breathing Human Lung Model

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    Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-01-01

    The airflow in a subject-specific breathing human lung is simulated with a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to about 7 generations of airways is reconstructed from the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image at the total lung capacity (TLC). Along with the segmented lobe surfaces, we can build an anatomically-consistent one-dimensional (1D) airway tree spanning over more than 20 generations down to the terminal bronchioles, which is specific to the CT resolved airways and lobes (J Biomech 43(11): 2159-2163, 2010). We then register two lung images at TLC and the functional residual capacity (FRC) to specify subject-specific CFD flow boundary conditions and deform the airway surface mesh for a breathing lung simulation (J Comput Phys 244:168-192, 2013). The 1D airway tree bridges the 3D CT-resolved airways and the registration-derived regional ventilation in the lung parenchyma, thus a multiscale model. Larg...

  8. The FachRef-Assistant: Personalised, subject specific, and transparent stock management

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    Eike T. Spielberg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present in this paper a personalized web application for the weeding of printed resources: the FachRef-Assistant. It offers an extensive range of tools for evidence based stock management, based on the thorough analysis of usage statistics. Special attention is paid to the criteria individualization, transparency of the parameters used, and generic functions. Currently, it is designed to work with the Aleph-System from ExLibris, but efforts were spent to keep the application as generic as possible. For example, all procedures specific to the local library system have been collected in one Java package. The inclusion of library specific properties such as collections and systematics has been designed to be highly generic as well by mapping the individual entries onto an in-memory database. Hence simple adaption of the package and the mappings would render the FachRef-Assistant compatible to other library systems. The personalization of the application allows for the inclusion of subject specific usage properties as well as of variations between different collections within one subject area. The parameter sets used to analyse the stock and to prepare weeding and purchase proposal lists are included in the output XML-files to facilitate a high degree of transparency, objectivity and reproducibility.

  9. Infective endocarditis: the specific features of its course, the criteria for diagnosis, differential diagnosis (part II

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    B S Belov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis (IE is today characterized by polyetiology due to a wide range of pathogens. The paper describes the specific features of the clinical picture of the disease in relation to the etiological agent, which have, in some cases, a crucial role in the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy. Significant clinical polymorphism, obscure symptoms, and monosyndromic onset as guises all enhance the importance of the differential diagnosis of IE, at its early stages in particular. Basic approaches to differentiating IE from the diseases in which differentially diagnostic problems arise to the utmost are outlined.

  10. Application of Specific Features of Industrial Products when Forming and Developing Brands of Industrial Enterprises

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    Yatsentiuk Stanislav V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses and structures approaches and principles of formulation of industrial products. It offers classification of goods and markets of industrial products by their characteristics and participants. It identifies main participants that make decisions at B2C and B2B markets and characterises their specific features and motivation when making decisions on purchase of products of industrial enterprises. It studies and analyses indicators of development of domestic markets of consumer goods and market of industrial products and dynamics of development of their relation in retrospective view.

  11. Ultrasound fusion image error correction using subject-specific liver motion model and automatic image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minglei; Ding, Hui; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Guangzhi

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasound fusion imaging is an emerging tool and benefits a variety of clinical applications, such as image-guided diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and unresectable liver metastases. However, respiratory liver motion-induced misalignment of multimodal images (i.e., fusion error) compromises the effectiveness and practicability of this method. The purpose of this paper is to develop a subject-specific liver motion model and automatic registration-based method to correct the fusion error. An online-built subject-specific motion model and automatic image registration method for 2D ultrasound-3D magnetic resonance (MR) images were combined to compensate for the respiratory liver motion. The key steps included: 1) Build a subject-specific liver motion model for current subject online and perform the initial registration of pre-acquired 3D MR and intra-operative ultrasound images; 2) During fusion imaging, compensate for liver motion first using the motion model, and then using an automatic registration method to further correct the respiratory fusion error. Evaluation experiments were conducted on liver phantom and five subjects. In the phantom study, the fusion error (superior-inferior axis) was reduced from 13.90±2.38mm to 4.26±0.78mm by using the motion model only. The fusion error further decreased to 0.63±0.53mm by using the registration method. The registration method also decreased the rotation error from 7.06±0.21° to 1.18±0.66°. In the clinical study, the fusion error was reduced from 12.90±9.58mm to 6.12±2.90mm by using the motion model alone. Moreover, the fusion error decreased to 1.96±0.33mm by using the registration method. The proposed method can effectively correct the respiration-induced fusion error to improve the fusion image quality. This method can also reduce the error correction dependency on the initial registration of ultrasound and MR images. Overall, the proposed method can improve the clinical practicability of

  12. Medical Image Processing for Fully Integrated Subject Specific Whole Brain Mesh Generation

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    Chih-Yang Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, anatomically consistent segmentation of vascular trees acquired with magnetic resonance imaging requires the use of multiple image processing steps, which, in turn, depend on manual intervention. In effect, segmentation of vascular trees from medical images is time consuming and error prone due to the tortuous geometry and weak signal in small blood vessels. To overcome errors and accelerate the image processing time, we introduce an automatic image processing pipeline for constructing subject specific computational meshes for entire cerebral vasculature, including segmentation of ancillary structures; the grey and white matter, cerebrospinal fluid space, skull, and scalp. To demonstrate the validity of the new pipeline, we segmented the entire intracranial compartment with special attention of the angioarchitecture from magnetic resonance imaging acquired for two healthy volunteers. The raw images were processed through our pipeline for automatic segmentation and mesh generation. Due to partial volume effect and finite resolution, the computational meshes intersect with each other at respective interfaces. To eliminate anatomically inconsistent overlap, we utilized morphological operations to separate the structures with a physiologically sound gap spaces. The resulting meshes exhibit anatomically correct spatial extent and relative positions without intersections. For validation, we computed critical biometrics of the angioarchitecture, the cortical surfaces, ventricular system, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF spaces and compared against literature values. Volumina and surface areas of the computational mesh were found to be in physiological ranges. In conclusion, we present an automatic image processing pipeline to automate the segmentation of the main intracranial compartments including a subject-specific vascular trees. These computational meshes can be used in 3D immersive visualization for diagnosis, surgery planning with haptics

  13. Photosynthetic Mediterranean meadow orchids feature partial mycoheterotrophy and specific mycorrhizal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girlanda, Mariangela; Segreto, Rossana; Cafasso, Donata; Liebel, Heiko Tobias; Rodda, Michele; Ercole, Enrico; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Gebauer, Gerhard; Perotto, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    We investigated whether four widespread, photosynthetic Mediterranean meadow orchids (Ophrys fuciflora, Anacamptis laxiflora, Orchis purpurea, and Serapias vomeracea) had either nutritional dependency on mycobionts or mycorrhizal fungal specificity. Nonphotosynthetic orchids generally engage in highly specific interactions with fungal symbionts that provide them with organic carbon. By contrast, fully photosynthetic orchids in sunny, meadow habitats have been considered to lack mycorrhizal specificity. We performed both culture-dependent and culture-independent ITS sequence analysis to identify fungi from orchid roots. By analyzing stable isotope ((13)C and (15)N) natural abundances, we also determined the degree of autotrophy and mycoheterotrophy in the four orchid species. Phylogenetic and multivariate comparisons indicated that Or. purpurea and Oph. fuciflora featured lower fungal diversity and more specific mycobiont spectra than A. laxiflora and S. vomeracea. All orchid species were significantly enriched in (15)N compared with neighboring non-orchid plants. Orchis purpurea had the most pronounced N gain from fungi and differed from the other orchids in also obtaining C from fungi. These results indicated that even in sunny Mediterranean meadows, orchids may be mycoheterotrophic, with correlated mycorrhizal fungal specificity.

  14. The distribution and inter-relationships of radiologic features of osteoarthrosis of the hip. A survey of 4151 subjects of the Copenhagen City Heart Study: the Osteoarthrosis Substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    of reduced joint space width (JSW), and secondary radiographic OA features. METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional survey. Radiologic features of hip OA were recorded from standardized, standing pelvic radiographs of 3686 subjects (1397M/2289F). OA features were investigated for inter...

  15. A deep convolutional feature based learning layer-specific edges method for segmenting OCT image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaoming; Liu, Dong; Yang, Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution and non-invasive imaging modality that has become one of the most prevalent techniques for ophthalmic diagnostic. However, manual segmentation is often a time-consuming and subjective process. In this work, we present a new method for retinal layer segmentation in retinal optical coherence tomography images, which uses a deep convolutional feature to train a structured random forest classifier. The experimental results show that our method achieves good results with the mean distance error of 1.45 pixels whereas that of the state-of-the-art was 1.68 pixels, and achieve a F-score of 0.86 which is also better than 0.83 that is obtained by the state-of-the-art method.

  16. Constitution-specific features of perspiration and skin visco-elasticity in SCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Min; Ku, Boncho; Jung, Chang Jin; Kim, Jaeuk U; Jeon, Young Ju; Kim, Keun Ho; Kim, Jong Yeol

    2014-01-15

    Human skin properties have been used as an important diagnostic component in traditional medicine as they change with health conditions. Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) puts emphasis on the recognition of the constitution-specific skin features prior to the diagnostic decision of health. In this work, in search of skin-characteristics effectively reflecting SCM features, we compared several skin properties such as perspiration, visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis, in several candidate body parts. We conducted a clinical study in which a total of 111 healthy females aged 50 - 70 years participated with their Sasang constitution (SC) types determined objectively by the Sasang constitutional analytic tool. Perspiration on the skin surface was estimated by using a capacitance sensor to measure the amount of moisture on the palm, forehead, and philtrum before and after a heating stimulus. We acquired the visco-elasticity, elasticity, and elasticity hysteresis at the forearm by Dermalab's elasticity sensing device. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to evaluate the effect of SC on the nine skin features acquired. The visco-elasticity of the forearm of the Soeum-in (SE) group was significantly lower than that of the Taeeum-in (TE) group (F = 68.867, p SCM literature; the visco-elasticity, elasticity hysteresis, perspiration on the forehead and philtrum. Our findings are based on a novel interpretation of the SCM literature and will contribute to developing the constitutional health status evaluation system in SCM.

  17. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE OF THE TEENAGERS MAKING USE OF SMOKING BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leonidovna Plotnikova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article one can find the results of the research of the teenagers social intelligence at the age of 14-15 years old, making use of narcotic smoking blends. Some specific features of their social intelligence, development level of empathy and communicative skills in comparison with nonsmoking peers are given.Purpose: to find and describe specific features of the social intelligence of the teenagers at the age of 14-15 years old making use of the narcotic smoking blends in comparison with nonsmoking peers.Method: testing, Mann – Whitney U Test.Results: the teenagers making use of narcotic smoking blends have a low level of the social intelligence, communicative skills and empathic abilities. Such elements of the social intelligence as the ability to foresee the behavioral consequences in a concrete situation (prognostic competence and the ability to logical generalization of non-verbal reactions of a person are worse developed in comparison with nonsmoking peers. There are no significant differences between smoking girls and smoking boys.Areas of use: resocialization and rehabilitation of the addicted teenagers

  18. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Mukherjee, Satyam; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called "home advantage phenomenon" date back to the 70's and ever since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the "microscopic" dynamics of the game (within the game) or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA). By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We verified that these two features are different among the NBA teams, for instance, the scoring rate of the Cleveland Cavaliers team is increased ≈0.16 points per minute (on average the seasons 2004-05 to 2013-14) when playing home, whereas for the New Jersey Nets (now the Brooklyn Nets) this rate increases in only ≈0.04 points per minute. We further observed that these microscopic features have evolved over time in a non-trivial manner when analyzing the results team-by-team. However, after averaging over all teams some regularities emerge; in particular, we noticed that the average differences in the scoring rates and in the characteristic times (related to the time intervals between scores) have slightly decreased over time, suggesting a weakening of the phenomenon. This study thus adds evidence of the home advantage phenomenon and contributes to a deeper understanding of this effect over the course of games.

  19. In-human subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Kinsky, Michael; Kramer, George; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a subject-specific evaluation of a control-theoretic plasma volume regulation model in humans. We employed a set of clinical data collected from nine human subjects receiving fluid bolus with and without co-administration of an inotrope agent, including fluid infusion rate, plasma volume, and urine output. Once fitted to the data associated with each subject, the model accurately reproduced the fractional plasma volume change responses in all subjects: the error between actual versus model-reproduced fractional plasma volume change responses was only 1.4 ± 1.6% and 1.2 ± 0.3% of the average fractional plasma volume change responses in the absence and presence of inotrope co-administration. In addition, the model parameters determined by the subject-specific fitting assumed physiologically plausible values: (i) initial plasma volume was estimated to be 36 ± 11 mL/kg and 37 ± 10 mL/kg in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which was comparable to its actual counterpart of 37 ± 4 mL/kg and 43 ± 6 mL/kg; (ii) volume distribution ratio, specifying the ratio with which the inputted fluid is distributed in the intra- and extra-vascular spaces, was estimated to be 3.5 ± 2.4 and 1.9 ± 0.5 in the absence and presence of inotrope infusion, respectively, which accorded with the experimental observation that inotrope could enhance plasma volume expansion in response to fluid infusion. We concluded that the model was equipped with the ability to reproduce plasma volume response to fluid infusion in humans with physiologically plausible model parameters, and its validity may persist even under co-administration of inotropic agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific Antibodies Reacting with SV40 Large T Antigen Mimotopes in Serum Samples of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tognon

    Full Text Available Simian Virus 40, experimentally assayed in vitro in different animal and human cells and in vivo in rodents, was classified as a small DNA tumor virus. In previous studies, many groups identified Simian Virus 40 sequences in healthy individuals and cancer patients using PCR techniques, whereas others failed to detect the viral sequences in human specimens. These conflicting results prompted us to develop a novel indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides, mimicking Simian Virus 40 capsid viral protein antigens, named mimotopes. This immunologic assay allowed us to investigate the presence of serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 and to verify whether Simian Virus 40 is circulating in humans. In this investigation two mimotopes from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen, the viral replication protein and oncoprotein, were employed to analyze for specific reactions to human sera antibodies. This indirect ELISA with synthetic peptides from Simian Virus 40 large T antigen was used to assay a new collection of serum samples from healthy subjects. This novel assay revealed that serum antibodies against Simian Virus 40 large T antigen mimotopes are detectable, at low titer, in healthy subjects aged from 18-65 years old. The overall prevalence of reactivity with the two Simian Virus 40 large T antigen peptides was 20%. This new ELISA with two mimotopes of the early viral regions is able to detect in a specific manner Simian Virus 40 large T antigen-antibody responses.

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of talar trochlea morphology: Implications for subject-specific kinematics of the talocrural joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Shuhei; Watanabe, Kota; Katayose, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) behavior of the talocrural joint is primarily determined by the articular surface morphology of the talar trochlea and tibiofibular mortise. However, morphological features of the anterior and posterior regions of the talar trochlea remain unclear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate anterior and posterior radii of the medial and lateral talar trochlea and to estimate subject-specific kinematics of the talocrural joint. Fifty dry tali were scanned using computed tomography to create 3D bone models. Radii of curvature of the anterior and posterior region at both the medial and lateral trochlea were calculated. Orientations of the dorsiflexion and plantarflexion axis passing through the centers of the circles fitted to the anterior region of the medial and lateral trochlea and through the centers of the circles fitted to the posterior region of the medial and lateral trochlea were evaluated, respectively. The anterior radius of the medial trochlea was significantly smaller than that of the lateral trochlea by a mean of 7.8 mm (P dorsiflexion, whereas bilateral asymmetric shape of posterior trochlea would induce opposite axial rotations among subjects during ankle plantarflexion, which would help the physical therapists to restore talocrural joint motions to ideal state for patients with ankle injuries. Clin. Anat. 29:1066-1074, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A Computational Framework to Optimize Subject-Specific Hemodialysis Blood Flow Rate to Prevent Intimal Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, Javid; Wlodarczyk, Marta; Cassel, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Development of excessive intimal hyperplasia (IH) in the cephalic vein of renal failure patients who receive chronic hemodialysis treatment results in vascular access failure and multiple treatment complications. Specifically, cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is known to exacerbate hypertensive blood pressure, thrombosis, and subsequent cardiovascular incidents that would necessitate costly interventional procedures with low success rates. It has been hypothesized that excessive blood flow rate post access maturation which strongly violates the venous homeostasis is the main hemodynamic factor that orchestrates the onset and development of CAS. In this article, a computational framework based on a strong coupling of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and shape optimization is proposed that aims to identify the effective blood flow rate on a patient-specific basis that avoids the onset of CAS while providing the adequate blood flow rate required to facilitate hemodialysis. This effective flow rate can be achieved through implementation of Miller's surgical banding method after the maturation of the arteriovenous fistula and is rooted in the relaxation of wall stresses back to a homeostatic target value. The results are indicative that this optimized hemodialysis blood flow rate is, in fact, a subject-specific value that can be assessed post vascular access maturation and prior to the initiation of chronic hemodialysis treatment as a mitigative action against CAS-related access failure. This computational technology can be employed for individualized dialysis treatment.

  3. Three-dimensional computational modeling of subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid flow in the subarachnoid space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumeet; Soellinger, Michaela; Boesiger, Peter; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan

    2009-02-01

    This study aims at investigating three-dimensional subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. An anatomically accurate 3D model of the entire SAS of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed from high resolution T2 weighted MRI data. Subject-specific pulsatile velocity boundary conditions were imposed at planes in the pontine cistern, cerebellomedullary cistern, and in the spinal subarachnoid space. Velocimetric MRI was used to measure the velocity field at these boundaries. A constant pressure boundary condition was imposed at the interface between the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle. The morphology of the SAS with its complex trabecula structures was taken into account through a novel porous media model with anisotropic permeability. The governing equations were solved using finite-volume CFD. We observed a total pressure variation from -42 Pa to 40 Pa within one cardiac cycle in the investigated domain. Maximum CSF velocities of about 15 cms occurred in the inferior section of the aqueduct, 14 cms in the left foramen of Luschka, and 9 cms in the foramen of Magendie. Flow velocities in the right foramen of Luschka were found to be significantly lower than in the left, indicating three-dimensional brain asymmetries. The flow in the cerebellomedullary cistern was found to be relatively diffusive with a peak Reynolds number (Re)=72, while the flow in the pontine cistern was primarily convective with a peak Re=386. The net volumetric flow rate in the spinal canal was found to be negligible despite CSF oscillation with substantial amplitude with a maximum volumetric flow rate of 109 mlmin. The observed transient flow patterns indicate a compliant behavior of the cranial subarachnoid space. Still, the estimated

  4. Feature Specific Quantile Normalization Enables Cross-Platform Classification of Molecular Subtypes using Gene Expression Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Jennifer M; Cai, Guoshuai; Whitfield, Michael L

    2018-01-17

    Molecular subtypes of cancers and autoimmune disease, defined by transcriptomic profiling, have provided insight into disease pathogenesis, molecular heterogeneity, and therapeutic responses. However, technical biases inherent to different gene expression profiling platforms present a unique problem when analyzing data generated from different studies. Currently, there is a lack of effective methods designed to eliminate platform-based bias. We present a method to normalize and classify RNA-seq data using machine learning classifiers trained on DNA microarray data and molecular subtypes in two datasets: breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Multiple analyses show that feature specific quantile normalization (FSQN) successfully removes platform-based bias from RNA-seq data, regardless of feature scaling or machine learning algorithm. We achieve up to 98% accuracy for BRCA data and 97% accuracy for CRC data in assigning molecular subtypes to RNA-seq data normalized using FSQN and a support vector machine trained exclusively on DNA microarray data. We find that maximum accuracy was achieved when normalizing RNA-seq datasets that contain at least 25 samples. FSQN allows comparison of RNA-seq data to existing DNA microarray datasets. Using these techniques, we can successfully leverage information from existing gene expression data in new analyses despite different platforms used for gene expression profiling. FSQN has been submitted as an R package to CRAN. All code used for this study is available on Github (https://github.com/jenniferfranks/FSQN). Michael.L.Whitfield@dartmouth.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  5. The Advantage of Playing Home in NBA: Microscopic, Team-Specific and Evolving Features

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Haroldo V; Zeng, Xiao Han T

    2016-01-01

    The idea that the success rate of a team increases when playing home is broadly accepted and documented for a wide variety of sports. Investigations on the so-called home advantage phenomenon date back to the 70's and every since has attracted the attention of scholars and sport enthusiasts. These studies have been mainly focused on identifying the phenomenon and trying to correlate it with external factors such as crowd noise and referee bias. Much less is known about the effects of home advantage in the microscopic dynamics of the game (within the game) or possible team-specific and evolving features of this phenomenon. Here we present a detailed study of these previous features in the National Basketball Association (NBA). By analyzing play-by-play events of more than sixteen thousand games that span thirteen NBA seasons, we have found that home advantage affects the microscopic dynamics of the game by increasing the scoring rates and decreasing the time intervals between scores of teams playing home. We v...

  6. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J O'Hara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution.

  7. A highly specific phage defense system is a conserved feature of the Vibrio cholerae mobilome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Hara, Brendan J.

    2017-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae-specific bacteriophages are common features of the microbial community during cholera infection in humans. Phages impose strong selective pressure that favors the expansion of phage-resistant strains over their vulnerable counterparts. The mechanisms allowing virulent V. cholerae strains to defend against the ubiquitous threat of predatory phages have not been established. Here, we show that V. cholerae PLEs (phage-inducible chromosomal island-like elements) are widespread genomic islands dedicated to phage defense. Analysis of V. cholerae isolates spanning a 60-year collection period identified five unique PLEs. Remarkably, we found that all PLEs (regardless of geographic or temporal origin) respond to infection by a myovirus called ICP1, the most prominent V. cholerae phage found in cholera patient stool samples from Bangladesh. We found that PLE activity reduces phage genome replication and accelerates cell lysis following ICP1 infection, killing infected host cells and preventing the production of progeny phage. PLEs are mobilized by ICP1 infection and can spread to neighboring cells such that protection from phage predation can be horizontally acquired. Our results reveal that PLEs are a persistent feature of the V. cholerae mobilome that are adapted to providing protection from a single predatory phage and advance our understanding of how phages influence pathogen evolution. PMID:28594826

  8. Specification of leading and trailing cell features during collective migration in the Drosophila trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, Gaëlle; Casanova, Jordi

    2014-01-15

    The role of tip and rear cells in collective migration is still a matter of debate and their differences at the cytoskeletal level are poorly understood. Here, we analysed these issues in the Drosophila trachea, an organ that develops from the collective migration of clusters of cells that respond to Branchless (Bnl), a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologue expressed in surrounding tissues. We track individual cells in the migratory cluster and characterise their features and unveil two prototypical types of cytoskeletal organisation that account for tip and rear cells respectively. Indeed, once the former are specified, they remain as such throughout migration. Furthermore, we show that FGF signalling in a single tip cell can trigger the migration of the cells in the branch. Finally, we found specific Rac activation at the tip cells and analysed how FGF-independent cell features, such as adhesion and motility, act on coupling the behaviour of trailing and tip cells. Thus, the combined effect of FGF promoting leading cell behaviour and the modulation of cell properties in a cluster can account for the wide range of migratory events driven by FGF.

  9. Specific features of the charge and mass transfer in a silver-intercalated hafnium diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshchev, V. G.; Selezneva, N. V.; Baranov, N. V.

    2013-07-01

    The specific features of the charge transfer in intercalated samples of Ag x HfSe2 have been studied for the first time by alternating current (ac) impedance spectroscopy. It has been found that relaxation processes in an ac field are accelerated with increasing silver content in the samples. The complex conductivity ( Y) shows a frequency dispersion described by power law Y ˜ ω s , which is characteristic of the hopping conductivity mechanism. The Ag x HfSe2 compounds demonstrate shorter relaxation times as compared to those observed in hafnium diselenide intercalated with copper atoms, and this fact indicates that the charge carrier mobility in the silver-intercalated compounds is higher. The possibility of silver ion transfer in Ag x HfSe2 is confirmed by the measurements performed by the method of electrochemical cell emf.

  10. Specific Features of Motion of Cations and Anions in Electrolyte Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Bulavin, L A; Malomuzh, M P; Pankratov, K M

    2012-01-01

    The nature of mobility of ions and water molecules in dilute aqueous solutions of electrolytes (at most fifteen water molecules per ion) is investigated. It is shown that the behavior of the mobility coefficients of water molecules and ions, as well as the self-diffusion coefficients of water molecules, are determined by the radii of their hard shells rather than by the effect of the hydrogen bond network. It is established that the influence of hydration effects on the density of the system and the self-diffusion coefficients of water molecules does not exceed several per cent. Based on microscopic concepts, it is shown that the different behaviors of a $\\rm K^{+}$ cation and an $\\rm F^{-}$ anion with equal rigid radii are in good agreement with specific features of the intermolecular interaction described by the generalized Stillinger--David potential.

  11. Specific features of current flow in α-Si : H/Si heterojunction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachenko, A. V.; Kostylyov, V. P.; Sokolovskyi, I. O.; Bobyl', A. V.; Verbitskii, V. N.; Terukov, E. I.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2017-02-01

    Specific features of the formation of dark I-V characteristics of α-Si: H/Si heterojunction solar cells are investigated taking account the ratio between silicon doping level N d and excess concentration Δ n of electron-hole pairs. It is demonstrated that, at Δ n ≥ Nd, the I-V characteristic is fundamentally different from the characteristic of a classical Shockley diode due the effect of the backside surface (additional drop of the applied voltage). The results of analysis are used to describe the experimental I-V characteristics reported in studies on α-Si: H/Si heterojunction solar cells. Numerical values of the ideality factors of the dark I-V characteristics are obtained by comparing the experimental and calculated curves.

  12. Specific features of sedimentology in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.; Shakhova, N. E.; Tesi, T.; Ruban, A.; Charkin, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Lithological investigations performed in the outer part of the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) revealed specific features in the structure and distribution of bottom sediments in the studied area. Predominant type of sediments found in the uppermost layers of sediments was mud (that is silt and clay) with particle size 1 mm (coarse sand). Some authors described existence of such areas in the outer part of the Laptev Sea shelf earlier without attributing such variability in sediment grain size to any processes. We hypothesize three possible mechanisms to explain intrusion of high energy processes into the low energy environment: 1) effect of geo-fluid and/or gas (methane) escape through open/deep taliks forming within subsea permafrost due to long-lasting warming by seawater and underlying fault zones (southern end of the Gakkel Ridge); 2) release of underground water through intra-permafrost hydraulic system; and 3) bottom erosion caused by ice-scouring.

  13. Analysis of Specific Features of International Standards of Personnel Security of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otenko Iryna P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article marks out components of personnel security of an enterprise, outlines processes of personnel management, which correspond with conditions of security of life and labour, competent, socially protected professional activity, availability of the acting system of motivation and stimulation, and possibilities for corporate conflicts resolution. The article presents basic standards, rules and legislative acts that regulate ensuring personnel security. It analyses specific features of application of standards with respect to: life security and labour protection culture at an enterprise, including managerial systems and practice, behaviour of personnel at working places and also intellectual component of personnel security, which envisages that personnel has knowledge and competences that assist in achievement of strategic goals of an enterprise.

  14. Specific airway conductance and airway conductance-lung volume curves in normal and asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylin, G; Hedenstierna, G; Rehn, T; Sundin, B

    1987-01-01

    Airway conductance (Gaw) depends on lung volume (TGV). An approximate correction for this volume dependence can be obtained by calculating specific airway conductance (sGaw = Gaw-TGV). In this study, Gaw-TGV curves were compared with sGaw in 30 healthy and 20 asthmatic subjects who were studied by body plethysmography. Gaw, TGV and sGaw were measured five times at three to five different lung volumes. sGaw was dependent on TGV, the regression having a negative slope (-0.24 and -0.27 kPa-1.s-1.l-1, in the group without and with asthma, respectively). A change in TGV by 1 l caused a 9 and 11% decrease in sGaw, respectively. Bronchial obstruction induced by histamine inhalation in the asthmatic subjects increased the dependence on TGV by sGaw, now with a positive slope. Thus, a change in TGV by 1 l caused a 20-100% increase in sGaw, depending on the degree of airway obstruction. The Gaw-TGV curve was approximately linear around the resting lung volume. The coefficient of variation in determining the slope of the Gaw-TGV curve was as high as 110 and 153% in health and asthmatic subjects, respectively. It is concluded that sGaw, although rapidly determined, has a systematic error in its correction of lung volume dependence, which the Gaw-TGV curve does not. The Gaw-TGV curve therefore has advantages in research work, but since its construction is time consuming it is hardly suitable in clinical practice.

  15. The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Veerle K; Coorevits, Pascal L; Bouche, Katie G; Mahieu, Nele N; Vanderstraeten, Guy G; Danneels, Lieven A

    2007-08-01

    Low back pain is a major problem involving high medical costs, therefore effective prevention strategies are essential. Stabilization exercises seem to facilitate the neuromuscular control of the lumbar spine and may be useful in prevention programs. To investigate whether specific lumbar stabilization training has an effect on muscle recruitment patterns in a healthy population, in the present study 30 subjects were recruited to perform two types of testing exercises, i.e. bridging exercises and exercises in four-point kneeling, both before and after training. Surface electromyographic data of different abdominal and back muscles were obtained. After training, analysis of the relative muscle activity levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) showed a higher activity of the local (segmental-stabilizing) abdominal muscles, but not of the local back muscles; minimal changes in global (torque-producing) muscle activity also occurred. Analysis of the local/global relative muscle activity ratios revealed higher ratios during all exercises after training, although not all differences were significant. These results indicate that muscle recruitment patterns can be changed in healthy subjects by means of a training program that focuses on neuromuscular control. Additional studies are needed to evaluate this type of training as a prevention strategy.

  16. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitella, Laura M.; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Yager, Paul; Hudson, Heather M.; Brintz, Katelynn; Duchin, Yuval; Harel, Noam; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20 Hz, 90 μs pulse width) was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (−1.0 to −1.4 mA). These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts), which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS. PMID:26236229

  17. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Zitella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20Hz, 90µs pulse width was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (-1.0 to -1.4mA. These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts, which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS.

  18. Subject-specific modelling of lower limb muscles in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, K; Stott, N S; Mithraratne, K; Anderson, I A

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the architecture of spastic muscles in children with cerebral palsy is considerably altered; however, only little is known about the structural changes that occur other than in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the present study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and subject-specific modelling techniques were used to compare the lengths and volumes of six lower limb muscles between children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children. MRI scans of the lower limbs of two children with spastic hemiplegia cerebral palsy, four children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (mean age 9.6 years) and a group of typically developing children (mean age 10.2 years) were acquired. Subject-specific models of six lower limb muscles were developed from the MRI data using a technique called Face Fitting. Muscle volumes and muscle lengths were derived from the models and normalised to body mass and segmental lengths, respectively. Normalised muscle volumes in the children with cerebral palsy were smaller than in the control group with the difference being 22% in the calf muscles, 26% in the hamstrings and 22% in the quadriceps, respectively. Only the differences in the hamstrings and the quadriceps were statistically significant (P=0.036, P=0.038). Normalised muscle lengths in the children with cerebral palsy were significantly shorter (Pmuscle in either group. The present results show that lower limb muscles in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy are significantly altered, suggesting an overall mechanical deficit due to predominant muscle atrophy. Further investigations of the underlying causes of the muscle atrophy are required to better define management and treatment strategies for children with cerebral palsy.

  19. Validation of subject-specific cardiovascular system models from porcine measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revie, James A; Stevenson, David J; Chase, J Geoffrey; Hann, Christopher E; Lambermont, Bernard C; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Kolh, Philippe; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Heldmann, Stefan; Desaive, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    A previously validated mathematical model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) is made subject-specific using an iterative, proportional gain-based identification method. Prior works utilised a complete set of experimentally measured data that is not clinically typical or applicable. In this paper, parameters are identified using proportional gain-based control and a minimal, clinically available set of measurements. The new method makes use of several intermediary steps through identification of smaller compartmental models of CVS to reduce the number of parameters identified simultaneously and increase the convergence stability of the method. This new, clinically relevant, minimal measurement approach is validated using a porcine model of acute pulmonary embolism (APE). Trials were performed on five pigs, each inserted with three autologous blood clots of decreasing size over a period of four to five hours. All experiments were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the University of Liege, Belgium. Continuous aortic and pulmonary artery pressures (P(ao), P(pa)) were measured along with left and right ventricle pressure and volume waveforms. Subject-specific CVS models were identified from global end diastolic volume (GEDV), stroke volume (SV), P(ao), and P(pa) measurements, with the mean volumes and maximum pressures of the left and right ventricles used to verify the accuracy of the fitted models. The inputs (GEDV, SV, P(ao), P(pa)) used in the identification process were matched by the CVS model to errors pressures not used to fit the model compared experimental measurements to median absolute errors of 4.3% and 4.4%, which are equivalent to the measurement errors of currently used monitoring devices in the ICU (∼5-10%). These results validate the potential for implementing this approach in the intensive care unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Heritage and L2 processing of person and number features: Evidence from Spanish subject-verb agreement

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    Estrella Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study, with online measures, which investigated the processing of subject–verb (SV agreement sentences by one group of heritage Spanish speakers (HSs, two groups of L2 learners of Spanish (L1 English and one group of traditional Spanish native speakers. Experimental SV sentences manipulated person and number features with subjects and verbs in the present tense. Between-group statistical analyses indicated differential processing between the heritage and the L2 groups. The heritage group’s performance was more native-like than the L2 participants. Within-subject tests showed some similar patterns between heritage and L2 high-level processing, including delayed sensitivity to ungrammaticality after the verb region. We argue that the HSs were able to process basic grammar structures, just as traditional native speakers do. This suggests early bilingualism conferred an advantage to HSS when compared to L2 learners, in the control of basic agreement in Spanish.

  1. Entrepreneurs As a Subject of Modern Russian Economy Development: General Characteristics and «Resource Type» Regions Specificity

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    Levin Sergey, N.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, special urgency has the question about the ability of entrepreneurs to act as a subject of the Russian economy development. Analysis of the specificity of targets and resource potential of the modern Russian entrepreneurs is fulfilled in the context of the general features of entrepreneurship development in the countries with "emerging markets". Distinction between "politicized" entrepreneurs, as prevailing type of entrepreneurs in these countries, and "classic" entrepreneurs is shown. Two basic strategies of their behavior in the form of "rent-seeking" and "institutional" entrepreneurship are highlighted. Incentives and constraints of "institutional" entrepreneurship strategies selection made by "politicized" entrepreneurs are considered in the context of assessing the potential of the Russian entrepreneurs as a subject of economic development as well as emerging positive externalities. Analysis is regionalized to consider the specificity of the behavior of entrepreneurs in the economy of the "resource type" regions. Models of "enclave dual economy" and "integrated regional economy" are discrete structural alternatives for "resource type" regions development. "Sectoral" frontiers of net positive externalities that emerge from institutional entrepreneurs’ activity related to the implementation of productive configurations institutions are considered as well as a choice between the "rent-seeking" and "institutional" entrepreneurship. Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk region are the basic regions to analyze incentives and constraints of entrepreneurs in the economy of the "resource type" regions. The authors use sociological tools in the form of semi-structured interviews. Initial evaluation of the eight entrepreneurs’ strategies of Kemerovo region and Krasnoyarsk region shows that the most of them used elements of the institutional entrepreneurs’ strategy and focused on the diversification of the regional economy. At the same time

  2. [Subtypes of specific language impairment in Spanish-speaking children: a cluster analysis of linguistic features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Narbona, J

    2006-10-10

    Specific language impairment (SLI) can be viewed as a continuum with different subtypes depending on the combination of deficits and strengths in each of the components of linguistic behavior. AIM. To analyze the phenomenological profiles in a correlative series of Spanish children in order to facilitate their endophenotypic differentiation and the choice of strategies of intervention. 86 referred children, aged 4 to 9 years, with a mean non-verbal intelligence quotient of 93 (range 72-114) and accomplishing clinical criteria of SLI. Apart from clinical interview and neurological examination, a protocol of questionnaires and tests was used in all subjects in order to measure their formal (phonological, syntactic, lexical) and functional (semantic and pragmatic) linguistic abilities. A cluster analysis of variables was used in order to investigate SLI subtypes. In the total sample, a 24% of whole series have a pure phonological expressive disorder. 55% of subjects have mixed receptive/expressive disorders; from these, the most pervasive subtype is due to verbal agnosia (11%), but more frequently observed subtypes affect syntax reception and expression combined to difficulties in phonological programming (36%) or in lexical retrieval (8%). Furthermore, 21% of the total sample present with difficulties in pragmatic use of language even if their formal linguistic abilities and non-verbal behavior are normal. Our empirical approach confirms that the admitted SLI subtypes in international literature applies to Spanish-speaking children for endophenotyping and intervention-planning purposes.

  3. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia. Specific clinical features correlate with histologic and virologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynaud, O; Ionesco, M; Barrasso, R

    1994-09-15

    To evaluate the existence of the morphologic features specific for penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), 1000 male sexual partners of women with genital condyloma or intraepithelial neoplasia were studied. Ninety-two patients who presented with lesions suggesting intraepithelial neoplasia (pigmented or leukoplastic papules, keratinized condylomata, or erythroplastic macules) underwent biopsy for histologic and virologic studies. Histologic results showed penile intraepithelial neoplasia in 93% of the specimens. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from potentially oncogenic papillomaviruses was detected in 75% of patients with Grade I PIN, in 93% of patients with Grade II PIN, and in all patients with Grade III PIN: Uncircumcised and circumcised men showed the same rate (52% vs. 45%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.73) of HPV-associated lesions, whereas the rate of PIN was significantly higher in uncircumcised men than in circumcised men (10% vs. 6%; OR = 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-3.07). The mean age of patients with Grade III PIN was 7 years older then the mean age of patients with Grade I PIN, which suggests a step progression similar to that of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Morphology seems to be a specific-enough indicator of PIN. More data are needed to determine whether treatment of PIN may contribute to preventing cervical or penile cancer. If so, the morphologic criteria here described will be clinically useful.

  4. Automated abdominal multi-organ segmentation with subject-specific atlas generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Robin; Chu, Chengwen; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Mori, Kensaku; Rueckert, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    A robust automated segmentation of abdominal organs can be crucial for computer aided diagnosis and laparoscopic surgery assistance. Many existing methods are specialized to the segmentation of individual organs and struggle to deal with the variability of the shape and position of abdominal organs. We present a general, fully-automated method for multi-organ segmentation of abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. The method is based on a hierarchical atlas registration and weighting scheme that generates target specific priors from an atlas database by combining aspects from multi-atlas registration and patch-based segmentation, two widely used methods in brain segmentation. The final segmentation is obtained by applying an automatically learned intensity model in a graph-cuts optimization step, incorporating high-level spatial knowledge. The proposed approach allows to deal with high inter-subject variation while being flexible enough to be applied to different organs. We have evaluated the segmentation on a database of 150 manually segmented CT images. The achieved results compare well to state-of-the-art methods, that are usually tailored to more specific questions, with Dice overlap values of 94%, 93%, 70%, and 92% for liver, kidneys, pancreas, and spleen, respectively.

  5. Subjective well-being: gender differences in Holocaust survivors-specific and cross-national effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Sara; King, David B; O'Rourke, Norm; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2017-06-01

    Subjective well-being (SWB) has become an important concept in evaluating older adults' quality of life. The cognitive and emotional evaluations which are used to appraise it differ in structure, characteristics, and effects on life. The purpose of this study was to support hypotheses regarding expected Holocaust survivors-specific effects and cross-cultural differences on three indicators of SWB. We recruited samples of 50 male and female Israeli Holocaust survivors, other older Israelis, and older Canadians (N = 300) for allowing us to distinguish survivors-specific effects from cross-national differences. State anxiety, depressive symptoms, and life-satisfaction were compared across groups of men and women. Where univariate differences were detected, post hoc comparisons were computed to determine which of the groups significantly differed. In general, a higher level of SWB was found among Canadians in comparison to both comparative Israeli groups. Level of depressive symptoms was significantly higher among women survivors than in the other two groups. Both groups of Israeli women had higher scores on anxiety than Canadian Women; less apparent were differences across groups of men. Life-satisfaction did not differ among the groups. Our findings regarding depression support the survivor-specific effect hypothesis for women, and a national effect on anxiety, but not any effect on life-satisfaction. These findings suggest significant differences in impacts of traumatic life events on cognitive versus emotional indicators of SWB. This issue should be further investigated due to its practical implications in use of various measures of SWB with people who experienced traumatic events.

  6. Multi-channel MRI segmentation of eye structures and tumors using patient-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Maeder, Philippe; Glocker, Ben; Munier, Francis L; Rueckert, Daniel; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Sznitman, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma are fast spreading eye tumors usually diagnosed by using 2D Fundus Image Photography (Fundus) and 2D Ultrasound (US). Diagnosis and treatment planning of such diseases often require additional complementary imaging to confirm the tumor extend via 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this context, having automatic segmentations to estimate the size and the distribution of the pathological tissue would be advantageous towards tumor characterization. Until now, the alternative has been the manual delineation of eye structures, a rather time consuming and error-prone task, to be conducted in multiple MRI sequences simultaneously. This situation, and the lack of tools for accurate eye MRI analysis, reduces the interest in MRI beyond the qualitative evaluation of the optic nerve invasion and the confirmation of recurrent malignancies below calcified tumors. In this manuscript, we propose a new framework for the automatic segmentation of eye structures and ocular tumors in multi-sequence MRI. Our key contribution is the introduction of a pathological eye model from which Eye Patient-Specific Features (EPSF) can be computed. These features combine intensity and shape information of pathological tissue while embedded in healthy structures of the eye. We assess our work on a dataset of pathological patient eyes by computing the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, the lens and the tumor. In addition, we quantitatively show the superior performance of our pathological eye model as compared to the segmentation obtained by using a healthy model (over 4% DSC) and demonstrate the relevance of our EPSF, which improve the final segmentation regardless of the classifier employed.

  7. Multi-channel MRI segmentation of eye structures and tumors using patient-specific features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ciller

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma are fast spreading eye tumors usually diagnosed by using 2D Fundus Image Photography (Fundus and 2D Ultrasound (US. Diagnosis and treatment planning of such diseases often require additional complementary imaging to confirm the tumor extend via 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. In this context, having automatic segmentations to estimate the size and the distribution of the pathological tissue would be advantageous towards tumor characterization. Until now, the alternative has been the manual delineation of eye structures, a rather time consuming and error-prone task, to be conducted in multiple MRI sequences simultaneously. This situation, and the lack of tools for accurate eye MRI analysis, reduces the interest in MRI beyond the qualitative evaluation of the optic nerve invasion and the confirmation of recurrent malignancies below calcified tumors. In this manuscript, we propose a new framework for the automatic segmentation of eye structures and ocular tumors in multi-sequence MRI. Our key contribution is the introduction of a pathological eye model from which Eye Patient-Specific Features (EPSF can be computed. These features combine intensity and shape information of pathological tissue while embedded in healthy structures of the eye. We assess our work on a dataset of pathological patient eyes by computing the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC of the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, the lens and the tumor. In addition, we quantitatively show the superior performance of our pathological eye model as compared to the segmentation obtained by using a healthy model (over 4% DSC and demonstrate the relevance of our EPSF, which improve the final segmentation regardless of the classifier employed.

  8. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  9. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, Katarzyna; Brunner, Martin; Preckel, Franzis; Goetz, Thomas; Martin, Romain

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German) components of students' academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a) hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b) longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c) developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3498 and N = 3863) of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (0.42 < r < 0.55) and subject-specific levels (0.45 < r < 0.73). Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative effects across subjects. PMID:27014162

  10. Developmental Dynamics of General and School-Subject-Specific Components of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Interest, and Academic Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eGogol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental dynamics of general and subject-specific (i.e., mathematics, French, and German components of students’ academic self-concept, anxiety, and interest. To this end, the authors integrated three lines of research: (a hierarchical and multidimensional approaches to the conceptualization of each construct, (b longitudinal analyses of bottom-up and top-down developmental processes across hierarchical levels, and (c ipsative developmental processes across subjects. The data stemmed from two longitudinal large-scale samples (N = 3,498 and N = 3,863 of students attending Grades 7 and 9 in Luxembourgish schools. Nested-factor models were applied to represent each construct at each grade level. The analyses demonstrated that several characteristics were shared across constructs. All constructs were multidimensional in nature with respect to the different subjects, showed a hierarchical organization with a general component at the apex of the hierarchy, and had a strong separation between the subject-specific components at both grade levels. Further, all constructs showed moderate differential stabilities at both the general (.42 < r < .55 and subject-specific levels (.45 < r < .73. Further, little evidence was found for top-down or bottom-up developmental processes. Rather, general and subject-specific components in Grade 9 proved to be primarily a function of the corresponding components in Grade 7. Finally, change in several subject-specific components could be explained by negative, ipsative effects across subjects.

  11. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

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    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  12. Specific and combined subjective responses to noise and their association with cardiovascular diseases

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    Zdenka Vandasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is one of the most extensive environmental factors affecting the general population. The present study is focused on the association between discomfort caused by noise and the incidence of certain diseases (ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertension. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study, conducted in 10 cities in the Czech Republic, comprises two stages with 3592 obtained questionnaires in the first phase and 762 in the second phase. Twelve variables describe subjective responses to noise from different sources at different times of day. The intensity of the associations between variables was measured by correlation coefficient. Logistic regression was used for fitting models of morbidity, and confounders such as age and socio-economic status were included. The hypotheses from the first phase were independently validated using data from the second phase. Results: The general rates of noise annoyance/sleep disturbance had greater correlation with traffic noise variables than with neighbourhood noise variables. Factors significantly associated with diseases are: for hypertension − annoyance by traffic noise (the elderly, odds ratio (OR 1.4 and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (the elderly, OR 1.6; for ischaemic heart disease − the general rate of noise annoyance (all respondents, OR 1.5 and the adults 30–60 years, OR 1.8 and the general rate of annoyance and sleep disturbance (all respondents, OR 1.3; for stroke − annoyance and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (all respondents, OR 1.8. Conclusion: Factors that include multiple sources of noise or non-specific noise are associated with the studied diseases more frequently than the source-specific factors.

  13. Identifying provenance-specific features of detrital heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Andrew C.; Hallsworth, Claire

    1994-05-01

    The composition of heavy mineral assemblages in sandstones may be heavily influenced by processes operating during transport, deposition and diagenesis. As a consequence, conventional heavy mineral data may not be a reliable guide to the nature of sediment source material. Certain features of heavy mineral suites, however, are inherited directly from the source area without significant modification, such as the varietal characteristics of individual mineral species. This paper describes an alternative approach to varietal studies that concentrates on relative abundances of minerals that are stable during diagenesis and have similar hydraulic behaviour. Ratios of apatite to tourmaline, TiO 2 minerals to zircon, monazite to zircon, and chrome spinel to zircon provide a good reflection of the source rock characteristics, because they are comparatively immune to alteration during the sedimentary cycle. These ratios are described as index values (ATi, RZi, MZi and CZi, respectively). This approach avoids some of the practical problems associated with varietal studies, such as the need to make subjective decisions about mineral properties or to use advanced analytical techniques that may not be accessible to the analyst. It also makes use of more components of the heavy mineral suite and thus provides a more balanced view of provenance characteristics. The use of these ratios is illustrated with examples from Upper Jurassic sandstones in the Outer Moray Firth area of the UK continental shelf and Triassic sandstones from onshore and offshore UK. Heavy mineral indices, notably ATi and MZi, show marked variations in Upper Jurassic Piper sandstones of the Outer Moray Firth. Main Piper sandstones have lower ATi and MZi values compared with Supra Piper sandstones, indicating significant stratigraphic evolution of provenance. The UK Triassic shows major regional variations in a number of index values, including ATi, MZi and CZi, demonstrating that sediment was supplied from

  14. Feature-specific event-related potential effects to action- and sound-related verbs during visual word recognition

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    Margot Popp

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grounded cognition theories suggest that conceptual representations essentially depend on modality-specific sensory and motor systems. Feature-specific brain activation across different feature types such as action or audition has been intensively investigated in nouns, while feature-specific conceptual category differences in verbs mainly focused on body part specific effects. The present work aimed at assessing whether feature-specific event-related potential (ERP differences between action and sound concepts, as previously observed in nouns, can also be found within the word class of verbs. In Experiment 1, participants were visually presented with carefully matched sound and action verbs within a lexical decision task, which provides implicit access to word meaning and minimizes strategic access to semantic word features. Experiment 2 tested whether pre-activating the verb concept in a context phase, in which the verb is presented with a related context noun, modulates subsequent feature-specific action vs. sound verb processing within the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, ERP analyses revealed a differential ERP polarity pattern for action and sound verbs at parietal and central electrodes similar to previous results in nouns. Pre-activation of the meaning of verbs in the preceding context phase in Experiment 2 resulted in a polarity-reversal of feature-specific ERP effects in the lexical decision task compared with Experiment 1. This parallels analogous earlier findings for primed action and sound related nouns. In line with grounded cognitions theories, our ERP study provides evidence for a differential processing of action and sound verbs similar to earlier observation for concrete nouns. Although the localizational value of ERPs must be viewed with caution, our results indicate that the meaning of verbs is linked to different neural circuits depending on conceptual feature relevance.

  15. Specific Features of Reflection of Information Regarding Lease Operations in the National and International Standards

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    Nikolenko Nataliya V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies the degree of correspondence of the national Provisions (Standard of Business Accounting (PSBA Lease with the international standard and provides recommendations with respect to their closing up. On the results of the study the author provides specific features of international and national standards – the existing IFRS 17 Lease and national PSBA 14 Lease by the following components: definition of lease, its classification and reflection in accounting. Also the text of PSBA 31 Financial Expenditures is supplemented with provisions on capitalisation of financial expenditures prospectively, which would allow avoidance of correction of the balance of the retained income and provision of comparative information for previous periods. The article provides an algorithm of division of lease for accounting purposes on the basis of international standards. Its use would ensure correctness of reflection of lease operations in accounting and would serve as a basis for development of methodical provisions with respect to accounting. By the result of the study the author forms definition of the qualification asset as an asset which requires considerable time for its creation, preparation for target use, sales or acquisition of the ownership right. Capitalisation of such expenditures would allow non-reduction of the accounting income and also would provide a possibility to reflect financial expenditures in accordance with their economic essence.

  16. Specific Features of Alliance Management in the Sphere of Communication and Informatisation

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    Yatskevych Inna V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is theoretical study and revelation of specific features of alliance management in the sphere of communication and informatisation. To achieve that it is necessary to perform a scientific task, which lies in the study of essence and role of management in the alliance of the sphere of communication and informatisation. In the result of the study the article identifies the role of the management system in formation and development of such an alliance and reveals and recommends the essence of the mechanism of its management. The article identifies main goals of formation and stages of creation of the alliance, scheme of the managerial cycle of stages of the process of interaction of partner participants in accordance with the alliance development, key factors of success of interrelations between partner participants of the alliance, and dynamic interconsistency of stages of the process of management of interaction of partner participants of the alliance. Prospects of further studies in this direction are such elements in the management system as social responsibility, transfer price, mechanism of assessment of synergy and efficiency of alliance functioning in the sphere of communication and informatisation.

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Review of the Phenotype and Associated Specific Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmela, Carolina; Peerani, Farhad; Castaneda, Daniel; Torres, Joana; Itzkowitz, Steven H.

    2018-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive cholestatic disease that is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in approximately 70% of cases. Although the pathogenesis is still unknown for both diseases, there is increasing evidence to indicate that they share a common underlying predisposition. Herein, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease pathogenesis, and specific clinical features of the PSC-IBD phenotype. Patients with PSC-IBD have a distinct IBD phenotype with an increased incidence of pancolitis, backwash ileitis, and rectal sparing. Despite often having extensive colonic involvement, these patients present with mild intestinal symptoms or are even asymptomatic, which can delay the diagnosis of IBD. Although the IBD phenotype has been well characterized in PSC patients, the natural history and disease behavior of PSC in PSC-IBD patients is less well defined. There is conflicting evidence regarding the course of IBD in PSC-IBD patients who receive liver transplantation and their risk of recurrent PSC. IBD may also be associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma in PSC patients. Overall, the PSC-IBD population has an increased risk of developing colorectal neoplasia compared to the conventional IBD population. Lifelong annual surveillance colonoscopy is currently recommended. PMID:28376583

  18. Specific features of domestic banks activity in the factoring services market

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    Trygub Olena V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific features of formation and development of the domestic factoring market. In the result of the study the article establishes that development of factoring in Ukraine took place due to active participation of banking institutions in this process and nowadays they are leaders in the domestic factoring services market due to possessing significant competitive advantages if compared with non-banking companies that specialise in factoring. The article detects that nowadays the banks are not only offerers of factoring services and finance factoring operations of other market participants, but also take an active part in establishment of factoring branches and are consumers of factoring services. In order to accelerate development of international factoring in Ukraine, the article offers such forms of state support of banks, which render factoring services to domestic exporters. The article recommends to focus banks’ attention, under modern conditions that are characterised with volatility of financial markets, on factoring servicing of those clients, whom they have long business relations with, without jeopardising themselves through provision of factoring services to a big number of small debtors. The article provides schemes of banks’ co-operation in the sphere of “non-classic” factoring with accredited factoring companies.

  19. Subject-specific planning of femoroplasty: a combined evolutionary optimization and particle diffusion model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basafa, Ehsan; Armand, Mehran

    2014-07-18

    A potential effective treatment for prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures is augmentation of the mechanical properties of the femur by injecting it with agents such as (PMMA) bone cement - femoroplasty. The operation, however, is only in research stage and can benefit substantially from computer planning and optimization. We report the results of computational planning and optimization of the procedure for biomechanical evaluation. An evolutionary optimization method was used to optimally place the cement in finite element (FE) models of seven osteoporotic bone specimens. The optimization, with some inter-specimen variations, suggested that areas close to the cortex in the superior and inferior of the neck and supero-lateral aspect of the greater trochanter will benefit from augmentation. We then used a particle-based model for bone cement diffusion simulation to match the optimized pattern, taking into account the limitations of the actual surgery, including limited volume of injection to prevent thermal necrosis. Simulations showed that the yield load can be significantly increased by more than 30%, using only 9 ml of bone cement. This increase is comparable to previous literature reports where gross filling of the bone was employed instead, using more than 40 ml of cement. These findings, along with the differences in the optimized plans between specimens, emphasize the need for subject-specific models for effective planning of femoral augmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steady Flow in Subject-Specific Human Airways from Mouth to Sixth Bronchial Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Andrew; Coletti, Filippo; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Elkins, Christopher; Eaton, John

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the complex flow topology within the human lung is critical to assess gas exchange and particle transport as they relate to the development and treatment of respiratory diseases. While idealized airway models have been investigated extensively, only limited information is available for anatomically accurate geometries. We have measured the full three-dimensional, mean velocity field from the mouth to the sixth bronchial generation in a patient-specific geometry at steady inspiration. Magnetic resonance velocimetry is used to measure the flow of water at realistic Reynolds number in a 3D-printed model derived from the CT scan of a healthy subject. The canonical laryngeal jet is observed; however, its structure is altered by an upstream jet behind the tongue, which is not discussed in the literature. Regions of separation in the supraglottic space are found to generate streamwise vortices. The resulting swirl persists to the first bifurcation and modifies the vorticity distribution in the main bronchi relative to that of a symmetric bifurcation with uniform inlet conditions. An integral momentum distortion parameter is calculated along several complete bronchial paths to assess the impact of branching angle and generation length on the flow field.

  1. A corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks for English majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konul Hajiyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a corpus-based lexical analysis of subject-specific university textbooks which purports to explore lexical text coverage and frequency distribution of words from the Academic Word List and the British National Corpus frequency-based word families. For this study a 508,802-word corpus was created, the findings of which reflect that the Academic Word List word families constitute only a small coverage (6.5% of the words in the entire corpus, whereas the first two thousand high-frequency word families give the coverage of 88.92%. In terms of the text coverage, the results reveal that if 98% coverage of a text is needed for unassisted comprehension, then a vocabulary size of 9000 word families is required. The results also substantiate the claims that the Academic Word List is not as general an academic vocabulary as it was initially intended to be and, more importantly, supports the assumption that students need a more restricted core academic vocabulary. It is therefore argued that 127 academic word families which are relatively frequent in the overall university textbook corpus can be used as a part of the university word list for second-year English majors who have to read and comprehend university textbooks.

  2. Obesity and Obesity Shape Markedly Influence Spine Biomechanics: A Subject-Specific Risk Assessment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezelbash, Farshid; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Plamondon, André; Arjmand, Navid; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    Underlying mechanisms of obesity-related back pain remain unexplored. Thus, we aim to determine the effect of obesity and its shapes on the spinal loads and the associated risks of injury. Obesity shapes were initially constructed by principal component analysis based on datasets on 5852 obese individuals. Spinal loads, cycles to vertebral failure and trunk stability margin were estimated in a subject-specific trunk model taking account of personalized musculature, passive ligamentous spine, obesity shapes, segmental weights, spine kinematics and bone mineral density. Three obesity shapes (mean and extreme abdominal circumferences) at three body weights (BWs) of 86, 98 and 109 kg were analyzed. Additional BW (12 kg) increased spinal loads by ~11.8%. Higher waist circumferences at identical BW increased spinal forces to the tune of ~20 kg additional BW and the risk of vertebral fatigue compression fracture by 3-7 times when compared with smaller waist circumferences. Forward flexion, greater BW and load in hands increased the trunk stability margin. Spinal loads markedly increased with BW, especially at greater waist circumferences. The risk of vertebral fatigue fracture also substantially increased at greater waist circumferences though not at smaller ones. Obesity and its shape should be considered in spine biomechanics.

  3. Subject-specific body segment parameter estimation using 3D photogrammetry with multiple cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Mark; Sellers, William I.

    2015-01-01

    Inertial properties of body segments, such as mass, centre of mass or moments of inertia, are important parameters when studying movements of the human body. However, these quantities are not directly measurable. Current approaches include using regression models which have limited accuracy: geometric models with lengthy measuring procedures or acquiring and post-processing MRI scans of participants. We propose a geometric methodology based on 3D photogrammetry using multiple cameras to provide subject-specific body segment parameters while minimizing the interaction time with the participants. A low-cost body scanner was built using multiple cameras and 3D point cloud data generated using structure from motion photogrammetric reconstruction algorithms. The point cloud was manually separated into body segments, and convex hulling applied to each segment to produce the required geometric outlines. The accuracy of the method can be adjusted by choosing the number of subdivisions of the body segments. The body segment parameters of six participants (four male and two female) are presented using the proposed method. The multi-camera photogrammetric approach is expected to be particularly suited for studies including populations for which regression models are not available in literature and where other geometric techniques or MRI scanning are not applicable due to time or ethical constraints. PMID:25780778

  4. SUBJECT- AND RESOURCE-SPECIFIC MONITORING AND PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT OF PARALLEL RF TRANSMISSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Cem M.; Alon, Leeor; Brown, Ryan; Zhu, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Develop a practical comprehensive package for proactive management of parallel RF transmission. Methods With a constrained optimization framework and predictive models from a pre-scan based multi-channel calibration, we presented a method supporting design and optimization of parallel RF excitation pulses that accurately obey the forward / reflected peak and average power limits of the RF power amplifiers in parallel transmit imaging experiments and Bloch simulations. Moreover, local SAR limits were incorporated into the parallel RF excitation pulses using electromagnetic field simulations. Virtual transmit coils concept for minimization of reflected power (effecting subject-specific matching) was additionally demonstrated by leveraging experimentally calibrated power models. Results Incorporation of experimentally calibrated power prediction models resulted in accurate compliance with prescribed hardware and global SAR limits. Incorporation of spatial average 10g SAR models, facilitated by simplifying numerical approximations, provided assurance of patient safety. RF pulses designed with various constraints demonstrated excellent excitation fidelity -- the NRMSE of the simulated excitation profiles was 2.6% for the fully constrained pulses, comparable to that of the unconstrained pulses. An RF shimming example showed a reduction of the reflected-to-forward power ratio to 1.7% from a conventional approach’s 8.1%. Conclusions Using the presented RF pulse design method, effective proactive management of the multifaceted power and SAR limits was demonstrated in experimental and simulation studies. PMID:26198052

  5. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiechle, Karin; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Stoecklein, Veit; Rozen, Eric; Blyth, Brian; Huang, Jason H; Dayawansa, Samantha; Kanz, Karl; Biberthaler, Peter

    2014-01-01

    .... To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences...

  6. The use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in monolingual and bilingual children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb

  7. The Use of Subject-Verb Agreement and Verb Argument Structure in Monolingual and Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Marianne; Bol, Gerard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure in the spoken Dutch of monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual Frisian-Dutch children with SLI. Both SLI groups appeared to be less efficient in their use of subject-verb agreement and verb argument structure than the…

  8. Can subject-specific single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem response data be predicted from a model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Tiaan K; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-07-01

    This article investigates whether prediction of subject-specific physiological data is viable through an individualised computational model of a cochlear implant. Subject-specific predictions could be particularly useful to assess and quantify the peripheral factors that cause inter-subject variations in perception. The results of such model predictions could potentially be translated to clinical application through optimisation of mapping parameters for individual users, since parameters that affect perception would be reflected in the model structure and parameters. A method to create a subject-specific computational model of a guinea pig with a cochlear implant is presented. The objectives of the study are to develop a method to construct subject-specific models considering translation of the method to in vivo human models and to assess the effectiveness of subject-specific models to predict peripheral neural excitation on subject level. Neural excitation patterns predicted by the model are compared with single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses obtained from the inferior colliculus in the same animal. Results indicate that the model can predict threshold frequency location, spatial spread of bipolar and tripolar stimulation and electrode thresholds relative to one another where electrodes are located in different cochlear structures. Absolute thresholds and spatial spread using monopolar stimulation are not predicted accurately. Improvements to the model should address this. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fractal Model of a Compact Intracloud Discharge. II. Specific Features of Electromagnetic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydenko, S. S.; Iudin, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the features of the electromagnetic emission of a compact intracloud discharge (CID) within the framework of the fractal approach [1] described in the first part of the article. Compact intracloud discharge is considered as the result of electric interaction of two bipolar streamer-type structures previously developed in the regions of a strong electric field inside the thundercloud. To estimate the electromagnetic emission of the discharge, the complex tree-like structure of the electric currents at the preliminary and main stages of CID was represented as the sum of a relatively slowly varying large-scale linear mean component and fast small-scale constituents corresponding to the initial formation of elementary conductive channels of the discharge tree. Mean linear current of the discharge is considered as an effective source of the VLF/LF emission at both the preliminary and main stages of a CID. Electrostatic, induction, and radiation components of the electric field at different distances from the mean current are calculated taking into account specific features of both stages of the discharge within the framework of the transmission-line model. It is shown that at the preliminary stage only the electrostatic component can mainly be detected, whereas at the main stage all the above components of the electric field can be reliably measured. Dependence of the radiation electric field at the main stage on the length of the discharge channel and propagation velocity of the current front is analyzed. It is found that due to the bi-directional expansion of the current at the main stage of a CID the radiation field pulse remains narrow in a wide range of discharge parameters. The small-scale currents corresponding to the initial breakdown between the neighboring cells of the discharge domain are considered as the sources of HF/VHF radiation. It is shown that HF/VHF emission at the preliminary stage is negligible as compared to emission at the main stage

  10. Accurate discrimination of Alzheimer's disease from other dementia and/or normal subjects using SPECT specific volume analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyatomi, Hitoshi; Hashimoto, Jun; Yoshii, Fumuhito; Kazama, Toshiki; Kawada, Shuichi; Imai, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    Discrimination between Alzheimer's disease and other dementia is clinically significant, however it is often difficult. In this study, we developed classification models among Alzheimer's disease (AD), other dementia (OD) and/or normal subjects (NC) using patient factors and indices obtained by brain perfusion SPECT. SPECT is commonly used to assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) and allows the evaluation of the severity of hypoperfusion by introducing statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We investigated a total of 150 cases (50 cases each for AD, OD, and NC) from Tokai University Hospital, Japan. In each case, we obtained a total of 127 candidate parameters from: (A) 2 patient factors (age and sex), (B) 12 CBF parameters and 113 SPM parameters including (C) 3 from specific volume analysis (SVA), and (D) 110 from voxel-based analysis stereotactic extraction estimation (vbSEE). We built linear classifiers with a statistical stepwise feature selection and evaluated the performance with the leave-one-out cross validation strategy. Our classifiers achieved very high classification performances with reasonable number of selected parameters. In the most significant discrimination in clinical, namely those of AD from OD, our classifier achieved both sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of 96%. In a similar way, our classifiers achieved a SE of 90% and a SP of 98% in AD from NC, as well as a SE of 88% and a SP of 86% in AD from OD and NC cases. Introducing SPM indices such as SVA and vbSEE, classification performances improved around 7-15%. We confirmed that these SPM factors are quite important for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Specific features of taxation of in-dividuals in relationships with foreign elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ponomareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.9Subject. The issues of taxation of residents and non-residents under Russian tax law are considered in the article. The problems of realization of non-discrimination principle under Russian tax law are brought into light. The important role of judicial practice in development of mechanisms of taxation of non-residents is brought into light.Aim. The aim of this paper is the design of the legal framework of taxation of residents and nonresidents under Russian tax law in the scope of implementation of OECD mechanisms in the legal regulation of income taxation.Methodology. The author uses methods of theoretical analysis, particularly the theory of integrative legal consciousness, as well as legal methods, including formal legal method and comparative law.Results, scope. The personal income tax under Russian tax law is a direct federal income tax. It occupies a special place in the tax system, affects the interests of almost all citizens, is fairly simple in administration, and the share of its receipt in the budget is high.The leading element of the legal construction of the tax considered in the article is the subject of taxation, and namely the peculiarities of the taxation regime, depending on whether the taxpayer has the status of a resident or non-resident. The main differences of the taxation of tax residents and non-residents in the Russian Federation are the following ones:the object of taxation for tax residents of the Russian Federation is income received from sources in the Russian Federation and (or from sources outside the Russian Federation; for non-residents it is the income they received only from sources in the Russian Federation;the tax rate for tax residents of the Russian Federation is 13 percent; the tax rate for nonresidents is 30 percent.When determining the tax base, all incomes of the taxpayer, received by him in cash or in kind, or the right to dispose of which he has arisen, as well as income in the form of

  12. Orofacial features of subjects aged 18-30 years in the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorder (TMD is a universal term referred to herein to collectively denote a series of functional disorders of orofacial structures, the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and the masticatory muscles in particular. Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija, as well as the frequency of signs and symptoms of this type of disorder. Methods: The study involved a sample of 300 subjects, aged 18-30 years. The sample comprised the target student population attending the University of Pristina, Kosovska Mitrovica. A random sample, intended for sampling without replacement, was drawn from the target population. All subjects underwent the Helkimo clinical dysfunction index analysis. Results of the analysis were quantified and expressed numerically, based on severity, as the Helkimo anamnestic dysfunction index (Ai and the clinical dysfunction index (Di with specific values assigned thereto accordingly. Results: The prevalence of temporomandibular disorders within the observed sample population totaled 50.7% (Di> 0. In the majority of patients a mild form of TMP (67% was reported. Temporomandibular disorders were more common in women than in men, who appear to be three times as likely to develop the respective condition, demonstrating the ratio of 3:1. The most common TMD signs and symptoms implied mandibular kinetics disturbances (46% and TMJ sounds (45%. The prevalence of pain during mandibular movements amounted to 9%, the palpable TMJ sensitivity to 20% and the palpable sensitivity of masticatory muscles 18%. Headache and otalgia were represented with 13%, that is, 3% in the observed sample. Conclusion: Temporomandibular disorder analysis demonstrates high incidence in the population of the northern part of Kosovo and Metohija. These findings indicate the need for an extensive prevention

  13. Expression profile and specific network features of the apoptotic machinery explain relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy

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    Di Pietro Cinzia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background According to the different sensitivity of their bone marrow CD34+ cells to in vitro treatment with Etoposide or Mafosfamide, Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML patients in apparent complete remission (CR after chemotherapy induction may be classified into three groups: (i normally responsive; (ii chemoresistant; (iii highly chemosensitive. This inversely correlates with in vivo CD34+ mobilization and, interestingly, also with the prognosis of the disease: patients showing a good mobilizing activity are resistant to chemotherapy and subject to significantly higher rates of Minimal Residual Disease (MRD and relapse than the others. Based on its known role in patients' response to chemotherapy, we hypothesized an involvement of the Apoptotic Machinery (AM in these phenotypic features. Methods To investigate the molecular bases of the differential chemosensitivity of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSC in CR AML patients, and the relationship between chemosensitivity, mobilizing activity and relapse rates, we analyzed their AM expression profile by performing Real Time RT-PCR of 84 AM genes in CD34+ pools from the two extreme classes of patients (i.e., chemoresistant and highly chemosensitive, and compared them with normal controls. Results The AM expression profiles of patients highlighted features that could satisfactorily explain their in vitro chemoresponsive phenotype: specifically, in chemoresistant patients we detected up regulation of antiapoptotic BIRC genes and down regulation of proapoptotic APAF1, FAS, FASL, TNFRSF25. Interestingly, our analysis of the AM network showed that the dysregulated genes in these patients are characterized by high network centrality (i.e., high values of betweenness, closeness, radiality, stress and high involvement in drug response. Conclusions AM genes represent critical nodes for the proper execution of cell death following pharmacological induction in patients. We propose that their

  14. Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Damage Alters how Specific Attributes are Weighed in Subjective Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Sefranek, Marcus; Fellows, Lesley K

    2017-10-23

    The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments. We asked how distinct attributes of visual artworks influenced the subjective value ratings of subjects with VMF damage, compared to healthy participants and a frontal lobe damaged control group. Subjects with VMF damage were less influenced by the energy (emotion, complexity) and color radiance (warmth, saturation) of the artwork, while they were similar to control groups in considering saliency, balance and concreteness. These dissociations argue that VMF is critical for allowing certain affective content to influence subjective value, while sparing the influence of perceptual or representational information. These distinctions are important for better defining the often-underspecified concept of subjective value and developing more detailed models of the brain mechanisms underlying decision behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY (SSP IPA TERPADU UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Yuliawati

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background of this research is the analysis of the results of interviews some junior secondary schools in Yogyakarta and the conclusion that teachers do not use an integrated science teaching and teachers still find difficulties in the application of learning science in an integrated manner. It can be influenced by several factors, such as the lack of reference used by teachers in presenting the material Integrated Science relevantly, most of science teachers are from educational background of chemistry, physics, and biology instead of science education, so that teachers find difficulties to create an integrated learning of science. In addition, teachers feel difficulty in determining the depth of the material, limits of integration in integrated science teaching, and did not know the concept of integrated science teaching. This research is a development research. Learning tools developed included : student books, lesson plans, student activity sheets and evaluation tools. The development of the learning which is done in this study use the models of 4D development which includes the step of Define (definition which at this stage conducted a needs analysis. Design : it is the stage of Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP software design. Development, it is the stage of development after the draft was made followed by a learning device validation by experts. This stage is also conducted to seek input from all the responses, reactions and comments from teachers, students, and observers so that it can be used for further improvement of science teaching later. The Disseminate, it is the stage of field tests are widely but not done. Data collection instruments used in this study include : test items and questionnaire. The conclusion of this development research are as follows : the results of the validation SSP integrated science by learning tools expert, material experts and media experts indicate the category of Very Good (SB so that SSP integrated

  16. Validation of subject-specific automated p-FE analysis of the proximal femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Nir; Yosibash, Zohar; Milgrom, Charles

    2009-02-09

    The use of subject-specific finite element (FE) models in clinical practice requires a high level of automation and validation. In Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699] a novel method for generating high-order finite element (p-FE) models from CT scans was presented and validated by experimental observations on two fresh frozen femurs (harvested from a 30 year old male and 21 year old female). Herein, we substantiate the validation process by enlarging the experimental database (54 year old female femur), improving the method and examine its robustness under different CT scan conditions. A fresh frozen femur of a 54 year old female was scanned under two different environments: in air and immersed in water (dry and wet CT). Thereafter, the proximal femur was quasi-statically loaded in vitro by a 1000N load. The two QCT scans were manipulated to generate p-FE models that mimic the experimental conditions. We compared p-FE displacements and strains of the wet CT model to the dry CT model and to the experimental results. In addition, the material assignment strategy was reinvestigated. The inhomogeneous Young's modulus was represented in the FE model using two different methods, directly extracted from the CT data and using continuous spatial functions as in Yosibash et al. [2007a. Reliable simulations of the human proximal femur by high-order finite element analysis validated by experimental observations. J. Biomechanics 40, 3688-3699]. Excellent agreement between dry and wet FE models was found for both displacements and strains, i.e. the method is insensitive to CT conditions and may be used in vivo. Good agreement was also found between FE results and experimental observations. The spatial functions representing Young's modulus are local and do not influence strains and displacements prediction. Finally, the p-FE results of

  17. The specific features of Guillain–Barré syndrome in Russia: Analysis of 186 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Suponeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of 186 patients diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS who had been followed up at the Research Center of Neurology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, in 2000 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Most (65 % of the patients had severe GBS; 19 % of the patients were on mechanical ventilation (MV for an average of 21 (13; 48 days. The forms of GBS, such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP (n = 141; 78 %, and axonal variants, such as acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN, acute sensorimotor axonal neuropathy (AMSAN, i. e. AMAN / AMSAN (n = 39; 22 %, were studied separately. There was a significant difference in the seasonal revalence (p < 0.05. AIDP was encountered evenly throughout the year; AMAN / AMSAN occurred in 46 % of cases in summer. AIDP was followed by acute respiratory viral infection in 35 % of cases; diarrhea wasby the axonal forms in 36 % (p < 0.05. The axonal forms ran a severer course than AIDP: MV was performed twice more frequently (33 and 15 %, respectively; its duration was 6‑fold longer: 90 (46; 102 and 15 (10; 21 days (p < 0.05. AMAN / AMSAN was characterized by a severer neurological status and disability in the acute period, as shown by the NIS, MRCss, INCAT, R-ODS, and Barthel scales; these patients showed a poorer response to pathogenetic therapy (p < 0.05: 59 % with an insufficient effect; 15 % of those with AIDP. After six years, the majority (84 % of the patients with AIDP walked alone and only 16 % were assisted. In the same period, less than half of the patients (40 % with AMAN / AMSAN walked alone and a third (29 % could move with assistance and almost the same percentage (31 % could not walk.Thus, a number of specific features of GBS were found in a Russian population (equal age and sex distribution; a larger percentage of the axonal forms than in European countries and the United States; however, the most characteristics did not differ from the global

  18. Identification of an Immune-specific Class of Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Based on Molecular Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Daniela; Jiao, Yang; Martinez-Quetglas, Iris; Kuchuk, Olga; Villacorta-Martin, Carlos; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Putra, Juan; Camprecios, Genis; Bassaganyas, Laia; Akers, Nicholas; Losic, Bojan; Waxman, Samuel; Thung, Swan N; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Esteller, Manel; Friedman, Scott L; Schwartz, Myron; Villanueva, Augusto; Llovet, Josep M

    2017-09-01

    Agents that induce an immune response against tumors by altering T-cell regulation have increased survival times of patients with advanced-stage tumors, such as melanoma or lung cancer. We aimed to characterize molecular features of immune cells that infiltrate hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) to determine whether these types of agents might be effective against liver tumors. We analyzed HCC samples from 956 patients. We separated gene expression profiles from tumor, stromal, and immune cells using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. We then analyzed the gene expression pattern of inflammatory cells in HCC tumor samples. We correlated expression patterns with the presence of immune cell infiltrates and immune regulatory molecules, determined by pathology and immunohistochemical analyses, in a training set of 228 HCC samples. We validated the correlation in a validation set of 728 tumor samples. Using data from 190 tumors in the Cancer Genome Atlas, we correlated immune cell gene expression profiles with numbers of chromosomal aberrations (based on single-nucleotide polymorphism array) and mutations (exome sequence data). We found approximately 25% of HCCs to have markers of an inflammatory response, with high expression levels of the CD274 molecule (programmed death-ligand 1) and programmed cell death 1, markers of cytolytic activity, and fewer chromosomal aberrations. We called this group of tumors the Immune class. It contained 2 subtypes, characterized by markers of an adaptive T-cell response or exhausted immune response. The exhausted immune response subclass expressed many genes regulated by transforming growth factor beta 1 that mediate immunosuppression. We did not observe any differences in numbers of mutations or expression of tumor antigens between the immune-specific class and other HCCs. In an analysis of HCC samples from 956 patients, we found almost 25% to express markers of an inflammatory response. We identified 2 subclasses

  19. Specific Features of Chip Making and Work-piece Surface Layer Formation in Machining Thermal Coatings

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    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of unique engineering structural and performance properties inherent in metallic composites characterizes wear- and erosion-resistant high-temperature coatings made by thermal spraying methods. This allows their use both in manufacturing processes to enhance the wear strength of products, which have to operate under the cyclic loading, high contact pressures, corrosion and high temperatures and in product renewal.Thermal coatings contribute to the qualitative improvement of the technical level of production and product restoration using the ceramic composite materials. However, the possibility to have a significantly increased product performance, reduce their factory labour hours and materials/output ratio in manufacturing and restoration is largely dependent on the degree of the surface layer quality of products at their finishing stage, which is usually provided by different kinds of machining.When machining the plasma-sprayed thermal coatings, a removing process of the cut-off layer material is determined by its distinctive features such as a layered structure, high internal stresses, low ductility material, high tendency to the surface layer strengthening and rehardening, porosity, high abrasive properties, etc. When coatings are machined these coating properties result in specific characteristics of chip formation and conditions for formation of the billet surface layer.The chip formation of plasma-sprayed coatings was studied at micro-velocities using an experimental tool-setting microscope-based setup, created in BMSTU. The setup allowed simultaneous recording both the individual stages (phases of the chip formation process and the operating force factors.It is found that formation of individual chip elements comes with the multiple micro-cracks that cause chipping-off the small particles of material. The emerging main crack in the cut-off layer of material leads to separation of the largest chip element. Then all the stages

  20. Functional roles of Aves class-specific cis-regulatory elements on macroevolution of bird-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Ryohei; Li, Cai; Fang, Qi; Hayashi, Shinichi; Egawa, Shiro; Hu, Jiang; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Kondo, Mao; Sato, Tomohiko; Matsubara, Haruka; Kamiyama, Namiko; Kitajima, Keiichi; Saito, Daisuke; Liu, Yang; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Xing; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Irie, Naoki; Tamura, Koji; Zhang, Guojie

    2017-02-06

    Unlike microevolutionary processes, little is known about the genetic basis of macroevolutionary processes. One of these magnificent examples is the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to birds that has created numerous evolutionary innovations such as self-powered flight and its associated wings with flight feathers. By analysing 48 bird genomes, we identified millions of avian-specific highly conserved elements (ASHCEs) that predominantly (>99%) reside in non-coding regions. Many ASHCEs show differential histone modifications that may participate in regulation of limb development. Comparative embryonic gene expression analyses across tetrapod species suggest ASHCE-associated genes have unique roles in developing avian limbs. In particular, we demonstrate how the ASHCE driven avian-specific expression of gene Sim1 driven by ASHCE may be associated with the evolution and development of flight feathers. Together, these findings demonstrate regulatory roles of ASHCEs in the creation of avian-specific traits, and further highlight the importance of cis-regulatory rewiring during macroevolutionary changes.

  1. [Specifity of optic disc evaluation in healthy subjects with large optic discs and physiologic cupping using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N; Hirsch, T; Bienert, M; Remky, A

    2014-02-01

    Imaging methods of the optic nerve head appear to have an increasing impact in glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the specifity of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (software version 1.7 and 3.0) in subjects with physiological cupping and large optic discs. 27 eyes of 27 subjects (mean age 41.3 ± 15.8 years) with bilateral physiological cupping and large optic discs (vertical cup-to-disc-ratio > 0.3, optic disc area 2.48 ± 0.45 mm2, max. 3.54 mm2) were included in a clinical study. All subjects had an intraocular pressure cupping by funduscopy and no nerve fibre layer defects (Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope, Rodenstock, Germany). Standard achromatic perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer, Humphrey-Zeiss, 24/2 SITA or full threshold), short-wavelength automated perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer, Humphrey-Zeiss), and frequency doubling technology (FDT, Humphrey-Zeiss) revealed no visual field defects. Optic disc imaging was performed in all subjects using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT). Optic disc images were transferred to the software-update of the HRT 3 (Version 3.0, Heidelberg Engineering). Specifity was calculated using the Moorfields regression analysis (MRA, software version 1.7 and 3.0) and the glaucoma probability score (GPS analysis) using all disc sectors and omitting the nasal and 3 nasal sectors. Specifity of the MRA (software version 1.7) was 66.6 % (most specific criteria), and 22.2 % (least specific criteria). Specifity of the MRA (software version 3.0) was 33.3 % (most specific criteria), and 14.8 % (least specific criteria), whereas specifity of the GPS analysis was 37.0 % (most specific criteria), and 11.1 % (least specific criteria). When the nasal sectors were omitted for analysis, specifity increased for the MRA analysis, but not for the GPS analysis. Specifity of the MRA was unsatisfactory using the software version 1.7 and 3.0 in subjects with large optic discs and physiological cupping

  2. Evaluation of a subject-specific female gymnast model and simulation of an uneven parallel bar swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Hubbard, Mont

    2008-11-14

    A gymnast model and forward dynamics simulation of a dismount preparation swing on the uneven parallel bars were evaluated by comparing experimental and predicted joint positions throughout the maneuver. The bar model was a linearly elastic spring with a frictional bar/hand interface, and the gymnast model consisted of torso/head, arm and two leg segments. The hips were frictionless balls and sockets, and shoulder movement was planar with passive compliant structures approximated by a parallel spring and damper. Subject-specific body segment moments of inertia, and shoulder compliance were estimated. Muscles crossing the shoulder and hip were represented as torque generators, and experiments quantified maximum instantaneous torques as functions of joint angle and angular velocity. Maximum torques were scaled by joint torque activations as functions of time to produce realistic motions. The downhill simplex method optimized activations and simulation initial conditions to minimize the difference between experimental and predicted bar-center, shoulder, hip, and ankle positions. Comparing experimental and simulated performances allowed evaluation of bar, shoulder compliance, joint torque, and gymnast models. Errors in all except the gymnast model are random, zero mean, and uncorrelated, verifying that all essential system features are represented. Although the swing simulation using the gymnast model matched experimental joint positions with a 2.15cm root-mean-squared error, errors are correlated. Correlated errors indicate that the gymnast model is not complex enough to exactly reproduce the experimental motion. Possible model improvements including a nonlinear shoulder model with active translational control and a two-segment torso would not have been identified if the objective function did not evaluate the entire system configuration throughout the motion. The model and parameters presented in this study can be effectively used to understand and improve an uneven

  3. Quantitative evaluation of a subject-specific essay-writing intervention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to an attitude survey conducted at the conclusion of the intervention students were generally positive about the effect of the intervention on their academic writing abilities. They showed appreciation for all the 'signature' features of a genre-focused approach, and their responses seem to refute the criticism that ...

  4. Experimental Investigation of Subject-Specific On-Body Radio Propagation Channels for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Monirujjaman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, subject-specific narrowband (2.45 GHz and ultra-wideband (3–10.6 GHz on-body radio propagation studies in wireless body area networks (WBANs were performed by characterizing the path loss for eight different human subjects of different shapes and sizes. The body shapes and sizes of the test subjects used in this study are characterised as thin, medium build, fatty, shorter, average height and taller. Experimental investigation was made in an indoor environment using a pair of printed monopoles (for the narrowband case and a pair of tapered slot antennas (for the ultra-wideband (UWB case. Results demonstrated that, due to the different sizes, heights and shapes of the test subjects, the path loss exponent value varies up to maximum of 0.85 for the narrowband on-body case, whereas a maximum variation of the path loss exponent value of 1.15 is noticed for the UWB case. In addition, the subject-specific behaviour of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between narrowband and UWB systems, and it was deduced that the on-body radio channels are subject-specific for both narrowband and UWB system cases, when the same antennas (same characteristics are used. The effect of the human body shape and size variations on the eight different on-body radio channels is also studied for both the narrowband and UWB cases.

  5. Evaluating The State Of Financial Globalization:Ukraine’s Specific Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stukalo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a system for evaluating the state of financial globalization in a given country. It identifies the contemporary distinctive features of globalization in the area of finance. It also systematizes available globalization indicators at all levels of the financial system. It collects and analyzes statistical data with regard to key financial globalization indicators for Ukraine and Russia as countries that will soon become members of the World Trade Organization. Based on this analysis, the article provides an overview of the contemporary distinctive features of the financial sector in these counties in the context of globalization.

  6. Subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition in Hill-type model predicts higher muscle forces in dynamic tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Gerus

    Full Text Available Neuromusculoskeletal models are a common method to estimate muscle forces. Developing accurate neuromusculoskeletal models is a challenging task due to the complexity of the system and large inter-subject variability. The estimation of muscles force is based on the mechanical properties of tendon-aponeurosis complex. Most neuromusculoskeletal models use a generic definition of the tendon-aponeurosis complex based on in vitro test, perhaps limiting their validity. Ultrasonography allows subject-specific estimates of the tendon-aponeurosis complex's mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subject-specific mechanical properties of the tendon-aponeurosis complex on a neuromusculoskeletal model of the ankle joint. Seven subjects performed isometric contractions from which the tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was estimated. Hopping and running tasks were performed and muscle forces were estimated using subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis and generic tendon properties. Two ultrasound probes positioned over the muscle-tendon junction and the mid-belly were combined with motion capture to estimate the in vivo tendon and aponeurosis strain of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle. The tendon-aponeurosis force-strain relationship was scaled for the other ankle muscles based on tendon and aponeurosis length of each muscle measured by ultrasonography. The EMG-driven model was calibrated twice - using the generic tendon definition and a subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis force-strain definition. The use of subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a higher muscle force estimate for the soleus muscle and the plantar-flexor group, and to a better model prediction of the ankle joint moment compared to the model estimate which used a generic definition. Furthermore, the subject-specific tendon-aponeurosis definition leads to a decoupling behaviour between the muscle fibre and muscle-tendon unit

  7. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Lavender

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment.

  8. Downstream Antisense Transcription Predicts Genomic Features That Define the Specific Chromatin Environment at Mammalian Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Christopher A; Cannady, Kimberly R; Hoffman, Jackson A; Trotter, Kevin W; Gilchrist, Daniel A; Bennett, Brian D; Burkholder, Adam B; Burd, Craig J; Fargo, David C; Archer, Trevor K

    2016-08-01

    Antisense transcription is a prevalent feature at mammalian promoters. Previous studies have primarily focused on antisense transcription initiating upstream of genes. Here, we characterize promoter-proximal antisense transcription downstream of gene transcription starts sites in human breast cancer cells, investigating the genomic context of downstream antisense transcription. We find extensive correlations between antisense transcription and features associated with the chromatin environment at gene promoters. Antisense transcription downstream of promoters is widespread, with antisense transcription initiation observed within 2 kb of 28% of gene transcription start sites. Antisense transcription initiates between nucleosomes regularly positioned downstream of these promoters. The nucleosomes between gene and downstream antisense transcription start sites carry histone modifications associated with active promoters, such as H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. This region is bound by chromatin remodeling and histone modifying complexes including SWI/SNF subunits and HDACs, suggesting that antisense transcription or resulting RNA transcripts contribute to the creation and maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment. Downstream antisense transcription overlays additional regulatory features, such as transcription factor binding, DNA accessibility, and the downstream edge of promoter-associated CpG islands. These features suggest an important role for antisense transcription in the regulation of gene expression and the maintenance of a promoter-associated chromatin environment.

  9. Handwriting in Children and Adults with Down Syndrome: Developmental Delay or Specific Features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Raphaele

    2017-01-01

    While there is a long history and tradition of behavioral research on basic motor skills in Down syndrome (DS), there has been only limited research on handwriting ability. We analyzed the spatiotemporal features of handwriting produced by children and adults with DS (n = 24), and compared their productions with those of comparison groups matched…

  10. Organizing English Learner Instruction in New Immigrant Destinations: District Infrastructure and Subject-Specific School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Megan; Lowenhaupt, Rebecca; Sweet, Tracy M.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of shifting demographics and standards-based reform, school districts in new immigrant destinations are charged with designing infrastructures that support teaching and learning for English learners (ELs) in core academic subjects. This article uses qualitative data and social network analysis to examine how one district in the…

  11. The effect of specific compression settings on phoneme identification in hearing-impaired subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreschler, W. A.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, some aspects of single-channel compression have been investigated in 15 hearing-impaired subjects and 4 normal-hearing listeners. Phoneme perception as a function of the compression-threshold level was measured for two hearing aids with input-dependent compression, differing in

  12. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    P Haritha; Shanthi, C; Madhavi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects wit...

  13. Category-specific features and valence in action-effect prediction: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Romain; Hsu, Yi-Fang; Waszak, Florian

    2017-02-01

    Despite extensive research on action-effect anticipation, little attention has been paid to the anticipation of different attributes of an event. An action-effect is not only a sensory event; it is often also an event of emotional value which can be pleasant or aversive. This latter attribute of action-effect prediction is similar to anticipation of reward versus punishment. To date the neural systems controlling sensory and reward anticipation have not been systematically compared. To this end, we designed an experiment to manipulate the sensory content and the emotional valence of the stimuli in an orthogonal fashion. We recorded and compared event-related potentials (ERPs) to the presentation of stimuli instantiating expected or unexpected features. Our results suggest (1) that both features are processed altogether and (2) that the prediction error resulting from the manipulation is reflected in an enhanced N400 component. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina; Margarita Sandler

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous...

  15. Machine Learning classification of MRI features of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment subjects to reduce the sample size in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Javier; Zajicek, John P; Ifeachor, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for objective tools to help clinicians to diagnose Alzheimer's Disease (AD) early and accurately and to conduct Clinical Trials (CTs) with fewer patients. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a promising AD biomarker but no single MRI feature is optimal for all disease stages. Machine Learning classification can address these challenges. In this study, we have investigated the classification of MRI features from AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and control subjects from ADNI with four techniques. The highest accuracy rates for the classification of controls against ADs and MCIs were 89.2% and 72.7%, respectively. Moreover, we used the classifiers to select AD and MCI subjects who are most likely to decline for inclusion in hypothetical CTs. Using the hippocampal volume as an outcome measure, we found that the required group sizes for the CTs were reduced from 197 to 117 AD patients and from 366 to 215 MCI subjects.

  16. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  17. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, Vincenzo; van der Krogt, Marjolein; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle–tendon (MT) model parameters for each of

  18. Sensitivity of subject-specific models to Hill muscle-tendon model parameters in simulations of gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbone, V.; Krogt, M.M. van der; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Subject-specific musculoskeletal (MS) models of the lower extremity are essential for applications such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery. We performed an extensive sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of potential errors in Hill muscle-tendon (MT) model parameters for each of

  19. ERPs Reveal Atypical Processing of Subject versus Object "Wh"-Questions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Baila; Hestvik, Arild; Shafer, Valerie L.; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular difficulty comprehending and producing object ("Who did the bear follow?") relative to subject ("Who followed the tiger?") "wh"-questions. Aims: To determine if school-age children with SLI, relative to children with typical development (TD),…

  20. Indirect detection of an epitope-specific response to HIV-1 gp120 immunization in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Shmelkov

    Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.

  1. Subject-Specific Carpal Ligament Elongation in Extreme Positions, Grip, and the Dart Thrower's Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, Michael J.; Kamal, Robin N.; Moore, Douglas C.; Akelman, Edward; Wolfe, Scott W.; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether the radiocarpal and dorsal capsular ligaments limit end-range wrist motion or remain strained during midrange wrist motion. Fibers of these ligaments were modeled in the wrists of 12 subjects over multiple wrist positions that reflect high demand tasks and the dart thrower's motion. We found that many of the volar and dorsal ligaments were within 5% of their maximum length throughout the range of wrist motion. Our finding of wrist ligament recruitment during midrange and end-range wrist motion helps to explain the complex but remarkably similar intersubject patterns of carpal motion. PMID:26367853

  2. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestri, Francesco; Rotondo, Rossella; Moschini, Roberta; Pellegrino, Mario; Cappiello, Mario; Barracco, Vito; Misuri, Livia; Sorce, Carlo; Andreucci, Andrea; Del-Corso, Antonella; Mura, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans) in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase) was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s) present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses. PMID:27415159

  3. Zolfino landrace (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Pratomagno: general and specific features of a functional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Balestri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses. Objectives: A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent. Design: The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR and sorbitol dehydrogenase was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion. Results: Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface–volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s present in the coat of the bean. Conclusions: The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses.

  4. [Specific features of mammographic visualization of "small" breast tumors developing on the background of fibrocystic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, D G; Velichko, S A; Slonimskaia, E M; Frolova, I G; Luneva, S V; Garbukov, E Iu; Doroshenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    All complications diagnosed at early stages of breast cancer were associated with small tumors, especially with those arising in the aftermath of fibrocystic disease. Hence, our task was to study the XR-semiotics of lesions of less than 15 mm in diameter and of the same origin. 100 mammograms of breast cancer patients with benign disease of the breast were studied. The presence of moderate-to-severe fibrocystic disease significantly affected the visualization of lesions of less than 10 mm in diameter. Since the XR-semiotics of small tumors failed to reveal malignancy features, all lesions visualized by mammography required additional diagnostic procedures using ultrasound and invasive radiology.

  5. The Holistic Impact of Classroom Spaces on Learning in Specific Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Peter; Davies, Fay; Zhang, Yufan; Barrett, Lucinda

    2017-05-01

    The Holistic Evidence and Design (HEAD) study of U.K. primary schools sought to isolate the impact of the physical design of classrooms on the learning progress of pupils aged from 5 to 11 years (U.S. kindergarten to fifth grade). One hundred fifty-three classrooms were assessed and links made to the learning of the 3,766 pupils in them. Through multilevel modeling, the role of physical design was isolated from the influences of the pupils' characteristics. This article presents analyses for the three main subjects assessed, namely, reading, writing, and math. Variations in the importance of the physical design parameters are revealed for the learning of each subject. In addition to some common factors, such as lighting, a heavy salience for Individualization in relation to math becomes apparent and the importance emerges of Connection for reading and of Links to Nature for writing. Possible explanations are suggested. These results provide a stimulus for additional finesse in practice and for further investigation by researchers.

  6. Stream specificity and asymmetries in feature binding and content-addressable access in visual encoding and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Duong L; Tripathy, Srimant P; Bedell, Harold E; Ögmen, Haluk

    2015-01-01

    Human memory is content addressable-i.e., contents of the memory can be accessed using partial information about the bound features of a stored item. In this study, we used a cross-feature cuing technique to examine how the human visual system encodes, binds, and retains information about multiple stimulus features within a set of moving objects. We sought to characterize the roles of three different features (position, color, and direction of motion, the latter two of which are processed preferentially within the ventral and dorsal visual streams, respectively) in the construction and maintenance of object representations. We investigated the extent to which these features are bound together across the following processing stages: during stimulus encoding, sensory (iconic) memory, and visual short-term memory. Whereas all features examined here can serve as cues for addressing content, their effectiveness shows asymmetries and varies according to cue-report pairings and the stage of information processing and storage. Position-based indexing theories predict that position should be more effective as a cue compared to other features. While we found a privileged role for position as a cue at the stimulus-encoding stage, position was not the privileged cue at the sensory and visual short-term memory stages. Instead, the pattern that emerged from our findings is one that mirrors the parallel processing streams in the visual system. This stream-specific binding and cuing effectiveness manifests itself in all three stages of information processing examined here. Finally, we find that the Leaky Flask model proposed in our previous study is applicable to all three features.

  7. Content Specificity in Imaginal Exposure: Evaluation of Subjective and Physiological Responding in Patients with Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-18

    Diastolic Blood Pressure. Diagnostic Status Predicting Mean Arterial Pressure. Specific Focus Correlations. VI INTRODUCfION Ahhougb Freud described panic...Psychiatric illnesses in the mothers of school-phobic adolescents . British Journal of Psychiatry, 125,466-467. Bond, AJ., James, c., & Lader, M.H

  8. Common and Specific Features of Migration Flows In Russia, CIS and Far Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vladimirovna Kuprina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of migration flows in Russia, CIS and abroad in terms of transnationality and translocality. Special attention is paid to migration flows from Asia, depending on the gender perception. During the analysis, the preferences of migrants of different age groups are determined. It shows their desire for a more independent financial and professional life, relationship with family responsibilities, plans for the future. The data obtained by the method of continuous selection have led to the following conclusions: migration is a multidimensional phenomenon that requires multidisciplinary research; the heterogeneity of migration flows to the socio-cultural and gender features must be taken into account; the problem of illegal migration requires special solutions; in connection with the emigration of highly skilled professionals and immigration of low-skilled personnel, a professional important indicator of migratory replacement and attracting compatriots from abroad are important. The data obtained can be used for ethnic and cultural planning in order to improve production activities that affect the quality of solving of production tasks and programming adaptation of migrants as the significant impact of intangible factors on the development of society has been noted by economists for a long time. Thus, the economic sustainability requires new thinking based on socio-cultural sustainability determined by such global phenomena as international migration flows.

  9. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  10. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  11. Cultural Specific Effects on the Recognition of Basic Emotions: A Study on Italian Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Anna; Riviello, Maria Teresa; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    The present work reports the results of perceptual experiments aimed to investigate if some of the basic emotions are perceptually privileged and if the cultural environment and the perceptual mode play a role in this preference. To this aim, Italian subjects were requested to assess emotional stimuli extracted from Italian and American English movies in the single (either video or audio alone) and the combined audio/video mode. Results showed that anger, fear, and sadness are better perceived than surprise, happiness in both the cultural environments (irony instead strongly depend on the language), that emotional information is affected by the communication mode and that language plays a role in assessing emotional information. Implications for the implementation of emotionally colored interactive systems are discussed.

  12. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

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    P.Haritha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  13. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Peter C

    2011-08-12

    Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs) displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination). We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag) which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i) their size and (ii) which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 seeds was

  14. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

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    Wennblom Trevor J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination. We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i their size and (ii which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1

  15. Two strains of Crocosphaera watsonii with highly conserved genomes are distinguished by strain-specific features

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    Shellie Roxanne Bench

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are important components of marine phytoplankton. Although non-nitrogen-fixing marine phytoplankton generally exhibit high gene sequence and genomic diversity, gene sequences of natural populations and isolated strains of Crocosphaera watsonii, one of two most abundant open ocean unicellular cyanobacteria groups, have been shown to be 98-100% identical.. The low sequence diversity in Crocosphaera is a dramatic contrast to sympatric species of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, and raises the question of how genome differences can explain observed phenotypic diversity among Crocosphaera strains. Here we show, through whole genome comparisons of two phenotypically different strains, that there are strain-specific sequences in each genome, and numerous genome rearrangements, despite exceptionally low sequence diversity in shared genomic regions. Some of the strain-specific sequences encode functions that explain observed phenotypic differences, such as exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The pattern of strain-specific sequences distributed throughout the genomes, along with rearrangements in shared sequences is evidence of significant genetic mobility that may be attributed to the hundreds of transposase genes found in both strains. Furthermore, such genetic mobility appears to be the main mechanism of strain divergence in Crocosphaera which do not accumulate DNA microheterogeneity over the vast majority of their genomes. The strain-specific sequences found in this study provide tools for future physiological studies, as well as genetic markers to help determine the relative abundance of phenotypes in natural populations.

  16. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  17. Specific cutaneous histologic and immunologic features in a case of early lupus erythematosus scarring alopecia

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    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Immunoreactants detected by direct immunofluorescence (DIF in the skin of patients with lupus erythematosus represent an important tool in the diagnosis of this disorder. Case report: A 46 year old African American female presented complaining of hair loss and scarring in her scalp.Methods: Biopsies for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E examination, as well as for direct immunofluorescence (DIF were performed.Results: The histologic features were representative of early lupus erythematosus. DIF demonstrated immune deposits of several immunoglobulins and complement, primarily around skin appendageal structures(hair follicles and sweat glands. Deposits of immunoglobulin D were seen in several areas of the epidermis.Conclusion: In lupus erythematosus, evaluation of immune reactions against cutaneous appendageal structures may be crucial in differentiating this disorder from other autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases.

  18. Feature-specific attention allocation overrules the orienting response to emotional stimuli.

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    Everaert, Tom; Spruyt, Adriaan; Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles; De Houwer, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Emotional stimuli are generally thought to be processed in an unconditional fashion. Recent behavioral studies suggest, however, that emotional stimulus processing is critically dependent on attention toward emotional stimulus features. We set out to test this hypothesis using EEG measurements and a modified oddball paradigm. Unexpected emotional stimuli evoked amplitude variations of the P3a (an ERP marker of attention orienting) when attention was directed to emotional stimulus properties but not when non-emotional stimulus properties were attended to. We conclude that emotional stimulus processing is not unconditional, but dependent on top-down attentional control. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sex-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Feng; Yin, Rui-Xing; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Li, Qing; Yan, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Huang, Ke-Ke; Huang, Ping; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-13

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and in atherosclerosis. The cellular cholesterol efflux correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations has shown to be impaired in hyperlipidemic mice. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels in the hyperlipidemic subjects. A total of 821 unrelated subjects (hyperlipidemia, 476; normolipidemia, 345) aged 15-80 were included in the study. Genotyping of the ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo) AI in hyperlipidemic subjects were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in male but not in female (P ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP in male hyperlipidemic subjects had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. There is a sex (male)-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  20. Sex-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum lipid levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Dong-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT is a key enzyme in cellular cholesterol homeostasis and in atherosclerosis. The cellular cholesterol efflux correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations has shown to be impaired in hyperlipidemic mice. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and serum lipid levels in the hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods A total of 821 unrelated subjects (hyperlipidemia, 476; normolipidemia, 345 aged 15-80 were included in the study. Genotyping of the ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results There was no significant difference in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP between the normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic subjects. The levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL-C and apolipoprotein (Apo AI in hyperlipidemic subjects were different between the AA and AC/CC genotypes in male but not in female (P Conclusions The present study shows that the C allele carriers of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP in male hyperlipidemic subjects had higher serum TC, HDL-C and ApoAI levels than the C allele noncarriers. There is a sex (male-specific association of ACAT-1 rs1044925 SNP and serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels in the hypercholesterolemic subjects.

  1. The interaction of subjective experience and attitudes towards specific antipsychotic-related adverse effects in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, T; Krivoy, A; Kotlarov, M; Zemishlany, Z; Loebstein, O; Jacoby, H; Weizman, A

    2013-08-01

    Discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia patients is a major concern, since it results in relapse and re-hospitalizations. Non-adherence is strongly associated with negative-subjective response to antipsychotics, which is composed of the subjective experience of negative drug effects and attitude towards the treatment. To investigate the elements of subjective experience and subjective attitude towards specific drug-related adverse effects, leading to a generally negative-subjective attitude towards antipsychotics. Schizophrenia inpatients (n=84) were administered a questionnaire measuring attitude and experience on eight subscales: weight gain, sedation, sexual anhedonia, extra-pyramidal syndrome, affective flattening, excessive sleep, diminished sociability and metabolic syndrome. DAI-30 was used to measure attitude towards drugs, and PANSS to assess psychopathology. Weak correlation was found between subjective experience and attitude on most of the subscales. The only strong, albeit inverse, correlation between experience and attitude that was found was with regard to affective flattening, experienced by 37% of the sample, and it also predicted negative drug attitude as measured by the DAI-30, RR: 1.87 (95% CI: 1.06-3.3, df=1, χ(2)=4.525, Pattitude towards most adverse drug effects did not correlate with personal experience. Drug-related affective flattening should be evaluated routinely, since experiencing it may predict negative attitude towards drugs, potentially leading to poor compliance and relapse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Feature-Specific Organization of Feedback Pathways in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Carey Y L; Peach, John P; Bennett, Corbett; Vega, Roxana M; Hestrin, Shaul

    2018-01-08

    Higher and lower cortical areas in the visual hierarchy are reciprocally connected [1]. Although much is known about how feedforward pathways shape receptive field properties of visual neurons, relatively little is known about the role of feedback pathways in visual processing. Feedback pathways are thought to carry top-down signals, including information about context (e.g., figure-ground segmentation and surround suppression) [2-5], and feedback has been demonstrated to sharpen orientation tuning of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) [6, 7]. However, the response characteristics of feedback neurons themselves and how feedback shapes V1 neurons' tuning for other features, such as spatial frequency (SF), remain largely unknown. Here, using a retrograde virus, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and optogenetic manipulations, we show that putatively feedback neurons in layer 5 (hereafter "L5 feedback") in higher visual areas, AL (anterolateral area) and PM (posteromedial area), display distinct visual properties in awake head-fixed mice. AL L5 feedback neurons prefer significantly lower SF (mean: 0.04 cycles per degree [cpd]) compared to PM L5 feedback neurons (0.15 cpd). Importantly, silencing AL L5 feedback reduced visual responses of V1 neurons preferring low SF (mean change in firing rate: -8.0%), whereas silencing PM L5 feedback suppressed responses of high-SF-preferring V1 neurons (-20.4%). These findings suggest that feedback connections from higher visual areas convey distinctly tuned visual inputs to V1 that serve to boost V1 neurons' responses to SF. Such like-to-like functional organization may represent an important feature of feedback pathways in sensory systems and in the nervous system in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Feature-specific terrain park-injury rates and risk factors in snowboarders: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Kelly; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A; Wishart, Jillian; Romanow, Nicole T R; Rowe, Brian H; Goulet, Claude; Hagel, Brent E

    2014-01-01

    Background Snowboarding is a popular albeit risky sport and terrain park (TP) injuries are more severe than regular slope injuries. TPs contain man-made features that facilitate aerial manoeuvres. The objectives of this study were to determine overall and feature-specific injury rates and the potential risk factors for TP injuries. Methods Case–control study with exposure estimation, conducted in an Alberta TP during two ski seasons. Cases were snowboarders injured in the TP who presented to ski patrol and/or local emergency departments. Controls were uninjured snowboarders in the same TP. κ Statistics were used to measure the reliability of reported risk factor information. Injury rates were calculated and adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the feature-specific odds of injury. Results Overall, 333 cases and 1261 controls were enrolled. Reliability of risk factor information was κ>0.60 for 21/24 variables. The overall injury rate was 0.75/1000 runs. Rates were highest for jumps and half-pipe (both 2.56/1000 runs) and lowest for rails (0.43/1000 runs) and quarter-pipes (0.24/1000 runs). Compared with rails, there were increased odds of injury for half-pipe (OR 9.63; 95% CI 4.80 to 19.32), jumps (OR 4.29; 95% CI 2.72 to 6.76), mushroom (OR 2.30; 95% CI 1.20 to 4.41) and kickers (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.27 to 3.12). Conclusions Higher feature-specific injury rates and increased odds of injury were associated with features that promote aerial manoeuvres or a large drop to the ground. Further research is required to determine ways to increase snowboarder safety in the TP. PMID:24184587

  4. Features of stimulus-specific seizures in dogs with reflex epilepsy: 43 cases (2000-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Linda; Scariano, Rachel; Rishniw, Mark

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the occurrence and management of reflex epilepsy (ie, seizure activity triggered by exposure to specific locations or situations) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 43 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Discussions by veterinarians participating in the Veterinary Information Network online community for the years 2000 through 2014 were reviewed to identify dogs with a diagnosis of reflex epilepsy and seizure activity in response to stimuli. History, signalment (including age at onset), the specific stimulus or stimuli that provoked seizures, treatments, and any concurrent neurologic diagnoses were recorded. RESULTS A variety of breeds were affected. Median age at onset was 5 years (range, 3 months to 11 years). Reflex seizures were reported as being repeatedly triggered by visits to a veterinary clinic (35/43 dogs), grooming facility (24/43 dogs), or boarding facility (13/43 dogs) and, less commonly, by other situations (eg, pet store or car ride). Over half of the dogs (24/43) had multiple triggers. Eight (19%) dogs had seizures at other times that were not induced by location or a specific situation. A variety of sedatives and maintenance antiepileptic drugs administered to affected dogs failed to prevent the stimulus-specific seizure activity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study suggested that seizures provoked by specific situations or locations occur in dogs with reflex epilepsy and that common triggers were visits to veterinary and grooming facilities. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the characteristics of reflex epilepsy in dogs and to determine the most effective means to manage these patients.

  5. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  7. Sex-specific effects of subjective memory complaints with respect to cognitive impairment or depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Tetsu; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneda, Ayako; Okubo, Noriyuki; Iwane, Kaori; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints (SMC) and sex. We researched the prevalence of SMC in a sample of 394 participants who were at least 60 years of age (138 male and 256 female). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale. A multiple logistic regression analysis, which included SMC in association with the MMSE or CES-D scores and other confounding factors, was performed to determine the influence of sex on SMC. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The durations of education of male participants were significantly higher than those of female participants. MMSE scores for female participants were significantly higher than those for male participants. There was no significant difference in CES-D scores between male and female participants. Twenty-four male participants and 72 female participants showed evidence of SMC. The incidence of SMC was more frequent in female participants than in male participants. In all participants, sex difference and CES-D score were significantly associated with SMC. In male participants, MMSE score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. Both in female participants and all participants, CES-D score was independently and significantly associated with SMC. SMC varied by sex and were associated with the degree of cognitive impairment in male participants, while they were associated with depressive symptoms in female participants.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Regularization for Longitudinal Registration to Subject-Specific 3d Template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guizard

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease present subtle anatomical brain changes before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Manual structure segmentation is long and tedious and although automatic methods exist, they are often performed in a cross-sectional manner where each time-point is analyzed independently. With such analysis methods, bias, error and longitudinal noise may be introduced. Noise due to MR scanners and other physiological effects may also introduce variability in the measurement. We propose to use 4D non-linear registration with spatio-temporal regularization to correct for potential longitudinal inconsistencies in the context of structure segmentation. The major contribution of this article is the use of individual template creation with spatio-temporal regularization of the deformation fields for each subject. We validate our method with different sets of real MRI data, compare it to available longitudinal methods such as FreeSurfer, SPM12, QUARC, TBM, and KNBSI, and demonstrate that spatially local temporal regularization yields more consistent rates of change of global structures resulting in better statistical power to detect significant changes over time and between populations.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Regularization for Longitudinal Registration to Subject-Specific 3d Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizard, Nicolas; Fonov, Vladimir S; García-Lorenzo, Daniel; Nakamura, Kunio; Aubert-Broche, Bérengère; Collins, D Louis

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease present subtle anatomical brain changes before the appearance of clinical symptoms. Manual structure segmentation is long and tedious and although automatic methods exist, they are often performed in a cross-sectional manner where each time-point is analyzed independently. With such analysis methods, bias, error and longitudinal noise may be introduced. Noise due to MR scanners and other physiological effects may also introduce variability in the measurement. We propose to use 4D non-linear registration with spatio-temporal regularization to correct for potential longitudinal inconsistencies in the context of structure segmentation. The major contribution of this article is the use of individual template creation with spatio-temporal regularization of the deformation fields for each subject. We validate our method with different sets of real MRI data, compare it to available longitudinal methods such as FreeSurfer, SPM12, QUARC, TBM, and KNBSI, and demonstrate that spatially local temporal regularization yields more consistent rates of change of global structures resulting in better statistical power to detect significant changes over time and between populations.

  10. IMPACT OF THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DISEASE COURSE AND THERAPY ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kuznetsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of specific features of the course of ankylosing spondylitis (AS, sociodemographic factors, and therapy on quality of life (QL in patients with this disease. Subjects and methods. The results of studying QL (with the SF-36 questionnaire in 90 adult patients with AS versus 45 healthy individuals (a control group were presented. Within 6 months before study inclusion, 30 patients with AS received only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 27 – NSAIDs + sulfasalazine (SULF, 15 – NSAIDs + infliximab (INF; 18 (20% patients were not systematically treated and were excluded from the study. A control group comprised 45 apparently healthy volunteers (32 men and 13 women; both groups were matched for gender and age. Results and discussion. The patients with AS were found to have lower physical and psychological QL scores than the controls (p < 0.001. In those with AS, QL worsened as the inflammatory disease activity, functional limitations, articular manifestations and enthesitis increased. Coxitis detected in 76.7% of the patients had a negative effect on rolephysical functioning. The sociodemographic factors were not found to have a statistically significant influence on QL in the patients with AS. The QL scores were higher in the patients taking INF in combination with NSAIDs. Evaluation of the impact of performed drug therapy on QL in the patients receiving SULF versus the controls revealed statistically significant worse scores in all the scales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p < 0.001. In the patients who had NSAIDs only, the QL scores were also worse than those in the control group (p < 0.001. According to the data of the SF-36 questionnaire, a number of QL scores in the patients receiving INF + NSAIDs proved to be similar in the apparently healthy individuals. Thus, the patients with AS have considerably lower physical and psychological QL scores than the healthy people. QL worsens as the inflammatory

  11. Individually specific call feature is not used to neighbour-stranger discrimination: the corncrake case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Budka

    Full Text Available In various contexts, animals rely on acoustic signals to differentiate between conspecifics. Currently, studies examining vocal signatures use two main approaches. In the first approach, researchers search for acoustic characteristics that have the potential to be individual specific. This approach yields information on variation in signal parameters both within and between individuals and generates practical tools that can be used in population monitoring. In the second approach, playback experiments with natural calls are conducted to discern whether animals are capable of discriminating among the vocal signatures of different individuals. However, both approaches do not reveal the exact signal characteristics that are being used in the discrimination process. In this study, we tested whether an individual-specific call characteristic--namely the length of the intervals between successive maximal amplitude peaks within syllables (PPD--is crucial in neighbour-stranger discrimination by males of the nocturnal and highly secretive bird species, the corncrake (Crex crex. We conducted paired playback experiments in which corncrakes (n = 47 were exposed to artificial calls with PPD characteristics of neighbour and stranger birds. These artificial calls differed only in PPD structure. The calls were broadcast from a speaker, and we recorded the birds' behavioural responses. Although corncrakes have previously been experimentally shown to discriminate between neighbours and strangers, we found no difference in the responses to the artificial calls representing neighbours versus strangers. This finding demonstrates that even if vocal signatures are individual specific within a species, it does not automatically mean that said signatures are being crucial in discrimination among individuals. At the same time, the birds' aggressive responses to the artificial calls indicated that the information transmitted by PPDs is important in species-specific

  12. Individually specific call feature is not used to neighbour-stranger discrimination: the corncrake case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budka, Michał; Osiejuk, Tomasz S

    2014-01-01

    In various contexts, animals rely on acoustic signals to differentiate between conspecifics. Currently, studies examining vocal signatures use two main approaches. In the first approach, researchers search for acoustic characteristics that have the potential to be individual specific. This approach yields information on variation in signal parameters both within and between individuals and generates practical tools that can be used in population monitoring. In the second approach, playback experiments with natural calls are conducted to discern whether animals are capable of discriminating among the vocal signatures of different individuals. However, both approaches do not reveal the exact signal characteristics that are being used in the discrimination process. In this study, we tested whether an individual-specific call characteristic--namely the length of the intervals between successive maximal amplitude peaks within syllables (PPD)--is crucial in neighbour-stranger discrimination by males of the nocturnal and highly secretive bird species, the corncrake (Crex crex). We conducted paired playback experiments in which corncrakes (n = 47) were exposed to artificial calls with PPD characteristics of neighbour and stranger birds. These artificial calls differed only in PPD structure. The calls were broadcast from a speaker, and we recorded the birds' behavioural responses. Although corncrakes have previously been experimentally shown to discriminate between neighbours and strangers, we found no difference in the responses to the artificial calls representing neighbours versus strangers. This finding demonstrates that even if vocal signatures are individual specific within a species, it does not automatically mean that said signatures are being crucial in discrimination among individuals. At the same time, the birds' aggressive responses to the artificial calls indicated that the information transmitted by PPDs is important in species-specific call recognition

  13. Other subjects, other school? Strategies and practices in the context of specific schools for the deaf

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    Liane Camatti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The deaf community has recursively searched for specific schools for the deaf because it is a space where you could find safety and resistance conditions. Through this article, it seeks to understand how the assumptions that support the school institution are directed, given the nearness with the movements for the deaf. To accomplish this approach, we used excerpts from interviews with deaf, teachers and students from different specifically schools for the deaf of the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The studies of the post-structuralist concern provided the theoretical tools that enabled the analysis. Through this research, it became clear how the deaf community falls within the school, making the assumptions of cultural capital legitimized in the school for the deaf. Nevertheless, it was possible to look at how the processes of discipline inherent in the educational institution happen the same way in the school for the deaf, even though it was taken by the deaf as the site of redemption and as its largest trench.

  14. General And Specific Features In Realizing An Essay In English Language – A Case Study Of Essay On Economic Themes

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    Daliana Ecaterina TASCOVICI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper wants to be a systematic and not only a theoretical approach on essays. This type of writing knows several points of view connecting its form, content, specific features and types, rules to be observed in its writing, structures or styles. As we know, it implies freedom of composition, originality, associations of surprising images and propensity for aphorism. We try to frame all its specifications within the economic essay, as economics is a field of exact utterance, where the speaker cannot play with the words and their meaning.

  15. A Study of the Subject Categorization of the MIS-related Journals in the ISI Databases Using Topical Features in the Text Content and Machine Learning Methods

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    Sung-Chien Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed and discussed that the MIS-related journals under the ISI subject category of IS&LS are simultaneously given with subject category Management, using methods of topic modeling, journal clustering and subject category prediction. In the experiment of journal clustering, all journals under subject category Management and other journals also having similar topical features can be gathered into a cluster, and “management” is their common and the most distinct topic. Because the journals belonged to this cluster are almost same to those in the MIS clusters generated by the previous studies, we considered it as the MIS cluster in this study. In the second experiment, we used the classification and regression tree (CART technique to predict assignment of subject category with that the journals in the original subject category Management and in the MIS cluster produced in this study as positive examples, respectively. The trees generated by the two tests both used the occurring probabilities of the topic “management” as the main classification rule. However, in the latter test, we did not only obtain a simpler classification tree but also had a result with less predicting errors. This means that if all journals in the MIS cluster could be given with subject category Management, the retrieval results can be more effective and complete.

  16. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

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    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  17. FISCAL FEATURES SPECIFIC TO INTRA-COMMUNITY TRANSACTIONS OF NEW MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND EXCISABLE PRODUCTS

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    PALIU - POPA LUCIA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With a view to our country's accession to the Community space, the Romanian legislation has undergone many changes, and we should point out among others those in the tax system, that primarily aims to ensure the functioning of the national economy in the globalization of the economic and social activities worldwide. Although at first sight the new procedures have a positive impact on the development of intra-Community commercial businesses, due to the elimination of customs formalities and hence of the fees paid to customs officials, however there are costs generated by the application of EU law, which should not be neglected. Considering the many situations that arise in carrying out intra-Community commercial transactions, that are aimed at the differentiated tax procedures from the value added tax perspective, we considered appropriate, to address below the tax features related to intra-Community acquisitions and supplies of new means of transport and excisable products, because these are two important categories of goods that generate differential tax treatments, so that after the tax analysis we should be able to draw some relevant conclusions.

  18. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordakieva, Galateja; Wallmann, Julia; Schmutz, René; Lemell, Patrick; Wegmann, Michael; Nittke, Thomas; Mittlböck, Martina; Fehrenbach, Heinz; Godnic-Cvar, Jasminka; Zieglmayer, René; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i) sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii) grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC). BALB/c mice (n = 20) were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10) or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA) (n = 10). A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42) at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens. A rapid recruitment of erythrocytes to the lungs to compensate

  19. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

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    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  20. The Specific Features of an Early Period after Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery

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    V. A. Shmyrev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to comparatively evaluate the perioperative clinical period in patients operated on via miniinvasive access and median sternotomy.Subjects and methods. A retrospective analysis included all patients who had undergone correction of mitral valve defect with or without tricuspid valve correction and atrial ablation. 121 and 112 patients were operated on through miniinvasive access (a study group and median sternothomy (a control group, respectively.Results. The duration (median [25; 75 percentiles] of aortic occlusion in the study group (89 [71; 120] min was significantly longer than that in the control group (65 [52; 84] min; р<0.01. Acute heart failure complicated the clinical course in 28 (23.1% and 15 (13.4% cases in the study and control groups, respectively; р=0.06. In the miniinvasiveaccess group, two deaths were caused by intraoperative aortic dissection. There was no significant difference in the length of stay in the intensive care unit and in that of hospitalization between the groups.Conclusion. The findings are generally correlated with the world data obtained while implementing the procedure. The frequency and pattern of complications due to miniinvasive correction of mitral valve defect require additional financial expenditures and human resources. It is necessary to analyze the longterm results of treatment for the reasonable evaluation of the efficiency and expediency of using this procedure.

  1. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Specific features of its course and therapy options

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    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE varies greatly in different regions of the world. The disease is encountered in different age groups; however it is most common in young and adolescent women (its peak incidence is in the range of 15–25 years. Familial SLE cases are known. The course of SLE in pregnant women is noted to have features due to an increased risk for complications and to pharmacotherapeutic peculiarities. Risk factors for poor pregnancy outcomes, such as high disease activity at the time of conception, active lupus nephritis, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APA, are identified in patients with SLE. The paper presents antenatal fetal death predictors: proteinuria, thrombocytopenia, APA, and hypertension. When SLE is concurrent with secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the risk of poor pregnancy outcome is 30%. Management tactics for pregnant women with APS and a dosage regimen are shown to largely depend on history data (the presence (absence of nonplacental thromboses, the number of spontaneous abortions, prior therapy, etc.. There are four patient groups: 1 patients who have only anticardiolipin antibodies without previous pregnancy or one episode of unexplained abortion at less than 10 weeks’ gestation with no history of thrombosis; 2 those who have APS with no history of nonplacental thrombosis and have anticardiolipin antibodies and a history of two or more unexplained spontaneous abortions at less than 10 weeks’ gestation; 3 those who have APS and a history of nonplacental thromboses (who have taken warfarin prior to pregnancy; 4 those in whom standard therapy is ineffective during their next pregnancy. The paper presents therapy options for each patient group.It is concluded that effective therapeutic strategy for SLE, including that in pregnant women, implies patient monitoring to long maintain remission (low disease activity.

  2. Chemical map of Schizosaccharomyces pombe reveals species-specific features in nucleosome positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle-Heyrman, Georgette; Zaichuk, Tetiana; Xi, Liqun; Zhang, Quanwei; Uhlenbeck, Olke C.; Holmgren, Robert; Widom, Jonathan; Wang, Ji-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Using a recently developed chemical approach, we have generated a genome-wide map of nucleosomes in vivo in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe) at base pair resolution. The shorter linker length previously identified in S. pombe is due to a preponderance of nucleosomes separated by ∼4/5 bp, placing nucleosomes on opposite faces of the DNA. The periodic dinucleotide feature thought to position nucleosomes is equally strong in exons as in introns, demonstrating that nucleosome positioning information can be superimposed on coding information. Unlike the case in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, A/T-rich sequences are enriched in S. pombe nucleosomes, particularly at ±20 bp around the dyad. This difference in nucleosome binding preference gives rise to a major distinction downstream of the transcription start site, where nucleosome phasing is highly predictable by A/T frequency in S. pombe but not in S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the genomes and DNA binding preferences of nucleosomes have coevolved in different species. The poly (dA-dT) tracts affect but do not deplete nucleosomes in S. pombe, and they prefer special rotational positions within the nucleosome, with longer tracts enriched in the 10- to 30-bp region from the dyad. S. pombe does not have a well-defined nucleosome-depleted region immediately upstream of most transcription start sites; instead, the −1 nucleosome is positioned with the expected spacing relative to the +1 nucleosome, and its occupancy is negatively correlated with gene expression. Although there is generally very good agreement between nucleosome maps generated by chemical cleavage and micrococcal nuclease digestion, the chemical map shows consistently higher nucleosome occupancy on DNA with high A/T content. PMID:24277842

  3. Subject Specific Optimisation of the Stiffness of Footwear Material for Maximum Plantar Pressure Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Naemi, Roozbeh; Healy, Aoife; Gerth, Peter; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2017-08-01

    Current selection of cushioning materials for therapeutic footwear and orthoses is based on empirical and anecdotal evidence. The aim of this investigation is to assess the biomechanical properties of carefully selected cushioning materials and to establish the basis for patient-specific material optimisation. For this purpose, bespoke cushioning materials with qualitatively similar mechanical behaviour but different stiffness were produced. Healthy volunteers were asked to stand and walk on materials with varying stiffness and their capacity for pressure reduction was assessed. Mechanical testing using a surrogate heel model was employed to investigate the effect of loading on optimum stiffness. Results indicated that optimising the stiffness of cushioning materials improved pressure reduction during standing and walking by at least 16 and 19% respectively. Moreover, the optimum stiffness was strongly correlated to body mass (BM) and body mass index (BMI), with stiffer materials needed in the case of people with higher BM or BMI. Mechanical testing confirmed that optimum stiffness increases with the magnitude of compressive loading. For the first time, this study provides quantitative data to support the importance of stiffness optimisation in cushioning materials and sets the basis for methods to inform optimum material selection in the clinic.

  4. Comparison of brucella and non-specific epididymorchitis: gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Adil [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)]. E-mail: ozturka26@hotmail.com; Ozturk, Ebru [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Zeyrek, Fadile [Department of Microbiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Onur, Kahraman [Department of Urology, SSK Sanliurfa Hastanesi, Sanliurfa (Turkey); Sirmatel, Ocal [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey); Kat, Nurcan [Department of Radiology, Harran University School of Medicine, Arastirma ve Uygulama Hastanesi, TR-63100 Sanliurfa (Turkey)

    2005-11-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to find out if it is possible to differentiate between brucellar and non-specific epididymorchitis by comparing ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) findings. Material and methods: Fifty-six patients diagnosed to have epididymorchitis both clinically and ultrasonographically were included to study. All of the patients were investigated serologically for brucella. Twenty-eight of those patients were admitted brucella epididymorchitis because of high agglutinations titers for brucella. The other 28 patients were admitted non-specific epididymorchitis because of normal agglutinations titers for brucella. Testicular size, echogenicity, hydrocele, internal echoes and/or septations within hydrocele, and scrotal skin thickness of normal and involved testis were compared by ultrasonography. Besides, pick systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, resistive index and pick systolic velocity ratio values were measured by bilateral testicular color Doppler ultrasonography in both groups. When the p-value is <0.05, the difference between groups is accepted as statistically significant. Results: Thickening of scrotal skin was seen in 17 of 28 patients with brucella epididymorchitis (BEPO) (67%) and in 25 of 28 patients with non-specific epididymorchitis (NEPO) (89.2%) (p < 0.01). There was no difference between groups regarding presence of hydrocele. However hydrocele seen in all patients was anechoic except for two patients (8.6%). Hydrocele seen in 18 of 22 patients with BEPO and hydrocele had internal echogenicity or septation (p < 0.001). Sizes of testes and epididymis were found to be increased in involved testis compared to normal testis. Testes of all patients with NEPO were homogenous with decreased echogenicity except for five patients (17.8%). However, 23 patients with BEPO (82%) found to have heterogenous testis (p < 0.001). Spectral measurements showed increased PSV and EDV values and decreased RI values in

  5. Specific Features of Neonatal Artificial Ventilation in Different Stages of Correction of Visceroabdominal Disproportion

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    D. V. Dmitriyev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize artificial ventilation on the basis of studies of lung mechanical properties in neonatal infants with visceroabdominal disproportion in the perioperative period. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 57 neonates, including 42 (73.7% with gastroschisis and 15 (26.3% with omphalocele. All the patients received intensive care, artificial ventilation using a Bear Cub apparatus in the control modes by the volume (A/C, SIMV/PSV with continuous monitoring of hemodynamics and respiratory mechanics (dynamic compliance, resistance, pressure-volume loop, and flow-volume by applying a graphics monitor. Intraabdominal pressure (IAP was measured by the Crohn method. Results. The investigation showed an association between the changes in IAP in different stages of the study and those in respiratory parameters in newborns. Preoperative adaptation of the respiratory system was noted in all the neonates. Within the first 24 hours of the first-stage correction of visceroabdominal disproportion, both groups showed a gradual reduction in dynamic compliance by 3.4 times, a rise in resistance by 2.42 times with PIP being increased up to high figures — 20—22 cm H2O, as well as maximum value changes on the graphics monitor. The mechanical properties of the lung returned to relatively normal values at 72 hours of extension. Conclusion. Elevation of IAP to high values causes changes in respiratory mechanics and is a rather informative criterion for correction of ventilation parameters. Furthermore, a marked perioperative IAP increase (more than 10—11 mm Hg maximally affects the mechanical properties of the lung in neonatal infants with visceroab-dominal disproportion. Key words: visceroabdominal disproportion, intraabdominal pressure, compliance, respiratory mechanics, resistance.

  6. Single Muscle Fiber Proteomics Reveals Fiber-Type-Specific Features of Human Muscle Aging

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    Marta Murgia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a key tissue in human aging, which affects different muscle fiber types unequally. We developed a highly sensitive single muscle fiber proteomics workflow to study human aging and show that the senescence of slow and fast muscle fibers is characterized by diverging metabolic and protein quality control adaptations. Whereas mitochondrial content declines with aging in both fiber types, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism are upregulated in slow but downregulated in fast muscle fibers. Aging mitochondria decrease expression of the redox enzyme monoamine oxidase A. Slow fibers upregulate a subset of actin and myosin chaperones, whereas an opposite change happens in fast fibers. These changes in metabolism and sarcomere quality control may be related to the ability of slow, but not fast, muscle fibers to maintain their mass during aging. We conclude that single muscle fiber analysis by proteomics can elucidate pathophysiology in a sub-type-specific manner.

  7. Specific gut microbiota features and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Le Chatelier, E; Prifti, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify...... adjustment for potential confounders, such as long-term diet composition. The study supports the use of gut metagenomic markers for metabolic disease prediction and warrants further investigation of causality....... gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake. METHODS: Faecal DNA from 53...

  8. The bats (Chiroptera; Mammalia of Mordovia: specific structure and features of distribution

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    Oleg N. Artaev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the specific structure and distribution of the bats made in the territory of the Republic of Mordovia (Central Russia from the first half of the 20th century to the present. Occurence, relative abundance and patterns of distribution are briefly assessed for rare species. On this base, recommendations for inclusion these bats in the regional Red Data Book are presented. .In Mordovia twelve species of bats have been observed. There are widespread and numerous species: Pipistrellus nathusii, Myotis daubentonii, M. dasycneme, Nyctalus noctula and Vespertilio murinus. Widespread but less numerous species are: Myotis brandtii and Plecotus auritus. Finally, rare species are: Myotis nattereri, Nyctalus lasiopterus, N. leisleri, Pipistrellus pygmaeus and P. kuhlii.

  9. Security Measures and some Specific Features of the Transport Police Functioning in Russia and Abroad

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    Petr P. Ignatushenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article specifics of the transport police work in the Russian Federation are discussed, as well as in other countries of the world (USA, Germany, Israel, etc.. Attention is drawn to the need of the role and significance of the Russian police review in the matters of railway and aviation security, as well as safety on river and sea transport. The term “transport security” is a state of security of transport and transport infrastructure, consumers of transport services (passengers from various types of threats (natural and man-made, as well as acts of unlawful interference in the activities of various modes of transport – points put the author. Transport security issues are important for the creation of the transport police system in the Russian Federation, taking into account experience of foreign countries.

  10. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus.

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    Semen M Bondarenko

    Full Text Available Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO-a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells.

  11. Problems and Specific Features of Sub-Federal Budgets Execution in 2015

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    Anna Ivanovna Povarova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Last year has been marked by worrying trends in the development of a budgetary crisis in Russian regions; the crisis became apparent in 2013, when regional authorities had to get into huge debts in order to provide finances for the social obligations in the framework of the presidential decrees of May 7, 2012. The budget process in 2015 was characterized by expanding negative trends in those regions that had previously been the engines of economic growth and budget donors, which contradicts the regional development strategy. The crisis response measures consist in a large-scale optimization of expenses. Despite an attempt undertaken by the Government to replace commercial borrowings with budget loans, there are still no prospects for solving the debt issue. On the contrary, expert forecasts predict a doubling of the debt stock in regions by the end of 2017. Cuts in the expenditures on human capital development should be considered as a new negative trend, naturally resulting in the deterioration of material well-being of Russians, which was expressed in the decline in their real incomes and raising poverty level. It seems that on the eve of the RF State Duma elections the social policy of the authorities ceases to be socially oriented. Under the circumstances of an aggravating budget crisis, the Government is not increasing unrepayable financial aid (it did increase it in 2009; instead, it is pursuing the opposite policy and estranges itself from providing support to regions. Moreover, the Cabinet of Ministers does not openly wish to carry out a just division of powers and obligations of governmental units, but turns it into a mechanism for financing federal budget deficit by shifting state obligations onto the regions. The paper presents the results of the analysis of sub-federal budgets execution in 2015. The main goal was to identify the features of budget process and trends in the dynamics of budget parameters. The main conclusion is that

  12. Subject-specific abnormal region detection in traumatic brain injury using sparse model selection on high dimensional diffusion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Matineh; Erdogmus, Deniz; Dy, Jennifer; Bouix, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    We present a method to estimate a multivariate Gaussian distribution of diffusion tensor features in a set of brain regions based on a small sample of healthy individuals, and use this distribution to identify imaging abnormalities in subjects with mild traumatic brain injury. The multivariate model receives apriori knowledge in the form of a neighborhood graph imposed on the precision matrix, which models brain region interactions, and an additional L1 sparsity constraint. The model is then estimated using the graphical LASSO algorithm and the Mahalanobis distance of healthy and TBI subjects to the distribution mean is used to evaluate the discriminatory power of the model. Our experiments show that the addition of the apriori neighborhood graph results in significant improvements in classification performance compared to a model which does not take into account the brain region interactions or one which uses a fully connected prior graph. In addition, we describe a method, using our model, to detect the regions that contribute the most to the overall abnormality of the DTI profile of a subject's brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Specific Features of the Pathogenesis and Correction of Critical Conditions in Obstetric Care

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    Yu. S. Podolsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the research areas determining the pathogenesis and correction of critical conditions in obstetric care in the past 15 years on the basis of the dissertations made at the V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology. Subjects and methods. Nine hundred and twenty-nine pregnant women, parturients, and puerperas were examined; the latter were allocated to comparison groups in terms of age, weight, comorbidity, performed intensive therapy and underwent both retrospective and prospective analysis from 1981 to 2010. The comparison group comprised 44 nonobstetric patients while examining multiple organ dysfunction (MOD in the purperas. The latter with massive blood loss were separately identified when evaluating the impaired oxygen status in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and MOD. According to the pathology and indicators under study, the puerperas with MOD were examined in a few steps (2 to 7. Water sectoral disorders were detected in three steps: on days 1, 3, and 5; these were identified in four steps in case of eclamptic coma (EC, regional anesthesia, and impaired oxygen status. Results. The findings are suggestive of significant impairments in central hemodynamics (CHD in the severe forms of gestosis, which are caused by reductions in cardiac index and circulating blood volume, the basis for these is hypovolemia. Dyshidrosis appears as an increased extracellular sector mainly due to interstitial hyperhydration. The low values of arterial blood oxygen, its delivery and uptake, oxygen extract coefficient and the high value of oxygen debt (OD confirmed blood shunting or circulatory centralization, which was indicative of visceral hypoxia. Determination of the level of cerebral blood flow (CBF in puerperas with coma showed its diminution due to reduced blood flow in the cortical structures. Regional anesthesia in complicated pregnancy and delivery stabilized CHD, dropped the level of

  14. Task-specific codes for face recognition: how they shape the neural representation of features for detection and individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, Adrian; Vettel, Jean M; Tarr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The variety of ways in which faces are categorized makes face recognition challenging for both synthetic and biological vision systems. Here we focus on two face processing tasks, detection and individuation, and explore whether differences in task demands lead to differences both in the features most effective for automatic recognition and in the featural codes recruited by neural processing. Our study appeals to a computational framework characterizing the features representing object categories as sets of overlapping image fragments. Within this framework, we assess the extent to which task-relevant information differs across image fragments. Based on objective differences we find among task-specific representations, we test the sensitivity of the human visual system to these different face descriptions independently of one another. Both behavior and functional magnetic resonance imaging reveal effects elicited by objective task-specific levels of information. Behaviorally, recognition performance with image fragments improves with increasing task-specific information carried by different face fragments. Neurally, this sensitivity to the two tasks manifests as differential localization of neural responses across the ventral visual pathway. Fragments diagnostic for detection evoke larger neural responses than non-diagnostic ones in the right posterior fusiform gyrus and bilaterally in the inferior occipital gyrus. In contrast, fragments diagnostic for individuation evoke larger responses than non-diagnostic ones in the anterior inferior temporal gyrus. Finally, for individuation only, pattern analysis reveals sensitivity to task-specific information within the right "fusiform face area". OUR RESULTS DEMONSTRATE: 1) information diagnostic for face detection and individuation is roughly separable; 2) the human visual system is independently sensitive to both types of information; 3) neural responses differ according to the type of task-relevant information

  15. Generic rules of mechano-regulation combined with subject specific loading conditions can explain bone adaptation after THA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz D Szwedowski

    Full Text Available Bone adaptation after total hip arthroplasty is associated with the change in internal load environment, and can result in compromised bone stock, which presents a considerable challenge should a revision procedure be required. Under the assumption of a generic mechano-regulatory algorithm for governing bone adaptation, the aim of this study was to understand the contribution of subject specific loading conditions towards explaining the local periprosthetic remodelling variations in patients. CT scans of 3 consecutive THA patients were obtained and used for the construction of subject specific finite element models using verified musculoskeletal loading and physiological boundary conditions. Using either strain energy density or equivalent strain as mechano-transduction signals, predictions of bone adaptation were compared to DEXA derived BMD changes from 7 days to 12 months post-implantation. Individual changes in BMD of up to 33.6% were observed within the 12 month follow-up period, together with considerable inter-patient variability of up to 26%. Estimates of bone adaptation using equivalent strain and balanced loading conditions led to the best agreement with in vivo measured BMD, with RMS errors of only 3.9%, 7.3% and 7.3% for the individual subjects, compared to errors of over 10% when the loading conditions were simplified.This study provides evidence that subject specific loading conditions and physiological boundary constraints are essential for explaining inter-patient variations in bone adaptation patterns. This improved knowledge of the rules governing the adaptation of bone following THA helps towards understanding the interplay between mechanics and biology for better identifying patients at risk of excessive or problematic periprosthetic bone atrophy.

  16. Female-specific pruritus from childhood to postmenopause: clinical features, hormonal factors, and treatment considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoin, Lauren P; Kwatra, Shawn G; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2013-01-01

    There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of pruritus in recent years. The purpose of this review was to highlight itch entities in women, and in particular pruritic vulvar dermatoses that women experience among different age groups. Unique temporal shifts may contribute to the etiology of many of these conditions. These changes lead to cyclical changes in the skin's basic composition. Specifically, estrogen receptors have been detected on keratinocytes that respond to rising and falling levels of estrogen. These receptors lead to changes in skin hydration, collagen content, and in the concentration of glycosaminoglycans that form the skin barrier. In addition, hormonal pH changes associated with the menstrual cycle may be an important factor in the aggravation of itch as increasing pH is known to activate the proteinase-activated receptor-2, a well-known itch mediator. Common pruritic conditions in women that will be discussed include atopic and irritant dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen sclerosus, infectious vulvovaginitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, atrophic vulvovaginitis, squamous cell carcinoma, lichen simplex chronicus, and neuropathic itch. We also examine pruritic conditions associated with pregnancy including pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and atopic eruption of pregnancy. Finally, acceptable and contraindicated antipruritic agents in pregnancy are examined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Clinical and immunological features of chronic non-specific non-ulcerative colitis in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the activity of cytokines for determination of their pathogenic role and effective action of the individual factors of the immune system in infants with chronic non&specific non&ulcerative colitis (CNNC. Patients and methods. It is studied 60 children in the age from 1 to 3 years with CNNC, who were under hospitalization. The control group consisted of 30 apparently healthy children of appropriate age. Immunological status of children was evaluated on the base of determination of cytokine concentration in the blood serum by the method of Enzyme-Immuno-Sorbent-Assay. Results. It is found that during the CNNC in infants and the concentration and ratio of the different groups of cytokines in the blood serum undergoes significant changes — increasing the concentration of pro&inflammatory cytokines (IL&1α, IL&6, IL&8, TNF-α and decreases the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 is the IL-10, wherein the content growth factors is changing — by increased hepatocytes growth factor and reduced intestinal trefoil factor. Conclusions. Found changes of cytokines state can be regarded as a violation of the immunoregulatory mechanisms that is the basis of pathogenesis of the formation of a chronic inflammatory process in the infant's intestine.

  18. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Porphyria: A Study of 36 Subjects in a Chinese Tertiary Referral Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Qianlong; Yang, Hang; Hua, Baolai; Zhu, Tienan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Yu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria is a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. The presentation of porphyria is highly variable, and the symptoms are nonspecific, which accounts in part for delays in establishing a diagnosis. In this study, we report the characteristics of 36 Chinese acute porphyria patients. Most of them were female (33/36), and the median age was 25.3 years (range 18–45 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (32/36). Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality (29/36), and the serum sodium concentration was significantly negatively correlated with convulsion (p = 0.00). Genetic testing provided a precise diagnosis of the patients. Genetic analysis of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene was performed for 10 subjects. Of them, 9 were found to harbor a mutation in the PBGD gene, proving a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, and, in 1 case, a novel Cys209Term mutation was found. PMID:28025645

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Porphyria: A Study of 36 Subjects in a Chinese Tertiary Referral Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Chen, Qianlong; Yang, Hang; Hua, Baolai; Zhu, Tienan; Zhao, Yongqiang; Zhu, Huadong; Yu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Porphyria is a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. The presentation of porphyria is highly variable, and the symptoms are nonspecific, which accounts in part for delays in establishing a diagnosis. In this study, we report the characteristics of 36 Chinese acute porphyria patients. Most of them were female (33/36), and the median age was 25.3 years (range 18-45 years). The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (32/36). Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality (29/36), and the serum sodium concentration was significantly negatively correlated with convulsion (p = 0.00). Genetic testing provided a precise diagnosis of the patients. Genetic analysis of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) gene was performed for 10 subjects. Of them, 9 were found to harbor a mutation in the PBGD gene, proving a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, and, in 1 case, a novel Cys209Term mutation was found.

  20. Specific Features of Transport Market Characterising the Interrelation of Logistics, Global Distribution and Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Perić

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available If we acknowledge the role of traffic as active leaderof the sustainable economy development, then we certainlyhave to analyse the environment in which the traffic exists asa system, and therefore we have to foresee its limits which aredetermined by the specifics of the traffic system. Representingthe circulation system of economy, traffic has to eavesdrop onthe demands of the market, and has to be transformed andmodernised. The experience gained by working on the projectsand the studies related to business organisation resulted inthe conclusion that the requirements related to logistics inthe nineties were significantly greater than had been thecommon target until then -reduction of costs. In order to adjustcompletely to the market demands, with the help of advancedinformation technology, the companies apply logisticsas tools of competitiveness on the market. Extraordinmyachievements of IT, using of virtual reality enable businesspeople to communicate and contract businesses without beingphysically present. What is it that makes some companies moresuccessful than others? It is obviously a question of the advantagesof distribution realisation due to the fact that nowadayspurchase and selling are run globally in the world. The distributionof products at the right time, to the right place, at a pricewhich is favourable both to the seller and the buyer, in the rightmanner and in the appropriate quantity in the marketing senseis the prerequisite for the business success as element of businesslogistics. The development of this tool must be basedon the monitoring of the needs for the logistics managementand the tactical adaptability of the company. The solution oflogistics management of business processes must satisfy thecurrent and future customers' requirements in order to be competitive.

  1. Gender-Specific Molecular and Clinical Features underlie Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Assunta De; Archer, Michael A.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Dao, Nhien; Sciaranghella, Daniele; Sideris, Antonios C.; Zheng, Yifan; Holman, Alexander G.; Wang, Yaoyu E.; Dal Cin, Paola S.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Rubio, Renee; Croft, Larry; Quackenbush, John; Sugarbaker, Peter E.; Munir, Kiara J.; Battilana, Jesse R.; Gustafson, Corinne E.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Ching, Soo Meng; Wong, James; Tay, Liang Chung; Rudd, Stephen; Hercus, Robert; Sugarbaker, David J.; Richards, William G.; Bueno, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive cancer that occurs more frequently in men, but is associated with longer survival in women. Insight into the survival advantage of female patients may advance the molecular understanding of MPM and identify therapeutic interventions that will improve the prognosis for all MPM patients. In this study, we performed whole-genome sequencing of tumor specimens from 10 MPM patients and matched control samples to identify potential driver mutations underlying MPM. We identified molecular differences associated with gender and histology. Specifically, single-nucleotide variants of BAP1 were observed in 21% of cases, with lower mutation rates observed in sarcomatoid MPM (p<0.001). Chromosome 22q loss was more frequently associated with the epithelioid than that non-epitheliod histology (p=0.037), whereas CDKN2A deletions occurred more frequently in non-epithelioid subtypes among men (p=0.021) and were correlated with shorter overall survival for the entire cohort (p=0.002) and for men (p=0.012). Furthermore, women were more likely to harbor TP53 mutations (p=0.004). Novel mutations were found in genes associated with the integrin-linked kinase pathway, including MYH9 and RHOA. Moreover, expression levels of BAP1, MYH9, and RHOA were significantly higher in non-epithelioid tumors, and were associated with significant reduction in survival of the entire cohort and across gender subgroups. Collectively, our findings indicate that diverse mechanisms highly related to gender and histology appear to drive MPM. PMID:26554828

  2. Assessment of postural stability in young healthy subjects based on directional features of posturographic data: vision and gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Janusz W; Beck, Monika; Sadowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Directional characteristics of postural sway and their impact on postural stability control (PSC) still need to be clarified. To assess the directional characteristics of PSC, center-of-pressure (COP) while standing quiet was recorded and analyzed in 46 young healthy subjects. The participants completed five 60-s trials with 'eyes open' and five with 'eyes closed'. The control asymmetry was characterized using three standardized COP measures: mean sway velocity (V), sway ratio (SR), and sway directional index (DI). The COP data were low-pass filtered at 10 Hz. In such conditions the V, SR and DI revealed consistent and unique differences in both the anteroposterior (AP) and the mediolateral (ML) controls. Each of the COP measures showed the involvement of different neuromuscular and biomechanical mechanisms in the stabilization of standing posture. The DI documented a very stable proportion between frontal and saggital controls, with roughly 60% of the swaying movements being performed in the AP direction. The AP DI was significantly higher in comparison with the ML value (0.71±0.04 vs. 0.55±0.06). This proportion remained at the same level in both experimental groups and it was only slightly affected by the visual conditions. Analysis of the SR confirmed that to maintain stable stance the neuromuscular system must allocate 50% more effort to control AP stability. The results also documented gender-related differences in postural stability. Generally the female subjects appeared to have lower postural stability as evidenced by higher COM and COP velocities. Consequently the higher SR values observed in the female group indicate a need for higher neuromuscular efforts to maintain stable posture. The introduced here set of COP measures proved to be a valuable standard for static posturography, creating the opportunity for improved and reliable assessment of postural stability.

  3. An anthropometric based subject-specific finite element model of the human breast for predicting large deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ePianigiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The large deformation of the human breast threatens proper nodules tracking when the subject mammograms are used as pre-planning data for biopsy. However, techniques capable of accurately supporting the surgeons during biopsy are missing. Finite Element (FE models are at the basis of currently investigated methodologies to track nodules displacement. Nonetheless, the impact of breast material modeling on the mechanical response of its tissues (e.g. tumors is not clear. This study proposes a subject-specific FE model of the breast, obtained by anthropometric measurements, to predict breast large deformation. A healthy breast subject-specific FE parametric model was developed and validated by Cranio-caudal (CC and Medio Lateral Oblique (MLO mammograms. The model was successively modified, including nodules, and utilized to investigate the effect of nodules size, typology and material modeling on nodules shift under the effect of CC, MLO and gravity loads. Results show that a Mooney-Rivlin material model can estimate healthy breast large deformation. For a pathological breast, under CC compression, the nodules displacement is very close to zero when a linear elastic material model is used. Finally, when nodules are modeled including tumor material properties, under CC or MLO or gravity loads, nodules shift shows ∼15% average relative difference.

  4. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with

  5. The correlation of specific orthopaedic features of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with functional outcome scores in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leet, Arabella I; Wientroub, Shlomo; Kushner, Harvey; Brillante, Beth; Kelly, Marilyn H; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Collins, Michael T

    2006-04-01

    Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia has a wide clinical spectrum, with substantial variation between patients in terms of orthopaedic manifestations, including the number of fractures, the degree of deformity of the limbs, and the presence of scoliosis. Data from bone scans, skeletal surveys, and records were correlated with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument scales to examine whether any specific facet of orthopaedic involvement could be related to functional abilities. All patients who were sixteen years of age or younger and who were part of an ongoing natural history study of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (including McCune-Albright syndrome) were sent an age-appropriate Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument outcomes tool. The medical records and radiographs of the patients who returned forms were reviewed. Radiographic measurements of scoliosis, the femoral neck-shaft angle, and limb deformities were then performed. The extent of skeletal involvement with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia (disease burden) was assessed on bone scans with use of a validated tool. A chart review was performed to determine the fracture rate, the use of bisphosphonates, and the endocrine status. These measurements were correlated with the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument scores. The outcomes tool was sent to twenty-seven patients and the completed instrument was returned by twenty patients, for a response rate of 74%. The parent-child form was filled out for twelve patients and the parent-adolescent form was filled out for eight patients. The mean standardized Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument scores for all twenty patients were lowest for sports (62; range, 14 to 100) and happiness (72; range, 25 to 100). Adolescents and parents disagreed with regard to sports (with adolescent scores being higher than parental scores) and pain (with parental scores being higher than adolescent scores). However, the overall global scores correlated well between

  6. Fully automatized renal parenchyma volumetry using a support vector machine based recognition system for subject-specific probability map generation in native MR volume data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Mensel, Birger; Völzke, Henry

    2015-11-01

    In epidemiological studies as well as in clinical practice the amount of produced medical image data strongly increased in the last decade. In this context organ segmentation in MR volume data gained increasing attention for medical applications. Especially in large-scale population-based studies organ volumetry is highly relevant requiring exact organ segmentation. Since manual segmentation is time-consuming and prone to reader variability, large-scale studies need automatized methods to perform organ segmentation. Fully automatic organ segmentation in native MR image data has proven to be a very challenging task. Imaging artifacts as well as inter- and intrasubject MR-intensity differences complicate the application of supervised learning strategies. Thus, we propose a modularized framework of a two-stepped probabilistic approach that generates subject-specific probability maps for renal parenchyma tissue, which are refined subsequently by using several, extended segmentation strategies. We present a three class-based support vector machine recognition system that incorporates Fourier descriptors as shape features to recognize and segment characteristic parenchyma parts. Probabilistic methods use the segmented characteristic parenchyma parts to generate high quality subject-specific parenchyma probability maps. Several refinement strategies including a final shape-based 3D level set segmentation technique are used in subsequent processing modules to segment renal parenchyma. Furthermore, our framework recognizes and excludes renal cysts from parenchymal volume, which is important to analyze renal functions. Volume errors and Dice coefficients show that our presented framework outperforms existing approaches.

  7. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mass screening of prostate cancer in a Chinese population: the relationship between pathological features of prostate cancer and serum prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Wen; Li, Yu-Lin; Wu, Shan; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Pan, Yu-Zhuo; Zhang, Ling; Tateno, Hiroo; Sato, Ikuro; Kuwahara, Masaaki; Zhao, Xue-Jian

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the pathological features of the prostate biopsy through mass screening for prostate cancer in a Chinese cohort and their association with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). A total of 12027 Chinese men in Changchun were screened for prostate cancer by means of the serum total prostate specific antigen tPSA test (by Elisa assay). Transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic six-sextant biopsies were performed on those whose serum tPSA value was > 4.0 ng/mL and those who had obstructive symptoms (despite their tPSA value) and were subject to subsequent pathological analysis with the aid of the statistic software SPSS 10.0 (SPSS. Inc., Chicago. USA). Of the 12027 cases, 158 (including 137 patients whose serum tPSA values were 4.0 ng/mL and 21 patients [serum tPSA sextant biopsies was established (r = 0.406, P first to conduct mass screening for prostate cancer by testing for serum tPSA values and the first to investigate the pathological features of prostate cancer in a cohort of Chinese men. Our results reveal that the moderately differentiated carcinoma is the most common type of prostate cancer. This study also has shown that the serum tPSA value in prostate cancer is associated with the Gleason score and the size of tumor.

  9. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Features of Acute Porphyria: A Study of 36 Subjects in a Chinese Tertiary Referral Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyria is a group of eight metabolic disorders characterized by defects in heme biosynthesis. The presentation of porphyria is highly variable, and the symptoms are nonspecific, which accounts in part for delays in establishing a diagnosis. In this study, we report the characteristics of 36 Chinese acute porphyria patients. Most of them were female (33/36, and the median age was 25.3 years (range 18–45 years. The most frequent presenting symptom was abdominal pain (32/36. Hyponatremia was the most common electrolyte abnormality (29/36, and the serum sodium concentration was significantly negatively correlated with convulsion (p=0.00. Genetic testing provided a precise diagnosis of the patients. Genetic analysis of the porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD gene was performed for 10 subjects. Of them, 9 were found to harbor a mutation in the PBGD gene, proving a diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria, and, in 1 case, a novel Cys209Term mutation was found.

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  12. TLEM 2.0 - a comprehensive musculoskeletal geometry dataset for subject-specific modeling of lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, V; Fluit, R; Pellikaan, P; van der Krogt, M M; Janssen, D; Damsgaard, M; Vigneron, L; Feilkas, T; Koopman, H F J M; Verdonschot, N

    2015-03-18

    When analyzing complex biomechanical problems such as predicting the effects of orthopedic surgery, subject-specific musculoskeletal models are essential to achieve reliable predictions. The aim of this paper is to present the Twente Lower Extremity Model 2.0, a new comprehensive dataset of the musculoskeletal geometry of the lower extremity, which is based on medical imaging data and dissection performed on the right lower extremity of a fresh male cadaver. Bone, muscle and subcutaneous fat (including skin) volumes were segmented from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images scans. Inertial parameters were estimated from the image-based segmented volumes. A complete cadaver dissection was performed, in which bony landmarks, attachments sites and lines-of-action of 55 muscle actuators and 12 ligaments, bony wrapping surfaces, and joint geometry were measured. The obtained musculoskeletal geometry dataset was finally implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System (AnyBody Technology A/S, Aalborg, Denmark), resulting in a model consisting of 12 segments, 11 joints and 21 degrees of freedom, and including 166 muscle-tendon elements for each leg. The new TLEM 2.0 dataset was purposely built to be easily combined with novel image-based scaling techniques, such as bone surface morphing, muscle volume registration and muscle-tendon path identification, in order to obtain subject-specific musculoskeletal models in a quick and accurate way. The complete dataset, including CT and MRI scans and segmented volume and surfaces, is made available at http://www.utwente.nl/ctw/bw/research/projects/TLEMsafe for the biomechanical community, in order to accelerate the development and adoption of subject-specific models on large scale. TLEM 2.0 is freely shared for non-commercial use only, under acceptance of the TLEMsafe Research License Agreement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leptin Dysregulation Is Specifically Associated With Major Depression With Atypical Features: Evidence for a Mechanism Connecting Obesity and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Lamers, Femke; Bot, Mariska; Drent, Madeleine L; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-05-01

    Obesity-related dysregulation of leptin signaling (e.g., hyperleptinemia due to central functional resistance) may affect mood. However, evidence for leptin dysregulation in major depressive disorder (MDD) is conflicting. Inconclusive findings may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the relationship of leptin with MDD, its common subtypes (typical and atypical), and clinical features. The sample consisted of participants (aged 18 to 65 years) from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety with current (n = 1062) or remitted (n = 711) MDD and healthy control subjects (n = 497). Diagnoses of MDD and subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Additional symptoms were measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Blood levels of leptin and adiposity indexes (body mass index and waist circumference) were assessed. As compared to control subjects, higher leptin was associated with the atypical MDD subtype both for remitted (n = 144, odds ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.03, p = .003) and current (n = 270, odds ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-2.93, p = 5.3e-8) cases. This association was stronger for increasing adiposity levels (leptin by body mass index interaction, p leptin resistance. No association with leptin was found for overall MDD or the typical subtype. Among currently depressed patients, higher leptin was associated with key symptoms identifying the atypical subtype, such as hyperphagia, increased weight, and leaden paralysis. Leptin dysregulation (resistance) may represent an underlying mechanism connecting obesity and MDD with atypical features. Development of treatment effectively targeting leptin resistance may benefit patients with atypical depression characterized by obesity-related metabolic alterations. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Conformational changes in DNA-binding proteins: relationships with precomplex features and contributions to specificity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrabi, Munazah; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Ahmad, Shandar

    2014-05-01

    Both Proteins and DNA undergo conformational changes in order to form functional complexes and also to facilitate interactions with other molecules. These changes have direct implications for the stability and specificity of the complex, as well as the cooperativity of interactions between multiple entities. In this work, we have extensively analyzed conformational changes in DNA-binding proteins by superimposing DNA-bound and unbound pairs of protein structures in a curated database of 90 proteins. We manually examined each of these pairs, unified the authors' annotations, and summarized our observations by classifying conformational changes into six structural categories. We explored a relationship between conformational changes and functional classes, binding motifs, target specificity, biophysical features of unbound proteins, and stability of the complex. In addition, we have also investigated the degree to which the intrinsic flexibility can explain conformational changes in a subset of 52 proteins with high quality coordinate data. Our results indicate that conformational changes in DNA-binding proteins contribute significantly to both the stability of the complex and the specificity of targets recognized by them. We also conclude that most conformational changes occur in proteins interacting with specific DNA targets, even though unbound protein structures may have sufficient information to interact with DNA in a nonspecific manner. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automatized spleen segmentation in non-contrast-enhanced MR volume data using subject-specific shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloger, Oliver; Tönnies, Klaus; Bülow, Robin; Völzke, Henry

    2017-07-01

    To develop the first fully automated 3D spleen segmentation framework derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data and to verify its performance for spleen delineation and volumetry. This approach considers the issue of low contrast between spleen and adjacent tissue in non-contrast-enhanced MR images. Native T1-weighted MR volume data was performed on a 1.5 T MR system in an epidemiological study. We analyzed random subsamples of MR examinations without pathologies to develop and verify the spleen segmentation framework. The framework is modularized to include different kinds of prior knowledge into the segmentation pipeline. Classification by support vector machines differentiates between five different shape types in computed foreground probability maps and recognizes characteristic spleen regions in axial slices of MR volume data. A spleen-shape space generated by training produces subject-specific prior shape knowledge that is then incorporated into a final 3D level set segmentation method. Individually adapted shape-driven forces as well as image-driven forces resulting from refined foreground probability maps steer the level set successfully to the segment the spleen. The framework achieves promising segmentation results with mean Dice coefficients of nearly 0.91 and low volumetric mean errors of 6.3%. The presented spleen segmentation approach can delineate spleen tissue in native MR volume data. Several kinds of prior shape knowledge including subject-specific 3D prior shape knowledge can be used to guide segmentation processes achieving promising results.

  16. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

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    Jašková Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  17. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Junji; Schilling, Jan M; Cui, Weihua; Posadas, Edmund; Sawada, Atsushi; Alas, Basheer; Zemljic-Harpf, Alice E; Fannon-Pavlich, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D; Roth, David M; Patel, Hemal H; Patel, Piyush M; Head, Brian P

    2017-08-01

    Studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that membrane/lipid rafts and caveolin (Cav) organize progrowth receptors, and, when overexpressed specifically in neurons, Cav-1 augments neuronal signaling and growth and improves cognitive function in adult and aged mice; however, whether neuronal Cav-1 overexpression can preserve motor and cognitive function in the brain trauma setting is unknown. Here, we generated a neuron-targeted Cav-1-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mouse [synapsin-driven Cav-1 (SynCav1 Tg)] and subjected it to a controlled cortical impact model of brain trauma and measured biochemical, anatomic, and behavioral changes. SynCav1 Tg mice exhibited increased hippocampal expression of Cav-1 and membrane/lipid raft localization of postsynaptic density protein 95, NMDA receptor, and tropomyosin receptor kinase B. When subjected to a controlled cortical impact, SynCav1 Tg mice demonstrated preserved hippocampus-dependent fear learning and memory, improved motor function recovery, and decreased brain lesion volume compared with wild-type controls. Neuron-targeted overexpression of Cav-1 in the adult brain prevents hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits, restores motor function after brain trauma, and decreases brain lesion size induced by trauma. Our findings demonstrate that neuron-targeted Cav-1 can be used as a novel therapeutic strategy to restore brain function and prevent trauma-associated maladaptive plasticity.-Egawa, J., Schilling, J. M., Cui, W., Posadas, E., Sawada, A., Alas, B., Zemljic-Harpf, A. E., Fannon-Pavlich, M. J., Mandyam, C. D., Roth, D. M., Patel, H. H., Patel, P. M., Head, B. P. Neuron-specific caveolin-1 overexpression improves motor function and preserves memory in mice subjected to brain trauma. © FASEB.

  18. Development and validation of a subject-specific finite element model of the functional spinal unit to predict vertebral strength.

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    Lee, Chu-Hee; Landham, Priyan R; Eastell, Richard; Adams, Michael A; Dolan, Patricia; Yang, Lang

    2017-09-01

    Finite element models of an isolated vertebral body cannot accurately predict compressive strength of the spinal column because, in life, compressive load is variably distributed across the vertebral body and neural arch. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a patient-specific finite element model of a functional spinal unit, and then use the model to predict vertebral strength from medical images. A total of 16 cadaveric functional spinal units were scanned and then tested mechanically in bending and compression to generate a vertebral wedge fracture. Before testing, an image processing and finite element analysis framework (SpineVox-Pro), developed previously in MATLAB using ANSYS APDL, was used to generate a subject-specific finite element model with eight-node hexahedral elements. Transversely isotropic linear-elastic material properties were assigned to vertebrae, and simple homogeneous linear-elastic properties were assigned to the intervertebral disc. Forward bending loading conditions were applied to simulate manual handling. Results showed that vertebral strengths measured by experiment were positively correlated with strengths predicted by the functional spinal unit finite element model with von Mises or Drucker-Prager failure criteria ( R 2  = 0.80-0.87), with areal bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ( R 2  = 0.54) and with volumetric bone mineral density from quantitative computed tomography ( R 2  = 0.79). Large-displacement non-linear analyses on all specimens did not improve predictions. We conclude that subject-specific finite element models of a functional spinal unit have potential to estimate the vertebral strength better than bone mineral density alone.

  19. Quality of pharmacy-specific Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) assignment in pharmacy journals indexed in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguet, Fernando; Salgado, Teresa M; van den Boogerd, Lucienne; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is the National Library of Medicine (NLM) controlled vocabulary for indexing articles. Inaccuracies in the MeSH thesaurus have been reported for several areas including pharmacy. To assess the quality of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment to articles indexed in pharmacy journals. The 10 journals containing the highest number of articles published in 2012 indexed under the MeSH 'Pharmacists' were identified. All articles published over a 5-year period (2008-2012) in the 10 previously selected journals were retrieved from PubMed. MeSH terms used to index these articles were extracted and pharmacy-specific MeSH terms were identified. The frequency of use of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms was calculated across journals. A total of 6989 articles were retrieved from the 10 pharmacy journals, of which 328 (4.7%) were articles not fully indexed and therefore did not contain any MeSH terms assigned. Among the 6661 articles fully indexed, the mean number of MeSH terms was 10.1 (SD = 4.0), being 1.0 (SD = 1.3) considered as Major MeSH. Both values significantly varied across journals. The mean number of pharmacy-specific MeSH terms per article was 0.9 (SD = 1.2). A total of 3490 (52.4%) of the 6661 articles were indexed in pharmacy journals without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Of the total 67193 MeSH terms assigned to articles, on average 10.5% (SD = 13.9) were pharmacy-specific MeSH. A statistically significant different pattern of pharmacy-specific MeSH assignment was identified across journals (Kruskal-Wallis P MeSH terms to articles indexed in pharmacy journals can be improved to further enhance evidence gathering in pharmacy. Over half of the articles published in the top-10 journals publishing pharmacy literature were indexed without a single pharmacy-specific MeSH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder in rodents: the challenge to convey both cognitive and emotional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Andrea; Trezza, Viviana; Campolongo, Campolongo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant emotional memory processing is a core, disabling feature of both specific phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), two psychiatric diseases of significant prevalence and morbidity whose cognitive symptoms cannot be adequately treated by current psychopharmacological tools. Elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the etiology of these diseases is of great interest for the identification of new therapeutics that improve not only the symptomatology but also the full recovery from the pathology. To this aim, several animal models have been proposed based on substantial resemblance between the behavioral alterations seen in animals and the human pathology. The purpose of this review is to describe and comment on the most commonly used rodent models of specific phobias and PTSD. A particular focus will be reserved to the cued version of fear conditioning, as the highly specific stimulus-bound conditioned fear response seems to fit well with clinical descriptions of phobic fear.Moreover, animal models of PTSD will be evaluated by referring to three elements that are considered essential ina valid model of this disease: stressor exposure, memory for the stressor, and anxiety-related behaviors. Finally, current therapeutic directions, with a focus on cannabinoid and glucocorticoid compounds, will be briefly outlined.

  1. Specific Features of Formation and Distribution of the Fund of Innovation Development when Motivating Employees of Enterprises

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    Kuzmin Oleh Ye.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers motivation activity at industrial enterprises and underlines importance of its execution under conditions of innovation activity. In order to perform it the article offers to use a number of material (bonus system by generalised grades, bonus for doing especially important work for a certain period of time with consideration of the labour process with innovation activity of the enterprise, etc. and non-material (praise, gratuity, methods of formation of collectives, etc. incentives, the source of which is application of the fund of innovation development. In order to increase effectiveness of motivation activity of an enterprise the article identifies specific features of its formation and distribution: financial and purposeful character, continuity, inclusion of individual payments only and existence of norms of deduction of its funds.

  2. The specific features of the diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease in rheumatoid arthritis (Results of the authors’ studies

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    Natalya Anatolyevna Khramtsova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD and its complications occupy the leading place in the pattern of the causes of untimely death in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Objective: to study the incidence, pattern, and specific features of CHD in patients with RA. Patients and methods. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in 257 patients with RA (ARA, 1987. The patients’ mean age was 55.4±11.6 years; RA duration was 14.7years (range 2—20 years. Results. The incidence of CHD in RA was as much as 45.9% (n = 118, including 52.5% (n = 62 for typical angina pectoris on exertion; 25.4% (n = 30 and 22.1% (n = 26 for silent ischemia and arrhythmias, respectively. A high proportion of vertebrogenic cardialgias (48.8%; n = 100 were noted in those who complained of heart pain. The authors identified traditional risk factors, such as hypertension (OR = 12.1, smoking (OR = 10.2, early menopause (OR = 3.6, decreased glomerular filtration rate (OR = 3.5, cardiovascular heredity (OR = 3.1, overweight (OR = 2.5, a heart rate of more than 70 beats/min (OR = 2.3, atherogenic dyslipidemia (OR = 2.3, hyperglycemia (OR = 2.1, and age (OR = 1.7. Along with those, the authors also ascertained CHD predictors associating with chronic inflammation consequences: use of glucocorticoids (OR = 5.0, concomitant anemia as a common complication of RA (OR = 4.7, high DAS 28 scores (OR = 3.7, visual analog scale pain scores of > 50 mm (OR = 2.6, and RA duration of >10 years (OR = 2.2. Conclusion. The specific features of CHD in RA include the frequent detection of arrhythmias and silent ischemia. The importance of the degree of inflammatory activity along with the traditional risk factors of CHD is apparent.

  3. Pengembangan Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP Tematik Berbasis Local Wisdom Untuk Membangun Karakter Hormat dan Kepedulian Siswa SD

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    Amaliyah Ulfah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at generating possible thematic Subject Specific Pedagogy (SSP based on local wisdom and examining the results teachers and students perception on the pedagogical approach developed in the preliminary field testing. Drawing upon the notion of research and development by Borg & Gall, this research was conducted through different stages involving information gathering, planning, developing preliminary product, preliminary field testing, and revising. The subjects were a small group of second grade students of SD Muhammadiyah Bodon and SD Muhammadiyah Sidoarum Yogyakarta. Each consists of 10 students. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation, character observation sheets, and teacher assessment sheets. The data gathering instrument consists of product validation tool, character observation sheets, and teachers’ assessment sheets. The SSP product generated in this study consists of lesson plans, teaching materials, worksheets, and expert perception. According to the experts of media, materials, and evaluation, the SSP product is in good categories. First grade teachers result a good score to the syllabus and lesson plans, while the worksheets and evaluation are in very good category. The results from the students responses to the textbooks is 78, which is in very good category, while the students worksheets score 71 which includes in excellent category. Therefore, the developed thematic SSP based on local wisdom can be declared appropriate for use in learning.

  4. FROM ENGLISH AS A GENERAL SCHOOL SUBJECT ONTO ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM FOR LEARNING SPECIFIC SUBJECTS: THE NEED TO SHIFT IN THE TEACHING ORIENTATION

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    Kun Aniroh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The teaching of ESP so far has been dominated by the belief that linguistic mastery of English is considered sufficient to deliver the contents of the subject matter concerned. This view seems to need a critical overview for verbal communication in general, let alone in ESP, requires both proficiency in the language and the contents. This implies that English teachers in ESP need to be equipped satisfactorily in English as well as the subject matter. An ESP teacher needs to possess a double competency. With this as a framework, the teaching of ESP accordingly will need to shift its focus from English in isolation to English as medium for subject matters exchanges.

  5. Evaluation of a subject-specific finite-element model of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint under physiological load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2014-01-03

    The equine metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is frequently injured, especially by racehorses in training. Most injuries result from repetitive loading of the subchondral bone and articular cartilage rather than from acute events. The likelihood of injury is multi-factorial but the magnitude of mechanical loading and the number of loading cycles are believed to play an important role. Therefore, an important step in understanding injury is to determine the distribution of load across the articular surface during normal locomotion. A subject-specific finite-element model of the MCP joint was developed (including deformable cartilage, elastic ligaments, muscle forces and rigid representations of bone), evaluated against measurements obtained from cadaver experiments, and then loaded using data from gait experiments. The sensitivity of the model to force inputs, cartilage stiffness, and cartilage geometry was studied. The FE model predicted MCP joint torque and sesamoid bone flexion angles within 5% of experimental measurements. Muscle-tendon forces, joint loads and cartilage stresses all increased as locomotion speed increased from walking to trotting and finally cantering. Perturbations to muscle-tendon forces resulted in small changes in articular cartilage stresses, whereas variations in joint torque, cartilage geometry and stiffness produced much larger effects. Non-subject-specific cartilage geometry changed the magnitude and distribution of pressure and the von Mises stress markedly. The mean and peak cartilage stresses generally increased with an increase in cartilage stiffness. Areas of peak stress correlated qualitatively with sites of common injury, suggesting that further modelling work may elucidate the types of loading that precede joint injury and may assist in the development of techniques for injury mitigation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Features of CRISPR-Cas Regulation Key to Highly Efficient and Temporally-Specific crRNA Production

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    Andjela Rodic

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial immune systems, such as CRISPR-Cas or restriction-modification (R-M systems, affect bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance by modulating horizontal gene flow. A model system for CRISPR-Cas regulation, the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli, is silent under standard laboratory conditions and experimentally observing the dynamics of CRISPR-Cas activation is challenging. Two characteristic features of CRISPR-Cas regulation in E. coli are cooperative transcription repression of cas gene and CRISPR array promoters, and fast non-specific degradation of full length CRISPR transcripts (pre-crRNA. In this work, we use computational modeling to understand how these features affect the system expression dynamics. Signaling which leads to CRISPR-Cas activation is currently unknown, so to bypass this step, we here propose a conceptual setup for cas expression activation, where cas genes are put under transcription control typical for a restriction-modification (R-M system and then introduced into a cell. Known transcription regulation of an R-M system is used as a proxy for currently unknown CRISPR-Cas transcription control, as both systems are characterized by high cooperativity, which is likely related to similar dynamical constraints of their function. We find that the two characteristic CRISPR-Cas control features are responsible for its temporally-specific dynamical response, so that the system makes a steep (switch-like transition from OFF to ON state with a time-delay controlled by pre-crRNA degradation rate. We furthermore find that cooperative transcription regulation qualitatively leads to a cross-over to a regime where, at higher pre-crRNA processing rates, crRNA generation approaches the limit of an infinitely abrupt system induction. We propose that these dynamical properties are associated with rapid expression of CRISPR-Cas components and efficient protection of bacterial cells against foreign DNA. In terms of synthetic

  7. [Clinical-demographic factors associated with fear-avoidance in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain in Primary Care: secondary analysis of intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cerrillo, Juan Luis; Rondón-Ramos, Antonio; Clavero-Cano, Susana; Pérez-González, Rita; Martinez-Calderon, Javier; Luque-Suarez, Alejandro

    2018-01-30

    To describe some sociodemographics and clinical characteristics of subjects with Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain (NCLBP) in Primary Care, as well as to investigate their association with Fear-Avoidance (FA). Cross-sectional. Secondary analysis of an intervention study. Basic Health Areas in Costa del Sol Health District (Málaga, Spain). An analysis was performed on 147 subjects with NCLBP from a previous intervention study database in Primary Care Physiotherapy (PCP). Characteristics: age 18-65; understanding of the Spanish language; absence of cognitive disorders, fibromyalgia or dorsolumbar surgery, and to be able to perform physical exercise. The main variable was FA level (FABQ and the FABQ-PA and FABQ-W) sub-scales. Clinical variables included: pain (NRPS-11), disability (RMQ), evolution, previous treatments and diagnostic imaging. The sociodemographic variables included: gender, age, educational level, and employment status. Just over half (51.7%) of the subjects had high FA on the FABQ-PA sub-scale. Sick leave (SL) [β=24.45 (P=.009 * ); β=13.03 (P=.016 * ); β=14.04 (P=.011 * ) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively]; primary studies level [β=15.09 (P=.01 * ); β=9.73 (P=.01 * ) for FABQ and FABQ-PA], and disability [β=1.45 (P<.001); β=0.61 (P<.001); β=0.68 (P<.001) for FABQ, FABQ-PA and FABQ-W, respectively] were associated with FA when they were modeled by multivariate regression. Some sociodemographic and clinical features of the NCLBP population are presented. Imaging tests (81.63%) and previous passive treatments (55.78%) could reflect problems of adherence to recommendations of CPGs. Sick leave, primary studies level, and disability were associated with FA. The findings should be interpreted in the light of possible limitations. Some suggestions for clinical practice are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading using subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Forman, Jason; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models. Among the five levels of model complexity, the geometric SS-FE and the heterogenized SS-FE models showed statistically significant improvement on response prediction capability compared to the other model formulations whereas the difference between two SS-FE models was negligible. This result indicated the geometric SS-FE models, containing detailed geometric information from CT images with homogeneous linear isotropic elastic material properties, would be an optimal model complexity for prediction of structural response of the femoral shafts under the dynamic loading conditions. The average and the standard deviation of the RMS errors of the geometric SS-FE models for all the 31 cases was 0.46 kN and 0.66 kN, respectively. This study highlights the contribution of geometric variability on the structural response variation of the femoral shafts subjected to dynamic loading condition and the potential of geometric SS-FE models to capture the structural response variation of the femoral shafts.

  9. Characterization of glycan binding specificities of influenza B viruses with correlation with hemagglutinin genotypes and clinical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Fang; Chang, Chuan-Fa; Chi, Chia-Yu; Wang, Hsuan-Chen; Wang, Jen-Ren; Su, Ih-Jen

    2012-04-01

    The carbohydrate binding specificities are different among avian and human influenza A viruses and may affect the tissue tropism and transmission of these viruses. The glycan binding biology for influenza B, however, has not been systematically characterized. Glycan binding specificities of influenza B viral isolates were analyzed and correlated to hemagglutinin (HA) genotypes and clinical manifestations. A newly developed solution glycan array was applied to characterize the receptor binding specificities of influenza B virus clinical isolates from 2001 to 2007 in Taiwan. Thirty oligosaccharides which include α-2,3 and α-2,6 linkage glycans were subjected to analysis. The glycan binding patterns of 53 influenza B isolates could be categorized into three groups and were well correlated to their HA genotypes. The Yamagata-like strains predominantly bound to α-2,6-linkage glycan (24:29, 83%) while Victoria-like strains preferentially bound to both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linkage glycans (13:24, 54%). A third group of viruses bound to sulfated glycans and these all belonged to Victoria-like strains. Based on the HA sequences, Asn-163, Glu-198, Ala-202, and Lys-203 were conserved among Victoria-like strains which may influence their carbohydrate recognition. The viruses bound to dual type glycans were more likely to be associated with the development of bronchopneumonia and gastrointestinal illness than those bound only to α-2,6 sialyl glycans (P B viruses, and will contribute to virus surveillance and vaccine strain selection. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE STATUS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN RELATION TO THE CLIMATIC, GEOGRAPHICAL, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ZONES OF UZBEKISTAN

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    Kh. S. Akhmedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the predominant clinical picture of chronic synovial joint inflammation accompanied by progressive cartilage and bone destruction, the pathogenesis of which is greatly due to autoimmune mechanisms. Some investigations demonstrate that a set of poor climatic and geographical factors may influence the development of immune disorders that are a trigger in the development of RA.Objective: to comparative analyze immunological parameters in RA in dwellers from different regions of Uzbekistan.Subjects and methods. The study enrolled RA patients from three Uzbekistan zones: 1 Tashkent (n = 25, 2 Xorazm Region (n = 25; 3 Namangan Region (n = 28.Results and discussion. Comparative analysis of the immune status indicated that the patients living in Zone 2 exhibited a significantly reduced T cell immune response (p < 0.05, a considerably higher count of B lymphocytes (p < 0.001, and significantly lower levels of CD11b+, CD18+, CD25+, and CD95+ cells (p < 0.05 than did those from the two other zones. Examination of the frequency of the monomorphic determinant of histocompatibility Class I (HLA-I antigens revealed its significant decrease in the patients residing in Zones 1 and 3 (p < 0.05 whereas the RA patients from Zone 2 had a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DR (p < 0.05.Conclusion. The comparative analysis shows that the immunological parameters differ in the patients from the three zones of Uzbekistan, which may suggest that the climatic and geographical factors of the environment may influence the course of the disease.

  11. What is the Difference in Morphologic Features of the Thoracic Pedicle Between Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Healthy Subjects? A CT-based Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Gao, Wenjie; Chen, Chong; Wang, Qinghua; Lin, Shaochun; Xu, Caixia; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2017-11-01

    Describing the morphologic features of the thoracic pedicle in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for placement of pedicle screws. Previous studies showed inadequate reliability owing to small sample size and heterogeneity of the patients surveyed. To use CT scans (1) to describe the morphologic features of 2718 thoracic pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 age-, sex-, and height-matched controls; and (2) to classify the pedicles in three types based on pedicle width and analyze the distribution of each type. A total of 2718 pedicles from 60 female patients with Lenke Type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and 60 matched female controls were analyzed via CT. All patients surveyed were diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, Lenke Type 1, at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, and all underwent pedicle screw fixation between January 2008 and December 2013 with preoperative radiographs and CT images on file. We routinely obtained CT scans before these procedures; all patients who underwent surgery during that period had CT scans, and all were available for analysis here. Control subjects had CT scans for other clinical indications and had no abnormal findings of the spine. The control subjects were chosen to match patients in terms of age (15 ± 2.6 years versus 15 ± 2.6 years) and sex. Height of the two groups also was matched (154 ± 9 cm versus 155 ± 10 cm; mean difference, -1.06 cm; 95% CI, -1.24 to -0.81 cm; p scoliosis (22%; 293 of 1322) compared with controls (13%; 178 of 1396) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42-0.63; p scoliosis, they commonly occurred on the concave side 34% (228 of 661) and on the AV-SC region (32%; 43 of 136). Pedicle width on the concave side was narrower than pedicle width on the convex side and pedicle width in healthy control subjects. The apical vertebra in the structural curve was the most variegated region of the curve with

  12. An unsupervised meta-graph clustering based prototype-specific feature quantification for human re-identification in video surveillance

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    Aparajita Nanda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human re-identification is an emerging research area in the field of visual surveillance. It refers to the task of associating the images of the persons captured by one camera (probe set with the images captured by another camera (gallery set at different locations in different time instances. The performance of these systems are often challenged by some factors—variation in articulated human pose and clothing, frequent occlusion with various objects, change in light illumination, and the cluttered background are to name a few. Besides, the ambiguity in recognition increases between individuals with similar appearance. In this paper, we present a novel framework for human re-identification that finds the correspondence image pair across non-overlapping camera views in the presence of the above challenging scenarios. The proposed framework handles the visual ambiguity having similar appearance by first segmenting the gallery instances into disjoint prototypes (groups, where each prototype represents the images with high commonality. Then, a weighing scheme is formulated that quantifies the selective and distinct information about the features concerning the level of contribution against each prototype. Finally, the prototype specific weights are utilized in the similarity measure and fused with the existing generic weighing to facilitates improvement in the re-identification. Exhaustive simulation on three benchmark datasets alongside the CMC (Cumulative Matching Characteristics plot enumerate the efficacy of our proposed framework over the counterparts.

  13. Novel method for detection of virus-specific CD41+ T cells indicates a decreased EBV-specific CD4+ T cell response in untreated HIV-infected subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piriou, Erwan R.; van Dort, Karel; Nanlohy, Nening M.; van Oers, Marinus H.; Miedema, Frank; van Baarle, Debbie

    2005-01-01

    A lower function of EBV-specific CD8(+) T cells in HIV-infected subjects could be related to a lack of specific CD4(+) T cell help. Therefore, we studied EBV-specific CD4(+) T cells in both healthy donors and untreated or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-seropositive

  14. Region-Specific Association of Subjective Cognitive Decline With Tauopathy Independent of Global β-Amyloid Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Rachel F; Hanseeuw, Bernard; Schultz, Aaron P; Vannini, Patrizia; Aghjayan, Sarah L; Properzi, Michael J; Jackson, Jonathan D; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Rentz, Dorene M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Amariglio, Rebecca E

    2017-10-02

    associated with increasing entorhinal cortical tau burden (β = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-.52; P < .001) and Aβ burden (β = 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08-.40; P = .005), but not inferior temporal tau burden (β = 0.10; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.28; P = .27). This association between entorhinal cortical tau burden and SCD was largely unchanged after accounting for Aβ burden (β = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-.58; P = .001), and no interaction influenced SCD (β = -0.36; 95% CI, -0.34 to 0.09; P = .25). An exploratory post hoc whole-brain analysis also indicated that SCD was predominantly associated with greater tau burden in the entorhinal cortex. Subjective cognitive decline is indicative of accumulation of early tauopathy in the medial temporal lobe, specifically in the entorhinal cortex, and to a lesser extent, elevated global levels of Aβ. Our findings suggest multiple underlying pathways that motivate SCD that do not necessarily interact to influence SCD endorsement. As such, multiple biological factors must be considered when assessing SCD in clinically healthy older adults.

  15. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  16. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Pittet

    Full Text Available Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort.Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics.Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn's disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality, disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8. Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (p40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men.Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease should take gender differences and subjective

  17. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Valérie; Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was used to explore concern domains. Linear multiple regressions were conducted to assess associations with patient characteristics. Of 1102 patients who replied to the survey, 54% were female and 54% had Crohn's disease. We identified six domains of concern: socialization and stigmatization, disease-related constraints and uncertainty, symptoms and their impact on body and mind, loss of body control (including sexuality), disease transmission, and long-term impact of the disease. Cancer concerns were among the highest scored by all patients (median 61.8). Severity of symptoms was the only factor associated with concerns, unrelated to dimension and gender (pwomen, being >40 years decreased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns, and being at home or unemployed increased them. Treatments were associated with increased socialization and stigmatization and with increased disease-related constraints and uncertainty concerns in men. Overall, psychosomatic characteristics were highly associated with concerns for both men and women. Depending on the concern dimensions, increased levels of concern were associated with the highest signs of anxiety in women or depression in men, as well as lower health-related quality of life in men. Patients have numerous concerns related to their illness that need to be reassessed regularly. Concerns differ between men and women, suggesting that information and communication about the disease should take gender differences and subjective

  18. Subject-specific 2D/3D image registration and kinematics-driven musculoskeletal model of the spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, A H; Arjmand, N; Shirazi-Adl, A; Farahmand, F

    2017-05-24

    An essential input to the musculoskeletal (MS) trunk models that estimate muscle and spine forces is kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and lumbar vertebrae. While thorax and pelvis kinematics are usually measured via skin motion capture devices (with inherent errors on the proper identification of the underlying bony landmarks and the relative skin-sensor-bone movements), those of the intervening lumbar vertebrae are commonly approximated at fixed proportions based on the thorax-pelvis kinematics. This study proposes an image-based kinematics measurement approach to drive subject-specific (musculature, geometry, mass, and center of masses) MS models. Kinematics of the thorax, pelvis, and individual lumbar vertebrae as well as disc inclinations, gravity loading, and musculature were all measured via different imaging techniques. The model estimated muscle and lumbar forces in various upright and flexed postures in which kinematics were obtained using upright fluoroscopy via 2D/3D image registration. Predictions of this novel image-kinematics-driven model (Img-KD) were compared with those of the traditional kinematics-driven (T-KD) model in which individual lumbar vertebral rotations were assumed based on thorax-pelvis orientations. Results indicated that while differences between Img-KD and T-KD models remained small for the force in the global muscles (attached to the thoracic cage) (muscles (attached to the lumbar vertebrae). Assuming that the skin-based measurements of thorax and pelvis kinematics are accurate enough, the T-KD model predictions of spinal forces remain reliable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subject-specific bone attenuation correction for brain PET/MR: can ZTE-MRI substitute CT scan accurately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifé, Maya; Fernandez, Brice; Jaubert, Olivier; Soussan, Michael; Brulon, Vincent; Buvat, Irène; Comtat, Claude

    2017-10-01

    In brain PET/MR applications, accurate attenuation maps are required for accurate PET image quantification. An implemented attenuation correction (AC) method for brain imaging is the single-atlas approach that estimates an AC map from an averaged CT template. As an alternative, we propose to use a zero echo time (ZTE) pulse sequence to segment bone, air and soft tissue. A linear relationship between histogram normalized ZTE intensity and measured CT density in Hounsfield units (HU ) in bone has been established thanks to a CT-MR database of 16 patients. Continuous AC maps were computed based on the segmented ZTE by setting a fixed linear attenuation coefficient (LAC) to air and soft tissue and by using the linear relationship to generate continuous μ values for the bone. Additionally, for the purpose of comparison, four other AC maps were generated: a ZTE derived AC map with a fixed LAC for the bone, an AC map based on the single-atlas approach as provided by the PET/MR manufacturer, a soft-tissue only AC map and, finally, the CT derived attenuation map used as the gold standard (CTAC). All these AC maps were used with different levels of smoothing for PET image reconstruction with and without time-of-flight (TOF). The subject-specific AC map generated by combining ZTE-based segmentation and linear scaling of the normalized ZTE signal into HU was found to be a good substitute for the measured CTAC map in brain PET/MR when used with a Gaussian smoothing kernel of 4~mm corresponding to the PET scanner intrinsic resolution. As expected TOF reduces AC error regardless of the AC method. The continuous ZTE-AC performed better than the other alternative MR derived AC methods, reducing the quantification error between the MRAC corrected PET image and the reference CTAC corrected PET image.

  20. The Associated Ion between the VDR Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Hepatocellular Carcinoma and the Clinicopathological Features in Subjects Infected with HBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the possible association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Method. 968 chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled, of which 436 patients were diagnosed HCC patients, and 532 were non-HCC patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated. The genotypes of VDR gene at FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were determined. Results. The genotype frequencies of VDR FokI C>T polymorphism were significantly different between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients had a higher prevalence of FokI TT genotype than non-HCC subjects. With FokI CC as reference, the TT carriage had a significantly higher risk for development of HCC after adjustments with age, sex, HBV infection time, α-fetoprotein, smoking status, and alcohol intake. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype carriage of FokI polymorphisms were associated with advanced tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, and lymph node metastasis. The SNP at BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI did not show positive association with the risk and clinicopathological features of HCC. Conclusion. The FokI C>T polymorphisms may be used as a molecular marker to predict the risk and to evaluate the disease severity of HCC in those infected with HBV.

  1. The associated ion between the VDR gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma and the clinicopathological features in subjects infected with HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xing; Zeng, Huazong; Zhang, Guolei; Zhou, Weimin; Yan, Qiang; Dai, Licheng; Wang, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. 968 chronic HBV infection patients were enrolled, of which 436 patients were diagnosed HCC patients, and 532 were non-HCC patients. The clinicopathological characteristics of HCC were evaluated. The genotypes of VDR gene at FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI were determined. The genotype frequencies of VDR FokI C>T polymorphism were significantly different between HCC and non-HCC groups. HCC patients had a higher prevalence of FokI TT genotype than non-HCC subjects. With FokI CC as reference, the TT carriage had a significantly higher risk for development of HCC after adjustments with age, sex, HBV infection time, α -fetoprotein, smoking status, and alcohol intake. In addition, we also found that the TT genotype carriage of FokI polymorphisms were associated with advanced tumor stage, presence of cirrhosis, and lymph node metastasis. The SNP at BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI did not show positive association with the risk and clinicopathological features of HCC. The FokI C>T polymorphisms may be used as a molecular marker to predict the risk and to evaluate the disease severity of HCC in those infected with HBV.

  2. EnhancerPred2.0: predicting enhancers and their strength based on position-specific trinucleotide propensity and electron-ion interaction potential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenying; Jia, Cangzhi

    2017-03-28

    Enhancers are cis-acting elements that play major roles in upregulating eukaryotic gene expression by providing binding sites for transcription factors and their complexes. Because enhancers are highly cell/tissue specific, lack common motifs, and are far from the target gene, the systematic and precise identification of enhancer regions in DNA sequences is a big challenge. In this study, we developed an enhancer prediction method called EnhancerPred2.0 by combining position-specific trinucleotide propensity (PSTNP) information with the electron-ion interaction potential (EIIP) values for trinucleotides, to predict enhancers and their subgroups. To obtain the optimal combination of features, F-score values were used in a two-step wrapper-based feature selection method, which was applied in a high dimensional feature vector from PSTNP and EIIP. Finally, 126 optimized features from PSTNP combined with 32 optimized features from EIIP yielded the best performance for identifying enhancers and non-enhancers, with an overall accuracy (Acc) of 88.27% and a Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.77. Additionally, 198 features from PSTNP combined with 37 features from EIIP yielded the best performance for identifying strong and weak enhancers, with an overall Acc of 98.05% and a MCC of 0.96. Rigorous jackknife tests indicated that EnhancerPred2.0 was significantly better than the existing enhancer prediction methods in both overall accuracy and stability.

  3. Incorporation of CT-based measurements of trunk anatomy into subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the spine influences vertebral loading predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Alexander G; Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Allaire, Brett T; Velie, Kelsey R; De Paolis Kaluza, M Clara; Anderson, Dennis E; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2017-10-01

    We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models of the thoracolumbar spine by incorporating spine curvature and muscle morphology measurements from computed tomography (CT) scans to determine the degree to which vertebral compressive and shear loading estimates are sensitive to variations in trunk anatomy. We measured spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology using spine CT scans of 125 men, and then created four different thoracolumbar spine models for each person: (i) height and weight adjusted (Ht/Wt models); (ii) height, weight, and spine curvature adjusted (+C models); (iii) height, weight, and muscle morphology adjusted (+M models); and (iv) height, weight, spine curvature, and muscle morphology adjusted (+CM models). We determined vertebral compressive and shear loading at three regions of the spine (T8, T12, and L3) for four different activities. Vertebral compressive loads predicted by the subject-specific CT-based musculoskeletal models were between 54% lower to 45% higher from those estimated using musculoskeletal models adjusted only for subject height and weight. The impact of subject-specific information on vertebral loading estimates varied with the activity and spinal region. Vertebral loading estimates were more sensitive to incorporation of subject-specific spinal curvature than subject-specific muscle morphology. Our results indicate that individual variations in spine curvature and trunk muscle morphology can have a major impact on estimated vertebral compressive and shear loads, and thus should be accounted for when estimating subject-specific vertebral loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2164-2173, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. THE RISK FACTORS AND SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OSTEOPENIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Platitsyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the risk factors (RFs of osteoporosis (OP, the risk of OP-related fractures, the specific features of osteopenic syndrome in patients with chronic non-infectious diseases (CNID (coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and asthma. Materials and methods. The investigation enrolled 377 patients (mean age 55.3 ± 1.6 years with CNID and 221 persons (mean age, 53.2 ± 1.3 years who formed a control group. According to the nosological entity, the patients were divided as follows: Group 1 included 84 patients with CHD and hypertension; Group 2 comprised 99 hypertensive patients; Group 3 consisted of 70 patients with COPD; and Group 4 included 124 asthmatic patients. The examinees of all the groups were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. The investigation excluded patients with functional class IV chronic heart failure, continuous atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, or myocardial noncoronarogenic diseases and those with other diseases and conditions that could have an independent impact on bone metabolism. Prior to the examination, the patients had received no specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of OP. RFs for OP were assessed using the one-minute test recommended by the International OP Foundation (2008; 10-year risk for OP-related fractures were calculated applying the FRAX computer program in accordance with the guidelines of the International OP Association and the World Health Organization (WHO, 2008. To investigate bone mineral density (BMD, bioenergy X-ray densitometry of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was carried out by means of a Lunar DPX apparatus (USA. The results were assessed using the t-test in standard deviations (SD from the peak bone mass according to the WHO guidelines. Results. The RFs of OP were more frequently recorded in the patients with CNID than in the healthy individuals. RFs, such as smoking, low physical activity, and

  5. The Role of Specific Subjects in Education Production Functions: Evidence from Morning Classes in Chicago Public High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes, Kalena E.; Bricker, Jesse; Rohlfs, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Absences in Chicago Public High Schools are 3-7 days per year higher in first period than at other times of the day. This study exploits this empirical regularity and the essentially random variation between students in the ordering of classes over the day to measure how the returns to classroom learning vary by course subject, and how much attendance in one class spills over into learning in other subjects. We find that having a class in first period reduces grades in that course and has lit...

  6. Shared versus specific features of psychological symptoms and cigarettes per day: structural relations and mediation by negative- and positive-reinforcement smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Katherine J; Chou, Chih-Ping; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which shared versus specific features across multiple manifestations of psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, ADHD, aggression, alcohol misuse) associated with cigarettes per day. Subsequently, we investigated whether negative- (i.e., withdrawal relief) and positive- (i.e., pleasure enhancement) reinforcement smoking motivations mediated relations. Adult daily smokers (N = 338) completed self-report measures and structural equation modeling was used to construct a 3-factor (low positive affect-negative affect-disinhibition) model of affective and behavioral symptoms and to test relations of each latent factor (shared features) and indicator residual (specific features) to smoking level. Shared dimensions of low positive affect, negative affect, and disinhibition associated with smoking rate. Negative-reinforcement smoking mediated the link between latent negative affect and heavier daily smoking. Specific features of psychological symptoms unique from latent factors were generally not associated with cigarettes per day. Features shared across several forms of psychological symptoms appear to underpin relations between psychological symptoms and smoking rate.

  7. [The specific features of the detection, clinical manifestations, and treatment of tuberculosis in the HIV-infected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhin, V V; Kornilova, Z Kh; Alekseeva, L P

    2005-01-01

    The present study has explored the specific features of the detection, clinical manifestations, and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in 425 patients with TB and HIV infection. According to the time of joining the infections, the patients with TB and HIV infection are divided into 2 basic groups: 1) HIV infection is primary, TB develops at any stage of HIV infection and 2) TB is primary, HIV injections joins different forms of TB at its any stage. The social makeup of patients with TB/HIV infection is unfavorable: the unemployed, 50%; homeless persons, 26.5%; employees, 5%; workers, 9%; pensioners, 1.5%; the disabled, 5%; pupils, 3%. As compared with Group 2, Group 1 shows more employees and pupils and fewer homeless persons, which is associated with the younger age of patients in this group and their greater social security. In the pattern of clinical forms of tuberculosis in Group 1, there are prevalent forms of primary tuberculosis with lesion of intrathoracic and peripheral lymph nodes (12.8%), acutely progressive disseminated and miliary tuberculosis of the lung and extrapulmonary systems and organs (49%), among them, meningitis accounts for 4%, lesions of the liver, spleen, kidney, and other organs form 17%. In patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection, bacterial isolation has been established in 58% of cases; primary and multidrug resistances have been found in 53 and 8.9%, respectively. Multidrug resistance tends to increase: 2% in 2001, 3.4% in 2002, 4.6% in 2003, and 8.9% in 2004. Bacteria have been more frequently isolated in Group 2 than in Group 1 (81% vs 19%), which is accounted for by the magnitude of destructive changes in them in the presence of infiltrative TB and by the high incidence of fibrocavernous tuberculosis. The patients with TB/HIV infection have a concomitance of 3 infectious diseases: HIV infection, TB, and, in 74% of the patients, sexually transmitted infections (syphilis, chlamydiosis, gonorrhea) that, in accordance with Resolution

  8. Can learning by qualitative modelling be deployed as an effective method for learning subject-specific content?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlatter, E.; Bredeweg, B.; Drie, J.P. van; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    Modelling can help understanding dynamic systems, but learning how to model is a difficult and time-consuming task. The challenge is to foster modelling skills, while not limiting the learning of regular subject matter, or better, to also improve this learning. We investigate how learning by

  9. Subject-Verb Agreement and Verbal Short-Term Memory: A Perspective from Greek Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalioti, Marina; Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Manouilidou, Christina; Talli, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of school age Greek-speaking children with SLI on verbal short-term memory (VSTM) and Subject-Verb (S-V) agreement in comparison to chronological age controls and younger typically developing children. VSTM abilities were assessed by means of a non-word repetition task (NRT) and an elicited production task,…

  10. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  11. On the relative relevance of subject-specific geometries and degeneration-specific mechanical properties for the study of cell death in human intervertebral disc models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eMalandrino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capturing patient- or condition-specific intervertebral disc (IVD properties in finite element models is outmost important in order to explore how biomechanical and biophysical processes may interact in spine diseases. However, disc degenerative changes are often modelled through equations similar to those employed for healthy organs, which might not be valid. As for the simulated effects of degenerative changes, they likely depend on specific disc geometries. Accordingly, we explored the ability of continuum tissue models to simulate disc degenerative changes. We further used the results in order to assess the interplay between these simulated changes and particular IVD morphologies, in relation to disc cell nutrition, a potentially important actor in disc tissue regulation. A protocol to derive patient-specific computational models from clinical images was applied to different spine specimens. In vitro IVD creep tests were used to optimize poro-hyperelastic input material parameters in these models, in function of the IVD degeneration grade. The use of condition-specific tissue model parameters in the specimen-specific geometrical models was validated against independent kinematic measurements in vitro. Then, models were coupled to a transport-cell viability model in order to assess the respective effects of tissue degeneration and disc geometry on cell viability. While classic disc poromechanical models failed in representing known degenerative changes, additional simulation of tissue damage allowed model validation and gave degeneration-dependent material properties related to osmotic pressure and water loss, and to increased fibrosis. Surprisingly, nutrition-induced cell death was independent of the grade-dependent material properties, but was favoured by increased diffusion distances in large IVDs. Our results suggest that in situ geometrical screening of IVD morphology might help to anticipate particular mechanisms of disc degeneration.

  12. SU-D-204-01: A Methodology Based On Machine Learning and Quantum Clustering to Predict Lung SBRT Dosimetric Endpoints From Patient Specific Anatomic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafata, K; Ren, L; Wu, Q; Kelsey, C; Hong, J; Cai, J; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a data-mining methodology based on quantum clustering and machine learning to predict expected dosimetric endpoints for lung SBRT applications based on patient-specific anatomic features. Methods: Ninety-three patients who received lung SBRT at our clinic from 2011–2013 were retrospectively identified. Planning information was acquired for each patient, from which various features were extracted using in-house semi-automatic software. Anatomic features included tumor-to-OAR distances, tumor location, total-lung-volume, GTV and ITV. Dosimetric endpoints were adopted from RTOG-0195 recommendations, and consisted of various OAR-specific partial-volume doses and maximum point-doses. First, PCA analysis and unsupervised quantum-clustering was used to explore the feature-space to identify potentially strong classifiers. Secondly, a multi-class logistic regression algorithm was developed and trained to predict dose-volume endpoints based on patient-specific anatomic features. Classes were defined by discretizing the dose-volume data, and the feature-space was zero-mean normalized. Fitting parameters were determined by minimizing a regularized cost function, and optimization was performed via gradient descent. As a pilot study, the model was tested on two esophageal dosimetric planning endpoints (maximum point-dose, dose-to-5cc), and its generalizability was evaluated with leave-one-out cross-validation. Results: Quantum-Clustering demonstrated a strong separation of feature-space at 15Gy across the first-and-second Principle Components of the data when the dosimetric endpoints were retrospectively identified. Maximum point dose prediction to the esophagus demonstrated a cross-validation accuracy of 87%, and the maximum dose to 5cc demonstrated a respective value of 79%. The largest optimized weighting factor was placed on GTV-to-esophagus distance (a factor of 10 greater than the second largest weighting factor), indicating an intuitively strong

  13. An investigation to determine if a single validated density-elasticity relationship can be used for subject specific finite element analyses of human long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Sebastian; Göttlinger, Michael; Augat, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Subject-specific FE-models of human long bones have to predict mechanical parameters with sufficient accuracy to be applicable in a clinical setting. One of the main aspects in subject-specific FE-models of bones regarding accuracy is the modeling of the material inhomogeneity. The goal of this study was therefore to develop FE-models of human femurs and investigate if a single validated density-elasticity relationship can be used for subject specific finite element analyses of human long bones, when the task is to predict the bone's mechanical response to load. To this aim, 23 human cadaver femurs were tested in axial compression with a load of 1000 N. Strains, local displacements, and axial bone stiffness were determined. Subject-specific FE-models were developed for each bone based on quantitative CT-scans. Three different density-elasticity relationships were retrieved from the literature, and were implemented in the FE-models. The predicted mechanical values depended largely on the used equation. The most reasonable equation showed a mean error of -11% in strain prediction, a mean error of -23% in local displacement prediction, and a mean error of +23% in axial stiffness prediction. The scatter of the predictions was very low in all three categories of measurements with a 1.96 standard deviation of about 30% to the mean errors. In conclusion, a framework for subject-specific FE-models was developed that was able to predict surface strains and bone deformation with good accuracy by using a single density-elasticity relationship. However, it was also found that the most appropriate density-elasticity relationship was specimen-specific. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A within-subject ERP and fMRI investigation of orientation-specific recognition memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzmann, Grit; Jin, Mingwu; Cordes, Dietmar; Curran, Tim

    2012-09-01

    Despite a large body of recognition memory research, its temporal, measured with ERPs, and spatial, measured with fMRI, substrates have never been investigated in the same subjects. In the present study, we obtained this information in parallel sessions, in which subjects studied and recognized images of visual objects and their orientation. The results showed that ERP-familiarity processes between 240 and 440 ms temporally preceded recollection processes and were structurally associated with prefrontal brain regions. Recollection processes were most prominent from 440 to 600 ms and correlated with activation in temporal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. Post-retrieval monitoring, which occurred in the ERP between 600 and 1000 ms as a long-lasting slow-wave over frontal channel groups, showed correlations with activation in the prefrontal and parietal cortex. These ERP/fMRI relationships showed some correspondences to source localizations of the investigated ERP memory effects.

  15. Context-specific selection of algorithms for recursive feature tracking in endoscopic image using a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selka, F; Nicolau, S; Agnus, V; Bessaid, A; Marescaux, J; Soler, L

    2015-03-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, the tracking of deformable tissue is a critical component for image-guided applications. Deformation of the tissue can be recovered by tracking features using tissue surface information (texture, color,...). Recent work in this field has shown success in acquiring tissue motion. However, the performance evaluation of detection and tracking algorithms on such images are still difficult and are not standardized. This is mainly due to the lack of ground truth data on real data. Moreover, in order to avoid supplementary techniques to remove outliers, no quantitative work has been undertaken to evaluate the benefit of a pre-process based on image filtering, which can improve feature tracking robustness. In this paper, we propose a methodology to validate detection and feature tracking algorithms, using a trick based on forward-backward tracking that provides an artificial ground truth data. We describe a clear and complete methodology to evaluate and compare different detection and tracking algorithms. In addition, we extend our framework to propose a strategy to identify the best combinations from a set of detector, tracker and pre-process algorithms, according to the live intra-operative data. Experimental results have been performed on in vivo datasets and show that pre-process can have a strong influence on tracking performance and that our strategy to find the best combinations is relevant for a reasonable computation cost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic specificity of poor premorbid adjustment: comparison of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and mood disorder with psychotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I; Brown, Leslie H; Haas, Gretchen L

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have significant deficits in premorbid social and academic adjustment compared to individuals with non-psychotic diagnoses. However, it is unclear how severity and developmental trajectory of premorbid maladjustment compare across psychotic disorders. This study examined the association between premorbid functioning (in childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) and psychotic disorder diagnosis in a first-episode sample of 105 individuals: schizophrenia (n=68), schizoaffective disorder (n=22), and mood disorder with psychotic features (n=15). Social and academic maladjustment was assessed using the Cannon-Spoor Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Worse social functioning in late adolescence was associated with higher odds of schizophrenia compared to odds of either schizoaffective disorder or mood disorder with psychotic features, independently of child and early adolescent maladjustment. Greater social dysfunction in childhood was associated with higher odds of schizoaffective disorder compared to odds of schizophrenia. Premorbid decline in academic adjustment was observed for all groups, but did not predict diagnosis at any stage of development. Results suggest that social functioning is disrupted in the premorbid phase of both schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, but remains fairly stable in mood disorders with psychotic features. Disparities in the onset and time course of social dysfunction suggest important developmental differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Meeting Our Users where They Conference: A Texas A&M Model to Support Librarian Attendance at Subject-Specific Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Rebecca; Melgoza, Pauline; Seeger, Christina; Wan, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Today's academic librarian is frequently called upon to function as a subject specialist, with or without advanced degrees in other disciplines. One method of monitoring trends within a given field is to study its literature; another is to attend conferences in the discipline. Discipline-specific conference attendance by academic librarians…

  18. Gender, Previous Knowledge, Personality Traits and Subject-Specific Motivation as Predictors of Students' Math Grade in Upper-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peklaj, Cirila; Podlesek, Anja; Pecjak, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between gender, previous knowledge, different personality traits, subject-specific motivational dimensions and students' math grade in secondary school. A total of 386 first-year students (142 boys and 244 girls) from secondary schools in Slovenia (mean age was 15.7 years) participated in the…

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEFORMATION OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE AS A RESULT OF THE EARTH CORE NORTHERN DRIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Goncharov

    2012-01-01

    drifting (Figures 26, and 27.By comparing the equations that describe the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere and the model of the core drift towards the North Pole, it is possible to establish a quantitative ‘bridge’ between the structures of meridional compression of the lithosphere and the core drifting structures.Conclusions based on the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere conform to many independent data and concepts, such as disturbance of the isostatic equilibrium of the Antarctica lithosphere and its high standing; the anomalously wide shelf of the Arctic ocean (Figure 28а and the increased thickness of the sediment cover, that is rich in hydrocarbons, in combination with the ultralow velocity of spreading in Gakkel Ridge; the approximately equal areas of Antarctica and the Arctic ocean as antipodes (Figure 28б; elongation (according to GPS data of the parallels in the Southern hemisphere, and their shortening in the Northern hemisphere (Figure 26; radial (relative to the South Pole rifts and other lineaments in Antarctica (Figures 29, and 30; the sub-concentric (relative to the same pole system of spreading around Antarctica, which develops northward into the submeridional system including three ‘trunks’ at a distance of about 90° (Figure 31.Due to the higher velocity of the northern drift of the lithosphere within the band with the middle meridian 100° E – 80° W, wherein the main mass of the continental lithosphere is concentrated and whose two ‘poles’ are marked by the axes of the African and Pacific superplumes (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 32, the following specific features have developed: maximum elongation of the Antarctic continent in the Southern (‘stretched’ hemisphere (Figure 28 б; maximum shortening of the Arctic ocean in the Northern (‘compressed’ hemisphere (Figure 28а; maximum spreading velocity in the SouthEastern Indian Ridge (Figure 33; maximum northern component of the horizontal displacements velocity

  20. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF DEFORMATION OF THE CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC LITHOSPHERE AS A RESULT OF THE EARTH CORE NORTHERN DRIFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Goncharov

    2015-09-01

    drifting (Figures 26, and 27.By comparing the equations that describe the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere and the model of the core drift towards the North Pole, it is possible to establish a quantitative ‘bridge’ between the structures of meridional compression of the lithosphere and the core drifting structures.Conclusions based on the model of the northern drift of the lithosphere conform to many independent data and concepts, such as disturbance of the isostatic equilibrium of the Antarctica lithosphere and its high standing; the anomalously wide shelf of the Arctic ocean (Figure 28а and the increased thickness of the sediment cover, that is rich in hydrocarbons, in combination with the ultralow velocity of spreading in Gakkel Ridge; the approximately equal areas of Antarctica and the Arctic ocean as antipodes (Figure 28б; elongation (according to GPS data of the parallels in the Southern hemisphere, and their shortening in the Northern hemisphere (Figure 26; radial (relative to the South Pole rifts and other lineaments in Antarctica (Figures 29, and 30; the sub-concentric (relative to the same pole system of spreading around Antarctica, which develops northward into the submeridional system including three ‘trunks’ at a distance of about 90° (Figure 31.Due to the higher velocity of the northern drift of the lithosphere within the band with the middle meridian 100° E – 80° W, wherein the main mass of the continental lithosphere is concentrated and whose two ‘poles’ are marked by the axes of the African and Pacific superplumes (Figures 3, 4, 5, and 32, the following specific features have developed: maximum elongation of the Antarctic continent in the Southern (‘stretched’ hemisphere (Figure 28 б; maximum shortening of the Arctic ocean in the Northern (‘compressed’ hemisphere (Figure 28а; maximum spreading velocity in the SouthEastern Indian Ridge (Figure 33; maximum northern component of the horizontal displacements velocity

  1. An automated image-based method of 3D subject-specific body segment parameter estimation for kinetic analyses of rapid movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Alison L; Corazza, Stefano; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    Accurate subject-specific body segment parameters (BSPs) are necessary to perform kinetic analyses of human movements with large accelerations, or no external contact forces or moments. A new automated topographical image-based method of estimating segment mass, center of mass (CM) position, and moments of inertia is presented. Body geometry and volume were measured using a laser scanner, then an automated pose and shape registration algorithm segmented the scanned body surface, and identified joint center (JC) positions. Assuming the constant segment densities of Dempster, thigh and shank masses, CM locations, and moments of inertia were estimated for four male subjects with body mass indexes (BMIs) of 19.7-38.2. The subject-specific BSP were compared with those determined using Dempster and Clauser regression equations. The influence of BSP and BMI differences on knee and hip net forces and moments during a running swing phase were quantified for the subjects with the smallest and largest BMIs. Subject-specific BSP for 15 body segments were quickly calculated using the image-based method, and total subject masses were overestimated by 1.7-2.9%.When compared with the Dempster and Clauser methods, image-based and regression estimated thigh BSP varied more than the shank parameters. Thigh masses and hip JC to thigh CM distances were consistently larger, and each transverse moment of inertia was smaller using the image-based method. Because the shank had larger linear and angular accelerations than the thigh during the running swing phase, shank BSP differences had a larger effect on calculated intersegmental forces and moments at the knee joint than thigh BSP differences did at the hip. It was the net knee kinetic differences caused by the shank BSP differences that were the largest contributors to the hip variations. Finally, BSP differences produced larger kinetic differences for the subject with larger segment masses, suggesting that parameter accuracy is more

  2. Core Subjects at the End of Primary School: Identifying and Explaining Relative Strengths of Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L. H.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background: In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims: To compare the distributions of performance of…

  3. Amplification of 9q34 in childhood adrenocortical tumors: a specific feature unrelated to ethnic origin or living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo B.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors (ACT in children under 15 years of age exhibit some clinical and biological features distinct from ACT in adults. Cell proliferation, hypertrophy and cell death in adrenal cortex during the last months of gestation and the immediate postnatal period seem to be critical for the origin of ACT in children. Studies with large numbers of patients with childhood ACT have indicated a median age at diagnosis of about 4 years. In our institution, the median age was 3 years and 5 months, while the median age for first signs and symptoms was 2 years and 5 months (N = 72. Using the comparative genomic hybridization technique, we have reported a high frequency of 9q34 amplification in adenomas and carcinomas. This finding has been confirmed more recently by investigators in England. The lower socioeconomic status, the distinctive ethnic groups and all the regional differences in Southern Brazil in relation to patients in England indicate that these differences are not important to determine 9q34 amplification. Candidate amplified genes mapped to this locus are currently being investigated and Southern blot results obtained so far have discarded amplification of the abl oncogene. Amplification of 9q34 has not been found to be related to tumor size, staging, or malignant histopathological features, nor does it seem to be responsible for the higher incidence of ACT observed in Southern Brazil, but could be related to an ACT from embryonic origin.

  4. Action of a specific iron chelate for the metabolism of iron-59 in subjects affected with thalassemia major. [Desferal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, G.F.; Ingrao, G.; Bianco, I.; Lerone, M.

    1982-01-01

    Some subjects, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years, suffering with thalassemia major, which causes a continuous iron overload in most organs and tissues of the patients, were treated with Desferal, an iron-chelating agent. Supposing that iron accumulates both in the reticuloendothelial and parenchymatous cells, particularly in liver and myocardium, where its overload is very dangerous, we have tried to identify the exact site of action of Desferal. Therefore the patients were injected with a /sup 59/Fe solution and treated regularly with a chelating therapy with Desferal. Measurements of the /sup 59/Fe body burden were made during a period of about 6 months post injection and measurements of /sup 59/Fe and stable iron in blood, urine, and feces samples during a period of about 1 month post injection.

  5. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, V.; Vaucher, C.; F. Froehlich; B. Burnand; Michetti, P.; Maillard, M. H.

    2017-01-01

    Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis factor analysis was u...

  6. Patient self-reported concerns in inflammatory bowel diseases: A gender-specific subjective quality-of-life indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, Val?rie; Vaucher, Carla; Froehlich, Florian; Burnand, Bernard; Michetti, Pierre; Maillard, Michel H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported disease perceptions are important components to be considered within a holistic model of quality of care. Gender may have an influence on these perceptions. We aimed to explore gender-specific concerns of patients included in a national bilingual inflammatory bowel disease cohort. Methods Following a qualitative study, we built a questionnaire comprising 37 items of concern. Answers were collected on a visual analog scale ranging from 0 to 100. Principal axis facto...

  7. Influence of specific muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum--a 'single-subject research design'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Johanna; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Many women suffer from back pain and experience activity limitation post-partum. To our knowledge the physiological factors and physiotherapy related to back pain post-partum have received limited evaluation and the effectiveness of specific physiotherapeutic approaches to exercise should be tested. In addition, there has been limited research on kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum. The purpose of the current study was to test the influence of specific trunk muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in 10 subjects with back pain post-partum. The treatment consisted of specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles. Pain was rated based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain drawings. Activity limitation was recorded using the Disability Rating Index. Kinesiophobia was evaluated using the Swedish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. An A-B-A single-subject research design was used and a number of measurements were obtained during each phase. The analysis consisted of a visual inspection and a two standard deviation band test (2-SD). The visual analysis showed a trend towards reduced pain and activity limitation for all 10 subjects. The 2-SD test showed mixed results among all subjects. In addition, all subjects reported kinesiophobia before and after treatment. Individual specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles reduced pain and activity limitation in women with back pain post-partum. Further research is needed to determine more precisely how kinesiophobia affects women with back pain post-partum.

  8. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  9. Crystal structures of the mitochondrial deacylase Sirtuin 4 reveal isoform-specific acyl recognition and regulation features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannek, Martin; Simic, Zeljko; Fuszard, Matthew; Meleshin, Marat; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Schutkowski, Mike; Steegborn, Clemens

    2017-11-15

    Sirtuins are evolutionary conserved NAD+-dependent protein lysine deacylases. The seven human isoforms, Sirt1-7, regulate metabolism and stress responses and are considered therapeutic targets for aging-related diseases. Sirt4 locates to mitochondria and regulates fatty acid metabolism and apoptosis. In contrast to the mitochondrial deacetylase Sirt3 and desuccinylase Sirt5, no prominent deacylase activity and structural information are available for Sirt4. Here we describe acyl substrates and crystal structures for Sirt4. The enzyme shows isoform-specific acyl selectivity, with significant activity against hydroxymethylglutarylation. Crystal structures of Sirt4 from Xenopus tropicalis reveal a particular acyl binding site with an additional access channel, rationalizing its activities. The structures further identify a conserved, isoform-specific Sirt4 loop that folds into the active site to potentially regulate catalysis. Using these results, we further establish efficient Sirt4 activity assays, an unusual Sirt4 regulation by NADH, and Sirt4 effects of pharmacological modulators.

  10. Language, gender, and sexual orientation: Gender-specific features of discursive styles of homosexual users of an internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Biljana

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether and in which way homosexual people rely on gender-specific style characteristics when communicating in the internet environment. It is assumed that the basis of differences in language practices is not some identity category (either gender or sexual), that uses these practices only as a means of expression. Instead, language is seen as a resource that allows us to respond to a variety of communication situations. The methodological framework for col...

  11. Model for the perception of the specific e-leadership skills and features in learning management systems environments

    OpenAIRE

    Samartinho, João; Faria, Jorge; Silva, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a model for understanding the specific skills and characteristics of e-leadership in Learning Management Systems (LMS), used for implementation of virtual teams. A framework was done, to identify skills and characteristics of the e-leaders, based on the review of literature about the e-leadership paradigm and its relationship with the virtual teams. It also presents the empirical model and an explanatory table with the methodology of research and the main approaches in t...

  12. Image quality analysis of high-density diffuse optical tomography incorporating a subject-specific head model

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    Yuxuan eZhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT methods have shown significant improvement in localization accuracy and image resolution compared to traditional topographic near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS of the human brain. In this work we provide a comprehensive evaluation of image quality in visual cortex mapping via a simulation study with the use of an anatomical head model derived from MRI data of a human subject. A model of individual head anatomy provides the surface shape and internal structure that allow for the construction of a more realistic physical model for the forward problem, as well as the use of a structural constraint in the inverse problem. The HD-DOT model utilized here incorporates multiple source-detector separations with continuous-wave data with added noise based on experimental results. To evaluate image quality we quantify the localization error and localized volume at half maximum (LVHM throughout a region of interest (ROI within the visual cortex and systematically analyze the use of whole brain tissue spatial constraint within image reconstruction. Our results demonstrate that an image quality with less than 10 mm in localization error and 1000 m3 in LVHM can be obtained up to 13 mm below the scalp surface with a typical unconstrained reconstruction and up to 18 mm deep when a spatial constraint based on the brain tissue is utilized.

  13. Soluble glycoprotein VI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased in the plasma of subjects with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis.

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    John R Stack

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA have been shown to cause platelet activation in vitro, through the low-affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG receptor (FcγRIIa on platelets. Platelet activation via engagement of FcγRIIa results in proteolytic cleavage and shedding of platelet specific glycoprotein VI (GPVI which can be detected in the plasma as soluble GPVI (sGPVI. We hypothesized that plasma levels of sGPVI would be increased among patients with seropositive RA as a consequence of antibody-induced platelet activation and GPVI shedding.Samples from 84 patients with RA (65 seropositive and 19 seronegative and 67 healthy controls were collected prospectively and analysed for sGPVI using a standardised ELISA.Patients with seropositive RA had significantly higher levels of sGPVI compared to seronegative RA and controls. Median (IQR sGPVI levels were 4.2 ng/ml (3.2, 8.0 in seropositve RA, 2.2 ng/ml (1.5, 3.5 in seronegative RA and 2.2 ng/ml (1.6, 3.4 in controls (p<0.0001. sGPVI levels correlated with ACPA titres (r = 0.32, p = 0.0026 and with RF titres (r = 0.48, p<0.0001.Plasma sGPVI, a specific marker of platelet activation is increased among patients with seropositive RA.

  14. The thylakoid membrane proteome of two marine diatoms outlines both diatom-specific and species-specific features of the photosynthetic machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouneva, Irina; Rokka, Anne; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2011-12-02

    The thylakoid membrane of photoautotrophic organisms contains the main components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Detailed proteome maps of the thylakoid protein complexes of two marine diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were created by means of two-dimensional blue native (BN)/SDS-PAGE coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. One novel diatom-specific photosystem I (PS I)-associated protein was identified. A second plastid-targeted protein with possible PS I interaction was discovered to be restricted to the centric diatom species T. pseudonana. PGR5/PGRL homologues were found to be the only protein components of PS I-mediated cyclic electron transport common to both species. For the first time, evidence for a possible PS I localization of LI818-like light harvesting proteins (Lhcx) is presented. This study also advances the current knowledge on the light harvesting antenna composition and Lhcx expression in T. pseudonana on the protein level and presents details on the molecular distribution of Lhcx in diatoms. Above mentioned proteins and several others with unknown function provide a broad basis for further mutagenesis analysis, aiming toward further understanding of the composition and function of the photosynthetic apparatus of diatoms. The proteomics approach of this study further served as a tool to confirm and improve genome-derived protein models.

  15. [AGE-SPECIFIC METABOLIC THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH REGARD TO THEIR AKMEOLOGICAL FEATURES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplutanov, V A; Spikina, A A; Belov, V G; Parfyonov, U A; Ermishin, Ye V

    2015-01-01

    Aocoholism in the elderly determines tne protracted nature or tne pathological craving for etnanol in post-abstinence syndrome period, restricts arsenal of active pharmacotherapy and updates the search for new pharmacological therapeutic strategies. The results showed that the inclusion of the drug "Remaxol" in the treatment of clinical manifestations of craving for ethanol in post-abstinence syndrome period of associated forms of alcoholism in the elderly provides better in relation to conventional therapy dynamics of reduction of somatovegetative and neurological manifestations of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, as well as the main components of craving for alcohol, will increase the efficiency of outpatient treatment at the stage of remission. The duration of remission of mental and behavioral disorders caused by alcohol use in elderly patients is, apart from pharmacotherapy, due to such social and psychological factors and akmeological features as education, leadership potential, high social activity, a high level of social intelligence and its implementation, lack of intense intrapersonal conflict, high ductility and activity.

  16. Strain specific variation of outer membrane proteins of wild Yersinia pestis strains subjected to different growth temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Guilherme Coutinho Abath

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Three Yersinia pestis strains isolated from humans and one laboratory strain (EV76 were grown in rich media at 28§C and 37§C and their outer membrane protein composition compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page. Several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 34 kDa to 7 kDa were observed to change in relative abundance in samples grown at different temperatures. At least seven Y. pestis outer membrane proteins showed a temperature-dependent and strain-specific behaviour. Some differences between the outer membrane proteins of full-pathogenic wild isolates and the EV76 strain could aldso be detected and the relevance of this finding on the use of laboratory strains as a reference to the study of Y. pestis biological properties is discuted.

  17. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten

    Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the e......Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels......, social aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects...

  18. Achievement emotions in elementary, middle, and high school: how do students feel about specific contexts in terms of settings and subject-domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccanello, Daniela; Brondino, Margherita; De Bernardi, Bianca

    2013-12-01

    The present work investigates students' representation of achievement emotions, focusing in context-specific situations in terms of settings and subject-domains, as a function of grade level. We involved 527 fourth-, seventh-, and eleventh-graders, who evaluated ten discrete emotions through questionnaires, with reference to verbal language and mathematics, and different settings (class, homework, tests). Confirmatory multitrait-multimethod analyses indicated higher salience of subject-domains rather than settings for all the emotions; however, complexity of reality was best explained when also settings were accounted for. Analyses of variance revealed higher intensity of positive emotions for younger students, and the opposite pattern for older students; significant differences for most of the emotions based on the evaluative nature of settings, moderated by class levels; more intense positive emotions for mathematics and more intense negative emotions for Italian. Results are discussed considering their theoretical and applied relevance, corroborating previous literature on domain-specificity. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  19. A novel framework for fluid/structure interaction in rapid subject specific simulations of blood flow in coronary artery bifurcations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Practical difficulties, particularly long model development time, have limited the types and applicability of computational fluid dynamics simulations in numerical modeling of blood flow in serial manner. In these simulations, the most revealing flow parameters are the endothelial shear stress distribution and oscillatory shear index. The aim of this study was analyze their role in the diagnosis of the occurrence and prognosis of plaque development in coronary artery bifurcations. Methods. We developed a novel modeling technique for rapid cardiovascular hemodynamic simulations taking into account interactions between fluid domain (blood and solid domain (artery wall. Two numerical models that represent the observed subdomains of an arbitrary patient-specific coronary artery bifurcation were created using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT coronagraphy and ultrasound measurements of blood velocity. Coronary flow using an in-house finite element solver PAK-FS was solved. Results. Overall behavior of coronary artery bifurcation during one cardiac cycle is described by: velocity, pressure, endothelial shear stress, oscillatory shear index, stress in arterial wall and nodal displacements. The places where (a endothelial shear stress is less than 1.5, and (b oscillatory shear index is very small (close or equal to 0 are prone to plaque genesis. Conclusion. Finite element simulation of fluid-structure interaction was used to investigate patient-specific flow dynamics and wall mechanics at coronary artery bifurcations. Simulation model revealed that lateral walls of the main branch and lateral walls distal to the carina are exposed to low endothelial shear stress which is a predilection site for development of atherosclerosis. This conclusion is confirmed by the low values of oscillatory shear index in those places.

  20. A Comparison of Recurrent Non-specific Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Subjects in Variability of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Hedayati

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to ivestigate of the postural strategies variability in low back pain patients, as a criterion in the adaptability evaluation of this system to the environmental demands and comparison of patients with healthy persons and also the importance of psychological factors associated with pain as an effective factor in postural disturbances was assessed. Materials & Methods: This analytical, cross-sectional and case-control study was performed on twenty one recurrent non-specific low back pain patients whom had been selected simply and conveniently and twenty one healthy persons whom had been matched with patients. The electromyographic activity of Deltoid, External Oblique, Transverse Abdominis / Internal Oblique and Erector Spinae muscles of each person was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexion with maximum acceleration. To study the patient’s avoidance belief and disability, two standard tools Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire (FABQ and Roland-Morris Questionnaire were used respectively. Data were analyzed by MANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed that chronic low back pain patients exhibit less variability in their anticipatory postural adjustments than the control group(P=0.047. However, the decrease in variability of the timing of anticipatory postural adjustments of External Oblique(P=0.45 and Erector Spinae(P=0.6 muscles was not significant. The correlation between the timing variability of anticipatory postural adjustments and fear-avoidance belief questionnaire scores was significant(P=0.006, however there was no significant correlation between this variable and disability(P=0.09 in the patients. Conclusion: There is a decrease in variability of postural control system of recurrent non-specific low back pain patients that can result in the persistence of pain and chronicity by decreasing the adaptability to environmental demands. The restoration of variability to

  1. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy markers of axons and astrogliosis in relation to specific features of white matter injury in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisnowski, Jessica L.; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schmithorst, Vincent J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rosser, Tena [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Paquette, Lisa [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Nelson, Marvin D. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Haynes, Robin L. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Painter, Michael J. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neurology, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Blueml, Stefan [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Punctate white matter lesions (pWMLs) and diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) are commonly observed signal abnormalities on MRI scans of high-risk preterm infants near term-equivalent age. To establish whether these features are indicative abnormalities in axonal development or astroglia, we compared pWMLs and DEHSI to markers of axons and astrogliosis, derived from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Data from 108 preterm infants (gestational age at birth 31.0 weeks ± 4.3; age at scan 41.2 weeks ± 6.0) who underwent MR examinations under clinical indications were included in this study. Linear regression analyses were used to test the effects of pWMLs and DEHSI on N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and myoinositol concentrations, respectively. Across the full sample, pWMLs were associated with a reduction in NAA whereas moderate to severe DEHSI altered the normal age-dependent changes in myoinositol such that myoinositol levels were lower at younger ages with no change during the perinatal period. Subgroup analyses indicated that the above associations were driven by the subgroup of neonates with both pWMLs and moderate to severe DEHSI. Overall, these findings suggest that pWMLs in conjunction with moderate/severe DEHSI may signify a population of infants at risk for long-term adverse neurodevelopmental outcome due to white matter injury and associated axonopathy. The loss of normal age-associated changes in myoinositol further suggests disrupted astroglial function and/or osmotic dysregulation. (orig.)

  2. Multivariate genetic architecture of the Anolis dewlap reveals both shared and sex-specific features of a sexually dimorphic ornament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, R M; Costello, R A; Camber, B E; McGlothlin, J W

    2017-07-01

    Darwin viewed the ornamentation of females as an indirect consequence of sexual selection on males and the transmission of male phenotypes to females via the 'laws of inheritance'. Although a number of studies have supported this view by demonstrating substantial between-sex genetic covariance for ornament expression, the majority of this work has focused on avian plumage. Moreover, few studies have considered the genetic basis of ornaments from a multivariate perspective, which may be crucial for understanding the evolution of sex differences in general, and of complex ornaments in particular. Here, we provide a multivariate, quantitative-genetic analysis of a sexually dimorphic ornament that has figured prominently in studies of sexual selection: the brightly coloured dewlap of Anolis lizards. Using data from a paternal half-sibling breeding experiment in brown anoles (Anolis sagrei), we show that multiple aspects of dewlap size and colour exhibit significant heritability and a genetic variance-covariance structure (G) that is broadly similar in males (Gm ) and females (Gf ). Whereas sexually monomorphic aspects of the dewlap, such as hue, exhibit significant between-sex genetic correlations (rmf ), sexually dimorphic features, such as area and brightness, exhibit reduced rmf values that do not differ from zero. Using a modified random skewers analysis, we show that the between-sex genetic variance-covariance matrix (B) should not strongly constrain the independent responses of males and females to sexually antagonistic selection. Our microevolutionary analysis is in broad agreement with macroevolutionary perspectives indicating considerable scope for the independent evolution of coloration and ornamentation in males and females. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Using subject-specific three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry data in digital human modelling: case study in hand motion simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Liuxing; Ma, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Digital human modelling enables ergonomists and designers to consider ergonomic concerns and design alternatives in a timely and cost-efficient manner in the early stages of design. However, the reliability of the simulation could be limited due to the percentile-based approach used in constructing the digital human model. To enhance the accuracy of the size and shape of the models, we proposed a framework to generate digital human models using three-dimensional (3D) anthropometric data. The 3D scan data from specific subjects' hands were segmented based on the estimated centres of rotation. The segments were then driven in forward kinematics to perform several functional postures. The constructed hand models were then verified, thereby validating the feasibility of the framework. The proposed framework helps generate accurate subject-specific digital human models, which can be utilised to guide product design and workspace arrangement. Practitioner Summary: Subject-specific digital human models can be constructed under the proposed framework based on three-dimensional (3D) anthropometry. This approach enables more reliable digital human simulation to guide product design and workspace arrangement.

  4. KEMAMPUAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY CALON GURU BIOLOGI PESERTA PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN PROFESIONAL GURU (PPG YANG BERLATAR BELAKANG BASIC SAINS PRA DAN POST WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Anwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan/mendeskripsikan kemampuan Subjek Spesifik Pedagogi mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program Pendidikan Profesional Guru (PPG angkatan 2012-2013 melalui pendekatan konsekutif.  Hasil sementara menunjukkan  bahwa Kemampuan Subject Specific Pedagogy mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang berlatar belakang Biologi murni program Basic Science masih minim, dapat dilihat dari hasil CoRes dan PaP-eRs buatan mereka sebelum mengikuti workshop. Setelah workshop semester I diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik.   This study aimed to describe / describes the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teachers who follow the Professional Teacher Education Program (PTEP 2012-2013 armed consecutive approach. Preliminary results indicate that the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teacher who belongs to the pure Biology Basic Science program is minimal, it can be seen from the cores and pap-ers made ​​them before the workshop. After the workshop the first half of the obtained results that showed a pretty good improvement.

  5. Strain features and condition assessment of orthotropic steel deck cable-supported bridges subjected to vehicle loads by using dense FBG strain sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shiyin; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Shunlong; Li, Hui

    2017-10-01

    Strain is a direct indicator of structural safety. Therefore, strain sensors have been used in most structural health monitoring systems for bridges. However, until now, the investigation of strain response has been insufficient. This paper conducts a comprehensive study of the strain features of the U ribs and transverse diaphragm on an orthotropic steel deck and proposes a statistical paradigm for crack detection based on the features of vehicle-induced strain response by using the densely distributed optic fibre Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensors. The local feature of strain under vehicle load is highlighted, which enables the use of measurement data to determine the vehicle loading event and to make a decision regarding the health status of a girder near the strain sensors via technical elimination of the load information. Time–frequency analysis shows that the strain contains three features: the long-term trend item, the short-term trend item, and the instantaneous vehicle-induced item (IVII). The IVII is the wheel-induced strain with a remarkable local feature, and the measured wheel-induced strain is only influenced by the vehicle near the FBG sensor, while other vehicles slightly farther away have no effect on the wheel-induced strain. This causes the local strain series, among the FBG strain sensors in the same transverse locations of different cross-sections, to present similarities in shape to some extent and presents a time delay in successive order along the driving direction. Therefore, the strain series induced by an identical vehicle can be easily tracked and compared by extracting the amplitude and calculating the mutual ratio to eliminate vehicle loading information, leaving the girder information alone. The statistical paradigm for crack detection is finally proposed, and the detection accuracy is then validated by using dense FBG strain sensors on a long-span suspension bridge in China.

  6. Real problem-based learning: specific features of the training method for creation of modern industrial control systems (based on the experience of the european universities participating in TEMPUS MEDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Galchonkov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the article is to cover the key approaches for improving the problem-based learning (PBL in the context of students’ training for the design of modern industrial control systems. The study revealed the transformation of PBL into two complementary areas of training: Advanced Problem-Based Learning (APBL and Real Problem-Based Learning (RPBL. The feature of APBL is the simultaneous study of several interconnected subjects on the base of projects implementation which requires the use of all of these subjects. RPBL complements APBL by training students the missing knowledge and skills through performing real projects for industrial enterprises. It is depicted that in-between transition from PBL to APBL and RPBL the role of teacher is changing. If in PBL the teacher supervises and controls the progress of the project implementation, then in APBL teacher plays the guide role from the formulation of the problem to its solution. In RPBL teacher partially becomes a member of the team carrying out the projects. Specific features of RPBL realization methodology are considered in terms of TEMPUS MEDIS project realization

  7. Identification of Subtype-Specific Prognostic Genes for Early-Stage Lung Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Using an Embedded Feature Selection Algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyan Tian

    Full Text Available The existence of fundamental differences between lung adenocarcinoma (AC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in their underlying mechanisms motivated us to postulate that specific genes might exist relevant to prognosis of each histology subtype. To test on this research hypothesis, we previously proposed a simple Cox-regression model based feature selection algorithm and identified successfully some subtype-specific prognostic genes when applying this method to real-world data. In this article, we continue our effort on identification of subtype-specific prognostic genes for AC and SCC, and propose a novel embedded feature selection method by extending Threshold Gradient Descent Regularization (TGDR algorithm and minimizing on a corresponding negative partial likelihood function. Using real-world datasets and simulated ones, we show these two proposed methods have comparable performance whereas the new proposal is superior in terms of model parsimony. Our analysis provides some evidence on the existence of such subtype-specific prognostic genes, more investigation is warranted.

  8. Mapping 3D breast lesions from full-field digital mammograms using subject-specific finite element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Oliver, A.; Diaz, O.; Diez, Y.; Gubern-Mérida, A.; Martí, R.; Martí, J.

    2017-03-01

    Patient-specific finite element (FE) models of the breast have received increasing attention due to the potential capability of fusing images from different modalities. During the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to X-ray mammography registration procedure, the FE model is compressed mimicking the mammographic acquisition. Subsequently, suspicious lesions in the MRI volume can be projected into the 2D mammographic space. However, most registration algorithms do not provide the reverse information, avoiding to obtain the 3D geometrical information from the lesions localized in the mammograms. In this work we introduce a fast method to localize the 3D position of the lesion within the MRI, using both cranio-caudal (CC) and medio-lateral oblique (MLO) mammographic projections, indexing the tetrahedral elements of the biomechanical model by means of an uniform grid. For each marked lesion in the Full-Field Digital Mammogram (FFDM), the X-ray path from source to the marker is calculated. Barycentric coordinates are computed in the tetrahedrons traversed by the ray. The list of elements and coordinates allows to localize two curves within the MRI and the closest point between both curves is taken as the 3D position of the lesion. The registration errors obtained in the mammographic space are 9.89 +/- 3.72 mm in CC- and 8.04 +/- 4.68 mm in MLO-projection and the error in the 3D MRI space is equal to 10.29 +/- 3.99 mm. Regarding the uniform grid, it is computed spending between 0.1 and 0.7 seconds. The average time spent to compute the 3D location of a lesion is about 8 ms.

  9. Comparison of Calcium Dynamics and Specific Features for G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Targeting Drugs Using Live Cell Imaging and Automated Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rishikesh Kumar; Swain, Sarpras; Kankanamge, Dinesh; Priyanka, Pantula Devi; Singh, Ranjana; Mitra, Kishalay; Karunarathne, Ajith; Giri, Lopamudra

    2017-08-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are targets for designing a large fraction of the drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. For GPCR-targeting drug screening using cell-based assays, measurement of cytosolic calcium has been widely used to obtain dose-response profiles. However, it remains challenging to obtain drug-specific features due to cell-to-cell heterogeneity in drug-cell responses obtained from live cell imaging. Here, we present a framework combining live cell imaging of a cell population and a feature extraction method for classification of responses of drugs targeting GPCRs CXCR4 and α2AR. We measured the calcium dynamics using confocal microscopy and compared the responses for SDF-1α and norepinephrine. The results clearly show that the clustering patterns of responses for the two GPCRs are significantly different. Additionally, we show that different drugs targeting the same GPCR induce different calcium response signatures. We also implemented principal component analysis and k means for feature extraction and used nondominated (ND) sorting for ranking a group of drugs at various doses. The presented approach can be used to model a cell population as a mixture of subpopulations. It also offers specific advantages, such as higher spatial resolution, classification of responses, and ranking of drugs, potentially providing a platform for high-content drug screening.

  10. Studying the specific features pertinent to combustion of chars obtained from coals having different degrees of metamorphism and biomass chars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestsennyi, I. V.; Shchudlo, T. S.; Dunaevskaya, N. I.; Topal, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    Better conditions for igniting low-reaction coal (anthracite) can be obtained, higher fuel burnout ratio can be achieved, and the problem of shortage of a certain grade of coal can be solved by firing coal mixtures and by combusting coal jointly with solid biomass in coal-fired boilers. Results from studying the synergetic effect that had been revealed previously during the combustion of coal mixtures in flames are presented. A similar effect was also obtained during joint combustion of coal and wood in a flame. The kinetics pertinent to combustion of char mixtures obtained from coals characterized by different degrees of metamorphism and the kinetics pertinent to combustion of wood chars were studied on the RSK-1D laboratory setup. It was found from the experiments that the combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having close degrees of metamorphism is equal to the value determined as a weighted mean rate with respect to the content of carbon. The combustion rate of char mixtures obtained from coals having essentially different degrees of metamorphism is close to the combustion rate of more reactive coal initially in the process and to the combustion rate of less reactive coal at the end of the process. A dependence of the specific burnout rate of carbon contained in the char of two wood fractions on reciprocal temperature in the range 663—833 K is obtained. The combustion mode of an experimental sample is determined together with the reaction rate constant and activation energy.

  11. [Organ specific ESR features in mouse main organs and ESR application to the model of pancreatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, A; Manabe, T; Tamura, K; Asano, N; Imanishi, K; Yamaki, K; Tobe, T

    1990-02-01

    Nine main organs in the mouse were studied by ESR spectroscopy at 77K. Manganese ions were readily detected in the pancreas, small intestine, stomach and kidney. In particular, the pancreas gave strong ESR signals for the transition metal, suggesting that Mn(II) plays an important role in pancreatic function. All organs reveal different ESR spectra indicating organ specificity. C-centered radical, R-OO radical and C0Q10 or ascorbate radical are stable in the tissue. In the brain, heart and pancreas, N-centered radical heme-NO adduct was detected at 6 and 24 h after excision since common process is involved in tissue degeneration and ESR is sensitive to proteolysis and necrosis of tissues. In endotoxemia and/or CDE-diet-induced pancreatic lesions, R-OO radical and Mn(II) ion were detected in the signal at 77K. By the spin-trapping method (DMPO) at 25 degrees C, DMPO-OH adduct and 3-Line and 6-Line were detected in CDE diet-induced acute pancreatitis. These results suggest that damaged pancreatic tissues are in a highly oxidative environment that probably contains oxygen radicals, and that free radicals are considered to play an important role in the development of pancreatic lesions.

  12. Allelome.PRO, a pipeline to define allele-specific genomic features from high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Daniel; Dotter, Christoph P; Kulinski, Tomasz M; Guenzl, Philipp M; Bammer, Philipp C; Barlow, Denise P; Pauler, Florian M; Hudson, Quanah J

    2015-12-02

    Detecting allelic biases from high-throughput sequencing data requires an approach that maximises sensitivity while minimizing false positives. Here, we present Allelome.PRO, an automated user-friendly bioinformatics pipeline, which uses high-throughput sequencing data from reciprocal crosses of two genetically distinct mouse strains to detect allele-specific expression and chromatin modifications. Allelome.PRO extends approaches used in previous studies that exclusively analyzed imprinted expression to give a complete picture of the 'allelome' by automatically categorising the allelic expression of all genes in a given cell type into imprinted, strain-biased, biallelic or non-informative. Allelome.PRO offers increased sensitivity to analyze lowly expressed transcripts, together with a robust false discovery rate empirically calculated from variation in the sequencing data. We used RNA-seq data from mouse embryonic fibroblasts from F1 reciprocal crosses to determine a biologically relevant allelic ratio cutoff, and define for the first time an entire allelome. Furthermore, we show that Allelome.PRO detects differential enrichment of H3K4me3 over promoters from ChIP-seq data validating the RNA-seq results. This approach can be easily extended to analyze histone marks of active enhancers, or transcription factor binding sites and therefore provides a powerful tool to identify candidate cis regulatory elements genome wide. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Molecular features governing the stability and specificity of functional complex formation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP-10/ESAT-6 family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightbody, Kirsty L; Ilghari, Dariush; Waters, Lorna C; Carey, Gemma; Bailey, Mark A; Williamson, Richard A; Renshaw, Philip S; Carr, Mark D

    2008-06-20

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex CFP-10/ESAT-6 family proteins play essential but poorly defined roles in tuberculosis pathogenesis. In this article we report the results of detailed spectroscopic studies of several members of the CFP-10/ESAT-6 family. This work shows that the CFP-10/ESAT-6 related proteins, Rv0287 and Rv0288, form a tight 1:1 complex, which is predominantly helical in structure and is predicted to closely resemble the complex formed by CFP-10 and ESAT-6. In addition, the Rv0287.Rv0288 complex was found to be significantly more stable to both chemical and temperature induced denaturation than CFP-10.ESAT-6. This approach demonstrated that neither Rv0287.Rv0288 nor the CFP-10.ESAT-6 complexes are destabilized at low pH (4.5), indicating that even in low pH environments, such as the mature phagosome, both Rv0287.Rv0288 and CFP-10.ESAT-6 undoubtedly function as complexes rather than individual proteins. Analysis of the structure of the CFP-10.ESAT-6 complex and optimized amino acid sequence alignments of M. tuberculosis CFP-10/ESAT-6 family proteins revealed that residues involved in the intramolecular contacts between helices are conserved across the CFP-10/ESAT-6 family, but not those involved in primarily intermolecular contacts. This analysis identified the molecular basis for the specificity and stability of complex formation between CFP-10/ESAT-6 family proteins, and indicates that the formation of functional complexes with key roles in pathogenesis will be limited to genome partners, or very closely related family members, such as Rv0287/Rv0288 and Rv3019c/Rv3020c.

  14. Inhibitory receptors are expressed by Trypanosoma cruzi-specific effector T cells and in hearts of subjects with chronic Chagas disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael J Argüello

    Full Text Available We had formerly demonstrated that subjects chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi show impaired T cell responses closely linked with a process of T cell exhaustion. Recently, the expression of several inhibitory receptors has been associated with T cell dysfunction and exhaustion. In this study, we have examined the expression of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and the leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor 1 (LIR-1 by peripheral T. cruzi antigen-responsive IFN-gamma (IFN-γ-producing and total T cells from chronically T. cruzi-infected subjects with different clinical forms of the disease. CTAL-4 expression was also evaluated in heart tissue sections from subjects with severe myocarditis. The majority of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+ T cells responsive to a parasite lysate preparation were found to express CTLA-4 but considerably lower frequencies express LIR-1, irrespective of the clinical status of the donor. Conversely, few IFN-γ-producing T cells responsive to tetanus and diphtheria toxoids expressed CTLA-4 and LIR-1. Polyclonal stimulation with anti-CD3 antibodies induced higher frequencies of CD4(+CTAL-4(+ T cells in patients with severe heart disease than in asymptomatic subjects. Ligation of CTLA-4 and LIR-1 with their agonistic antibodies, in vitro, reduces IFN-γ production. Conversely, CTLA-4 blockade did not improved IFN-γ production in response to T. cruzi antigens. Subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection had increased numbers of CD4(+LIR-1(+ among total peripheral blood mononuclear cells, relative to uninfected individuals and these numbers decreased after treatment with benznidazole. CTLA-4 was also expressed by CD3(+ T lymphocytes infiltrating heart tissues from chronically infected subjects with severe myocarditis. These findings support the conclusion that persistent infection with T. cruzi leads to the upregulation of inhibitory receptors which could alter parasite specific T cell responses in the chronic phase

  15. Malassezia intra-specific diversity and potentially new species in the skin microbiota from Brazilian healthy subjects and seborrheic dermatitis patients.

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    Renan Cardoso Soares

    Full Text Available Malassezia yeasts are part of the resident cutaneous microbiota, and are also associated with skin diseases such as seborrheic dermatitis (SD. The role these fungi play in skin diseases and why they are pathogenic for only some individuals remain unclear. This study aimed to characterize Malassezia microbiota from different body sites in healthy and SD subjects from Brazil. Scalp and forehead samples from healthy, mild SD and severe SD subjects were collected. Non-scalp lesions from severe SD patients were also sampled. 5.8S rDNA/ITS2 amplicons from Malassezia sp. were analyzed by RFLP and sequencing. Results indicate that Malassezia microbiota did not group according to health condition or body area. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three groups of sequences did not cluster together with any formally described species, suggesting that they might belong to potential new species. One of them was found in high proportions in scalp samples. A large variety of Malassezia subtypes were detected, indicating intra-specific diversity. Higher M. globosa proportions were found in non-scalp lesions from severe SD subjects compared with other areas, suggesting closer association of this species with SD lesions from areas other than scalp. Our results show the first panorama of Malassezia microbiota in Brazilian subjects using molecular techniques and provide new perspectives for further studies to elucidate the association between Malassezia microbiota and skin diseases.

  16. Sparse feature selection identifies H2A.Z as a novel, pattern-specific biomarker for asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hoon Huh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a long-standing unmet clinical need for biomarkers with high specificity for distributed stem cells (DSCs in tissues, or for use in diagnostic and therapeutic cell preparations (e.g., bone marrow. Although DSCs are essential for tissue maintenance and repair, accurate determination of their numbers for medical applications has been problematic. Previous searches for biomarkers expressed specifically in DSCs were hampered by difficulty obtaining pure DSCs and by the challenges in mining complex molecular expression data. To identify such useful and specific DSC biomarkers, we combined a novel sparse feature selection method with combinatorial molecular expression data focused on asymmetric self-renewal, a conspicuous property of DSCs. The analysis identified reduced expression of the histone H2A variant H2A.Z as a superior molecular discriminator for DSC asymmetric self-renewal. Subsequent molecular expression studies showed H2A.Z to be a novel “pattern-specific biomarker” for asymmetrically self-renewing cells, with sufficient specificity to count asymmetrically self-renewing DSCs in vitro and potentially in situ.

  17. Subject-specific finite element modeling of the tibiofemoral joint based on CT, magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic stereo-radiography data in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert E; Zheng, Liying; Aiyangar, Ameet K; Harner, Christopher D; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new methodology for subject-specific finite element modeling of the tibiofemoral joint based on in vivo computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and dynamic stereo-radiography (DSX) data. We implemented and compared two techniques to incorporate in vivo skeletal kinematics as boundary conditions: one used MRI-measured tibiofemoral kinematics in a nonweight-bearing supine position and allowed five degrees of freedom (excluding flexion-extension) at the joint in response to an axially applied force; the other used DSX-measured tibiofemoral kinematics in a weight-bearing standing position and permitted only axial translation in response to the same force. Verification and comparison of the model predictions employed data from a meniscus transplantation study subject with a meniscectomized and an intact knee. The model-predicted cartilage-cartilage contact areas were examined against "benchmarks" from a novel in situ contact area analysis (ISCAA) in which the intersection volume between nondeformed femoral and tibial cartilage was characterized to determine the contact. The results showed that the DSX-based model predicted contact areas in close alignment with the benchmarks, and outperformed the MRI-based model: the contact centroid predicted by the former was on average 85% closer to the benchmark location. The DSX-based FE model predictions also indicated that the (lateral) meniscectomy increased the contact area in the lateral compartment and increased the maximum contact pressure and maximum compressive stress in both compartments. We discuss the importance of accurate, task-specific skeletal kinematics in subject-specific FE modeling, along with the effects of simplifying assumptions and limitations.

  18. Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in healthy tuberculin skin test (TST-positive human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the variation of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens in healthy TST+ humans. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 TST+ healthy adults, stimulated them with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PPD, Ag85B, ESAT-6, and live M. bovis BCG, and assayed IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by ELISA in supernatants after 24 or 72 hours of incubation respectively. RESULTS: As in other studies, we found a wide range of IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens; the variation significantly exceeded that observed in the same donors to the polyclonal T cell stimulus, phytohemagglutinin (PHA. In addition, we assayed IL-17 secretion in response to the same stimuli, and found less subject-to-subject variation. Analysis of the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 secretion on a subject-to-subject basis also revealed a wide range, with the majority of results distributed in a narrow range, and a minority with extreme results all of which were greater than that in the majority of subjects. The data suggest that study of exceptional responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may reveal immunologic correlates with specific outcomes of M. tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: Variation of IFNγ and IFN-γ/IL-17 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeds that of responses to the polyclonal stimulus, PHA, in TST positive healthy humans. This indicates a quantitative spectrum of human immune responses to infection with M. tuberculosis. Since the outcome of human infection with M. tuberculosis varies greatly, systematic study of multiple immune responses to multiple antigens is likely to reveal correlations between selected immune responses and the outcomes of infection.

  19. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  20. Subject-specific finite element modelling of the human foot complex during walking: sensitivity analysis of material properties, boundary and loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei

    2017-11-14

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.

  1. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  2. [Psychosocial behaviour and subjective experience specific to the course of study of medical students in their first and fifth years of study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltmer, E; Kieschke, U; Spahn, C

    2008-02-01

    This study concerns the evaluation of study-related psychosocial risk factors and resources in medical students at the beginning and before the end of their course of studies. Written questionnaires were filled out by medical students in Lübeck and Freiburg in their first and fifth years of study and analysed with three standard instruments (AVEM, SAM, F-Sozu). The response rate was 84.5% (n=435) in the first and 83.0% (n=351) in the fifth year of study. At the outset of their course of study, most of the students evinced behaviour and subjective experience patterns which were not deleterious to their health. Nevertheless, even at this point in time, 22.9% of the students showed a risk constellation with an excessive commitment to work and readiness to overstrain themselves. With 17.9% resignatory exhaustion with a highly restrictive subjective quality of life was found. In the fifth year of study, this proportion had increased to 23.3%, while the quality of health behaviour and subjective experience patterns deteriorated. Self-awareness and social support were augmented by comparison with norm samples. A portion of the medical students showed a risk constellation in behaviour and subjective experience at the very beginning of their studies. At the end, this tendency has significantly strengthened. The integration of teaching contents dealing with health promotion and successful coping with stress for the medical students themselves would therefore seem essential for the conservation of the health and working capacity of the students, as well as in order to prevent subsequent profession-specific mental stress and burn-out.

  3. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiano, Michela; Catalano, Domenico; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Lotti, Concetta; Zheng, Zheng; Visser, Richard G F; Ricciardi, Luigi; Bai, Yuling; Pavan, Stefano

    2015-10-26

    Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are phylogenetically divergent. A bioinformatic approach was followed to study the type of evolution of Angiosperm MLO susceptibility proteins. Transgenic complementation tests were performed for functional analysis. Our results show that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins evolved class-specific conservation patterns. Many of them appear to be the result of negative selection and thus are likely to provide an adaptive value. We also tested whether different molecular features between monocot and dicot MLO proteins are specifically required by PM fungal species to cause pathogenesis. To this aim, we transformed a tomato mutant impaired for the endogenous SlMLO1 gene, and therefore resistant to the tomato PM species Oidium neolycopersici, with heterologous MLO susceptibility genes from the monocot barley and the dicot pea. In both cases, we observed restoration of PM symptoms. Finally, through histological observations, we demonstrate that both monocot and dicot susceptibility alleles of the MLO genes predispose to penetration of a non-adapted PM fungal species in plant epidermal cells. With this study, we provide insights on the evolution and function of MLO genes involved in the interaction with PM fungi. With respect to breeding research, we show that transgenic complementation assays involving phylogenetically distant plant species can be used for the characterization of novel MLO susceptibility genes. Moreover, we provide an overview of MLO protein molecular features predicted to play a major role in PM susceptibility. These represent ideal targets for future approaches of reverse genetics, addressed to the selection of loss-of-function resistant mutants in cultivated species.

  4. A phase I dose escalation trial of vaccine replicon particles (VRP) expressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in subjects with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, Susan F; Kehoe, Marissa; Durso, Robert; Fernandez, Celina; Olson, William; Gao, Jian P; Israel, Robert; Scher, Howard I; Morris, Stephen

    2013-01-30

    PSMA-VRP is a propagation defective, viral replicon vector system encoding PSMA under phase I evaluation for patients with castration resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC). The product is derived from an attenuated strain of the alphavirus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) virus, and incorporates multiple redundant safety features. In this first in human trial, two cohorts of 3 patients with CRPC metastatic to bone were treated with up to five doses of either 0.9×10(7)IU or 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18, followed by an expansion cohort of 6 patients treated with 0.36×10(8)IU of PSMA-VRP at weeks 1, 4, 7, 10 and 18. No toxicities were observed. In the first dose cohort, no PSMA specific cellular immune responses were seen but weak PSMA-specific signals were observed by ELISA. The remaining 9 patients, which included the higher cohort and the extension cohort, had no PSMA specific cellular responses. PSMA-VRP was well-tolerated at both doses. While there did not appear to be clinical benefit nor robust immune signals at the two doses studied, neutralizing antibodies were produced by both cohorts suggesting that dosing was suboptimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Niacin Therapy Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particles and Total Cholesterol Efflux Capacity But Not ABCA1-Specific Cholesterol Efflux in Statin-Treated Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsein, Graziella E; Hutchins, Patrick M; Isquith, Daniel; Vaisar, Tomas; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Heinecke, Jay W

    2016-02-01

    We investigated relationships between statin and niacin/statin combination therapy and the concentration of high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL-P) and cholesterol efflux capacity, 2 HDL metrics that might better assess cardiovascular disease risk than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. In the Carotid Plaque Composition Study, 126 subjects with a history of cardiovascular disease were randomized to atorvastatin or combination therapy (atorvastatin/niacin). At baseline and after 1 year of treatment, the concentration of HDL and its 3 subclasses (small, medium, and large) were quantified by calibrated ion mobility analysis (HDL-PIMA). We also measured total cholesterol efflux from macrophages and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Atorvastatin decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 39% and raised HDL-C by 11% (P=0.0001) but did not increase HDL-PIMA or macrophage cholesterol efflux. Combination therapy raised HDL-C by 39% (Pniacin therapy. Statin therapy increased HDL-C levels but failed to increase HDL-PIMA. It also reduced ABCA1-specific cholesterol efflux capacity. Adding niacin to statin therapy increased HDL-C and macrophage efflux, but had much less effect on HDL-PIMA. It also failed to improve ABCA1-specific efflux, a key cholesterol exporter in macrophages. Our observations raise the possibility that niacin might not target the relevant atheroprotective population of HDL. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. [Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger Panthera tigris altaica (Carnivora, Felidae) in a densely populated locality (with reference to Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve and its environs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Specific features of feeding of the Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) in the Bol'shekhekhtsirskii Reserve located in a densely populated locality (only 15 km to the north of it is the city of Khabarovsk) have been investigated. For a long time (1992-2000) the diet of tigers consisted 100% of wild animals, although the accessibility of domestic animals, dogs, in particular, was high. From 2000 to 2007, in their feeding, the proportion of dogs increased (up to 47%), and the proportion of wild animals decreased (50.8%). Tigers attacking dogs were physically weakened (broken fangs, wounds, inflicted by humans, diseases). Thus, even in a densely populated locality, the tiger's diet includes domestic animals only at exposure to different negative factors.

  7. The role of specific features of the electronic structure in electrical resistivity of band ferromagnets Co2Fe Z ( Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, Sb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2017-05-01

    The electrical resistivity ρ( T) of the band ferromagnets Co2FeZ (where Z = Al, Si, Ga, Ge, In, Sn, and Sb are s- and p-elements of Mendeleev's Periodic Table) has been investigated in the temperature range 4.2 K < T < 1100 K. It has been shown that the dependences ρ( T) of these alloys in a magnetically ordered state at temperatures T < T C are predominantly determined by the specific features of the electronic spectrum in the vicinity of the Fermi level. The processes of charge carrier scattering affect the behavior of the electrical resistivity ρ( T) only in the vicinity of the Curie temperature T C and above, as well as in the low-temperature range (at T ≪ T C).

  8. Assessment of use of specific features of subcutaneous insulin infusion systems and their relationship to metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Carmen; Patrascioiu, Ioana; Giménez, Marga; Vinagre, Irene; Vidal, Mercè; Jansà, Margarita; Conget, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) have available several specific features of these devices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between real use of them and the degree of glycemic control in patients using this therapy. Forty-four T1DM patients on CSII therapy with or without real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were included. Data from 14 consecutive days were retrospectively collected using the therapy management software CareLink Personal/Pro(®) and HbA1c measurement performed at that period. The relationship between the frequency of usie of specific features of insulin pumps (non-sensor augmented or sensor-augmented) and glycemic control was analyzed. Mean HbA1c in the group was 7.5 ± .8%. Mean daily number of boluses administered was 5.1 ± 1.8, with 75.4% of them being bolus wizards (BW). Daily number of boluses was significantly greater in patients with HbA1c 7.5% (5.3 ± 1.6 vs. 4.3 ± 1.6, P=.056). There was a trend to greater use of BW in patients with better control (82.8 ± 21.4% vs. 69.9 ± 29.1%, P=.106). HbA1c was lower in patients using CGM (n=8) as compared to those not using sensor-augmented pumps (7.6 ± .8 vs 7.1 ± .7, P=.067), but the difference was not statistically significant. More frequent use of BW appears to be associated to better metabolic control in patients with T1DM using pump therapy. In standard clinical practice, augmentation of insulin pump with CGM may be associated to improved glycemic control. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of a high affinity Bet v 1-specific IgG-derived ScFv from a subject vaccinated with hypoallergenic Bet v 1 fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Marth, Katharina; Lupinek, Christian; Campana, Raffaela; Hofer, Gerhard; Blatt, Katharina; Smiljkovic, Dubravka; Roder, Uwe; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Vrtala, Susanne; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Flicker, Sabine

    2018-01-09

    Recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives have been used in clinical immunotherapy studies and clinical efficacy seems to be related to the induction of blocking IgG antibodies recognizing the wild type allergens. However, so far no treatment-induced IgG antibodies have been characterized. To clone, express and characterize IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with two hypoallergenic recombinant fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 in a non-allergic subject. A phage-displayed combinatorial single chain fragment (ScFv) library was constructed from blood of the immunized subject and screened for Bet v 1-reactive antibody fragments. ScFvs were tested for specificity and cross-reactivity to native Bet v 1 and related pollen and food allergens and epitope mapping was performed. Germline ancestor genes of the antibody were analyzed with the ImMunoGeneTics (IMGT) database. The affinity to Bet v 1 and cross-reactive allergens was determined by surface plasmon resonance measurements. The ability to inhibit patients' IgE binding to ELISA plate-bound allergens and allergen-induced basophil activation was assessed. A combinatorial ScFv library was obtained from the vaccinated donor after three injections with the Bet v 1 fragments. Despite being almost in germline configuration, ScFv (clone H3-1) reacted with high affinity to native Bet v 1 and homologous allergens, inhibited allergic patients' polyclonal IgE binding to Bet v 1 and partially suppressed allergen-induced basophil activation. Immunization with unfolded hypoallergenic allergen derivatives induces high affinity antibodies even in non-allergic subjects which recognize the folded wild-type allergens and inhibit polyclonal IgE binding of allergic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital media promoting new approaches to subject specific didactics in visual arts education in primary school, high school, teacher education and university education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Örtegren, Hans; Haïkö, Tarja

    The symposium discusses eventual paradigmatic shift within Art Education at different levels when new tools for creation are applied in educational settings. The symposium addresses current developments in visual arts education based on empirical projects from different levels of the educational...... system. The purpose is to discuss to which extend digital media can be seen as an integrated part of existing theory mainly based on developments from analog media or rather give rise to think subject specific didactics differently. Recent developments like visual culture, contemporary arts, social...... aesthetics, community art and co-creation all represent an approach to art production and appreciation where content, media and visual expressions unfold in societal, digital, collaborative, and transgressive constellations involving the art maker and audiences in social and relational projects processes...

  11. The Hamburg selection procedure for dental students - introduction of the HAM-Nat as subject-specific test for study aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Christian; Hissbach, Johanna; Hampe, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the question whether the selection of dental students should be based solely on average school-leaving grades (GPA) or whether it could be improved by using a subject-specific aptitude test. The HAM-Nat Natural Sciences Test was piloted with freshmen during their first study week in 2006 and 2007. In 2009 and 2010 it was used in the dental student selection process. The sample size in the regression models varies between 32 and 55 students. Used as a supplement to the German GPA, the HAM-Nat test explained up to 12% of the variance in preclinical examination performance. We confirmed the prognostic validity of GPA reported in earlier studies in some, but not all of the individual preclinical examination results. The HAM-Nat test is a reliable selection tool for dental students. Use of the HAM-Nat yielded a significant improvement in prediction of preclinical academic success in dentistry.

  12. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  13. SUBJECT-SPECIFIC MODELS REVEAL THE EXISTANCE OF A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY OF THE ANKLE JOINT COMPLEX AND ITS PASSIVE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhauser, Carl W.; Siegler, Sorin; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Toy, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The morphology of the bones, articular surfaces and ligaments and the passive mechanical characteristics of the ankle complex were reported to vary greatly among individuals. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the variations observed in the passive mechanical properties of the healthy ankle complex are strongly influenced by morphological variations. To evaluate this hypothesis six numerical models of the ankle joint complex were developed from morphological data obtained from MRI of six cadaver lower limbs, and from average reported data on the mechanical properties of ligaments and articular cartilage. The passive mechanical behavior of each model, under a variety of loading conditions, was found to closely match the experimental data obtained from each corresponding specimen. Since all models used identical material properties and were subjected to identical loads and boundary conditions, it was concluded that the observed variations in passive mechanical characteristics were due to variations in morphology, thus confirming the hypothesis. In addition, the average and large variations in passive mechanical behavior observed between the models were similar to those observed experimentally between cadaver specimens. The results suggest that individualized subject-specific treatment procedures for ankle complex disorders are potentially superior to one-size-fits-all approach. PMID:18316088

  14. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  15. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pohler, Gerald; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females) inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  16. Finite Element Analysis Examining the Effects of Cam FAI on Hip Joint Mechanical Loading Using Subject-Specific Geometries During Standing and Maximum Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K C Geoffrey; Rouhi, Gholamreza; Lamontagne, Mario; Beaulé, Paul E

    2012-10-01

    Cam femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) can impose elevated mechanical loading in the hip, potentially leading to an eventual mechanical failure of the joint. Since in vivo data on the pathomechanisms of FAI are limited, it is still unclear how this deformity leads to osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of cam FAI on hip joint mechanical loading using finite element analysis, by incorporating subject-specific geometries, kinematics, and kinetics. The research objectives were to address and determine: (1) if hips with cam FAI demonstrate higher maximum shear stresses, in comparison with control hips; (2) the magnitude of the peak maximum shear stresses; and (3) the locations of the peak maximum shear stresses. Using finite element analysis, two patient models were control-matched and simulated during quasi-static positions from standing to squatting. Intersegmental hip forces, from a previous study, were applied to the subject-specific hip geometries, segmented from CT data, to evaluate the maximum shear stresses on the acetabular cartilage and underlying bone. Peak maximum shear stresses were found at the anterosuperior region of the underlying bone during squatting. The peaks at the anterosuperior acetabulum were substantially higher for the patients (15.2 ± 1.8 MPa) in comparison with the controls (4.5 ± 0.1 MPa). Peaks were not situated on the cartilage, but instead located on the underlying bone. The results correspond with the locations of initial cartilage degradation observed during surgical treatment and from MRI. These findings support the pathomechanism of cam FAI. Changes may originate from the underlying subchondral bone properties rather than direct shear stresses to the articular cartilage.

  17. Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic subjects in SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, R; Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-06-01

    The development of an animal model representative of the in vivo situation of human atopic diseases is always of interest for a better understanding of IgE production and regulation. Along these lines, mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice) engrafted with lymphocytes from atopic subjects might be a suitable model for such studies. This study aims to analyze the production of Lol p I-specific IgE and IgG antibodies in SCID mice after transplantation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients sensitive to grass pollens and from nonatopic donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were transplanted into SCID mice, which were then challenged with Lol p I, and antibody responses (IgG and IgE) were analyzed over a 6-week period. Total IgG antibody was measured in each mouse serum after transplantation. Also, most mice (regardless of whether donors were atopic) that were challenged with Lol p I produced specific IgG antibody. Total IgE antibody production was observed only in mice grafted with cells from atopic patients. Lol p I-specific IgE antibodies were also produced after immunization with Lol p I. Although IgG antibody/response tended to plateau, the IgE antibody response increased until it peaked and declined thereafter. Interferon-gamma was detected in sera from mice producing IgE antibody, which supports a possible role of interferon-gamma in the decrease of IgE response. This study suggests that the SCID mouse model could represent an interesting approach to studying specific, total IgG and IgE antibody production, and ultimately their regulation.

  18. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with acute non-specific chest pain in emergency and cardiology departments after the introduction of high-sensitivity troponins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilangkovan, Nivethitha; Mickley, Hans; Diederichsen, Axel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of clinical, cardiac-related endpoints and mortality among patients presenting to an emergency or cardiology department with non-specific chest pain (NSCP), and who receive testing with a high-sensitivity troponin. A second objective was to identify risk...... factors for the above-noted endpoints during 12 months of follow-up. DESIGN: A prospective multicentre study. SETTING: Emergency and cardiology departments in Southern Denmark. SUBJECTS: The study enrolled 1027 patients who were assessed for acute chest pain in an emergency or cardiology department......, and in whom a myocardial infarction or another obvious reason for chest pain had been ruled out. Patients were enrolled from September 2014 to June 2015 and followed for 1 year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical, cardiac-related endpoints (cardiac-related death, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina...

  19. The histopathology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in West Highland white terriers shares features of both non-specific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjä, P; Heikkilä, H P; Lilja-Maula, L; Krafft, E; Clercx, C; Day, M J; Rönty, M; Myllärniemi, M; Rajamäki, M M

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) is a breed-related, spontaneously arising disease that is a potential animal model for IPF in man. Histopathological similarity between IPF in WHWTs and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), the histopathological correlate for IPF in man, has not been confirmed and histological features of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), another form of human idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, have been reported in WHWTs with IPF. This study describes the pulmonary histopathological findings in 18 WHWTs with IPF, including lobe-specific samples in nine of the dogs. The canine lesions and their distribution pattern are compared with histopathological characteristics in samples of human UIP and NSIP. Underlying diffuse mature fibrosis, resembling human NSIP more than UIP, was seen in the lungs of all dogs with IPF. Additionally, the majority of dogs with IPF showed multifocal areas of accentuated subpleural and peribronchiolar fibrosis with occasional 'honeycombing' and profound alveolar epithelial changes, reminiscent of human UIP and not commonly seen in NSIP. Interstitial fibroblastic foci, characteristic of UIP, were not seen in WHWTs with IPF. Progressive fibrosis, with intra-alveolar organizing fibrosis alongside interstitial mature collagen deposition, was present within the more severely affected areas of lung in WHWTs with IPF. Severe pulmonary lesions were seen more commonly in the caudal than in the cranial lung lobes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A randomized, controlled study of specific immunotherapy in monosensitized subjects with seasonal rhinitis: effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, sputum inflammatory markers and development of asthma symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Nunzio; Li Gotti, Fabrizio; Mangano, Giuseppe; Paolino, Giuseppina; Mastruzzo, Claudio; Vancheri, Carlo; Lisitano, Natalina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is often associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation, and it seems to be an important risk factor for the development of asthma. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) reduces symptoms and medication requirements in subjects with allergic rhinitis, but the mechanisms by which SIT promotes these beneficial effects are less clear. We have investigated the effects of Parietaria-SIT on rhinitis symptoms, BHR to inhaled methacholine, eosinophilic inflammation and cytokine production (interferon gamma and interleukin-4) in the sputum. The effect on asthma progression was also examined. Thirty non-asthmatic subjects with seasonal rhinitis and monosensitized to Parietaria judaica participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive injections of a Parietaria pollen vaccine (n = 15) or matched placebo injections (n = 15) in a rapid updosing cluster regimen for 7 weeks, followed by monthly injections for 34 months. Throughout the 3-year study we collected data on symptoms and medication score, airway responsiveness to methacholine, eosinophilia and soluble cytokines in sputum, followed by a complete evaluation of the clinical course of atopy. Hay fever symptom and medication scores were well controlled by SIT. By the end of the study, in the placebo group, symptom and medication scores significantly increased by a median (interquartile range) of 121% (15-280%) and 263% (0-4400%) respectively (p Parietaria-SIT is effective in controlling hay fever symptoms and rescue medications, but no changes in the BHR to methacholine or sputum eosinophilia were observed. Moreover, Parietaria-SIT appears to prevent the natural progression of allergic rhinitis to asthma, suggesting that SIT should be considered earlier in the management of this condition.

  1. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Delphine C; Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Park, Byung; Gomes, Michelle M; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Barnett, Susan; Haigwood, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Envelope (Env) protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS). Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4) infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  2. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein resistance to monoclonal antibody 2G12 is subject-specific and context-dependent in macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine C Malherbe

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Envelope (Env protein is the sole target of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs that arise during infection to neutralize autologous variants. Under this immune pressure, HIV escape variants are continuously selected and over the course of infection Env becomes more neutralization resistant. Many common alterations are known to affect sensitivity to NAbs, including residues encoding potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS. Knowledge of Env motifs associated with neutralization resistance is valuable for the design of an effective Env-based vaccine so we characterized Envs isolated longitudinally from a SHIV(SF162P4 infected macaque for sensitivity to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs B12, 2G12, 4E10 and 2F5. The early Env, isolated from plasma at day 56 after infection, was the most sensitive and the late Env, from day 670, was the most resistant to MAbs. We identified four PNGS in these Envs that accumulated over time at positions 130, 139, 160 and 397. We determined that removal of these PNGS significantly increased neutralization sensitivity to 2G12, and conversely, we identified mutations by in silico analyses that contributed resistance to 2G12 neutralization. In order to expand our understanding of these PNGS, we analyzed Envs from clade B HIV-infected human subjects and identified additional glycan and amino acid changes that could affect neutralization by 2G12 in a context-dependent manner. Taken together, these in vitro and in silico analyses of clade B Envs revealed that 2G12 resistance is achieved by previously unrecognized PNGS substitutions in a context-dependent manner and by subject-specific pathways.

  3. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  4. An Integrated “Multi-Omics” Comparison of Embryo and Endosperm Tissue-Specific Features and Their Impact on Rice Seed Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Galland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although rice is a key crop species, few studies have addressed both rice seed physiological and nutritional quality, especially at the tissue level. In this study, an exhaustive “multi-omics” dataset on the mature rice seed was obtained by combining transcriptomics, label-free shotgun proteomics and metabolomics from embryo and endosperm, independently. These high-throughput analyses provide a new insight on the tissue-specificity related to rice seed quality. Foremost, we pinpointed that extensive post-transcriptional regulations occur at the end of rice seed development such that the embryo proteome becomes much more diversified than the endosperm proteome. Secondly, we observed that survival in the dry state in each seed compartment depends on contrasted metabolic and enzymatic apparatus in the embryo and the endosperm, respectively. Thirdly, it was remarkable to identify two different sets of starch biosynthesis enzymes as well as seed storage proteins (glutelins in both embryo and endosperm consistently with the supernumerary embryo hypothesis origin of the endosperm. The presence of a putative new glutelin with a possible embryonic favored abundance is described here for the first time. Finally, we quantified the rate of mRNA translation into proteins. Consistently, the embryonic panel of protein translation initiation factors is much more diverse than that of the endosperm. This work emphasizes the value of tissue-specificity-centered “multi-omics” study in the seed to highlight new features even from well-characterized pathways. It paves the way for future studies of critical genetic determinants of rice seed physiological and nutritional quality.

  5. Long-term incidence of female-specific cancer after bariatric surgery or usual care in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anveden, Åsa; Taube, Magdalena; Peltonen, Markku; Jacobson, Peter; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Sjöholm, Kajsa; Svensson, Per-Arne; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on female-specific cancer in women with obesity. The prospective, matched Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study was designed to examine outcomes after bariatric surgery. This study includes 1420 women from the SOS cohort that underwent bariatric surgery and 1447 contemporaneously matched controls who received conventional obesity treatment. Age was 37-60years and BMI was ≥38kg/m2. Information on cancer events was obtained from the Swedish National Cancer Registry. Median follow-up time was 18.1years (interquartile range 14.8-20.9years, maximum 26years). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01479452. Bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of overall cancer (hazard ratio=0.71; 95% CI 0.59-0.85; pbariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of endometrial cancer (hazard ratio=0.56: 95% CI 0.35-0.89; p=0.014). In this long-term study, bariatric surgery was associated with reduced risk of female-specific cancer, especially in women with hyperinsulinemia at baseline. This project was supported by grants from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DK105948 (the content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health), the Swedish Research Council K2013-99X-22279-01, K2013-54X-11285-19, Sahlgrenska University Hospital ALF research grant and Swedish Diabetes Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outdoor dynamic subject-specific evaluation of internal stresses in the residual limb: hydraulic energy-stored prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy-stored prosthetic feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Kristal, Anat; Gefen, Amit; Siev-Ner, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    The prosthetic foot plays an important role in propelling, breaking, balancing and supporting body loads while the amputee ambulates on different grounds. It is therefore important to quantify the effect of the prosthetic foot mechanism on biomechanical parameters, in order to prevent pressure ulcers and deep tissue injury. Our aim was to monitor the internal stresses in the residuum of transtibial amputation (TTA) prosthetic-users ambulating on different terrains, which the amputees encounter during their daily activities, i.e. paved floor, grass, ascending and descending stairs and slope. We specifically aimed to compare between the internal stresses in the TTA residuum of amputees ambulating with a novel hydraulic prosthetic foot compared to conventional energy storage and return (ESR) prosthetic feet. Monitoring of internal stresses was accomplished using a portable subject-specific real-time internal stress monitor. We found significant decrease (phydraulic foot, compared to walking with ESR feet. The loading rate calculated while ambulating with the hydraulic foot was at least three times lower than the loading rate calculated while ambulating with the ESR foot. Although the average decrease in internal stresses was ≈ 2-fold larger when replacing single-toe ESR feet with the hydraulic foot than when replacing split-toed ESR feet with the hydraulic foot, the differences were statistically insignificant. Our findings suggest that using a hydraulic prosthetic foot may protect the distal tibial end of the TTA residuum from high stresses, therefore preventing pressure-related injury and pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Subject Analysis of Payment Systems Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Korobeynikova Olga Mikhaylovna

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the analysis of payment systems aimed at identifying the categorical terminological apparatus, proving their specific features and revealing the impact of payment systems on the state of money turnover. On the basis of the subject analysis, the author formulates the definitions of a payment system (characterized by increasing speed of effecting payments, by the reduction of costs, by high degree of payments convenience for subjects of transactions, by security of paymen...

  8. Quantitative assessments of extracellular EEG to classify specific features of main phases of seizure acquisition based on kindling model in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilifar, Mostafa; Yadollahpour, Ali; Moazedi, Ahmad Ali; Ghotbeddin, Zohreh

    2017-08-24

    Quantitative assessments of extracellular EEG to identify specific features of three main phases of seizure acquisition based on kindling model in Rat. Male rats were divided into 2 groups including kindled (n=10) and sham (n=7) and respectively underwent an amygdala rapid kindling and placebo kindling. EEG signals in stages 1-2 (initial seizure stages (ISSs)), 3 (localized seizure stage (LSS)), and 4-5 generalized seizure stages (GSSs) were divided into 5 bands: delta (0-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha (8-12Hz), beta (12-28Hz), and gamma (28-40Hz). Spectral power of the sub bands and the ratios of theta/alpha and delta/beta were compared in the three phases and between the sham and kindling groups. Beta power significantly increased during kindling acquisition, though it was significantly lower than sham. Delta oscillation in ISSs was higher than LSS and GSSs, but the difference was significant only with LSS. Moreover, delta power was higher in all stages of kindling than sham. Gamma power in all stages of kindling was significantly lower than sham. Alpha power was significantly reduced in ISSs, compared with sham, but gradually increased during epileptogenesis. Theta/alpha and delta/beta increased in all stages, compared with sham (pISSs (pISSs and LSS (PISSs significantly decreased, but gradually increased along with kindling progression. Furthermore, delta power significantly increased during kindling process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific features of the internal photoelectric effect of the Cu(II)/Fe(III) oxalate complex with ethylenediamine in an insulating polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Dekhtyarenko, S. V.; Kokozay, V. N.; Kozinetz, A. V.; Nesterova, O. V.; Skryshevsky, V. A.; Studzinskii, S. L.; Tretyak, O. V.; Chigorin, É. N.

    2010-06-01

    The electrical and photoconductive properties of films of the composites based on poly(vinyl alcohol) with additions of the (NH4)[Cu(en)2Fe(C2O4)3] · 2DMSO complex, which forms polycrystalline structures in the films, have been studied. The increment of the conduction current under exposure to light is independent of the application of the voltage during illumination. The kinetics of increase and relaxation of the photoinduced conductivity does not depend on the voltage and light intensity (in the ranges under investigation). The photoinduced conductivity of the films decreases in the external magnetic field. The kinetics of change in the photocurrent after turning the magnetic field on and off is similar to the kinetics of its increase and relaxation after turning light on and off. The specific features of the internal photoelectric effect and the appearance of the memory effect under exposure to light have been attributed to deep energy traps sensitive to the magnetic field.

  10. Task Dependence, Tissue Specificity, and Spatial Distribution of Widespread Activations in Large Single-Subject Functional MRI Datasets at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Hoy, Colin W; Handwerker, Daniel A; Roopchansingh, Vinai; Inati, Souheil J; Saad, Ziad S; Cox, Robert W; Bandettini, Peter A

    2015-12-01

    It was recently shown that when large amounts of task-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) data are combined to increase contrast- and temporal signal-to-noise ratios, the majority of the brain shows significant hemodynamic responses time-locked with the experimental paradigm. Here, we investigate the biological significance of such widespread activations. First, the relationship between activation extent and task demands was investigated by varying cognitive load across participants. Second, the tissue specificity of responses was probed using the better BOLD signal localization capabilities of a 7T scanner. Finally, the spatial distribution of 3 primary response types--namely positively sustained (pSUS), negatively sustained (nSUS), and transient--was evaluated using a newly defined voxel-wise waveshape index that permits separation of responses based on their temporal signature. About 86% of gray matter (GM) became significantly active when all data entered the analysis for the most complex task. Activation extent scaled with task load and largely followed the GM contour. The most common response type was nSUS BOLD, irrespective of the task. Our results suggest that widespread activations associated with extremely large single-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets can provide valuable information about the functional organization of the brain that goes undetected in smaller sample sizes. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Hemodynamic performance of coil embolization and stentassisted coil embolization treatments: a numerical comparative study based on subject-specific models of cerebral aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengzhang; Zhang, Yisen; Lu, Gang; Yang, Xinjian; Zhang, Xiaolong; Ding, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Hemodynamic characteristics such as blood velocity, blood pressure, flow impingement, wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index are considered to play important roles in the initiation, growth, rupture and recurrence of the cerebral aneurysms. Endovascular therapy is widely implemented to treat the cerebral aneurysms by releasing coils into the aneurysm sac for limiting the blood flow to the sac and stent-assisted coil embolization is adopted to occlude the wide-necked or complex aneurysms. Some researchers believe that stents are not only a mechanical device but may act as a biological system and contribute to vessel wall healing. Hemodynamics simulation helps people understand the effect of hemodynamic characteristics on the recurrence of the coiled aneurysm and it also benefits the interventional planning of neurosurgeons. This study constructed the numerical model for a subject-specific ICA aneurysm treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, which combined the coiled model of the aneurysm with a porous stent placement, and simulated the pulsatile blood flow in these aneurysm models. When a stent was placed across the aneurysm orifice in the coiled aneurysm, the high wall shear stress around the distal aneurysm root was reduced more than that of the coiled aneurysm without a stent. The simulated results point to the conclusion that the stent not only protects the parent artery from occlusion due to extension of coils or thrombosis, but may also reduce the recurrence risk of the stent-assisted coiled aneurysm.

  12. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  13. Effect of blasts on subject-specific computational models of skin and bone sections at various locations on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Chanda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Blast injuries are very common among soldiers deployed in politically unstable regions such as Afghanistan and Iraq, and also in a battle field anywhere in the world. Understanding the mechanics of interaction of blasts with the skin and bone at various parts of the human body is the key to designing effective personal protective equipment (PPE's which can mitigate blast impacts. In the current work, subject-specific 3D computational models of the skin (with the three layers namely the epidermis, dermis and the hypodermis (muscles and bone sections from various parts of the human body (such as the elbow, finger, wrist, cheek bone, forehead, shin etc. have been developed to study the effect of blast loading. Non-linear material properties have been adopted for the skin and stress impulses at the different skin layers and bone sections are estimated. To date, such an extensive study on the effect of blast loading on the human skin and bone has not been attempted. The results of this study would be indispensable for medical practitioners to understand the effect of blast trauma and plan effective post-traumatic surgical strategies, and also for developing better PPE designs for the military in the future.

  14. A GPU-based framework for modeling real-time 3D lung tumor conformal dosimetry with subject-specific lung tumor motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Yugang; Santhanam, Anand; Ruddy, Bari H [University of Central Florida, FL (United States); Neelakkantan, Harini; Meeks, Sanford L [M D Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, FL (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A, E-mail: anand.santhanam@orlandohealth.co [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-07

    In this paper, we present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based simulation framework to calculate the delivered dose to a 3D moving lung tumor and its surrounding normal tissues, which are undergoing subject-specific lung deformations. The GPU-based simulation framework models the motion of the 3D volumetric lung tumor and its surrounding tissues, simulates the dose delivery using the dose extracted from a treatment plan using Pinnacle Treatment Planning System, Phillips, for one of the 3DCTs of the 4DCT and predicts the amount and location of radiation doses deposited inside the lung. The 4DCT lung datasets were registered with each other using a modified optical flow algorithm. The motion of the tumor and the motion of the surrounding tissues were simulated by measuring the changes in lung volume during the radiotherapy treatment using spirometry. The real-time dose delivered to the tumor for each beam is generated by summing the dose delivered to the target volume at each increase in lung volume during the beam delivery time period. The simulation results showed the real-time capability of the framework at 20 discrete tumor motion steps per breath, which is higher than the number of 4DCT steps (approximately 12) reconstructed during multiple breathing cycles.

  15. Comparisons of node-based and element-based approaches of assigning bone material properties onto subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Liu, Z C; Yang, K; Cui, F

    2015-08-01

    Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can be generated from computed tomography (CT) datasets of a bone. A key step is assigning material properties automatically onto finite element models, which remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a node-based assignment approach and also compares it with the element-based approach in the literature. Both approaches were implemented using ABAQUS. The assignment procedure is divided into two steps: generating the data file of the image intensity of a bone in a MATLAB program and reading the data file into ABAQUS via user subroutines. The node-based approach assigns the material properties to each node of the finite element mesh, while the element-based approach assigns the material properties directly to each integration point of an element. Both approaches are independent from the type of elements. A number of FE meshes are tested and both give accurate solutions; comparatively the node-based approach involves less programming effort. The node-based approach is also independent from the type of analyses; it has been tested on the nonlinear analysis of a Sawbone femur. The node-based approach substantially improves the level of automation of the assignment procedure of bone material properties. It is the simplest and most powerful approach that is applicable to many types of analyses and elements. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Jones (R. Brad); V.M. John (Vivek); D.V. Hunter (Diana); E. Martin (Eric); S. Mujib (Shariq); V. Mihajlovic (Vesna); P.C. Burgers (Peter); T.M. Luider (Theo); G. Gyenes (Gabor); N.C. Sheppard (Neil); D. SenGupta (Devi); R. Tandon (Ravi); F.-Y. Yue (Feng-Yun); W.S. Benko (William); C. Kovacs (Carrie); R. Nixon; M.A. Ostrowski (Mario)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractT-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific

  17. [Immunohistochemical study of the specific features of expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 9 in the photoaged skin, the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E V; Snarskaya, E S; Zavalishina, L E; Tkachenko, S B

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the degradation of all types of collagens and other extracellular matrix components (elastin, proteoglycans, and laminin), their synthesis and accumulation play a key role in the hydrolysis of basement membrane. MMPs are involved in a wide range of proteolytic processes in the presence of different physiological and pathological changes, including inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. to study the specific features of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression in different stages of skin photoaging, in the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical examination. 12 samples of the healthy skin (6 samples of the eyelid skin with Glogau grade II photoaging; 6 ones of eyelid skin with Glogau grades III-IV photoaging) and biopsies from 8 foci of actinic keratosis and from 8 ones of basal cell carcinoma were examined. A positive reaction to MMPs was shown as different brown staining intensity in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes/tumor cells. MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded in 67% of the histological specimens of the Glogau grade III photoaged skin and in 100% of those of Glogau grade IV. In the foci of actinic keratosis, the expression of MMP-1 was observed in 62.5% of cases and that of MMP-9 was seen in 87.5%. In basal cell carcinoma, the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected in all investigated samples. The immunomorphological findings are indicative of the important role of the level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression that is associated with the degree of progression of skin photoaging processes. Minimal MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded even in grades III-IV photoaging and in the foci of actinic keratosis. Intense MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was detected in malignant skin epithelial neoplasms as different clinicomorphological types of basal cell carcinoma.

  18. HIV-1-Specific Antibody Response and Function after DNA Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost HIV Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Little is known about the humoral immune response against DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5 boost HIV vaccine among HIV-infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. Previous studies emphasized cellular immune responses; however, current research suggests both cellular and humoral responses are likely required for a successful therapeutic vaccine. Thus, we aimed to understand antibody response and function induced by vaccination of ART-treated HIV-1-infected patients with immune recovery. All subjects participated in EraMune 02, an open-label randomized clinical trial of ART intensification followed by a six plasmid DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB and rAd5 boost HIV vaccine with matching inserts. Antibody binding levels were determined with a recently developed microarray approach. We also analyzed neutralization efficiency and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. We found that the DNA prime-rAd5 boost vaccine induced a significant cross-clade HIV-specific antibody response, which correlated with antibody neutralization efficiency. However, despite the increase in antibody binding levels, the vaccine did not significantly stimulate neutralization or ADCC responses. This finding was also reflected by a lack of change in total CD4+ cell associated HIV DNA in those who received the vaccine. Our results have important implications for further therapeutic vaccine design and administration, especially in HIV-1 infected patients, as boosting of preexisting antibody responses are unlikely to lead to clearance of latent proviruses in the HIV reservoir.

  19. Comparison of strain measurement in the mouse forearm using subject-specific finite element models, strain gaging, and digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begonia, Mark; Dallas, Mark; Johnson, Mark L; Thiagarajan, Ganesh

    2017-08-01

    Mechanical loading in bone leads to the activation of bone-forming pathways that are most likely associated with a minimum strain threshold being experienced by the osteocyte. To investigate the correlation between cellular response and mechanical stimuli, researchers must develop accurate ways to measure/compute strain both externally on the bone surface and internally at the osteocyte level. This study investigates the use of finite element (FE) models to compute bone surface strains on the mouse forearm. Strains from three FE models were compared to data collected experimentally through strain gaging and digital image correlation (DIC). Each FE model was assigned subject-specific bone properties and consisted of one-dimensional springs representing the interosseous membrane. After three-point bending was performed on the ulnae and radii, moment of inertia was determined from microCT analysis of the bone region between the supports and then used along with standard beam analyses to calculate the Young's modulus. Non-contact strain measurements from DIC were determined to be more suitable for validating numerical results than experimental data obtained through conventional strain gaging. When comparing strain responses in the three ulnae, we observed a 3-14% difference between numerical and DIC strains while the strain gage values were 37-56% lower than numerical values. This study demonstrates a computational approach for capturing bone surface strains in the mouse forearm. Ultimately, strains from these macroscale models can be used as inputs for microscale and nanoscale FE models designed to analyze strains directly in the osteocyte lacunae.

  20. Multi-RELIEF : a method to recognize specificity determining residues from multiple sequence alignments using a Machine-Learning approach for feature weighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Kai; Feenstra, K Anton; Heringa, Jaap; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Marchiori, Elena

    2008-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Identification of residues that account for protein function specificity is crucial, not only for understanding the nature of functional specificity, but also for protein engineering experiments aimed at switching the specificity of an enzyme, regulator or transporter. Available

  1. Specific features of the development of soils of hydromorphic ecosystems in the northern taiga of Western Siberia under conditions of cryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyshak, G. V.; Bogatyrev, L. G.; Goncharova, O. Yu.; Bobrik, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Differently directed and heterochronous cryogenic processes have contributed to the contrasting soil cover patterns and spatial heterogeneity of the properties of soils in hydromorphic ecosystems of the discontinuous permafrost zone of the northern taiga in Western Siberia. Frost heave and permafrost thawing within ecosystems of highmoor bogs have led to the development of specific cryogenic landforms, such as flat-topped and large peat mounds. A set of cryogenic soils is developed in these ecosystems; it includes different variants of cryozems, gleyzems (Cryosols), and peat soils (Histosols). The distribution of these soil types is controlled by the local topography and thawing depth, other factors being insignificant. Alternation of peat horizons of different types and ages, whirl-like patterns of horizon boundaries, considerable variations in the thickness of soil horizons, and inversions of soil horizons under the impact of frost cracking, frost heave, and cryoturbation are typical of the considered soils. Thawing depth is the most significant factor affecting the thickness of organic horizons, the soil pH, and the degree of decomposition of peat. As a result of the upward movement of bog ecosystems under the impact of frost heave, peat soils are subjected to considerable transformation: peat horizons undergo mineralization, and the thickness of organic horizons decreases; in some cases, eluvial-illuvial differentiation of the mineral horizons takes place, and peat podzols are developed. However, the opposite process of the return of the soils to the bog stage of pedogenesis with peat accumulation may take place in any time in the case of activation of thermokarst processes.

  2. A cleavage clock regulates features of lineage-specific differentiation in the development of a basal branching metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Antje Hl; Pang, Kevin; Henry, Jonathan Q; Martindale, Mark Q

    2014-01-31

    ratio, are critical for the appearance of lineage-specific differentiation. Our work corroborates previous studies demonstrating that the cleavage program is causally involved in the spatial segregation and/or activation of factors that give rise to distinct cell types in ctenophore development. These factors are segregated independently to the appropriate lineage at the 8- and the 16-cell stages and have features of a clock, such that comb-plate-like cilia and light-emitting photoproteins appear at roughly the same developmental time in cleavage-arrested embryos as they do in untreated embryos. Nuclear division, which possibly affects DNA-cytoplasmic ratios, appears to be important in the timing of differentiation markers. Evidence suggests that the 60-cell stage, just prior to gastrulation, is the time of zygotic gene activation. Such cleavage-clock-regulated phenomena appear to be widespread amongst the Metazoa and these cellular and molecular developmental mechanisms probably evolved early in metazoan evolution.

  3. Monitoring of seasonal variability in bronchial hyper-responsiveness and sputum cell counts in non-asthmatic subjects with rhinitis and effect of specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, R; Li Gotti, F; Mangano, G; Mastruzzo, C; Pistorio, M P; Crimi, N

    2003-07-01

    Bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) is documented in a proportion of non-asthmatic individuals with allergic rhinitis (NAAR) and reflects inflammatory events in the lower airways. Natural exposure to allergens is known to modulate BHR and the level of airway inflammation in asthma, but less consistently in NAAR. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) attenuates symptoms possibly by reducing BHR and airway inflammation. The influence of natural exposure to Parietaria pollen on BHR and sputum cell counts of NAAR was investigated and the effect of Parietaria SIT examined. Thirty NAAR, monosensitized to Parietaria judaica, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study of the effects of a Parietaria pollen vaccine on symptoms/medication score, BHR to inhaled methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), and cell counts in the sputum collected out of and during the pollen seasons for 36 months. Seasonal variation in BHR to inhaled methacholine and AMP and changes in sputum cell counts were documented. Changes were consistent for AMP, but not methacholine, and invariably associated with modifications in sputum eosinophils and epithelial cells. The clinical efficacy of Parietaria SIT was associated with a decline in the seasonal deterioration of BHR to AMP, whereas no significant effect was observed on BHR to methacholine or sputum cell differentials. Between-groups comparison of the seasonal changes in PC15 methacholine values and sputum cell differentials calculated as the AUC were not statistically significant, whereas a significant difference in PC15 AMP was demonstrated throughout the study (P=0.029), the median (inter-quartile range) AUC values being 2478.5 (1153.3-3600.0) and 1545.5 (755.3-1797.9) for the SIT- and placebo-treated group, respectively. Bronchial airways of NAAR exhibit features of active inflammation that deteriorate during natural allergen exposure, particularly with regard to BHR to AMP. The clinical efficacy of

  4. Specificity and sensitivity of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I as compared with anticardiolipin antibody and lupus anticoagulant in Thai systemic lupus erythematosus patients with clinical features of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Virunya; Verasertniyom, Oravan; Vanichapuntu, Monchand; Totemchokchyakarn, Kitti; Nantiruj, Kanokrat; Pisitkul, Prapaporn; Angchaisuksiri, Pantep; Archararit, Napaporn; Rachakom, Bupha; Ayurachai, Katcharin; Janwityanujit, Suchela

    2007-10-01

    Antibodies to beta(2)-glycoprotein I (anti-beta(2)-GPI) have been reported to have stronger association with clinical antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) than anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) and lupus anticoagulant (LAC). We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for anti-beta(2)-GPI in Thai systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with clinical features of APS and compared the results with IgG/IgM aCL and LAC to find the test with the best association. The hospital records of 151 Thai SLE patients whose sera had been sent for either IgG/IgM anticardiolipin antibodies or lupus anticoagulant testing were reviewed. Sera of patients either without complete clinical records or those with APS-related manifestations other than vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity (according to the international consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite APS) were excluded. For the remaining subjects (112 patients), their sera were tested for anti-beta(2)-GPI antibody, IgG and IgM anticardiolipin, and lupus anticoagulant. The sensitivity and specificity of each method were compared by using the chi-square test. Among the 112 (74.2%) SLE patients in the study, 35 (31.3%) presented with preliminary clinical criteria for APS (i.e., vascular thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity) whereas 77 (68.7%) did not. The sensitivity and specificity of anti-beta(2)-GPI determination were 57.1 and 79.2%, respectively, whereas those of IgG aCL were 25.7 and 94.8%, of IgM aCL were 5.7 and 98.7%, and of LAC were 44.8 and 77.3%, respectively. The accuracy of the four tests showed similar association with clinical APS (accuracy of test = 72.3, 73.2, 69.6, and 68.3%, respectively). Concerning the sensitivity, specificity, and difficulty of the methods, the combination of anti-beta(2)-GPI and IgG aCL tests was the best for the diagnosis of APS in Thai SLE patients.

  5. [Relationship between immediate hypersensitive reactions by buckwheat ingestion and specific IgE for rice in subject with positive IgE-RAST for buckwheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, E; Urisu, A; Kondo, Y; Horiba, F; Tsuruta, M; Yasaki, T; Masuda, S; Yamada, K; Kozawa, T; Hida, Y

    1991-12-01

    IgE-mediated mechanisms are important in immediate hypersensitive reactions (IHR) to buckwheat. However, a part of subjects with high IgE for buckwheat show no IHR to buckwheat ingestion. Inspite of cross-allergenicity between buckwheat and rice, rice ingestion rarely induces IHR even in subjects with high IgE for rice unlike buckwheat-induced IHR. We speculated that there were some relationships between the presence of IHR to buckwheat and recognition of cross-allergenic determinants on buckwheat components with rice components. We examined IgE-RAST for rice in 58 subjects with positive IgE-RAST for buckwheat. IgE-RAST for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), egg white and cow's milk as unrelated antigens with rice were also assessed for a comparison. Subjects (n = 33) without IHR to buckwheat showed higher IgE-RAST values for rice than those (n = 25) with IHR, whereas there were no differences in IgE-RAST values for Dp, egg white and cow's milk between two groups with and without IHR. IgE-RAST values for buckwheat showed significant close correlations to those for rice in subjects without IHR to buckwheat but not in those with IHR. There were no significant correlations between IgE-RAST values for buckwheat and for Dp, egg white or cow's milk in both groups with and without IHR. These results suggested that the IgE from subjects without IHR to buckwheat recognized cross-allergenic determinants with rice on the buckwheat components.

  6. An Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Patient Specific Model of Complement Factor H (Y402H) Polymorphism Displays Characteristic Features of Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Indicates a Beneficial Role for UV Light Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Dean; Collin, Joseph; Bojic, Sanja; Chichagova, Valeria; Buskin, Adriana; Xu, Yaobo; Lafage, Lucia; Otten, Elsje G; Anyfantis, George; Mellough, Carla; Przyborski, Stefan; Alharthi, Sameer; Korolchuk, Viktor; Lotery, Andrew; Saretzki, Gabriele; McKibbin, Martin; Armstrong, Lyle; Steel, David; Kavanagh, David; Lako, Majlinda

    2017-09-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness, accounting for 8.7% of all blindness globally. Vision loss is caused ultimately by apoptosis of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and overlying photoreceptors. Treatments are evolving for the wet form of the disease; however, these do not exist for the dry form. Complement factor H polymorphism in exon 9 (Y402H) has shown a strong association with susceptibility to AMD resulting in complement activation, recruitment of phagocytes, RPE damage, and visual decline. We have derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from two subjects without AMD and low-risk genotype and two patients with advanced AMD and high-risk genotype and generated RPE cells that show local secretion of several proteins involved in the complement pathway including factor H, factor I, and factor H-like protein 1. The iPSC RPE cells derived from high-risk patients mimic several key features of AMD including increased inflammation and cellular stress, accumulation of lipid droplets, impaired autophagy, and deposition of "drüsen"-like deposits. The low- and high-risk RPE cells respond differently to intermittent exposure to UV light, which leads to an improvement in cellular and functional phenotype only in the high-risk AMD-RPE cells. Taken together, our data indicate that the patient specific iPSC model provides a robust platform for understanding the role of complement activation in AMD, evaluating new therapies based on complement modulation and drug testing. Stem Cells 2017. © 2017 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  7. Short- and Long-Term Effectiveness of a Subject's Specific Novel Brain and Vestibular Rehabilitation Treatment Modality in Combat Veterans Suffering from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick, Frederick Robert; Pagnacco, Guido; McLellan, Kate; Solis, Ross; Shores, Jacob; Fredieu, Andre; Brock, Joel Brandon; Randall, Cagan; Wright, Cameron; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study, we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores after a 2-week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR) program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study. We studied the short- and long-term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre- and post-treatment (1 week and 3 months) using our subjects as their matched controls. The generalized least squares (GLS) technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R (2) within groups was 0.000, R (2) between groups was 0.000, and overall the R (2) was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests. Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (2 weeks) is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability, and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  8. Short and long term effectiveness of a subject's specific novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation treatment modality in combat veterans suffering from PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Robert Carrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in combat veterans that have a long-term positive clinical effect has the potential to modify the treatment of PTSD. This outcome may result in changed and saved lives of our service personnel and their families. In a previous before-after-intervention study we demonstrated high statistical and substantively significant short-term changes in the Clinician Administered DSM-IV PTSD Scale (CAPS scores after a two week trial of a subject's particular novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation (VR program. The long-term maintenance of PTSD severity reduction was the subject of this study.Material and Methods:We studied the short and long term effectiveness of a subject's particular novel brain and VR treatment of PTSD in subjects who had suffered combat-related traumatic brain injuries in terms of PTSD symptom reduction. The trial was registered as ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02003352. We analyzed the difference in the CAPS scores pre and post treatment (one week and three months using our subjects as their matched controls. Results:The generalized least squares (GLS technique demonstrated that with our 26 subjects in the 3 timed groups the R2 within groups was 0.000, R2 between groups was 0.000 and overall the R2 was 0.000. The GLS regression was strongly statistically significant z = 21.29, p < 0.001, 95% CI [58.7, 70.63]. The linear predictive margins over time demonstrated strong statistical and substantive significance of decreasing PTSD severity scores for all timed CAPS tests.Discussion:Our investigation has the promise of the development of superior outcomes of treatments in this area that will benefit a global society. The length of the treatment intervention involved (two weeks is less that other currently available treatments and has profound implications for cost, duration of disability and outcomes in the treatment of PTSD in combat veterans.

  9. Pathophysiological characteristics of preproinsulin-specific CD8+ T cells in subjects with juvenile-onset and adult-onset type 1 diabetes: A 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mahinder; Badal, Darshan; Jacob, Neenu; Dayal, Devi; Kumar, Rakesh; Bhansali, Anil; Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sachdeva, Naresh

    2018-02-01

    Among the beta-cell associated antigens, preproinsulin (PPI) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). PPI-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells emerge early during beta-cell destruction and persist in peripheral circulation during diabetes progression. However, the influence of insulin therapy on phenotype of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D including, juvenile-onset T1D (JOT1D), and adult-onset T1D (AOT1D) is not yet known. We followed the time course of PPI-specific CD8+ T cells in JOT1D and AOT1D subjects that achieved glycemic control after 1 year of insulin therapy, using major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) dextramers by flow cytometry. At follow-up, PPI-specific CD8+ T cells could be detected consistently in peripheral blood of all T1D subjects. Proportion of PPI-specific effector memory (T EM ) subsets decreased, while central memory T (T CM ) cells remained unchanged in both groups. Expression of granzyme-B and perforin in PPI-specific CD8+ T cells also remained unchanged. Further, on analysis of B-chain and signal peptide (SP) specific CD8+ T cell responses separately, we again observed decrease in T EM subset in both the groups, while increase in naive (T N ) subset was observed in B-chain specific CD8+ T cells only. Our study shows that PPI-specific CD8+ T cells can be detected in both JOT1D and AOT1D subjects over a period of time with reliable consistency in frequency but variable pathophysiological characteristics. Insulin therapy seems to reduce the PPI-specific T EM subsets; however, the PPI-specific T CM cells continue to persist as attractive targets for immunotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Sensitivity of radiographic features and specificity of scintigraphic imaging in hand osteoarthritis; Sensibilite des signes radiographiques et specificite de la scintigraphie dans l`arthrose de la main

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Wright, J.C.; MacFarlane, D.G.; Lynch, J.A. [Guy`s and St. Thomas`s Hospitals, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-06-01

    We undertook to determine which of the radiographic features most reliably detected the presence and disease progression in osteoarthritis in the hand; and which of the radiographic features corresponded with the radionuclide bone scan images. 32 patients with osteoarthritis had X5 macroradiographs taken of their wrists and hands at 6 monthly intervals over an 18 month period. The high magnification and resolution of microfocal radiography permitted quantitative detection of the extent and change in joint space width, subchondral sclerosis, osteophytosis and juxtaarticular radiolucencies. 4-hour technetium 99{sup m} methylene bisphophonate bone scans were taken at 0 and 12 months and the activity of the tracer uptake at each joint scored. The latter was compared with the radiographic features at each visit and the changes between visits analysed. In hand OA the most sensitive radiographic parameters for detecting disease were osteophytes, subchondral sclerosis and justaarticular radiolucencies, with radionuclide imaging demonstrating the increased activity in bone formation associated with the growth and remodelling of osteophytes. Changes in the number and size of osteophytes and joint space narrowing were the only reliable and sensitive parameters for assessing disease progression. We conclude that in osteoarthritis, the bony changes progress significantly before the occurrence of radiographically evident joint space narrowing indicative of cartilage thinning. (authors). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  11. Identification of the Subject-Specific Parameters of a Hill-type Muscle-tendon Model for Simulations of Human Motion (Identificatie van subject-specifieke parameters van een Hill-type spier-pees model voor de simulatie van menselijke beweging)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Campen, Anke

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes to subject-specific modeling in biomechanical an alysis by (i) designing an experimental setup to obtain a more accurate subject-specific angle-moment relationship of the knee joint (chapters 4 and 5), (ii) developing an algorithm for the estimation of the muscle-t endon parameters of the actuators of the knee joint in a simulation envi ronment and comparing its performance to the performance of the algorith m of Garner and Pandy (2003), and (iii) validating the outcom...

  12. Measurement of Hymenoptera venom specific IgE by the IMMULITE 3gAllergy in subjects with negative or positive results by ImmunoCAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mineaki; Hirata, Hirokuni; Arima, Masafumi; Hayashi, Yumeko; Chibana, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naruo; Ikeno, Yoshihiko; Fukushima, Yasutsugu; Komura, Reiko; Okazaki, Kazumi; Sugiyama, Kumiya; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2012-07-01

    Patients may receive negative results from a specific IgE (sIgE) test such as the ImmunoCAP (CAP) despite a documented history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting. Thus, further testing may be required using another serological method or venom skin prick tests to confirm allergy diagnosis and correct species. To evaluate the sensitivity and the specificity of CAP and IMMULITE 3gAllergy (IMMULITE) for detecting sIgE to Paper wasp (WA) and Yellow Jacket (YJ) venoms using patient clinical history as the comparator. Sera from 70 participants with a history of systemic reactions (SR) to WA and/or YJ stings were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group had negative results on CAP. To assess specificity, sera from 71 participants who had never experienced either a WA or YJ sting were tested using CAP and IMMULITE. Fifty participants from this group tested positive using CAP. In participants with a history of systemic reaction to a Hymenoptera sting, yet who tested negative for WA and/or YJ sIgE according to CAP, the positivity rate according to IMMULITE was 20-42% using 0.10 IU(A)/mL as the limit of detection (LoD), per the manufacturer's specification. When the LoD for CAP (0.35 IU(A)/mL) was applied to the IMMULITE results, positivity according to IMMULITE was 14-26%. Overall, sensitivity, specificity, and agreement with SR were greater for IMMULITE than for CAP. For YJ: sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 42.8%:28.5%; specificity, 53.5%:39.4%; agreement, 48.2%:34%. For WA, sensitivity (IMMULITE:CAP), 58.6%:28.5%; specificity, 49.3%:47.8%; agreement, 43.9%:38.3%. The IMMULITE performed well for detecting sIgE to Hymenoptera venom.

  13. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...... Java programs called Featureous that addresses this issue. Featureous allows a programmer to easily establish feature-code traceability links and to analyze their characteristics using a number of visualizations. Featureous is an extension to the NetBeans IDE, and can itself be extended by third...

  14. The Impact of Affiliate Stigma on the Psychological Well-Being of Mothers of Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in India: The Mediating Role of Subjective Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Gazal; Ghosh, Subharati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the impact of affiliate stigma on the wellbeing of caregivers to children with specific learning disability (SLD) in India is limited. To fill in this gap in knowledge a cross-sectional quantitative study was undertaken to assess the impact of affiliate stigma on the psychological well-being of mothers with children with…

  15. Intra-individual variability in the urine concentrations of inhaled salmeterol in male subjects with reference to doping analysis – impact of urine specific gravity correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Since 2010, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced urinary thresholds for some beta2-agonists. In doping analysis urine samples of beta2-agonists are not corrected for the Urine Specific Gravity (USG) by the WADA laboratories. Several studies have observed high differences in the urine...

  16. Evaluation of the effect of the specific CCR1 antagonist CP-481715 on the clinical and cellular responses observed following epicutaneous nickel challenge in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Jeanett; Skov, Lone; Wang, Lisy

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The CC-chemokine receptor-1 (CCR1) is thought to be involved in recruitment of inflammatory cells in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). CP-481715 is a specific antagonist of CCR1. OBJECTIVES: To determine the inhibitory effects of CP-418 715 in ACD by evaluating the clinical signs...

  17. Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasyn, Andre; Lassat, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (-58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (-59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. Subject-verb number (disagreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Isac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses cases of number mismatches between subjects and verbs. The main proposal is that subject-verb agreement is not in number but in a different feature, that we call Cardinality. Cardinality is a feature of DPs that is computed on the basis of number features and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP. The “computation” of the Cardinality feature proceeds internal to the feature matrix of one lexical item - the D. The values of the number and collectivity features carried by various heads in the DP are transferred to the D by means of a feature checking mechanism and the value of the Cardinality feature is then derived from these.

  19. SPECIFIC SUBJECTS OF LICENSE ACADEMIC PROGRAM - AN IMPORTANT STAGE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE MILITARY LEADERS AT NATIONAL MILITARY UNIVERSITY, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa Stoyanova PETROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of an approved request by the Head of National Military University it is conducting research on motivation in military formations of the example of Vasil Levski National Military University in Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria. Subject of the study is motivation for training and military activities of the cadets and the objects of the study are students in professional military direction in "Organization and management of military units at the tactical level," Land forces faculty at the National Military University of Bulgaria. The article presents results of the study at second item - "Do you agree that the study of specialized topics is an important stage of your professional development of future military leader?". The interviewees were cadets who graduated through the following academic years - 2013/2014, 2014/2015, 2015/2016.

  20. Monocot and dicot MLO powdery mildew susceptibility factors are functionally conserved in spite of the evolution of class-specific molecular features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appiano, M.; Catalano, D.; Santillan Martinez, M.I.; Lotti, C.; Zheng Zheng, Zheng; Visser, R.G.F.; Ricciardi, L.; Bai, Y.; Pavan, S.N.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific members of the plant Mildew Locus O (MLO) protein family act as susceptibility factors towards powdery mildew (PM), a worldwide-spread fungal disease threatening many cultivated species. Previous studies indicated that monocot and dicot MLO susceptibility proteins are

  1. The translocation (6;9) (p23;q34) shows consistent rearrangement of two genes and defines a myeloproliferative disorder with specific clinical features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekarman, D.; von Lindern, M.; Daenen, S.; de Jong, B.; Fonatsch, C.; Heinze, B.; Bartram, C.; Hagemeijer, A.; Grosveld, G.

    1992-01-01

    Translocation (6;9)(p23;q34) is a cytogenetic aberration that can be found in specific subtypes of both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This translocation is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Recently, the genes involved in the t(6;9) were isolated and

  2. Transcriptome-Wide Cleavage Site Mapping on Cellular mRNAs Reveals Features Underlying Sequence-Specific Cleavage by the Viral Ribonuclease SOX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Maria Gaglia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses express factors that reduce host gene expression through widespread degradation of cellular mRNA. An example of this class of proteins is the mRNA-targeting endoribonuclease SOX from the gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV. Previous studies indicated that cleavage of messenger RNAs (mRNA by SOX occurs at specific locations defined by the sequence of the target RNA, which is at odds with the down-regulation of a large portion of cellular transcripts. In this study, we address this paradox by using high-throughput sequencing of cleavage intermediates combined with a custom bioinformatics-based analysis pipeline to identify SOX cleavage sites across the mRNA transcriptome. These data, coupled with targeted mutagenesis, reveal that while cleavage sites are specific and reproducible, they are defined by a degenerate sequence motif containing a small number of conserved residues rather than a strong consensus sequence. This degenerate element is well represented in both human and KSHV mRNA, and its presence correlates with RNA destabilization by SOX. This represents a new endonuclease targeting strategy, in which use of a degenerate targeting element enables RNA cleavage at specific locations without restricting the range of targets. Furthermore, it shows that strong target selectivity can be achieved without a high degree of sequence specificity.

  3. Transcriptome-Wide Cleavage Site Mapping on Cellular mRNAs Reveals Features Underlying Sequence-Specific Cleavage by the Viral Ribonuclease SOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglia, Marta Maria; Rycroft, Chris H.; Glaunsinger, Britt A.

    2015-01-01

    Many viruses express factors that reduce host gene expression through widespread degradation of cellular mRNA. An example of this class of proteins is the mRNA-targeting endoribonuclease SOX from the gamma-herpesvirus Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Previous studies indicated that cleavage of messenger RNAs (mRNA) by SOX occurs at specific locations defined by the sequence of the target RNA, which is at odds with the down-regulation of a large portion of cellular transcripts. In this study, we address this paradox by using high-throughput sequencing of cleavage intermediates combined with a custom bioinformatics-based analysis pipeline to identify SOX cleavage sites across the mRNA transcriptome. These data, coupled with targeted mutagenesis, reveal that while cleavage sites are specific and reproducible, they are defined by a degenerate sequence motif containing a small number of conserved residues rather than a strong consensus sequence. This degenerate element is well represented in both human and KSHV mRNA, and its presence correlates with RNA destabilization by SOX. This represents a new endonuclease targeting strategy, in which use of a degenerate targeting element enables RNA cleavage at specific locations without restricting the range of targets. Furthermore, it shows that strong target selectivity can be achieved without a high degree of sequence specificity. PMID:26646420

  4. Abbreviation as a Reflection of Terms Variability in Language for Specific Purposes: Translational Features (Terminology Case Study in German, English, Kazakh, and Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisembayeva, Gulshat Z.; Yeskindirova, Manshuk Z.; Tulebayeva, Samal A.

    2016-01-01

    The range of modern dynamic social changes, globalization of world powers' economic cooperation, acceleration of technocratic processes have widespread impact on term systems' variability in language, in particular, on terminological variability for specific purposes. This globalized extra-linguistic factor provokes avalanche growth of…

  5. SPECIFIC FEATURE OF HORMONAL PROFILE IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY AND RECURRENT BREAST CANCER AND THEIR ROLE IN THE EFFICIENCY OF CHEMOTHERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kozlova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormonal background was studied in 32 menopausal patients who had primary breast cancer (Stage III or its recurrence in the postoperative scar. The patients with the primary process, unlike those with a recurrence, were found to have increased adrenocortical cortisol-forming activity and changed thyroid homeostasis. In both types of the neoplastic process, the blood concentrations of estradi- ol, testosterone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones were disturbed in a substantial number of cases; the distinc- tive feature of the primary process and its recurrence lies in the opposite direction. An association of individual differences in the con- centrations of estradiol and testosterone with the efficiency of neoadjuvant chemotherapy was analyzed in patients with recurrent can- cer.

  6. Identification of a B lymphoid disorder defined by specific morphologic features, a del(11)(q13) and a same breakpoint far from CCND1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, D.; Callet, E.; Reynaud, S. [Laboratoire d`Hematologie, Pierre-Benite (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome rearrangements in 11q13 have been shown to occur in a variety of diffuse small B-cell lymphomas/leukemias, including, beside mantle cell lymphomas (MCL), some cases of CLL/SLL, PLL, and SLVL. If t(11;14)(q13;q32) may be considered as a hallmark of MCL, less is known about deletions involving 11q13. A series of 13 patients with a diffuse small B-lymphoma/leukemia was examined for morphology (cytology and histology), immunology, cytogenetics and FISH for some of them. According to karyotype findings, 2 groups were identified: Group 1: 9 patients (6M,3F), median age 60 yrs. without 11q anomalies. Apart from trisomy 12 (3 cases), diverse anomalies were identified including chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 17. Cases were classified as CLL (2), SLL/SLP (5), blast-rich immunocytomas (2). Group 2: 4 patients, all males, median age 52 yrs. with breakpoints in 11q13; there were 3 deletions, and a t(11;14) was present in another case. 2 patients presented with refractory disease followed for 23 and 9 months, respectively, without any consistent morphologic change, the chromosomal anomaly being present at diagnosis in 1.3 cases. Cytologically, a nucleolated cell component was the constant and striking feature and FISH study by cos 14, pHS 11, cos 17, cos 105 revealed the same breakpoint located far from CCND1. The fourth case, bearing the t(11;14), was diagnosed as CLL/PLL in cytology, but was histologically consistent with MCL; the breakpoint was located by FISH into the BCL1 locus. Even if this study needs further confirmation, it points at the 11q13 deletion as a genetic event leading to a more aggressive disease, associated with distinct cytologic features differing from MCL and a molecular event probably not involving BCL1/CCND1.

  7. Artificial Neural Networks as a powerful numerical tool to classify specific features of a tooth based on 3D scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Stefan; Vogel, Eric Per; Anees, Naeema; Keul, Christine; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Fischer, Horst

    2017-01-01

    Chairside manufacturing based on digital image acquisition is gainingincreasing importance in dentistry. For the standardized application of these methods, it is paramount to have highly automated digital workflows that can process acquired 3D image data of dental surfaces. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) arenumerical methods primarily used to mimic the complex networks of neural connections in the natural brain. Our hypothesis is that an ANNcan be developed that is capable of classifying dental cusps with sufficient accuracy. This bears enormous potential for an application in chairside manufacturing workflows in the dental field, as it closes the gap between digital acquisition of dental geometries and modern computer-aided manufacturing techniques.Three-dimensional surface scans of dental casts representing natural full dental arches were transformed to range image data. These data were processed using an automated algorithm to detect candidates for tooth cusps according to salient geometrical features. These candidates were classified following common dental terminology and used as training data for a tailored ANN.For the actual cusp feature description, two different approaches were developed and applied to the available data: The first uses the relative location of the detected cusps as input data and the second method directly takes the image information given in the range images. In addition, a combination of both was implemented and investigated.Both approaches showed high performance with correct classifications of 93.3% and 93.5%, respectively, with improvements by the combination shown to be minor.This article presents for the first time a fully automated method for the classification of teeththat could be confirmed to work with sufficient precision to exhibit the potential for its use in clinical practice,which is a prerequisite for automated computer-aided planning of prosthetic treatments with subsequent automated chairside manufacturing. Copyright

  8. Age-specific periictal electroclinical features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and potential risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Fernandez, Guadalupe Baca-Vaca; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-11-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) is the commonest seizure type associated with sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examined the semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCSs of adults as compared with those of children. The rationale lies on epidemiological observations that have noted a tenfold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed the video-EEG data of 105 GTCS events in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizure events and 49 adults, 82 seizure events) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG, and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Periictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, postictal EEG suppression (PGES), and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of RR intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals), and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during preictal baseline and ictal and postictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to find associations between electroclinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no antiepileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES, and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (pseizure duration was significantly increased by a mean value of 8s in children and 11s in adults (pseizure phases and prolonged PGES duration may be electroclinical markers of SUDEP risk and merit further study. © 2013.

  9. Constraint-based feature validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dohmen, M.H.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The feature modeling paradigm combines geometric and functional product information in one model. In an ideal product development environment, multiple views of a product in terms of features coexist. Feature validation concerns the validity of the feature information in all these views, focusing on validity specification and maintenance. This thesis presents a feature validation scheme based on constraints. It enables flexible and expressive feature validity maintenance. The scheme ensures t...

  10. Age-specific Peri-ictal Electro-clinical Features of Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizures and Potential Risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Joel; Kaur, Gurmeen; Baca-Vaca Fernandez, Guadalupe; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Kaffashi, Farhad; Loparo, Kenneth A; Rao, Shyam; Loplumlert, Jakrin; Kaiboriboon, Kitti; Amina, Shahram; Tuxhorn, Ingrid; Lhatoo, Samden D

    2013-01-01

    Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) are the commonest seizure type associated with Sudden Unexplained Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP). This study examines semiological and electroencephalographic differences (EEG) in the GTCS of adults as compared to children. The rationale lies in epidemiological observations that have noted a ten-fold higher incidence of SUDEP in adults. We analyzed video-EEG data of 105 GTCS in 61 consecutive patients (12 children, 23 seizures and 49 adults, 82 seizures) recruited from the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit. Semiological, EEG and 3-channel EKG features were studied. Peri-ictal seizure phase durations were analyzed including tonic, clonic, total seizure, post-ictal EEG suppression (PGES) and recovery phases. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures including RMSSD (root mean square successive difference of R-R intervals), SDNN (standard deviation of NN intervals) and SDSD (standard deviation of differences) were analyzed (including low frequency/high frequency power ratios) during pre-ictal baseline, ictal and post-ictal phases. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to find associations between electro-clinical features. Separate subgroup analyses were carried out on adult and pediatric age groups as well as medication groups (no anti-epileptic medication cessation versus unchanged or reduced medication) during admission. Major differences were seen in adult and pediatric seizures with total seizure duration, tonic phase, PGES and recovery phases being significantly shorter in children (ptonic phase duration as the dependent variable, found age to correlate significantly (ptonic phase duration correlated with a 1 second increase in PGES duration. PGES durations were on average 28 seconds shorter in children. With cessation of medication, total seizure duration was significantly increased by a mean value of 8 seconds in children and 11 seconds in adults (pTonic phase duration also significantly increased with medication cessation and

  11. Inflammation and glucose homeostasis are associated with specific structural features among adults without knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Alina C; Barbe, Mary F; Eaton, Charles B; Amin, Mamta; Al-Eid, Fatimah; Price, Lori Lyn; Lu, Bing; Lo, Grace H; Zhang, Ming; Pang, Jincheng; McAlindon, Timothy E; Driban, Jeffrey B

    2018-01-05

    Greater age and body mass index are strong risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA). Older and overweight individuals may be more susceptible to OA because these factors alter tissue turnover in menisci, articular cartilage, and bone via altered glucose homeostasis and inflammation. Understanding the role of inflammation and glucose homeostasis on structural features of early-stage OA may help identify therapeutic targets to delay or prevent the onset of OA among subsets of adults with these features. We examined if serum concentrations of glucose homeostasis (glucose, glycated serum protein [GSP]) or inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) were associated with prevalent knee bone marrow lesions (BMLs) or effusion among adults without knee OA. We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We selected participants who had no radiographic knee OA but were at high risk for knee OA. Blinded staff conducted assays for CRP, GSP, and glucose. Readers segmented BML volume and effusion using semi-automated programs. Our outcomes were prevalent BML (knee with a BML volume > 1 cm3) and effusion (knee with an effusion volume > 7.5 cm3). We used logistic regression models with CRP, GSP, or glucose concentrations as the predictors. We adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) scores. We included 343 participants: mean age = 59 ± 9 years, BMI = 27.9 ± 4.5 kg/m2, PASE score = 171 ± 82, and 64% female. Only CRP was associated with BML prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.87). For effusion, we found an interaction between BMI and CRP: only among adults with a BMI <25 kg/m2 was there a significant trend towards a positive association between CRP and effusion (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.97). We detected a U-shaped relationship between GSP and effusion prevalence. Fasting glucose levels were

  12. Specific features of acute stroke in the Russian Federation and in the People’s Republic of China (according to the data of some big stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on comparison and analysis of the work of big stroke units in the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China specialized in the medical care for patients with acute stroke. 522 patients were surveyed in Russia’s and China’s regional stroke units. In the Russian Federation, patients being treated in the «City Hospital No.26» (SaintPetersburg took part in the study. In China patients of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Chongqing Medical University, Central Hospital Jiang jin, Regional People’s Hospital Yubei district, Regional People’s Hospital Bishan (Chongqing Province. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: personality traits, age, gender, level of education, income, health insurance category, profession, employment, professional activities over the last year, place of residence of the patient, features of the stroke, time during the first symptoms of stroke to hospitalization, kinds of medical services, the main risk factors and value of prevention before stroke.

  13. Ab initio calculations of the electronic structure and specific optical features of β-LiNH4SO4 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudysh, M. Ya.; Brik, M. G.; Stadnyk, V. Yo.; Brezvin, R. S.; Shchepanskyi, P. A.; Fedorchuk, A.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Kityk, I. V.; Piasecki, M.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work complex experimental and theoretical studies of electronic and optical properties for β-lithium-ammonium sulfate crystals of good optical quality are performed using the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). Standard immersion and spectroscopic techniques accompanied by the theoretical quantum-chemical calculations in the density functional theory (DFT) framework were applied. Calculations of band structure and related properties were carried out within a framework of local density and generalized gradient approximations as well as hybrid B3LYP functionals. The energy levels features and their origin are established from the DFT calculations and they were ferified by XPS and XES measurements. Theoretical and experimental refractive indices dispersions along the principal crystallographic directions (nx, ny and nz) as well as birefringence dispersion (Δnx, Δny and Δnz) in the visible spectral range are obtained. It was found a closeness of nx and ny curves for the titled crystals. More precise birefringence examining predicts their intersection at λ ≈ 190 nm.

  14. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  15. The Vanadium Iodoperoxidase from the marine flavobacteriaceae species Zobellia galactanivorans reveals novel molecular and evolutionary features of halide specificity in the vanadium haloperoxidase enzyme family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jean-Baptiste; Rebuffet, Etienne; Delage, Ludovic; Grijol, Romain; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Rzonca, Justyna; Potin, Philippe; Michel, Gurvan; Czjzek, Mirjam; Leblanc, Catherine

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases (VHPO) are key enzymes that oxidize halides and are involved in the biosynthesis of organo-halogens. Until now, only chloroperoxidases (VCPO) and bromoperoxidases (VBPO) have been characterized structurally, mainly from eukaryotic species. Three putative VHPO genes were predicted in the genome of the flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans, a marine bacterium associated with macroalgae. In a phylogenetic analysis, these putative bacterial VHPO were closely related to other VHPO from diverse bacterial phyla but clustered independently from eukaryotic algal VBPO and fungal VCPO. Two of these bacterial VHPO, heterogeneously produced in Escherichia coli, were found to be strictly specific for iodide oxidation. The crystal structure of one of these vanadium-dependent iodoperoxidases, Zg-VIPO1, was solved by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction at 1.8 Å, revealing a monomeric structure mainly folded into α-helices. This three-dimensional structure is relatively similar to those of VCPO of the fungus Curvularia inaequalis and of Streptomyces sp. and is superimposable onto the dimeric structure of algal VBPO. Surprisingly, the vanadate binding site of Zg-VIPO1 is strictly conserved with the fungal VCPO active site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that specific amino acids and the associated hydrogen bonding network around the vanadate center are essential for the catalytic properties and also the iodide specificity of Zg-VIPO1. Altogether, phylogeny and structure-function data support the finding that iodoperoxidase activities evolved independently in bacterial and algal lineages, and this sheds light on the evolution of the VHPO enzyme family. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Multiphoton laser tomography and fluorescence lifetime imaging of melanoma: morphologic features and quantitative data for sensitive and specific non-invasive diagnostics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Seidenari

    Full Text Available Multiphoton laser tomography (MPT combined with fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM is a non-invasive imaging technique, based on the study of fluorescence decay times of naturally occurring fluorescent molecules, enabling a non-invasive investigation of the skin with subcellular resolution. The aim of this retrospective observational ex vivo study, was to characterize melanoma both from a morphologic and a quantitative point of view, attaining an improvement in the diagnostic accuracy with respect to dermoscopy. In the training phase, thirty parameters, comprising both cytological descriptors and architectural aspects, were identified. The training set included 6 melanomas with a mean Breslow thickness±S.D. of 0.89±0.48 mm. In the test phase, these parameters were blindly evaluated on a test data set consisting of 25 melanomas, 50 nevi and 50 basal cell carcinomas. Melanomas in the test phase comprised 8 in situ lesions and had a mean thickness±S.D. of 0.77±1.2 mm. Moreover, quantitative FLIM data were calculated for special areas of interest. Melanoma was characterized by the presence of atypical short lifetime cells and architectural disorder, in contrast to nevi presenting typical cells and a regular histoarchitecture. Sensitivity and specificity values for melanoma diagnosis were 100% and 98%, respectively, whereas dermoscopy achieved the same sensitivity, but a lower specificity (82%. Mean fluorescence lifetime values of melanocytic cells did not vary between melanomas and nevi, but significantly differed from those referring to basal cell carcinoma enabling a differential diagnosis based on quantitative data. Data from prospective preoperative trials are needed to confirm if MPT/FLIM could increase diagnostic specificity and thus reduce unnecessary surgical excisions.

  17. BRAF Mutation Is Associated With a Specific Cell Type With Features Suggestive of Senescence in Ovarian Serous Borderline (Atypical Proliferative) Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeppernick, Felix; Ardighieri, Laura; Hannibal, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    . Immunohistochemistry showed that the EC cells always expressed p16, a senescence-associated marker, and had a significantly lower Ki-67 labeling index than adjacent cuboidal and columnar cells (P=0.02). In vitro studies supported the interpretation that these cells were undergoing senescence, as the same morphologic...... of ovarian tumors by showing that BRAF mutation is associated with cellular senescence and the presence of a specific cell type characterized by abundant EC. This "oncogene-induced senescence" phenotype may represent a mechanism that impedes progression of APSTs to LGSC....

  18. Using Semantic Web Technologies to Streamline the Implementation of the OGC Web Service Interface Specifications for Coverage and Feature Data Within OPeNDAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, D.; Blumenthal, M.; Potter, N.; West, P.

    2008-12-01

    The OPeNDAP Data Access Protocol has seen widespread adoption within the science community. OPeNDAP servers are currently deployed by individual investigators, academic institutions, and at national and international data repositories to provide distributed data access for their respective user communities. Many of these data providers anticipate that there will be significant demand for data access by applications using the suite of OGC web service specifications. Supporting multiple data access protocols can be expensive, both in the initial acquisition and deployment cost for the software components as well as for the potentially redundant maintenance and security costs required when supporting multiple server implementations operationally. To provide a cost-effective solution for these data providers OPeNDAP is developing extensions to its data access protocol to enable the use of semantic web technologies for data and metadata transformations, and extensions to its server architecture to support request and response operations simultaneously for multiple data access protocols. The OGC Web Coverage Service Interface Specification is the initial data access protocol to be layered onto the OPeNDAP server for this multi-protocol support. Supporting data access through the OGC service interfaces comprises operations that are both mechanical and semantic. The OPeNDAP server architecture (Hyrax) uses a Lightweight Front-End Server (OLFS) that is responsible for interacting with the requesting client application. The OLFS is extensible and in this project has been extended to support the OGC web service interface specifications. Coupled with the OLFS the Hyrax architecture uses a Back-End Server (BES) to provide data access, processing, and response generation that are then returned through the OLFS to the requesting client. Similar to the OLFS, the BES is extensible and for this project has been extended to support various mechanical actions required in support of

  19. Lung cancer risk and cancer-specific mortality in subjects undergoing routine imaging test when stratified with and without identified lung nodule on imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Saez, Noemi [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor Valero, Maria; Parker, Lucy Anne; Lumbreras, Blanca [Miguel Hernandez University, Public Health, History of Science and Ginecology Department, Alicante (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica, Madrid (Spain); Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa [Peset Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, Valencia (Spain); Gonzalez-Alvarez, Isabel; Lorente, Maria Fermina [San Juan Hospital, Radiodiagnostic Department, San Juan de Alicante (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    To assess the risk of lung cancer and specific mortality rate in patients with and without solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) on chest radiograph and CT. This prospective study included 16,078 patients ≥35 years old (893 of them had an SPN detected with either chest radiograph or CT) and 15,185 without SPN. Patients were followed up for 18 months or until being diagnosed with lung cancer. Risk and mortality lung cancer were calculated in both groups with Poisson regression. In patients with SPN, incidence of lung cancer was 8.3 % (95 % CI 6.0-11.2) on radiograph and 12.4 % (95 % CI 9.3-15.9) on CT. A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with radiographs (odds ratio 2.62; 95 % CI 1.03, 6.67) and smoking habit (odds ratio 20.63; 95 % CI 3.84, 110.77) in patients with CT were associated with a higher probability of lung cancer. Large nodule size and spiculated edge were associated with lung cancer on both CT and radiograph. Lung cancer-specific mortality was lower in patients with SPN than in those without SPN (1.73/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.08-2.88 vs. 2.15/1000 person-years, 95 % CI 1.25-3.96). The risk of lung cancer for patients with SPN is higher in clinical populations than in screening studies. Moreover, patients with SPN showed lower mortality than those without SPN. (orig.)

  20. Specific Features of Dumping Syndrome after Various Types of Gastrectomy as Assessed by a Newly Developed Integrated Questionnaire, the PGSAS-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizawa, Yutaka; Tanabe, Kazuaki; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Fujita, Junya; Takiguchi, Nobuhiro; Takahashi, Masazumi; Ito, Yuichi; Mitsumori, Norio; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Oshio, Atsushi; Nakada, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Dumping syndrome is a well-known adverse outcome after gastrectomy, but the precise clinical features have not been described. The aim of this study was to examine global aspects of dumping syndrome and to explore factors affecting the intensity of dumping syndrome in a large cohort using a newly developed integrated questionnaire, the Post-Gastrectomy Syndrome Assessment Scale (PGSAS)-45. Eligible questionnaires retrieved from 2,368 patients after 6 types of gastrectomy were analyzed. The incidence, intensity and number of symptoms of early general, early abdominal and late dumping syndrome were examined across various types of gastrectomy, and clinical factors affecting the intensity of each category of dumping syndrome were identified by multiple regression analysis. Dumping syndromes occurred most frequently and strongly in patients who underwent total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y (TGRY), followed by proximal gastrectomy (PG), distal gastrectomy with Billroth-I, distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y, pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) and local resection (LR), in that order. Significant positive correlations among different categories of dumping syndromes were observed. TGRY, female sex, younger age, division of the celiac branch of the vagus nerve, PG and shorter postoperative period were independently related to worse dumping syndrome. Dumping syndromes were most common after TGRY and least common after PPG and LR among the various gastrectomy procedures. Type of gastrectomy and several clinical factors were related to the intensity of dumping syndrome. PGSAS-45 could offer a useful tool for evaluating dumping syndrome after gastrectomy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  2. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  3. ATYPICAL AUTISM IN CHILDREN: THE SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THEIR SOMATIC AND NEUROLOGICAL STATUS AND OUTPATIENT FOLLOW-UP BY A GENERAL PEDIATRICIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Bobylоva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders in children are attracting the increasing attention of general practitioners, which is due to the specification of diagnostic criteria and to the recognition of the fact that there is atypical autism that is a syndrome of many different diseases. The authors consider in detail the theory of autism and the clinical manifestations of atypical autism, including possible neurological and somatic disorders. Individual attention is placed on the association of autistic disorder with epilepsy or epileptiform activity on the electroencephalogram. An emphasis is made on the need for an interdisc