WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject research studies

  1. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  2. Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, Nicholas J; Goetz, Laura H

    2017-08-21

    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e.g., nutrient supplementation) or disease prevention strategy (e.g., specific diet). However, as compelling and intuitive as personalized nutrition might be in the current era in which data-intensive biomedical characterization of individuals is possible, appropriately and objectively vetting personalized nutrition strategies is not trivial and requires novel study designs and data analytical methods. These designs and methods must consider a very integrated use of the multiple contemporary biomedical assays and technologies that motivate them, which adds to their complexity. Single-subject or N-of-1 trials can be used to assess the utility of personalized interventions and, in addition, can be crafted in such a way as to accommodate the necessarily integrated use of many emerging biomedical technologies and assays. In this review, we consider the motivation, design, and implementation of N-of-1 trials in translational nutrition research that are meant to assess the utility of personalized nutritional strategies. We provide a number of example studies, discuss appropriate analytical methods given the complex data they generate and require, and consider how such studies could leverage integration of various biomarker assays and clinical end points. Importantly, we also consider the development of strategies and

  3. [Disability studies: social exclusion a research subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The article presents disability studies and elaborates, as their central feature, the distinction between societal disability and impairment which can be described on an individual and medical level. Disability studies define disability as socially caused exclusion. Participation and inclusion, seen as sociopolitical control and counter-terms, do, in fact, have a different content, depending on usage and context. Using the example of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), the respective understanding of disability is depicted. Against this background, the deficits of implementation of the UN CRPD, as criticized by the responsible UN Committee, are shown. Finally, a research agenda for disability studies is outlined, that deals with, among other things, implementation strategies and conflicts of interest in terms of inclusion, furthering widely unquestioned economic conditions and especially the negative impact of European austerity politics.

  4. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  5. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  6. Profiles of Urine Drug Test in Clinical Pain Patients vs Pain Research Study Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-ting; Vo, Trang T; Cohen, Abigail S; Ahmed, Shihab; Zhang, Yi; Mao, Jianren; Chen, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    To examine similarities and differences in urine drug test (UDT) results in clinical pain patients and pain subjects participating in pain research studies. An observational study with retrospective chart review and data analysis. We analyzed 1,874 UDT results obtained from 1) clinical pain patients (Clinical Group; n = 1,529) and 2) pain subjects consented to participate in pain research studies (Research Group; n = 345). Since several medications such as opioids used in pain management are drugs of abuse (DOA) and can result in a positive UDT, we specifically identified those cases of positive UDT due to nonprescribed DOA and designated these cases as positive UDT with DOA (PUD). We found that 1) there was a higher rate of PUD in clinical pain patients (41.3%) than in pain research study subjects (14.8%); 2) although subjects in the Research Group were informed ahead of time that UDT will be conducted as a screening test, a substantial number (14.8%) of pain research study subjects still showed PUD; 3) there were different types of DOA between clinical pain patients (cannabinoids as the top DOA) and research study subjects (cocaine as the top DOA); and 4) a common factor associated with PUD was opioid therapy in both Clinical Group and Research Group. These results support previous findings that PUD is a common finding in clinical pain patients, particularly in those prescribed opioid therapy, and we suggest that UDT be used as routine screening testing in pain research studies. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [The request for consent in clinical research: a randomized study in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, F; De Placido, S; Giusti, C; Gallo, C

    1995-09-01

    To compare two strategies of consent requirement (classical informed consent and randomised consent according to Zelen), the Clinical Data Elaboration Centre of South Italy, within the special project Clinical Application of Oncological Research of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ACRO) invited healthy people visiting the 7th edition of the scientific exhibition "Futuro Remoto" to simulate of being ill and receiving the offer of entering a clinical trial. Within informed consent strategy patients are asked to agree to the randomisation process, while, in the randomised consent, randomised treatment assignment is performed before consent requirement and patients should agree directly to the assigned therapy. Major aims of the study were (a) to compare the strategies in terms of refusal rate to a hypothetical clinical trial, and (b) to estimate whether severity of prognosis affected subjects' decision. 3,217 visiting people participated to the simulation; they were prevalently young, males and with a high level of school education. The study was performed in two different scenarios. In the first one, with one choice option, subject refusing consent could receive standard therapy only; refusal rate was 16% after informed consent and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy). In the other scenario, with two choice options, subjects refusing consent could choose the preferred therapy; refusal rate was 20.6% after informed consent, 48.1% after randomised consent (for standard therapy) and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  10. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  11. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  12. Bias in Amputation Research; Impact of Subjects Missed from a Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bosmans, Joline C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2012-01-01

    For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often underrepresented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the

  13. Bias in amputation research; impact of subjects missed from a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren V Fortington

    Full Text Available For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often under-represented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of selection bias by comparing characteristics from a sample included in a prospective study of phantom pain with the actual population who underwent amputation. Only 27% of all potential patients were referred during the first year of the prospective study. The referred patients were 8 years younger (p<0.001 and less likely to have had amputation because of a vascular condition, diabetes or infection (p=0.003 than those not referred. There was also a significant difference in one year survival between the groups; 67% of referred patients survived compared with just 40% of non-referred patients (p=0.004. The biased population in the phantom pain study may have resulted in an underestimation of phantom pain in the original study and subsequent protective factors should be considered within the context of the younger population reported. Selection bias is common in amputation research, and research methods to minimize its impact must be given greater attention.

  14. Subject, function, and trend in medical ethics research: a comparative study of Chinese and non-Chinese literature using bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanhui; Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Deng, Shaolin; Wu, Taixiang; Chen, Baoqing; Xie, Zhiyi; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Zhiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yan; Jiang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    To perform a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese medical ethics literature using systematic research and literature analysis in order to discern research trends in the area and provide baseline data as a reference for relevant decision making and further study. We retrieved articles using MeSH terms and keywords related to medical ethics in PubMed and CNKI, and then constructed a set of charts by applying word co-occurrence, The Pathfinder Networks algorithms, an included subject chart, a research field relationship chart, and strategy coordination charts. The total of number of papers retrieved from PubMed was six times that retrieved from CNKI. Outside China, medical ethics has been studied in eight fully shaped subject fields, including morals, ethical review, physician-patient relationships, clinical trials, euthanasia, ethics education, clinical ethics, and health policy. In contrast, medical ethics research in China is still confined to five subject fields: morals, physician-patient relations, medical ethics education, ethical review, and medical research. Medical ethics research outside China emphasizes the application of medical ethics to solve emerging problems in clinical and medical research. It is mainly centered on morals, ethical review, and physician-patient relations. By comparison, medical ethics research in China places greater emphasis on morals and medical education. In order to narrow this gap between China and other countries, we should broaden the research scope of medical ethics and add more applied research, such as ethical review and medical education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  15. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  16. Decreasing Excessive Media Usage while Increasing Physical Activity: A Single-Subject Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiser Family Foundation released a report entitled "Kids and Media Use" in the United States that concluded that children's use of media--including television, computers, Internet, video games, and phones--may be one of the primary contributor's to the poor fitness and obesity of many of today's adolescents. The present study examines the…

  17. DRDC Toronto Guidelines for Compensation of Subjects Participating in Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    studies. Résumé …..... RDDC Toronto est le centre de recherche de l’Agence qui conseille, fournit les innovations et assure la gestion des données pour...contexte : RDDC Toronto est le centre de recherche de l’Agence qui conseille, fournit les innovations et assure la gestion des données pour tout ce qui...clothing, experimental procedures, ambient conditions, and duration of the test. Explanation of Terms Used in Thermal Environmental Stress Charts

  18. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  19. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  20. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  1. Are research subjects adequately protected? A review and discussion of studies conducted by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    1996-09-01

    In light of information uncovered about human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War, an important charge for the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was to assess the current state of protections for human research subjects. This assessment was designed to enhance the Committee's ability to make informed recommendations for the improvement of future policies and practices for the protection of research subjects. The Committee's examination of current protections revealed great improvement over those from the past, yet some problems remain. Although the data collected by the Committee highlight specific areas in need of attention, the Committee's work should be viewed in part as the beginning of a series of ongoing assessments of the adequacy and effectiveness of the protections afforded to human subjects.

  2. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain - a prospective single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Stuge, Britt

    2014-03-15

    The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage.

  3. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain – a prospective single-subject research design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. Methods A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Results Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Conclusion Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage. PMID:24629145

  4. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When we celebrate our subjectivity we are learning new ways of telling our research tales. The research becomes a ... This paper is a celebration of learning from my research at two levels. the personal and the professional. ... some value hack into their lives. (Chairperson and parent speaking at the. Annual Let Laverton ...

  5. "Doing death": Reflecting on the researcher's subjectivity and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renske C

    2017-01-01

    Given that death is a universal concept, the idea that a researcher must be objective when studying this topic is common place and problematic. Thus, this article adds to the literature by discussing the complexity of subjectivity within death studies. Three key elements of subjectivity form the basis of this discussion: (a) the researcher's cultural background, (b) the researcher's personal experiences, and (c) the emotional impact of research on the researcher. It is argued that transparency about the subjective nature of death studies research can be fruitful in understanding the research process before, during, and after fieldwork.

  6. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  7. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  8. Dream as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Egorova,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults

  9. Subjectivity and Reflexivity: Locating the Self in Research on Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    I argue in this article that recognizing the role of subjectivity and bringing in the researcher's positionality as a tool in the research process can not only enhance the ethical integrity of the research but also enhance both the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the data. Cultural studies theorists have long argued that…

  10. A Study of the Social and Psychological Factors Affecting Political Participation among University Professors: research subject: University of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Masoudnia; Nejat Mohammadifar; Golmorad Moradi; Atefeh Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   Political Participation is one of the main discussions in political sociology and political development in all countries. It is considered as an aspect of political development that can also support the political organizations to achieve democracy. In fact, the degree of political participation is a mean to know whether governments are logical or not.   The main goal of this study is to examine social-psychological causes influencing political participation of Isfahan Universit...

  11. Subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P R; Maisto, S A

    2000-11-01

    Attributions regarding alcohol treatment research protocols influencing clinical outcomes have persisted for more than 25 years. Although well-designed alcohol treatment outcome studies typically involve frequent, and often comprehensive, research assessment protocols, procedures are seldom in place to control or account for possible subject reactivity to the research protocol. This article presents a theoretical basis for a relationship between research protocols and treatment outcomes. The article reviews the relevant alcohol treatment outcome literature and presents a "weight of evidence" regarding subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research assessment protocols. Also, the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy and self-efficacy) model was coupled with self-regulation theory to provide a theoretical explanation of how research assessment protocols might contribute to clinically relevant behavioral change. Researcher attributions, empirical investigations and theoretical considerations all provide evidence that is consistent with the existence of subject reactivity to research assessment protocols. Recommendations are made regarding interpretation of data collected as part of an alcohol treatment outcome study, control of potential subject reactivity confounding variables and directions for future research.

  12. Enhancing Mother Infant Interactions through Video Feedback Enabled Interventions in Women with Schizophrenia: A Single Subject Research Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pashapu Dharma; Desai, Geehta; Hamza, Ameer; Karthik, Sheshachala; Ananthanpillai, Supraja Thirumalai; Chandra, Prabha S

    2014-10-01

    It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms and poor mothering skills, participated in the intervention. Pre intervention parenting assessment was done using video recording of mother infant interaction. Six sessions of mothering intervention were provided using video feedback and a repeat recording was done. Pre-and post-intervention videos were subsequently rated in a blind fashion by an independent expert in perinatal psychiatry using the pediatric infant parent exam (PIPE) scale. Pre and post intervention comparison of PIPE scores indicating significant improvement in several areas of mothering. Video feedback is a simple and inexpensive tool which can be used for improving mothering skills among mothers with postpartum psychosis or schizophrenia even in low resource settings.

  13. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  14. Female Entrepreneurship as Subject of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiralva Ferraz Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s main goal is to study the literature produced about “female entrepreneurship”, so as to scrutinize and deepen scientific reasoning referring to women entrepreneurs whilst investigating the degree of theoretical consolidation this field of knowledge has achieved. To this end, and from a critical perspective, we assessed research published in Brazilian and international journals from 1970 on, so as to offer a systematic review of the object in focus. Despite the contributions given by previous research – which does, after all, provide us with relevant information and data concerning women entrepreneurs –, most of it merely describes small segments of the female entrepreneur population, and does not advance in applying or developing theories. Moreover, in most cases, research was quantitative and empirical and attempted to draw a “profile” of women entrepreneurs. Few studies specifically carried out a theoretical analysis on the topic “gender”. Apparently, the main concern of many of these studies was to focus on the sexual structure of organizations and on its impact upon business activities. Thus, it seems appropriate to use new points-of-view to study the “female entrepreneurship” phenomenon – or, at least, to establish new ideas for investigation.

  15. Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the first of the questions posed, namely, who is the research subject in a CRT in health research? The identification of human research subjects is logically prior to the application of protections as set out in research ethics and regulation. Aspects of CRT design, including the fact that in a single study the units of randomization, experimentation, and observation may differ, complicate the identification of human research subjects. But the proper identification of human research subjects is important if they are to be protected from harm and exploitation, and if research ethics committees are to review CRTs efficiently. We examine the research ethics literature and international regulations to identify the core features of human research subjects, and then unify these features under a single, comprehensive definition of human research subject. We define a human research subject as any person whose interests may be compromised as a result of interventions in a research study. Individuals are only human research subjects in CRTs if: (1 they are directly intervened upon by investigators; (2 they interact with investigators; (3 they are deliberately intervened upon via a manipulation of their environment that may compromise their interests; or (4 their identifiable private information is used to generate data. Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met.

  16. Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  17. Current Research in Bookkeeping/Accounting and Basic Business Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanassy, Louis C., Comp.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are 26 doctoral and masters theses completed during the years 1974-5 involving research in bookkeeping/accounting and basic business subjects. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author and include the title of the study and the name of the associated institution. (MS)

  18. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  19. [Dementia - a relevant subject in psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Demographic change calls for increased efforts in dementia research. A systematic analysis of a German-speaking psychiatric journal was performed. 18.2 % of all papers published in were related to dementia and cognition. Dementia is a main issue; only papers regarding schizophrenia were more common. Health service research is largely lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Heuristic Inquiry: Intensifying Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1996-01-01

    Recommends using a number of qualitative research techniques, specifically for research regarding art education teaching techniques and teachers. Argues that the process of teaching and the subject of art are so subjective that researchers should embrace unabashedly qualitative approaches to research. Briefly describes these approaches. (MJP)

  1. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.

  2. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  3. Unraveling Researcher Subjectivity Through Multivocality in Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the notion of including multivocality as an autoethnographic method to: (a illustrate that there is no single and temporally-fixed voice that a researcher possesses, (b unfix identity in a way that exposes the fluid nature of identity as it moves through particular contexts, and (c deconstruct competing tensions within the autoethnographer as s/he connects the personal self to the social context. After providing a short, multivocal vignette based on the author's previous work assignment as a teacher educator in Kosovo, the author offers a reflective analysis of his approach. His analysis includes a critical discussion around the benefits and challenges of using such a method in autoethnography. The author concludes that research-oriented institutions might be resistant to validating multivocality as research practice given the myopic view that "voice" is linear, categorizable, and one-dimensional. In this way, the use of multivocality in autoethnography can also be understood as a way to liberate research practices from oppressive institutional rules and restrictions.

  4. Extrapolating Subjectivity Research to Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…

  5. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  6. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  7. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  8. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...

  9. Older adults’ attitudes toward noncompetent subjects participating in Alzheimers research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; TenHave, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective Since research that enrolls noncompetent patients with Alzheimers disease and does not present potential benefit to subjects is the source of substantial ethical controversy, we assessed willingness to have a proxy for research decision making, and, for each of two Alzheimers disease biomarker studies (minimal risk blood draw and a greater than minimal risk blood draw and lumbar puncture), willingness to grant an advance consent, and willingness to grant a proxy leeway over advance consent. Methods Face to face survey of 538 persons 65 and over who resided in the Southeastern Pennsylvania region Results The majority 83% (445/538) granted advance consent to a blood draw study and nearly half to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture 259 (48%). Most persons (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: blood draw 434 (81%), and 375 (70%) blood draw plus lumbar puncture. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and spinal fluid sample studies were, respectively, 92% (497/538) and 75% (404/538). Multi-variate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude about biomedical research. Conclusions Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimers disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness. PMID:18923066

  10. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  11. Archives of Medical Research: an historical and subject coverage overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, X; Rivera-Arce, E; Domínguez, F; Arellano, M L; Muñoz, O

    1995-01-01

    A bibliometric study about the subject content of the articles published in the Mexican scientific journal Archives of Medical Research is reported. The journal, published by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), is comprised of 100 regular issues and 12 special supplements giving a total amount of 1,424 reports on medical research performed in Mexico during the last 25 years. According to the type of studies published during this period, we found that there is a similar percent of biomedical and clinical reports in the journal (47 and 42%, respectively) and a low proportion of epidemiological and medical educational reports (8 and 3%, respectively). Six thematic areas of research have been permanently published in this journal: investigations on infectious and neurological diseases being the areas mainly represented (34% of the total, corresponding to 17% in each area), followed by studies in reproductive biology (10%) and endocrine (7%), oncological (5%) and cardiovascular (3%) diseases. The tendency of the subjects covered by the journal during this period shows an increment in reports on infectious and parasitic disorders together with an increase in publications related to medicinal plant pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrine studies show also an increasing tendency. On the other hand, a moderate decrease in studies related to neurological, oncological and cardiovascular diseases is observed. The origin of contributions during the last five years has balanced the proportion of papers published from IMSS scientists, other Mexican biomedical researchers and foreign contributions, thus reflecting favorably the recent changes in the journal's policies. This journal represents a clear example of a scientific publication edited in a developing country, originating as a national publication that evolved progressively into an international biomedical journal.

  12. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  13. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... organizations (CROs), data and safety monitoring committees, community-based organizations, and other entities... neuroscience has led to substantial advances in the understanding of human physiology, cognition, and behavior... subjects? What entity or organization should develop and disseminate such standardized document formats...

  14. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  15. Single Subject Research: A Synthesis of Analytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alresheed, Fahad; Hott, Brittany L.; Bano, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the synthesis of single subject design has employed visual inspection to yield significance of results. However, current research is supporting different techniques that will facilitate the interpretation of these intervention outcomes. These methods can provide more reliable data than employing visual inspection in isolation. This…

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Subject for Both Fundamental Research and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been a vivid subject of intense research for the last fifty years. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructures has been achieved by both bottom-up and top-down approaches. Single domain MNPs show Néel-Brown-like relaxation. The Stoner-Wohlfarth model describes the angular dependence of the switching of the magnetization of a single domain particle in applied magnetic fields. By varying the spacing between the particles, the inter-particle interactions can be tuned. This leads to various supermagnetic states such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass, and superferromagnetism. Recently, the study of the magnetization dynamics of such single domain MNPs has attracted particular attention, and observations of various collective spin wave modes in patterned nanomagnet arrays have opened new avenues for on-chip microwave communications. MNPs have the potential for various other applications such as future recording media and in medicine. We will discuss the various aspects involved in the research on MNPs.

  17. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2...

  18. Pulmonary function studies in Gujarati subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, N M; Mavlankar, M G; Kulkarni, P K; Kashyap, S K

    1992-01-01

    In this study a multiple regression equation for prediction of ventilatory pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1%, FEF25-75% and PEFR) is developed in average healthy non-smoker male and female Gujarati subjects. The average adult female values showed a reduction varying from 21.0 to 29.0% compared to adult male subjects. There is a deviation of the present study values from other studies in Indian subjects and values from European studies are higher than the present values. This study demonstrated that the present regression equation is the most ideal and appropriate for prediction of pulmonary function values in Gujarati subjects either for assessing physical fitness in normal subjects or for determining the pattern of ventilatory impairment in respiratory disease patients. The pulmonary function values assessed by substituting the average age, height and weight of females in male regression equation revealed lower values in females ranging from 14.0 to 19.0% attributable only due to difference in sex.

  19. Effect of ezetimibe add-on therapy over 52 weeks extension analysis of prospective randomized trial (RESEARCH study) in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kentaro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ashidate, Keiko; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Akira; Mori, Yasumichi; Tagami, Motoki; Hirano, Tsutomu; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Shiba, Teruo

    2017-06-24

    Lowering cholesterol levels decreases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Effective ways to stably reduce LDL-C level are warranted in type 2 diabetic patients, a high-risk population for CVD, with various anti-diabetic therapeutic background. The RESEARCH study focuses on LDL-C reduction in this population along with modifications of the lipid profiles. We evaluated long-term ezetimibe add-on therapy in T2DM patients with hypercholesterolemia. In a randomized, multicenter, open-label, prospective study, a total of 109 T2DM patients not attaining LDL-C target value despite first-line dose statin (10 mg of atorvastatin or 1 mg of pitavastatin) therapy in Japan were recruited. We investigated the difference in cholesterol lowering effect between ezetimibe (10 mg) add-on statin (EAT) group and double-dose statin (DST) group. Changes of parameters related to atherosclerotic event risks were assessed. The reduction of LDL-C was larger in the EAT group (28.3%) than in the DST group (9.2%) at 52 weeks as well as the primary endpoint of 12 weeks. EAT achieved significant lower levels of TC and apo B, respectively. Both treatments attained significant reduction in sd-LDL-C or hsCRP on this long-term basis. Notably, sd-LDL-C in EAT reduced as low as 36.1 ± 14.9 mg/dl to reach near the threshold (35.0 mg/dl) for atherosclerosis with significantly higher achievement rate (55.6%) than DST treatment. Simultaneously, hsCRP reduction by EAT attained as low value as 0.52 ± 0.43 mg/l. In the present 52-week long-term period, ezetimibe add-on therapy showed a robust advantage in lowering LDL-C and in attaining target LDL-C values compared with the doubling of statin dose. Moreover, it's meaningful that sd-LDL, powerfully atherogenic lipoprotein, exhibited prominent decrease consistently prominently by ezetimibe add-on therapy. DM patients with hypercholesterolemia are at high risk for CAD, and adding ezetimibe onto usual-dose statin treatment in Japan has been

  20. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AS THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Аleyevskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the issue of development of the communicative competence is well studied in pedagogical theory and practice. Nevertheless there is no consensus among researchers regarding the interpretation of the notion. This fact determines the relevance of the subject in the context of the reform of the national higher education. The labour market puts forward increasing requirements to graduates’ adaption potential within the system “human – human”. This draws special attention to the problem of communicative co mpetence. Materials and Methods: the authors carried out a sociological research on the communicative component of the competence cluster among master’s degree students who specialise in pedagogical education in order to determine “the importance of weight indicators” of separate competencies. Results: the authors substantiate the necessity of broadening a communicative competence in conditions of transition to a multilevel system of higher education; define its essence and structure taking into account the generic unity of Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes. The article presents the informative content of communication components in accordance with the proposed structure of communicative competence, containing motivation-value-based, cognitive, activity-based, reflective and evaluative components. The authors show the potential of communicative competence in the context of the new federal state educational standards (FGOS VO 3+. Further the authors make analysis of the requirements set to graduates upon completion of undergraduate and graduate programmes in “Pedagogical Education”, specify the role of separate competencies in extending graduates’ communicative competence. Discussion and Conclusions: the results of the research presented in the article enable to specify the structure and content of the communicative competence of a university graduate, reflecting the willingness and ability to productive

  1. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may...... be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  2. Anencephalic fetuses and research embryos: subjects of rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the emergence of social subjects in the form of beings which had previously been embedded in mother's bodies and which have later become defined and circumscribed by biomedicine: extracorporeal embryos, created by in vitro fertilization, and anencephalic fetuses. The embryos were at the center of the controversy regarding their use in scientific research during the debates for the approval of Brazil's new biosecurity law. Anencephalic fetuses became the center of a debate regarding the relaxing of Brazil's abortion laws. This article analyzes mass media news stories provided mostly by a systematic review of articles published in O Globo newspaper between 2000 and 2005 in order to recover the arguments presented in these debates. The arguments to justify or ban embryo research or to anticipate the birth of anencephalic fetuses coincide, in large part, because the are derived from the same value configuration and are founded upon the person: Dumont's individual-as-value.

  3. User Experience Research: Modelling and Describing the Subjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Glanznig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available User experience research in the field of human-computer interaction tries to understand how humans experience the interaction with technological artefacts. It is a young and still emerging field that exists in an area of tension. There is no consensus on how the concept of user experience should be defined or on how it should be researched. This paper focuses on two major strands of research in the field that are competing. It tries to give an overview over both and relate them to each other.Both start from the same premise: usability (focusing on performance is not enough. It is only part of the interaction with technological artefacts. And further: user experience is not very different from experience in general. Then they develop quite different accounts of the concept. While one focuses more on uncovering the objective in the subjective, on the precise and the formal, the other one stresses the ambiguous, the human and suggests to live with the subjectivity that is inherent in the concept of (user experience. One focuses more on evaluation rather than design and the other more on design than evaluation. One is a model and the other one more a framework of thought.Both can be criticised. The model can be questioned in terms of validity and the results of the other approach do not easily generalize across contexts – the reliability can be questioned. Sometimes the need for a unified view in user experience research is emphasized. While I doubt the possibility of a unified view I think it is possible to combine the two approaches. This combination has only rarely been attempted and not been critically reflected.

  4. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  5. Emerging Evidence from Single-Subject Research in the Field of Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Davidson, Roseanna; Banda, Devender R.

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of deaf-blindness are challenged to use instructional practices that have been tested using experimental methodology. Single-subject design has been examined as a form of research that assists in substantiating practice. In a review of the literature, the authors identified 54 single-subject studies from 1969 to 2006…

  6. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  7. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics.

  8. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  9. In Europe, hooligans are prime subjects for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, M

    2000-07-28

    CAMBRIDGE, U.K.--One of the few burgeoning areas of violence research here and in Europe is football hooliganism. With lower homicide rates than in the United States and fewer incidences of killing sprees such as the Littleton school shooting, Europeans are less concerned about violence than Americans are--and that translates into less money for research on the topic. Moreover, some scientists argue that strict regulation of animal studies has dealt a severe blow to a once-proud European tradition of behavioral research on animal aggression.

  10. Application of radioactive substances in research in nuclear medicine: current trends and radiation exposure to the study subjects; Anwendung radioaktiver Stoffe in der nuklearmedizinischen Forschung: aktuelle Trends und Strahlenexposition der Probanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minkov, V.; Schwarz, E.R.; Bauer, B.; Nosske, D.; Erzberger, A.; Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene, Abt. fuer Medizinische Strahlenhygiene, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    Aim: Analysis of the application of radioactive substances in research in the field of nuclear medicine in human beings and of the resulting radiation exposure to study subjects. Methods: Assessment of applications for approval submitted in accordance with Paragraph 41 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance, evaluated by the Federal office for Radiation Protection together with the Federal Institute for Pharmaceuticals and Medical Products, within the period from 1997 to 1999. Results: The focus of the studies on the diagnostic application of radioactive substances in medicine evaluated has, since 1998, shifted from oncological to neurological and psychological aspects, while, at the same time, the number of PET studies increased constantly The proportion of healthy study subjects included in the diagnostic studies increased from 7 to 22%. The number of therapeutic applications of radioactive substances has, since 1997, undergone a three-fold increase, and in the process of this, the focus of attention lay within the area of radioimmuno-therapy and endovascular brachytherapy. The effective dose was, among up to 49% of the investigated healthy study subjects higher than 5 mSv, and among up to 6% of these subjects was at levels of over 20 mSv. Up to 22% of the patients received, within the scope of diagnostic studies, an effective dose of between 20 and 50 mSv. An exceeding of the 50 mSv limit occurred among up to 3% of the patients. Conclusions: In spite of the increasing numbers of PET applications, conventional nuclear medicine has maintained its importance in the field of medical research. Further developments in the areas of radiochemistry and molecular biology led to an increase in the importance of radio-immuno therapy. The evaluation of new radiopharmaceuticals and the extension of basic biomedical research, resulted in an increase in the proportion of healthy study subjects included in the studies. The radiation exposure among subjects resulting directly from

  11. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  12. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  13. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  14. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  15. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  16. Enterprising or altruistic selves? Making up research subjects in genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Richard; Prainsack, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomics companies in 2007 was accompanied by considerable media attention and criticism from clinical geneticists and other health professionals, regulators, policy advisors, and ethicists. As well as offering genetic testing services, some firms are also engaged in building their own databases and conducting research with the data obtained from their customers. In this paper, we examine how one of these companies, 23andMe, is creating a certain kind of 'research subject' in opposition to that constituted in conventional forms of disease research. Drawing on debates about neoliberalism, contemporary health discourses and subjectivity, we consider two kinds of subjectivities produced through the discursive and material practices of 23andMe and UK Biobank, namely, 'enterprising' and 'altruistic' selves. We argue that the 23andMe model promotes the idea that curiosity about one's genome on the one hand, and participation in research on the other, are not only compatible but complementary aspects of being an entrepreneurial subject of contemporary health and medicine framed by the technologies of web 2.0. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  18. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  19. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  20. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  1. Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Robey, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however, it has been difficult to discern the relative potency of these treatments in a standardized manner. In this paper we describe an approach to quantify treatment outcomes for single-subject research studies using effect sizes. These values provide a means to compare treatment outcomes within and between individuals, as well as to compare the relative strength of various treatments. Effect sizes also can be aggregated in order to conduct meta-analyses of specific treatment approaches. Consideration is given to optimizing research designs and providing adequate data so that the value of treatment research is maximized. PMID:17151940

  2. A Justification for Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Highlights some of the fundamental differences between positivistic and qualitative research methods regarding art education. Defends qualitative research and argues that applying natural science research principles to human endeavors is often futile. Discusses the special problems and advantages of qualitative research. (MJP)

  3. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  4. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  5. [Literature review of the subject of a research project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C

    2012-01-01

    It can be very complicated to obtain relevant information through searching the medical literature if you do not know how it is organized and indexed or if you do not know how to use the specialized databases. For a successful review of the literature, you need to know what you are looking for and the key words for an effective search of the specialized databases and libraries and especially of the internet. It is essential to critically evaluate the information selected. Finally, using a reference manager can facilitate the gathering, organization, systematization, and integration of the bibliographic references in the documents generated in the study. This article aims to provide guidelines for efficient searching for information and for accurate, critical use of the literature. It makes recommendations about strategies for managing references to help to ensure the success of a research project. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking the Subject of Higher Education: Subjectivity, Normativity and Desire in Student Equity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on three questions arising from my recent research on student equity in higher education and gender in education. These questions relate to the goals, focus and politics of student equity research in the context of a changing higher education landscape in Australia. The paper concludes with an argument for student equity…

  7. Subjective soundscapes qualitative research in the experience and evaluation of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Uwe

    2004-05-01

    If the subjective experience and evaluation of environmental noise shall be considered and integrated into the current soundscape research, the use of qualitative research methods used in sociology and psychology will become necessary. A triangulation of research methods for measuring objective noise and for the subjective evaluation of noises and sounds on the background of subjective meanings of health and healthy living will be a fruitful way to a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of soundscapes in the context of health and quality of life. In this contribution, a selection of qualitative research methods will be presented that allows for analyzing subjective experiences with environmental noise. Interviews focusing on narratives of episodes and situations (e.g., the episodic interview, Flick, 2002) will be outlined. Issues of how to assess the quality of qualitative research and its results will be addressed and finally the benefits and limits of the triangulation of different methods (e.g., interviews and focus groups or interviews and physical measures) will be discussed. Research experiences from the author's recent studies on health concepts of health professionals will be used for illustration.

  8. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... availability of a guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data... guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other...

  9. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to...

  10. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research...

  11. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  12. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  13. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  14. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed...

  15. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  16. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  17. Behavioral obesity research: Where have all the single subjects gone?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jean E.; Gross, Alan M.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent reviews of the literature concerning behavioral treatments of obesity have concluded that behavioral methods have not been as successful in treating this problem as might have been predicted in the early years of behavior modification. Among the many potential reasons for this lack of success is the growing trend to utilize group statistical designs rather than single subject designs to examine the problem of obesity, in spite of the fact that single case methodology has provided ...

  18. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  19. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  20. Protecting the Teaching and Learning Environment: A Hybrid Model for Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenstein, Kristi N.

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for research involving human subjects have long been a critical issue in higher education. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the…

  1. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  2. Historic Preservation An unusual way to protect human subjects in research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, Ellen L.

    2001-09-15

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) at the Hanford Site interacts with human subjects in a variety of ways, some of which constitute human subjects research. A key element in this work is determining what constitutes 'research' and thus requires application of special measures to protect human subjects.

  3. The problem of integrated research of the subject of tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Novikova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of studying of the problem of tolerance. The authors analyze the results of empirical studies of tolerance to the different levels of functioning of the individual.

  4. The Journal Project and the I in Qualitative Research: Three Theoretical Lenses on Subjectivity and Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2012-01-01

    From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…

  5. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A

    2016-07-06

    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. The persistence of the subjective in neuropsychopharmacology: observations of contemporary hallucinogen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of subjectivity through brain research and the replacement of so-called "folk psychology" by a neuroscientifically enlightened worldview and self-conception has been both hoped for and feared. But this cultural revolution is still pending. Based on nine months of fieldwork on the revival of hallucinogen research since the "Decade of the Brain," this paper examines how subjective experience appears as epistemic object and practical problem in a psychopharmacological laboratory. In the quest for neural correlates of (drug-induced altered states of) consciousness, introspective accounts of test subjects play a crucial role in neuroimaging studies. Firsthand knowledge of the drugs' flamboyant effects provides researchers with a personal knowledge not communicated in scientific publications, but key to the conduct of their experiments. In many cases, the "psychedelic experience" draws scientists into the field and continues to inspire their self-image and way of life. By exploring these domains the paper points to a persistence of the subjective in contemporary neuropsychopharmacology.

  7. 48 CFR 752.7012 - Protection of the individual as a research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Research Supported by USAID”, issued April 19, 1995, as from time to time amended (a copy of which... Policy when humans are the subject of research, as defined in 22 CFR 225.102(d), performed as part of the... individual as a research subject. 752.7012 Section 752.7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  8. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  9. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving....119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human...

  10. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  11. High frequency of psychopathology in subjects wishing to lose weight: an observational study in Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Valentina; Colombo, Ottavia; Nichini, Cristiano; Repossi, Ilaria; Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Tagliabue, Anna

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the frequency of psychiatric disorders in subjects wishing to lose weight categorized according to BMI. Cross-sectional study. An academic outpatient clinical nutrition service in Italy. A total of 207 subjects (thirty-nine men and 168 women; mean age: 38·7 (sd 14·1) years) consecutively attending the study centre for the first time between January 2003 and December 2006. In the entire study group, eighty-three (40 %) subjects had a psychiatric disorder according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision. Eating disorders were the most prevalent psychiatric condition (thirty-six subjects, 17·4 %), followed by mood and anxiety disorders (9·7 % and 8·7 %, respectively). The frequency of psychiatric disorders among different BMI categories was as follows: 75·0 % in underweight, 50·0 % in normal weight, 33·3 % in overweight and 33·3 % in obese subjects. Psychiatric disorders may be frequently found in subjects wishing to lose weight. Our results highlight the importance of psychiatric assessment especially in underweight and normal-weight subjects.

  12. Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Anatchkova, Milena; Albert, Karen; Dunn, Laura B; Lidz, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM), which occurs when research subjects fail to appreciate the distinction between the imperatives of clinical research and ordinary treatment, may undercut the process of obtaining meaningful consent to clinical research participation. Previous studies have found that TM is widespread, but progress in addressing TM has been stymied by the absence of a validated method for assessing its presence. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a theoretically grounded measure of TM, assess its diagnostic accuracy, and test previous findings regarding TM's prevalence. A total of 220 participants were recruited from clinical trials at four academic medical centers in the United States. Participants completed a 28-item Likert-type questionnaire to assess the presence of beliefs associated with TM, and a semistructured TM interview designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature of the clinical trial in which they were participating. Data from the questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and items with poor factor loadings were excluded. This resulted in a 10-item scale, with three strongly correlated factors and excellent internal consistency; the fit indices of the model across 10 training sets were consistent with the original results, suggesting a stable factor solution. The scale was validated against the TM interview, with significantly higher scores among subjects coded as displaying evidence of TM. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis based on a 10-fold internal cross-validation yielded area under the ROC (AUC) = 0.682 for any evidence of TM. When sensitivity (0.72) and specificity (0.61) were both optimized, positive predictive value was 0.65 and negative predictive value was 0.68, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.89 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47. In all, 50.5% (n = 101) of the participants manifested evidence of TM on the TM interview, a somewhat lower rate than in most previous studies. The

  13. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  14. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  15. If, Why, and When Subjective Well-Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Pressman, Sarah D; Hunter, John; Delgadillo-Chase, Desiree

    2017-07-01

    We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so-in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross-cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long-term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions. © 2017 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  16. The "Subject of Ethics" and Educational Research OR Ethics or Politics? Yes Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical context for research into "the subject of ethics" in terms of how students come to see themselves as self-reflective actors. I maintain that the "subject of ethics," or ethical subjectivity, has been overlooked as a necessary aspect of creating politically transformative spaces in education. At…

  17. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  18. Basic Teaching Skill Quality of Teacher Candidates in Microteaching Study Subject of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Afifah

    2017-01-01

    This research purposed on knowing basic teaching skill quality of teacher candidates in study subject Microteaching of Department of Biology Education, Pasir Pengaraian University, academic year 2016/2016. This research is qualitative research. This research has been done in February to June 2015. The subject of this research is all of the 6th semester students who are taking the Microteaching Study Subject. The instruments of this research including syllabus, teaching plans, and questionnair...

  19. Using Single-Subject Research to Establish the Evidence Base of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Research in the field of special education often incorporates single-subject designs to investigate the effectiveness of educational practices for students with disabilities. As such, it is important that educators and educational professionals understand the characteristics of single-subject research methodologies and how those characteristics…

  20. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  1. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  2. Older adults' attitudes toward enrollment of non-competent subjects participating in Alzheimer's research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; Ten Have, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2009-02-01

    Research that seeks to enroll noncompetent patients with Alzheimer's disease without presenting any potential benefit to participants is the source of substantial ethical controversy. The authors used hypothetical Alzheimer's disease studies that included either a blood draw or a blood draw and lumbar puncture to explore older persons' attitudes on this question. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 538 persons age 65 and older. Questions explored participants' understanding of research concepts, their views on enrolling persons with Alzheimer's disease in research, and their preferences regarding having a proxy decision maker, granting advance consent, and granting their proxy leeway to override the participant's decision. Additional questions assessed altruism, trust, value for research, and perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. The majority (83%) were willing to grant advance consent to a blood draw study, and nearly half (48%) to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Most (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making, and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: 81% for the blood draw study and 70% for the blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and lumbar puncture studies, respectively, were 92% and 75%. Multivariate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude toward biomedical research. Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimer's disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness.

  3. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Dog as a Research Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, William I.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of dogs in research, considering their use in studies related to: behavior; aging; anesthesia; gastrointestinal surgery; the brain; organ transplants; radiobiology; trauma and shock; arterial diseases; hemophelia; ophthalmology; diabetes; nutrition; cancer; lupus; cyclic neutropenia; thyroiditis; hepatitis; skeletal system,…

  4. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Saloranta, Seppo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability education (SE) is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD) into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research on Behavioral Momentum to Enhance Success in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard J.; Abel, Leah; Candel, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a…

  6. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  7. Interdisciplinary Study: Research as Part of Artmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Paula

    2012-01-01

    As education budgets shrink, art teachers need to find ways to position the study of art closer to mainstream academics by exploring concepts that cut across disciplinary boundaries. Art teachers can challenge students to do serious and thorough research about subject matter partnering with teachers in other areas to select subject matter that is…

  8. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  9. Performance pinned down: studying subjectivity and the language of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.; Keegan, A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw on Lacan’s notion of language to study employee subjectivity in a public sector organization (Publica) in the Netherlands. Our main contribution lies in using Lacan’s theorization of language and subjectivity as a basis for a detailed textual analysis of how local organizational discourses

  10. A Phenomenological Study of College Students Subjected to Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKennie, Stephanie Williams

    2017-01-01

    Currently cyberbullying is a behavior that is discussed worldwide. Within the discussion, there is a need to know about the lived experiences of college students subjected to cyberbullying. The purpose of this hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of ten college students subjected to bullying in…

  11. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal

  12. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  13. Accelerator research studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  14. Massive Online Crowdsourced Study of Subjective and Objective Picture Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Bovik, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Most publicly available image quality databases have been created under highly controlled conditions by introducing graded simulated distortions onto high-quality photographs. However, images captured using typical real-world mobile camera devices are usually afflicted by complex mixtures of multiple distortions, which are not necessarily well-modeled by the synthetic distortions found in existing databases. The originators of existing legacy databases usually conducted human psychometric studies to obtain statistically meaningful sets of human opinion scores on images in a stringently controlled visual environment, resulting in small data collections relative to other kinds of image analysis databases. Toward overcoming these limitations, we designed and created a new database that we call the LIVE In the Wild Image Quality Challenge Database, which contains widely diverse authentic image distortions on a large number of images captured using a representative variety of modern mobile devices. We also designed and implemented a new online crowdsourcing system, which we have used to conduct a very large-scale, multi-month image quality assessment (IQA) subjective study. Our database consists of over 350 000 opinion scores on 1162 images evaluated by over 8100 unique human observers. Despite the lack of control over the experimental environments of the numerous study participants, we demonstrate excellent internal consistency of the subjective data set. We also evaluate several top-performing blind IQA algorithms on it and present insights on how the mixtures of distortions challenge both end users as well as automatic perceptual quality prediction models. The new database is available for public use at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/ChallengeDB/index.html.

  15. Single-subject research designs in pediatric rehabilitation: a valuable step towards knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser-Logan, Lynne; Slaughter, Rebecca; Hickman, Robbin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge translation may be particularly challenging in pediatric rehabilitation, where study findings are often ambiguous owing to low statistical power or inconsistent responses to intervention. Disconnection between research protocols and clinical practicality, as well as variability of responsiveness in heterogeneous pediatric populations, may further impede integration of research findings into everyday practice. Use of single-subject research designs (SSRDs) may bridge the gap between research and practice, with robust design options that better identify and preserve patterns of responsiveness to specific interventions and offer protocols that are more readily implemented in practice settings than can be done in traditional randomized controlled trials. This review defines SSRD, provides examples of research questions that can be answered using SSRD, details the experimental designs that can be used and the level of evidence of each design, and describes statistical analysis approaches and clinical application. This analysis will aid researchers, reviewers, clinicians, and others in better understanding SSRD methodology and its application in everyday practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  16. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  17. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  18. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  19. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  20. Some recent developments in the international guidelines on the ethics of research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    2000-11-01

    We are in a period of reconsideration and revision of international ethical guidelines for the conduct of biomedical research involving human subjects. The proximate cause of much of this activity is the recent controversy over the ethics of the use of a placebo control in the clinical trials of the short-duration regimen of zidovudine for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV infection, trials that were carried out in several so-called technologically developing countries. Critics of these trials claimed that they were in violation of Article II.3 of the Declaration of Helsinki, which states: "In any medical study, every patient--including those of a control group, if any--should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method. This does not exclude the use of inert placebo in studies where no proven diagnostic or therapeutic method exists." The critics claimed that since the "best proven ... method" is the 076 regimen, this is what must be provided to members of the control groups. Failure to do so, they asserted, was a serious breach of ethics. In response to this allegation, several major international and national agencies convened multidisciplinary groups to consider the ethics of multinational clinical research. The first thing they realized was that Article II.3 was in error in that it did not reflect contemporary ethical thinking. Moreover, it was routinely violated in research conducted in developed as well as in developing countries. What replaces this standard? The 1993 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects include several criteria for justification of research carried out in developing countries. Most importantly, the research must be responsive to the health needs and priorities of the host country. They also require that any therapeutic products developed in such research must be made "reasonably available" to residents of the host country. A new standard is emerging for

  1. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for many years, with Research Ethics Committees as their cornerstone. Although these oversight systems aim to ensure that the ethical quality of research is in order, they have been criticized for imped...

  2. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  3. Research in the hospital setting on human subjects. Protecting the patient and the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, R

    1993-10-01

    A hospital's institutional review board is charged with the responsibility of fully protecting the rights of research subjects. In doing so, the board establishes that research protocols are based on sound scientific principles, that benefits to research subjects outweigh the risks, and that the subject's consent is informed and not coerced. Although it has been argued that risk management has no role in the activities of such boards, the literature indicates that risk management and quality assurance principles apply to all areas of the institution, including the activities of the board. The institution must ensure that its researchers and board members are as fully protected as possible from civil and criminal liability and that the integrity of those conducting the research is established and maintained. The institution must also provide sufficient support for the board to conduct its reviews and educate the research community and board members on current and evolving laws and regulations governing human research. Risk prevention and quality assurance strategies should recognize the rights of the research subject as paramount while protecting the institution, its researchers, and the community served.

  4. The Research on Coordinated Decision-Making Method Tax System Based on Subject Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academically, the research of subject database of tax system aims to set up an efficient, harmonious virtual data application environment. Subject data, in application and management, has been on demand polymerized and autonomously collaborated and has reached a balance between instantaneity and accuracy. This paper defines the connotation and characteristics enterprise informationization, designs a value system of enterprise informationization which is subject database oriented, and builds a model for the import of the subject database of enterprise informationization. Meantime, this paper describes the structure of the subject database based information import model and forges the model’s theoretical basis of subject data import in tax system. Using the model can make an analysis on the information of data warehouse, storage information, and tax information to provide decision support for the tax administrators.

  5. RESEARCHING CITY AND SUBJECTIVITY: BODIES AND WANDERINGS OF A FLÂNEUR- CARTOGRAPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Linck de Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the cartographic method of research proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (2011, we present reflections on the study on subjectivity and the contemporary city with an approach to its process and production dimensions. The cartographer’s body is crucial for the methodology and is created along the research process in order to allow for the existence of universes of reference (Rolnik, 1993 of modes of existence in urban life. We then develop relationships between the cartographer’s practice and that of the flâneur as examples of urban wandering (Jacques, 2012 that problematize the possibilities of body experiences in the urban space as a resistance to the contemporary spectacularization of the city. For such, we use concepts-tools from the field of schizoanalysis and those of the authors mentioned in this abstract, developing the idea that urban experiences, in some ways, can prove to be a source of production and knowledge of subjectivity, the city, the body and the relationships between them.

  6. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Hsi Yuan; Sang-Bing Tsai; Chien-Yun Dai; Hsiao-Ming Chen; Wan-Fei Chen; Chia-Huei Wu; Guodong Li; Jiangtao Wang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency...

  7. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  8. Use of the single subject design for practice based primary care research

    OpenAIRE

    Janosky, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of a single subject research design is proposed for practice based primary care research. An overview of the rationale of the design, an introduction to the methodology, strengths, limitations, a sample of recent literature citations, a working example, and possible clinical applications are presented.

  9. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  10. The self as subject autoethnographic research into identity, culture, and academic librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Stoddart, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using autoethnography as their research method, the 21 academic librarian authors of The Self as Subject: Autoethnographic Research into Identity, Culture, and Academic Librarianship investigate aspects of what it means to be a librarian. Starting with a reflective examination of themselves, they each investigate questions of culture, values, and identity. The Self as Subject presents a collection of reflective narratives that, taken together, explore the varied dimensions of librarianship in the present moment. It also examines autoethnography's potential to help librarians answer questions that cannot be answered by traditional, empirical research methods and to reveal voices that are obscured by aggregations of data.

  11. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  12. Giftedness and Subjective Well-Being: A Study with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthwein, Linda; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the well-being of gifted adults are rare, and the available studies are often limited by methodological shortcomings. In a longitudinal project 101 intellectually gifted adults (mean IQ = 136) were compared to 91 adults of average intelligence (mean IQ = 103). Subjective well-being was operationalized by positive and negative…

  13. Tracer Studies In A Laboratory Beach Subjected To Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work investigated the washout of dissolved nutrients from beaches due to waves by conducting tracer studies in a laboratory beach facility. The effects of waves were studied in the case where the beach was subjected to the tide, and that in which no tidal action was present...

  14. Human Subjects Protections in Community-Engaged Research: A Research Ethics Framework1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    in the 30 years since the belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as non-participants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

  15. Validity and reliability of subjective wellbeing indicators in sociological research: The measurement of life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the level of accuracy i.e. validity and reliability of subjective well-being indicators in sociological research, in case of life satisfaction. First, the relationship between subjective and objective indicators of well-being is presented. Second, the concept of life satisfaction is defined, and the findings of research related to the validity (convergent, discriminant, and predictive and reliability (test-retest, and internal consistency of life satisfaction measures are presented. Third, these findings were reassessed using data originating from large international surveys, which have not been used for this purpose yet. The results in this paper generally contribute to, in quite a large extent existing agreement within the scientific literature about the satisfactory level of validity and reliability of life satisfaction measures i.e. subjective indicators of well-being.

  16. The impact factor-based quality assessment of biomedical research institutes in Iran: effect of impact factor normalization by subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-04-01

    The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. This is in contrary to its critical limitations, e.g., its marked variation across scientific disciplines. This study was conducted to describe, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, the contribution of Iranian universities and research institutes to biomedical publications in 2004 and to examine the possible effect of impact factor normalization by subject on their rankings. The Iranian biomedical articles were recruited from Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded and PubMed databases according to Thomson Scientific subject categorization of journals. Three subject-normalized impact factors were employed: rank-normalized impact factor, journal to field impact score, and standardized impact factor. Tehran and Shiraz Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Tehran were the top three institutes regarding the sum of impact factor in 2004. On the basis of the mean crude impact factor, Sharif University of Technology, University of Shiraz, and Baqiyatollah University were ranked as the first to third. However, the subject normalization of impact factor made some considerable changes in impact factor-based rankings of research institutes. The Iranian scientific community and science development policy makers are recommended to employ subject-normalized impact factor, rather than crude impact factor, in quality assessment of biomedical research held in various academic and research institutes.

  17. Subject Teachers as Educators for Sustainability: A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Uitto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability education (SE is included in school curricula to integrate the principles, values, and practices of sustainable development (SD into all education. This study investigates lower secondary school subject teachers as educators for sustainability. A survey was used to study the perceptions of 442 subject teachers from 49 schools in Finland. There were significant differences between the subject teachers’ perceptions of their SE competence, and the frequency with which they used different dimensions of SE (ecological, economic, social, well-being, cultural in their teaching varied. Teachers’ age had a small effect, but gender, school, and its residential location were nonsignificant factors. Teachers could be roughly classified into three different subgroups according to their perceptions of the role of SE in their teaching; those who considered three SE dimensions rather often and used holistic sustainability approaches in their teaching (biology, geography, history; those who considered two or three dimensions often but were not active in holistic teaching (mother tongue, religion, visual arts, crafts, music, physical and health education, and home economics and those who used one SE dimension or consider only one holistic approach in their teaching (mathematics, physics, chemistry and language. Subject teachers’ awareness of their SE competence is important to encourage them to plan and implement discipline-based and interdisciplinary SE in their teaching. The specific SE expertise of subject teachers should be taken into account in teacher training and education.

  18. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  19. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  20. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  1. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney

    2012-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  2. Subjective Time Perceptions and Aging Well: A Review of Concepts and Empirical Research - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-01-01

    Human beings impose subjective, time-related interpretations on their existence, and the experience of time is a major aspect of lifespan development. In this mini-review, we understand subjective time as the way individuals subjectively perceive and evaluate the passing of their personal "objective" lifetime. A broad range of constructs and operationalizations has been developed in (gero-) psychology to capture subjective time, including future time perspective, personal goals, or autobiographical memories. In order to theoretically integrate this yet loosely connected body of literature, we propose a conceptual model of subjective time concepts according to 2 dimensions: temporal direction (past, present, future) and thematic field (duration/expansion, time-ordered life content, and time-related evaluations, attitudes, and mindsets). This conceptual model of subjective time perceptions builds the foundation for a review of the empirical literature regarding associations of subjective time with developmental outcomes (i.e., subjective well-being and physical health) in middle and late adulthood. Empirical findings establish subjective time concepts as a consistent predictor of well-being and health. Positive subjective time perceptions (i.e., an expanded view of the future, a focus on positive past and future life content, and favorable time-related evaluations) were associated with higher well-being and better physical health, while negative subjective time perceptions in general were linked to lower levels of health and well-being. Contrasting past- and future-oriented subjective time perceptions, it appears that past-oriented subjective time perceptions have been studied primarily in relation to subjective well-being, while future-oriented time perceptions play a key role both with regard to physical health and well-being. In conclusion, we argue that a stronger integration of subjective time constructs into developmental regulation models may deepen our

  3. Students attitude towards calculus subject: Bumiputera case-study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Noorehan; Ilias, Mohd Rijal; Che Hussain, Wan Siti Esah; Mokhtar, Siti Fairus

    2013-04-01

    Mathematics has always become the most dislike subject among other subjects in school. Study showed that attitudes of students in science subjects such as mathematics were closely related to how they solve problems, accessing ideas and making a right decision. According to another study on mathematics achievement of eighth grade students in Malaysia, mathematics grades among bumiputera students was lower when compared to other races such as Chinese and Indians. The poor performance was due to their attitude and pre-conceived ideas towards the subject. Therefore, this study was designed todetermine the criteria and subcriteria that were considered important in measuring students' attitude toward mathematics among the bumiputeras. Factor analysis was carried out to identify the groups among criterion. Instrument used to measure mathematics attitude was Test of Mathematics Related Attitude (TOMRA) which measured student attitudes in four criteria: normality of mathematics, attitudes towards mathematics inquiry, adoption of mathematics attitude and enjoyment of mathematics lessons. The target population of this study was all computer science and quantitative science students who enrolled Calculus subject in UiTM Kedah. Findings shows that there are two criteria that influenced students attitude toward mathematics namely normality of mathematics with eleven subcriteria and enjoyment of mathematics with eight subcriteria. From the analysis it shows that the total percentage of variation explained is 35.071% with 0.837 Cronbach's alpha reliability test. The findings will help the lecturers, parents and society to consider what action should be taken to install interest and positive attitude of bumiputera students towards mathematics and thus improve their achievement.

  4. How many subjects do I need to power my study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Muñoz Navarro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a tool that helps answer the question “How many subjects do I need to power my study? We show how to determine sample size in observational epidemiological studies and provide examples of application using the statistical package Epidat, which is a shareware program developed under the auspices of the Pan American Health Organization, the Galician Board of Health and the University CES of Colombia. Examples of calculation of sample size for prevalence studies (cross-sectional, case-control studies and cohort studies are given.

  5. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,; Bondar O.V.,

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Sur...

  6. The case for evidence-based rulemaking in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Here I inquire into the status of the rules promulgated in the canonical pronouncements on human subjects research, such as the Declaration of Helsinki and the Belmont Report. The question is whether they are ethical rules or rules of policy. An ethical rule is supposed to accurately reflect the ethical fact (the fact that the action the rule prescribes is ethically obligatory), whereas rules of policy are implemented to achieve a goal. We should be skeptical, I argue, that the actions prescribed by the rules are ethically obligatory, and consequently we should focus our attention on how to craft the rules so as to promote the legitimate goals of human subjects research. Unfortunately, this cannot be done without evidence about the likely effects of various candidate policies-evidence we currently lack. Therefore, we should take the rules as mere starting points, subject to revision as the evidence comes in.

  7. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD's utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential…

  8. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  9. Implementation of Subjective Probability Estimates in Army Intelligence Procedures: A Critical Review of Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    subjective probabil- ity estimates have been incorporated routinely into tactical intelligence comunications . Research in the area of intelligence...analysis: Report on Phase I. Report FSC-71-5047. Gaithersburg, Md.: International Business Machines (IBM), Federal Systems Division, 1971. Kelly, C. W

  10. Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical Research into the Radical Subjective solution of the Measurement problem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, D.; Whitmarsh, S.

    2007-01-01

    Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical research into the radical subjective solution of the measurement problem Dick J. Bierman & Stephen Whitmarsh The most controversial of all solutions of the measurement problem holds that a measurement is not completed until a conscious observation is made. In other

  11. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C. B.; Willems, Dick L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or

  12. Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.

  13. Applied Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Ronald J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the feasibility of reusing major components of a software system that had been used to control the operations of a spacecraft launched in the 1980s. The study was done in the context of a ground data processing system that was to be rehosted from a large mainframe to an inexpensive workstation. The study concluded that a systematic approach using inexpensive tools could aid in the reengineering process by identifying a set of certified reusable components. The study also developed procedures for determining duplicate versions of software, which were created because of inadequate naming conventions. Such procedures reduced reengineering costs by approximately 19.4 percent.

  14. The Patient-Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Emma; Fulfer, Katy

    2017-01-13

    We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients or as workers. Through questioning this dichotomy, we argue that some subject populations fit into both categories. With respect to commercial surrogacy, we enrich feminist discussions of embodied labor by describing how surrogates are beneficiaries of fiduciary obligations. They are not just workers, but patient-workers. Through these applications, the patient-worker model offers a helpful normative framework for exploring what globalized medical industries owe to the individuals who bear the bodily burdens of medical innovation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088

  16. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.

  17. MARKETING RESEARCH OF THE SUBJECTIVE AND MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSUMERS OF TOURIST SERVICES OF THE YAROSLAVL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Николаевич Минеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For today one of the most dynamically developing spheres is tourism. According to the Rosstat, the share of tourist sector in the total volume of GDP is already 4%, and with the allied industries - by 7%. The industry is fraught with deep potential and has the value of the national scale, but for further development it is necessary to understand the needs, desires, and motives of potential tourists at the level of separate territorial entities. Research devoted to the subject of the analysis of user characteristics and features of demand for tourist services is extremely small, which gives it the real theme of the novel.The relevance of the theme is determined by the analysis of the demand for tourist services. The aim of the work is a marketing analysis of the Yaroslavl consumers of tourism products. For realization of this goal, a study was conducted by the method of questioning. The survey has identified the most popular kinds of tourism, the main parameters and motives, which are used by consumers when planning your vacation and tourism, as well as describes and analyses the main types of consumers and their quantitative composition. Study of consumer characteristics will allow organizations to better Orient themselves in them and the values of the clients.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-27

  18. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  20. Dose fractionation and single subject studies in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Karthikayan

    Conventional positron emission tomography (PET) for cognitive brain studies typically relies on information collected from the distribution of decays following an injection of 15O-labeled water. The number of injections that can be administered to the subject are constrained by radiation dose to the subject and total length of the PET scan. The standard protocol involves 8--10 injections of H152O separated by approximately 5--7 half-lives of 15O. The number of activation conditions that can be realistically studied in a standard PET session is between 8 and 10. This work investigates the physiological response of a simulated subject to H152O injections that are administered in small doses (1--5 mCi) with short inter-injection intervals (40--180 seconds). A larger number of activation conditions are presented to the subject with a wider variation in the activation paradigm. Repeat conditions are studies. Signal averaging methods are feasible with this method of dose administration. Sinograms from scans with similar activation conditions are summed together before reconstruction. The signal in the primary activation region of the brain is shown to increase while suppressing the contribution of secondary activation regions in the brain. The contrast of the final image is similarly increased which leads to easier identification of the primary activation region. An automated H152O -production unit controlled by a PC running LabView software was developed to produce the dose required for the injection sequence by controlling the flow of H152O -vapor that diffuses across a semi-permeable membrane into saline. The unit is capable of producing H152O rapidly for both the standard and the proposed dose administration methods. The system also detects the bolus arrival time at the subject's lungs using a small external plastic detector. Activation sequence commences with the rise in radioactivity observed by the detector. The simulations indicate that inter-injection intervals

  1. Progressive Failure Studies of Stiffened Panels Subjected to Shear Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Jaunky, Navin; Hilburger, Mark W.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for progressive failure of stiffened composite panels with and without a notch and subjected to in plane shear loading well into their postbuckling regime. Initial geometric imperfections are included in the finite element models. Ply damage modes such as matrix cracking, fiber-matrix shear, and fiber failure are modeled by degrading the material properties. Experimental results from the test include strain field data from video image correlation in three dimensions in addition to other strain and displacement measurements. Results from nonlinear finite element analyses are compared with experimental data. Good agreement between experimental data and numerical results are observed for the stitched stiffened composite panels studied.

  2. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  3. The value of photography as study subject and in research on communication: theoretical proposals El valor de la fotografía como objeto de estudio y en las investigaciones sobre comunicación: reflexiones teóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Ramírez Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical reflection on the importance of photography as a representation model of reality, privileged support for transmitting information, means of expression, social document and major element in the recording of transformations undergone by societies. Its objective is contributing ideas to the development of communications research supported by photo images, its historical evolution, and other related concepts such as technical mediation, social change, perception and sociocultural factors. Este artículo constituye una reflexión teórica sobre la importancia de la fotografía como modelo de representación de la realidad, soporte privilegiado de transmisión de información y de comunicación, medio de expresión, documento social y elemento de primer orden en el registro de las transformaciones generadas en el seno de las sociedades. Su objetivo fundamental es el de aportar ideas para el desarrollo de investigaciones en comunicación que tengan como soporte fundamental las imágenes fotográficas, su evolución histórica y conceptos asociados como el de mediación técnica, cambio social, percepción y factores socioculturales.

  4. From Professional Competencies to Capacity: A Study of Education and Training for Subject Specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsin Phoebe Chiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject specialists are important assets in academic and research libraries. They possess not only the specialized knowledge of a particular subject field, but also the skills in library and information services. Looming shortage of qualified subject specialists resulting from the retirement of current professionals, most likely the baby-boomer generation, persuasively suggests that education and training are in urgent need of rethinking. This empirical study was conducted within the context of Library and Information Science education and academic librarianship in North America. Survey, content analysis, and focus group were employed as data collection methods. This study aims to analyze the status of LIS education for subject specialists, education needs and personal attributes of subject specialists, and the qualifications and responsibilities of becoming subject specialists. The goal of the study is to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitude of becoming subject specialists. Results of the study may provide insight into planning of formal curriculum and on-the-job training. [Article content in Chinese

  5. Study of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardina, Giuseppe Alessandro; Messina, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    The research has the following aims: 1: to verify the applicability of capillaroscopic investigation to oral mucosa; 2: to propose oral mucosa as an alternative to the fingernail fold for capillaroscopic investigation; 3: to describe the characteristics of the microcirculation of oral mucosa in healthy subjects. 100 healthy patients were examined. The characteristics of the micro-circulation in the areas of gum mucosa and the mucosa covering of the lower lip were examined using computerised videomicroscopic techniques. For each patient we evaluated the visibility, the course, the density, the tortuosity and any images characteristic of capillary loops, besides the possible presence of microhaemorrhages, the average calibre of capillary loops and the number of capillary loops visible per square millimetre. The investigation was simple, non invasive and repeatable for each patient. An investigation of gum mucosa has revealed a course of capillary loops both parallel and perpendicular to the surface: often the tops of the capillary loops appear as regularly distributed dots or commas. Microcirculatory architecture in the area of the mucosa covering is characterised by capillary loops with a variable diameter, course and length; next to typical capillary loops with the appearance of horse stirrups, there are other loops similar to hairpins, commas and cork screws; there are also rare microhaemorrhages with the aspect of reddish stains, that could be caused by microtraumas. Visibility was very good in the area of the mucosa covering of the lower lip: mediocre in the area of gum mucosa. Our research has highlighted, that today it is possible to carry out a capillaroscopic investigation of oral mucosa in a simple and reliable way. Future research could evaluate how "normal microcirculation", that we describe in this paper, is modified during pathology

  6. Study of Spirituality in Elderly With Subjective Memory Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Surbhi C; Subramanyam, Alka A; Kamath, Ravindra M; Pinto, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are very common among elderly. They can be due to depression, cognitive decline, or be a part of normal aging process. Spirituality is another important dimension in elderly, and it is believed to help them cope with various adversities. This study was done to find out whether any relation exists between these 2 variables in elderly. A total of 120 elderly individuals, presenting with subjective memory complaints, were divided into 3 groups - controls, elderly with depression, and elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Spirituality in them was studied by dividing it into the subdomains of self-transcendence, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, and locus of control. Spirituality was the highest in controls, followed by MCI group, and then depression group. Spirituality had a direct negative relationship with severity of depression, while relationship of spirituality with severity of cognitive decline was more complex. Relationship of spirituality with mental health status in elderly patients seemed bidirectional, that is, cause as well as effect relationship. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. What should I study?: factors affecting student choice of subject at Libyan universities

    OpenAIRE

    Bait-Almal, Ali Ali Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the analysis and discussion of issues and factors influencing Libyan students’ subject choices at undergraduate level. It reviews the literature in the field, situating the study firmly in the context of educational research. However, it is noted that this literature has mainly emerged from Western contexts, and hence cultures. Nonetheless, the body of literature is used as a framework to analyse the Libyan case. The main research question focuses on the main facto...

  8. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis: a cross-sectional general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general U.S. population. However, our results agree with those of other previous studies in which the association between mild psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors is often non-significant. Further controlled research is needed to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with mainly mild to moderate psoriasis in the general population. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Sensation seeking as a common factor in opioid dependent subjects and high risk sport practicing subjects. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Piquemal, E; Verger, M; Brisseau-Gimenez, S; Grabot, D; Tignol, J

    2003-03-01

    Animal research has outlined a vulnerability trait to drug dependence like behavior. The behavioral characteristic of this vulnerability is hyperactivity in response to a novel environment of which sensation seeking (SS) has been suggested as a possible equivalent in humans. If this is the case, SS should be more frequent in drug dependent and risky sports practicing subjects then controls. The objective of this study was to determine if opioid dependent subjects (ODS) and regular paragliders (RP) would be more SS then normal controls. Cross sectional study. Three groups of 34 individuals (total 102) matched for age and sex were selected from ODS seeking treatment, a paragliding club, and a college staff. Global and sub-scores of the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS). Non parametric statistics (Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon 2-Sample Tests) were used given the non-normal distribution of SSS scores in the ODS and RP groups. Significant differences were found across the three groups for the Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) (P = 0.001), dishinibition (Dis) (P = 0.0003) and total score (P = 0.001). ODS and RP scored significantly higher than controls on two (Dis and the TAS scales). RP also scored significantly higher on the Boredom Susceptibility (BS) scale (P = 0.04). Our results show that RP and ODS differ from controls and have some similarities based on the SSS. In this study, the ODS and the RP could express different forms of a general tendency to seek intense and abrupt sensations through various behaviors. Our results in humans are in favor of the hypothesis that the behavioral trait of vulnerability to drug dependence behavior is expressed through SS. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  10. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  11. The Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test: an assessment tool for clinical research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C K; O'Donnell, D C; Searight, H R; Barbarash, R A

    1996-01-01

    We developed an instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information among 275 adults entering one of four ambulatory trials. At the conclusion of trial enrollment, subjects rated their understanding of the information presented and completed the Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test (DICCT). Subjects completed the vocabulary subtest of the revised Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) and the reading subtest of the revised Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-R). The DICCT for 50 subjects was scored by 2 blinded investigators. Interrater agreement was 0.84 (df = 49, p < 0.001). To investigate the DICCT's potential validity, its scores were correlated with WAIS-R vocabulary scores (r = 0.44, df = 199, p < 0.01) and WRAT-R reading scores (r = 0.39, df = 268, p < 0.01). Understanding of consent information was rated as thorough by 70% of subjects. The mean +/- SD DICCT score was 20.4 +/- 3.9. The DICCT is a reliable instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information. There is preliminary evidence for the scale's validity. The subjects believed that they had greater understanding of study information than was shown by the DICCT.

  12. "We're the Mature People": A Study of Masculine Subjectivity and Its Relationship to Key Stage Four Religious Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Critical theory and research has shown that subjects carry gendered meanings. Numbers opting for Religious Studies (RS) have remained skewed towards girls. Drawing from post-structuralism and masculinities theory, this article critically analyses data from interviews with a group of key stage four boys who had opted for Religious Studies in…

  13. Foucault, the subject and the research interview: a critique of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  15. A Comparative Study of the Empirical Relationship in Student Performance between Physics and Other STEM Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maricela

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.

  16. A Study of Anti-Sperm Antibodies among Infertile Subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to evaluate the contribution of ASA to infertility in male and female subjects investigated for infertility and to correlate their presence with seminal fluid viscosity. Materials and methods: Two hundred and two infertile subjects: males (n=110) and females (n=92) irrespective of the etiologies were consecutively ...

  17. Correlation Between Insight and Capacity to Consent to Research in Subjects With Bipolar Disorder Type I and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Tobler, Chantal Aristizábal; Gómez, Constanza Ovalle; Triana, Jaime Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) can affect patient autonomy and capacity to consent to participate in research. Other variables associated with the autonomy of patients must be explored in order to improve the quality of the currently available tools. To evaluate the relationship between insight and the capacity to consent to participate in research in patients with BD-I and schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted with 120 subjects (40 subjects with schizophrenia, 40 with BD-I, and 40 healthy controls). The tools used were the Scale Assessment Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-CR), which was first adapted culturally, and its validity and reliability assessed. The results obtained on each scale were compared and the association between them were evaluated. There is a direct correlation between the capacity to consent to research, measured using the MacCAT-CR tool, and the degree of insight, measured using the SAI-E scale, with an effect size of 1.3 for BD-I and 2.03 for schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the degree of insight and the capacity to consent to research in subjects with schizophrenia and BD-I. Insight should therefore be included as a relevant variable to assess the capacity to consent, and future studies should include it when researching on or designing new tools which aim at a greater respect of patient autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Study Designs in Clinical Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J.

    2009-01-01

    In nephrology research, both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are commonly applied. Clinicians using the evidence from epidemiological studies should be aware of the specific qualities and limitations of each study design. The purpose of the article is therefore to

  19. A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot…

  20. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  1. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  2. A hospital-based observational study of type 2 diabetic subjects from Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayur; Patel, Ina M; Patel, Yash M; Rathi, Suresh K

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this observational study was to describe the profile of subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus from Gujarat, India. The study was performed with newly-diagnosed 622 type 2 diabetic subjects who attended the Department of Diabetology, All India Institute of Diabetes and Research and Yash Diabetes Specialties Centre (Swasthya), Ahmedabad, during August 2006-January 2009. The subjects completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included variables, such as sociodemographic factors, presenting symptoms, risk profile (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidaemia, and glycaemic status), family history of diabetes, physical activity, and behavioural profile. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin levels, and fasting lipid profile were measured. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out using the SPSS software (version 11.5). In total; 622 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) cases with mean age of 47.7 +/- 10.9 years were studied. Of the 622 subjects, 384 (62%) were male. The majority (68%) of the T2DM subjects were obese, and 67% had a positive family history of diabetes. Renal dysfunctions and vision impairment were, respectively, found in 10% (n=62) and 9% (n=57) of the 622 T2DM subjects. The mean HbAlc level was 9.02 +/- 1.67%, and good glycaemic control (HbAlc level or =25 kg/m2) was significantly associated with hypertension among the T2DM subjects (p family history of diabetes, dyslipidaemia, uncontrolled glycaemic status, sedentary lifestyles, and hypertension were prevalent among the T2DM subjects. The characterization of this risk profile will contribute to designing more effective and specific strategies for screening and controlling T2DM in Gujarat, India.

  3. Study of Composite Insulator Sheds Subjected to Wheel Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackiewicz M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation of the properties of the surface and the material stiffness – flexibility of series of samples taken from the sheds of the composite insulators. The insulators were previously subjected to wheel test. The wheel test and 1000 h salt fog test are regarded as alternative examination of the material resistance to the effects of electrical surface discharges. There were investigated two series of the samples of the composite insulators sheds. Examined specimens, made of HTV silicone rubber, were taken from the sheds of medium-voltage composite insulators of two different manufacturers. Insulators of both types passed the 1000 h salt fog test without reservation. Meanwhile, the wheel test can provide a basis for better distinguishing between physical properties of the tested materials. In the case of the insulators of one of the manufacturers the wheel test result was negative. Cross puncture effect of the sheds took place in several places. In addition, sheds were covered with dark coating of varying thicknesses. The results of the study indicated a significantly stronger influence of electrical and temperature factors on the sheds under investigations during the wheel test than in the case of the 1000 h salt fog test. It can be stated that these tests cannot be considered as alternative and it seems that wheel test enables better distinguishing between properties of the materials.

  4. Subjective complaints precede Parkinson disease: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.L. de Lau (Lonneke); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Neuronal degeneration and dopamine loss in the preclinical phase of Parkinson disease may produce subtle complaints before clinically recognizable symptoms emerge. Objective: To examine whether subjective complaints of stiffness, slowness, tremors, or postural imbalance in

  5. The role of subject classification in terminological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж Багана

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the role of subject classification in terminology; defines its specific peculiarities and justifies the choice of the given classification to analyze the specific terminology.

  6. Longitudinal study on oral health in subjects with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ship, J A; Puckett, S A

    1994-01-01

    To examine longitudinal oral health changes in unmedicated, generally healthy subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compare them to age- and gender-matched healthy, unmedicated control subjects. Oral health parameters were evaluated over 2 to 3 years and the results compared between subjects with AD and controls. Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Twenty-one community-dwelling subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD and 21 age- and gender-matched control subjects. Neither population was being treated for any other systemic condition nor taking any prescription medications. Unstimulated and stimulated major salivary gland flow rates were measured, and gingival, periodontal, dental, and oral mucosal tissues assessed. In general, subjects with AD demonstrated decreased salivary flow rates and diminished oral health, but most longitudinal changes in oral health status were not significantly different than controls. Patients with AD are susceptible to a variety of oral health problems, and progression of AD can lead to a deterioration in oral health and function. These patients require aggressive preventive care to maintain function for as long as possible, which necessitates close cooperation among numerous health care professionals.

  7. Students as subjects in food advertising studies. An appraisal of appropriateness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2014-10-01

    Considerable knowledge on food advertising has been generated by research on consumers' psychological reactions to food advertising messaging using either students or nonstudents as subjects. Building on past research, this article investigates the methodological question of whether students are appropriate surrogates for nonstudents in food advertising studies. Following exposure to print advertisements featuring healthy and unhealthy foods with two different nutrient attribute-based message appeals, student and nonstudent subjects were asked to complete five standard evaluative response measures to the food ads: claim believability, attitude-toward-the ad, attitude-toward-the-product, attitude-toward-the-brand, and purchase intention. Among the findings, students were found to react differently and more negatively to identical food advertisements than nonstudents. Overall, the message sent to health communication researchers, policy officials, and practicing professionals is - unless certain criteria are satisfied - students should be considered inadequate subjects to represent all age groups of the general population in food advertising research. Thus, conclusions drawn from student-based research about advertising processing and effects should be questioned and broad generalizations avoided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A clinicopathological study of dyspeptic subjects in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladi Hameed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological and endoscopic features of dyspepsia have not been well studied in Nigeria due to the high cost of gastroscopes and lack of the relevant expertise. This study was designed to highlight these features and possible risk factors. This prospective study was conducted on adult dyspeptic patients who fulfilled the study criteria from November 2007 to December 2008 at a University hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Demographic and clinical presentation including possible risk factors were obtained through a questionnaire administered by an interviewer followed by an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and gastric biopsy. Of the 123 subjects who took part in the study, 100 gave their consent to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and biopsy. The male:female ratio was 1:1, mean age was 44.98 (SD 15.4 years and the modal age group was 38-47years. The prevalence of dyspepsia was 29% and epigastric pain was the most common presentation. Endoscopic findings were superficial mucosal lesion (21%, peptic ulcer (16%, features of gastroesophageal reflux disease (10%, and gastric cancer (2%, as well normal findings (44%. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID use as a risk factor had a significant association with positive endoscopic findings; relative risk for development of positive endoscopic findings was 1.5% (P =0.03. Histology showed rates of chronic gastritis to be 91% and normal values 9%. The most common type of gastritis was the non-specific form (59.3%, followed by H. Pylori-associated gastritis (36.3%. The topography of gastritis was mainly pangastritis (68.1% and antral predominant in 23.1%. The prevalence of H. pylori by histology was 41%. The presence of H. pylori was not associated with severity, location or duration of symptoms. H. pylori was, however, found to be a significant contributor to the development of positive endoscopic findings (P=0.01; OR 2.92 95% CI 1.50-3.17. Alarm symptoms were found to be important markers of

  9. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R B

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research. PMID:3735361

  10. Psychometric evaluation and establishing norms of Croatian SF-36 health survey: framework for subjective health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslić Sersić, Darja; Vuletić, Gorka

    2006-02-01

    To provide population norms and evaluate metric characteristics of the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey, an internationally used instrument for assessing subjective health. The questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of Croatian adult population (n=9070). Three standard techniques were used in data analysis: reliability tests, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. The population norms were presented in two standard forms--the SF-36 Health Profile and percentile values for different age groups of men and women. The Croatian version of the SF-36 had generally acceptable metric characteristics including its construct validity. The internal consistency of the SF-36 scales ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. Pearson bivariate correlations showed moderate associations between SF-36 scales, and factor analysis provided one latent dimension underlying all SF-36 scales which explained 63.3% of the score variance. Less favorable results were obtained concerning its discriminative validity. All SF-36 scales showed negative asymmetry of score distributions, and some had high floor and ceiling effects--skewness estimations ranged from -0.12 to -0.91, with the highest floor effect of 30% and ceiling effect of 63%. Presented population norms for the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey showed that SF-36 may be used as a valid and reliable instrument in research in subjective health of Croatian population.

  11. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  12. Psychology of a subject-spatial environment: main trends in theoretical and experimental studies of foreign scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Panyukova Yu. G.

    2016-01-01

    The subject matter of this article is the analysis of the psychological studies presented in the Journal of Environmental Psychology. The purpose of the article is to define the main areas of theoretical and experimental research in contemporary foreign psychology related to subject-spatial environment

  13. A comparative study of EEG abnormalities among subjects with inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: A number of subjects in our sample with inter-ictal psychosis and PWS had EEG epileptiform activities reflecting cerebral insults in early life. Thus, preventive measures such as good antenatal care are advocated to minimize the occurrence of these neuro-psychiatric disorders. Keywords: EEG abnormalities ...

  14. A Comparative Study of Subject Specialisation at the University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reveal interesting comparisons from which both can learn and improve on their services. Subject librarians at the University of Botswana spent relatively more time on technical- related functions, whilst the information librarians at Rand Afrikaans concentrate more on customer- centred services. Automation is ...

  15. The One or the Many: Quantified Subjectivity and Aggregated Uniqueness in Qualitative Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Soberg, Helene L; Røe, Cecilie; Saebu, Martin; Engen, Grace; Bliksvaer, Trond; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making. Nonetheless, we find that the articles to a great extent emphasize frequencies of the qualitative data they present. Individual processes and experiences are subject to subdivisions and categorization and transformed into manageable objects of knowledge. In conclusion, these studies, with one important exception, contribute to self-marginalization of the knowledge they themselves promote: They undermine the uniqueness of the qualitative knowledge they proclaim by focusing on frequency and the general patterns and categories encompassing the unique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Study of Composite Insulator Sheds Subjected to Wheel Test

    OpenAIRE

    Mackiewicz M.; Mikulski J.L.; Wańkowicz J.; Kucharski S.; Ranachowski P.; Ranachowski Z.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents investigation of the properties of the surface and the material stiffness – flexibility of series of samples taken from the sheds of the composite insulators. The insulators were previously subjected to wheel test. The wheel test and 1000 h salt fog test are regarded as alternative examination of the material resistance to the effects of electrical surface discharges. There were investigated two series of the samples of the composite insulators sheds. Examined specimens, ma...

  17. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  18. Within-Subject Reliability and between-Subject Variability of Oxidative Stress Markers in Saliva of Healthy Subjects: A Longitudinal Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Z. Alajbeg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated diurnal variations and day-to-day fluctuations of salivary oxidative stress (OS markers in healthy adult individuals. Whole unstimulated saliva was collected at 2 time intervals over 3 consecutive days. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and uric acid (UA were analyzed using spectrophotometric methods, while 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG and malondialdehyde (MDA were determined using immunoassays. No significant differences for salivary OS markers between men and women were observed. For all examined OS markers, no significant day-to-day variations were demonstrated. Significant diurnal variations were found in salivary GPX, TAC and MDA levels. For SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA, good-to-moderate intraindividual coefficients of variations (CVs were observed in more than 75% of the subjects. For MDA and 8-OHdG, intraindividual CVs > 35% were observed in 60% and 40% of the subjects, respectively. Between-subject variance was wide for all examined OS markers (CV% 30.08%–85.70%. Due to high intraindividual variability in the salivary concentrations of MDA and 8-OHdG, those markers cannot be reliably verified based on single measurements and multiple measurements over several days would provide more reliable information. Salivary SOD, TAC, GPX, and UA proved stable across three days of measurement. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03029494. Registered on 2017-01-19.

  19. Discourse, Subject, and Agency. Linking Discourse Analysis and Biographical Research with the Help of the Concept of Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Spies

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For a significant period of time biographical research did not focus on the influence of discourses on biographical narratives. In contrast, discourse analysis often disregarded the subject-constituting impact of discourses. This article deals with the theoretical question of how to work with both: discourse and subject. Therefore, I will introduce Stuart HALL's concept of articulation. Since the early 1990's HALL has been working on questions of (cultural identity. In this context he developed an understanding of subjects that enables them not only to be seen as effects of discourses, but also allows focusing on discourses in subject conceptions. Neither biographical research nor discourse analysis In German speaking countries have embraced the work of HALL. But his concept of articulation could link biographical research and discourse analysis, and could also be used for further empirical work. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902369

  20. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  1. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reve...

  2. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  3. Determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy and hypertensive subjects: A population-based study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Liu, Yanfen; Wang, Changyi; Tang, Linlin; Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Wen, Qi; Duan, Donghui; Lu, Nanjia; Xu, Guodong; Wang, Kaiyue; Zhang, Lu; Gu, Kaibo; Chen, Sihan; Ma, Jianping; Zhang, Tao; You, Dingyun; Duan, Shiwei

    2017-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is known to increase the risk of many diseases. Factors influencing HHcy in healthy and hypertensive subjects remain under-researched. A large population-based study was conducted in 60 communities from Shenzhen, China. Responses to standardized questions on lifestyle factors and blood samples were collected from all participants after a 12-h overnight fast. Multiple linear and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore risk factors for HHcy. Results were then compared to those from a systematic review of English-language articles listed in Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane libraries that investigated HHcy risk factors in healthy and hypertensive subjects. A total of 1586 healthy (Male/Female = 642/944) and 5935 hypertensive subjects (Male/Female = 2928/3007) participated in our population-based study. In logistic regression analyses, age, BMI and creatinine (Cr) were risk factors, while being female, fruit intake and physical activity were protective factors for HHcy in healthy subjects. In hypertensive subjects, seven [age, smoking, salt intake, systolic blood pressure (SBP), uric acid, triglycerides (TG), and Cr] and four [female, fruit intake, total cholesterol (TC), and glucose] factors were associated with higher and lower HHcy respectively. The review of 71 studies revealed that potential risk factors for Hcy included nutritional, physiologic, lifestyle habits, ethnicity, genetics, interactions between gene-environment, gene-gene, gene-nutritional, environment-environment, nutritional-nutritional. Our study indicates the potential importance of increasing folic acid and vitamin B supplementation, daily fruit and vegetable intake, regular exercise and refraining from tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as preventive strategies for Hcy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, R.W. [National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  5. Subject Access through Community Partnerships: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitz, Patricia A

    2003-08-12

    Innovations in scholarly communication have resulted in changing roles for authors, publishers and libraries. Traditionally roles are disappearing and players are actively seeking or reluctantly assuming new roles. Library roles are changing as they become involved in building and indexing electronic(e-)repositories and support new modes of e-research. A library-run service, the SPIRES particle physics databases, has not only weathered, but also lead, many of the transitions that have shaped the landscape of e-publishing and e-research. This has been possible through intense and in-depth partnership with its user community. The strategies used and lessons learned can help other libraries craft cost-effective roles in this new environment.

  6. The historical regional studies, local history and urban history: the demarcation of subject fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koval’s’ka­Pavelko

    2014-05-01

    It is proved that combines subject field of urban history, historical regional studies and local history in terms of research into the history of urban settlements. In historical research focus of urban history is urban lifestyle that allows you to analyze the city in their integrity – both sociocultural phenomena with their own phases of development, in the broad political and ideological context. It is noted that the historical urban studies urbanization, which are connected with the adoption of urban lifestyles as a phenomenon of culture and modern civilization. Urbanization represented in two dimensions – dynamic and static. Since urbanization is a process that characterize the dynamic parameters (rates of urbanization, while urbanization is characterized by static parameters (the number and proportion of urban population, the number of urban settlements, its area, etc.. This feature of the urban historical approaches to the historical regional studies.

  7. The human capacity to reflect and decide: bioethics and the reconfiguration of the research subject in the British biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-06-01

    This article examines how a fundamental element of the British bioethical assemblage - the literature on informed consent published between 1980 and 2000, a period when bioethics became a powerful force in the UK--has influenced contemporary understandings of the research subject. Drawing on Foucault, the article argues that this corpus of texts has created a sphere of possibilities in which research subjects can imagine themselves as human beings who reflect and decide whether they want to participate in medical experimentation. In particular, it shows how the narratives found in these texts portray relationships between researchers and their human subjects as 'paternalistic', and calls for their replacement by new, more ethical relationships characterized by both 'dialogue' and 'respect' and articulated around subjects who can 'think and take decisions'. It also discusses the different strategies- using patient information sheets, a list of possible questions and invitations to take time to reflect--which the bioethical literature has developed in order to realise these new, ethical relationships. As the article suggests, these narratives and strategies provide researchers and research subjects with models and examples of how to interact with each other that are very different from the ones that prevailed before the emergence of bioethics.

  8. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  9. Employees as Individually and Collectively Acting Subjects-Key Contributions from Nordic Working Life Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hasle; Ole Henning Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper poses the question whether the distinct character of the Nordic societies has generated working life research that is clearly distinguishable from similar research in other countries...

  10. Issues to consider for preparing ferrets as research subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roberta Scipioni

    2006-01-01

    The domestic or European ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been domesticated for thousands of years. Ferrets have been used for hunting and fur production, as pets, and as models in biomedical research. Despite the relatively small numbers used in the laboratory, ferrets have some unique applications including study of human influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated corona virus. They have served as models for peptic ulcer disease, carotenoid metabolism, cystic fibrosis, and drug emesis screening, among others. Most research ferrets are males, due to estrus-related health problems in females. They may be housed conventionally and are easy to care for when their biology and behavior are understood. Due to the small number of ferret suppliers, animals are often shipped long distances, requiring air transport and intermediate handlers. It is important to minimize shipment stress, especially with weanling and pregnant animals. Additional expertise is required for success with pregnant and whelping ferrets and for rearing of neonates. The animals have specific dietary requirements, and proper nutrition is key. Successful housing requires knowledge of ferret behaviors including social behavior, eating habits, a general inquisitive nature, and a species-typical need to burrow and hide. Regular handling is necessary to maintain well-being. A ferret health care program consists of physical examination, immunization, clinical pathology, and a working knowledge of common ferret diseases. Various research methodologies have been described, from basic procedures such as blood collection to major invasive survival surgery. Ferrets have a distinct niche in biomedical research and are hardy animals that thrive well in the laboratory.

  11. Development of ICT competences in the environmental studies subject in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Husa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital literacy is one of eight key competences that were defined by the European Parliament and Council as those that member states should develop as a part of their strategies for lifelong learning (Official Journal of the European Union, 2006, p.11. It would contribute to a more successful life in a knowledge society. The purpose of this paper is to Npresent the results of empirical research on the use of ICT in the lessons of the environmental studies subject in the first triennium of primary schools in the Republic of Slovenia. Data were collected through a questionnaire and according to the protocol. We found that among all of the ICT tools, teachers mostly use the computer. The majority of the teachers use the computer once a week, most often in mathematics and environmental studies subject. In the observed lessons of the environmental studies subject, less than half of teachers use the computer in the lessons. This was followed by the use of computer and the LCD projector, and the interactive whiteboard. Among the obstacles that teachers indicate when they try to include ICT in the learning process are insufficient, out of date equipment, lack of time and lack of their own competence.

  12. Neither Objective nor Neutral? Reflecting on My Subjectivity throughout the Research Process in Takiwa School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Vicki

    An educational researcher describes and reflects on a qualitative research project she conducted, focusing on her positioning, neutrality, and objectivity throughout the research process and during subsequent data analysis. The research took place in a K-12 school in a remote rural New Zealand community inhabited by Maori, 1970s…

  13. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  14. Undergraduate research: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; van der Hoeven, Gerrit

    This paper describes a one semester research course for undergraduates of computing programs. Students formulate a research proposal, conduct research and write a full paper. They present the results at a one-day student conference. On the one hand we offer the students a lot of structure and

  15. Connection and Disconnection: Value of the Analyst’s Subjectivity in Elucidating Meaning in a Psychoanalytic Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hueso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on pivotal concepts of psychoanalytic practice and theory, applied to a single case study to create new meanings. Drawing from the concepts of transference, countertransference, and projective identification, the author presents the notion that the researcher’s subjective reactions are created and induced by the subject of study precisely because this is one, and sometimes the only way available to the subject to communicate something that is out of its full awareness. In essence, some unconscious material can be expressed nonverbally by the subject by means of provoking visceral and bodily reactions in the researcher, or in some cases, psychic imagery such as dreams or fantasies. The material can be meaningfully interpreted by the researcher by receiving, containing, and sorting through these inchoate emotional reactions within self.

  16. WESTERN ESOTERICISM AS AN OBJECT OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nosachev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short excursus into the history of research on western esotericism. At the beginning the basic terms esoterica and esotericism are defi ned. Then the history of societies and academic chairs devoted to research on the subject is examined. The source for research on the subject is the Eranos Circle. Later authors such as Frances Yates took up the study which was continued and developed in the volumes authored by Antoine Faivre and Wouter Hanegraaff. Resorting to generalities in describing the various branches of thought on the subject, the author defi nes three main schools: the American School, the Old European School, and finally the New European School. The principle characteristics of the American School is the acknowledgement of the reality of esoteric experience and a tendency to override the border dividing the researcher and the phenomenon researched as well as attempting to popularize the subject in wide sectors of society. The Old European School is characterized by its extremely critical attitude to esotericism, seeing in it little more than a deviation on the path of the development of culture and religion. The New European School, on the other hand, is guided by a post-modern approach to research on this subject, which leads to the constant study of the problem of dialogue and demands a pluralistic attitude in regard to various forms of esotericism. Another characteristic of this school is the intention to include the study of esotericism as an accepted academic discipline. Some basic problems which face the contemporary researcher of this topic are studied by the author separately. The idea of combining the study of esotericism with the study of theology is also touched upon, pointing out the basic contradiction and incompatibility separating the two subjects. Two approaches for Christian researchers are defined — the approach of the tree and the modernistic approach

  17. Subjective wellbeing and longevity: a co-twin control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadler, Michael E; Miller, Christopher J; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    , followed for a median time period of 9 years, was drawn from the population-based Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (LSADT). The association between SWB, operationalized as affect and life satisfaction, and all-cause mortality risk was examined using between-individual and within-pair survival...

  18. Studies of Grain Boundaries in Materials Subjected to Diffusional Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas

    Grain boundaries in crystalline Cu(2%Ni) creep specimens have been studied by use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to establish the mechanism of deformation. Creep rate measurements and dependencies were found to fit reasonably well with the model for diffusional creep......) with the activity displayed during diffusional creep testing. It was found that boundaries with low deviation from perfect Σ did not contribute macroscopically to the creep strain. A resist deposition procedure was examined to improve the reference surface grid so as to allow determination of the grain boundary...... plane by use of simple stereomicroscopy directly on the surface. The etched pattern deteriorated heav-ily during creep testing, supposedly because of dislocation creep, due to exces-sive creep stress. Grain boundaries have been studied and characterised by TEM providing an insight into the diversity...

  19. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  20. Legendary Mount Vesuvius is subject of intensive volcanological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank

    The Roman population centers of Pompeii and Herculaneum (circa 15,000 inhabitants) were destroyed when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D. after centuries of repose. Many times since then its eruptions have claimed human lives; basaltic lava flows from an eruption in 1631 killed 3,000. Vesuvius' location, near the heart of the Roman empire—a center of learning in the ancient world—led it to become the site ofsome of the earliest volcanological studies on record.In letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger documented the sequence of events of the 79 A.D. plinian eruption. Geophysical studies of volcanoes were pioneered by Italian volcanologists who installed seismographs in an observatory on the flanks of Vesuvius to study volcano seismology and to forecast and monitor eruptions early this century. It is easy to understand why interest in Vesuvius has been so keen: it is accessible, persistently active, and a large population resides nearby. Today, around 1 million people live within the shadow of this potentially explosive and dangerous volcano.

  1. In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Lotus Root and Cucumber: A Pilot Comparative Study in Aged Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L; Gao, W; Wei, J; Pu, L; Yang, J; Guo, C

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effects of lotus root and cucumber on antioxidant function in aged subjects. Pilot comparative study. Research setting with vegetable intervention. Healthy aged subjects over the age of sixty. 30-day supplementation of lotus root or cucumber powder. Plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, activity of antioxidant enzymes, contents of some antioxidants, oxidation products, hemolysis, blood mononuclear cell DNA damage and urinary excretion of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were measured before and after the intervention. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, contents of vitamin C, total phenolics were significantly increased, while plasma uric acid content significantly decreased in both groups at the end of the intervention. Meanwhile, hemolysis was significantly reduced in both groups and DNA injury rate of blood mononuclear cells in lotus root group and the ratio of comet tail length to total length in cucumber group were also declined significantly post-intervention. However, plasma value of ferric reducing antioxidant power assay, contents of reduced glutathione, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, oxidized low density lipoprotein, carbonyls and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were not changed significantly in both group after the intervention. These results suggest that lotus root and cucumber are not remarkably different in improving antioxidant function in aged subjects, though they are significantly different in antioxidant capacity in vitro. The benefits observed in this study may come from the additive or synergistic combinations of antioxidants contained in vegetables.

  2. Should Bible Studies Remain in Israeli Public Schools? Teachers' Attitudes toward Bible Teaching as a Mandatory Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idalovichi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and analysis of attitudes of Israeli K-12 educators and bible teachers toward religious studies. Teachers' attitudes toward bible teaching as a mandatory subject are, on the whole, positive throughout the country. The present study addresses the absence of systematic research into the opinions…

  3. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...) with Sec. 26.109); and whether the ``special problems'' of research involving vulnerable populations...) of the 2006 rule, which defines the scope of the rule as applying to ``all research initiated after... defined in Executive Order 12866. The 2006 rule applies to the conduct and review of research involving...

  4. Children as Subjects in Nutrition Research: A Retrospective Look at Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…

  5. Reviewing the Research on Mail Survey Response Rates: Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boser, Judith A.; Clark, Sheldon B.

    One approach to examining the findings of multiple studies is descriptive. This descriptive review of the research on increasing the response rates to mail surveys is based on studies also subjected to a meta-analysis. An initial narrative review identified the studies to be used in both analyses, and results will allow the possibility of…

  6. Bibliometric Analysis of Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi: An Analysis of Research Subjects and Institutional Collabration through Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Karagöz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research subjects and collaboration between universities are important knowledge fields about forms of knowledge networks structures in a scientific community and flow of knowledge traffic. The aims of this study revealed to tourism knowledge network structure and institutional collaboration and examined to the roles of research subjects and collaboration into tourism network structure based on published articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi. The data was collected from refereed articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi between years of 1997-2010. Social Network Analysis is used to define network structure and to examine links between structures. For that purpose, UCINET and Netdraw programs were utilized. At the end of this study, tourism knowledge structure generally has central structure rather than interdisciplinary structure. Management, marketing, economy, education, accounting-finance, health and transportation research subjects are to be linked with each other rather than other research subjects. In this research, institutional collaborations are determined in low degree. In addition important roles are determined of University of Dokuz Eylül, University of Gazi and University of Mersin at institutional collaboration and separation of knowledge to other universities.

  7. Research Methods and Intelligibility Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper first briefly reviews the concept of intelligibility as it has been employed in both English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and world Englishes (WE) research. It then examines the findings of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC), a list of phonological features that empirical research has shown to be important for safeguarding mutual intelligibility…

  8. Subject Specialist Mentors in the LifeLong Learning Sector: who needs them? A case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentoring has become a key to success in many fields and different organisations, and has now become one of the important roles within initial teacher training in the Lifelong Learning Sector. The training of mentors, in particular, subject specialist mentors, is therefore fundamental to ensure that trainees on initial teacher training courses develop with regard to teaching and ensuring they have the necessary subject knowledge. Research was based on a case study at the University Campus Barnsley (part of the University of Huddersfield. Findings from subject specialist mentors, through focus groups, and trainees on a Certificate in Education/Professional or Post Graduate Certificate in Education (Cert Ed/PGCE initial teacher training course, through questionnaires highlighted some interesting development needs. The research has found that there is a changing profile of the subject specialist mentor who supports trainees on initial teacher training courses, in particular they feel that they are not only mentors, but also coaches.

  9. An Analysis of Effect Sizes for Single-Subject Research: A Statistical Comparison of Five Judgemental Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee L.

    2010-01-01

    Effect sizes for single-subject research were examined to determine to what extent they measure similar aspects of the effects of the treatment. Seventy-five articles on the reduction of problem behavior in children with autism were recharted on standard celeration charts. Pearson product-moment correlations were then conducted between two…

  10. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  11. Bibliography of Research Involving Female Subjects; A Compilation of Theses and Dissertations in Physical Education, Health, and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick, Ed.

    This bibliography is comprised of theses and dissertations which were written by women or which used women as subjects of investigation. The theses were solicited by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Research Committee from 200 colleges and universities. The entries include papers written during the past 30 years. They…

  12. Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Saikat; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, p patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and 2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics. PMID:23165335

  13. Comparative study of cardio-ankle vascular index between Chinese and Japanese healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Shirai, Kohji; Liu, Jinbo; Lu, Na; Wang, Min; Zhao, Hongwei; Xie, Jun; Yu, Xiaolan; Fu, Xiaobao; Shi, Hongyan; Li, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor for vascular diseases. Cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) is a new index of arterial stiffness. However, there was little research about the CAVI value between different countries. The aim of the present study was to compare CAVI between Chinese and Japanese subjects and to assess related factors. 2519 healthy persons [1245 Chinese (M/F, 524/721) and 1274 Japanese (M/F, 534/740)] from the Department of Physical Examination were enrolled into our study. CAVI was recorded using a VaseraVS-1000 vascular screening system. CAVI was increasing with aging in all subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese compared with Japanese both in male and female. There was difference in lipid metabolism between these two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), plasma creatinine (Cr) were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Chinese persons (β = 0.548, p < 0.001; β = 0.129, p = 0.001; β = 0.105, p = 0.006; and β = 0.100, p = 0.012, respectively), whereas age, SBP, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Cr, body mass index (BMI), FPG were significant independent associating factors of CAVI in Japanese subjects (β = 0.669, p < 0.001; β = 0.198, p < 0.001; β = -0.079, p < 0.001; β = 0.090, p < 0.001; β = -0.124, p < 0.001; β = 0.055, p=0.009; respectively). CAVI was increasing with aging in both Chinese and Japanese subjects. CAVI was significantly lower in Chinese than in Japanese subjects. Age, SBP, FPG and creatinine were independently associated with CAVI in both Chinese and Japanese subjects.

  14. Cultural-psychological and clinical perspectives of research on phenomena of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova, Elena T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes certain socio-cultural and personal predispositions, which determine the modern diversity of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity manifestations. It stresses that for the creation of ‘realistic’ clinical psychology (in terms of A.R. Luria one needs to retrace the relations between the resourceful and the psychopathological aspects of the ambiguity phenomenon and the cultural environment with its destructive ideals and mythologems, manipulative media-technologies and all-pervading idea of ‘deconstruction’. Methods for modeling the experiences of ambiguity in experimental settings, in pathopsychological examination and in projective psychological diagnostics are put in comparison. The arguments are adduced for the interpretation of deficient manifestations of subjective uncertainty as a criterion for diagnostics of the severity of personality disorder.

  15. RESEARCHES ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ENZYMES WITH DIAGNOSIS VALUE IN SUBJECTS SUFFERING FROM HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mirela Amariei

    2012-06-01

    deviations from the physiologically normal values were noticed, all the other investigated subjects show values higher than the superior limit of the reference interval while, statistically, the values of the seric enzymes are highly significant (p<0.001, with the exception of those of aspartat-aminotransferase (in the 71-86 years group and of Ȗ-glutamyl- transferase (the 41-50 year group, which are insignificant.

  16. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  17. Certificates of Confidentiality: Protecting Human Subject Research Data in Law and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leslie E; Patel, Mayank J; Williams Tarver, Brett A; Austin, Jeffrey L; Dame, Lauren A; Beskow, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The federal Certificate of Confidentiality plays an important role in research on sensitive topics by authorizing researchers to refuse to disclose identifiable research data in response to subpoenas in any legal setting. However, there is little known about how effective Certificates are in practice. This article draws on our legal and empirical research on this topic to fill this information gap. It includes a description of the purpose of Certificates, their legislative and regulatory history, and a summary of the few reported and unreported cases that have dealt with Certificates. In addition, we outline other statutory confidentiality protections, compare them to the Certificate's protections, and analyze some of the vulnerabilities of a Certificate's protections. This analysis allows us to make specific recommendations for strengthening the protections afforded to research data. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of standing frame on constipation in children with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivi, Elena; Filippi, Mariacristina; Fornasari, Elisa; Mascia, Maria Teresa; Ferrari, Adriano; Costi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) and quadriplegia or severe diplegia suffer from highly reduced mobility and consequent constipation. Clinicians recommend standing frames to exercise the support reaction in this population, sharing the opinion that the upright position may facilitate intestinal transit, although no evidence supports this assumption. We conducted this study to determine the effects of the standing frame on spontaneous evacuation in children with CP. Moreover, we studied its effects on the frequency of induction of evacuation, the characteristics of the stool and the pain suffered by the child due to constipation and/or evacuation. We implemented a single-subject research design in one chronically constipated child with CP and quadriplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level V. To monitor the effects of the standing frame, we measured the outcome of interest throughout the study using a daily diary and the Bristol Stool Scale. This study was approved by the local Ethics Committee. This study has several limitation; primarily, the use of a single-subject research design only makes possible the visual analysis of data obtained from a unique patient. So, by themselves, data obtained do not allow us any generalization for the target population. Future research should verify our results collecting more data and also investigating the effect of the standing-frame on respiratory functions. Although the standing frame did not affect the frequency of evacuations or the characteristics of the stool, its employment reduced the inductions of evacuation and the related pain suffered by the child. However, this study has several limitations, such as the lack of generalization due to the fact that we studied a unique patient and the overall brevity of the study due to external circumstances. Therefore, we suggest future research to verify our results, also investigating the effect of the standing frame on respiratory functions. Relevance to clinical

  19. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  20. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Acute, subacute and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans: a pooled analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Erich; Kometer, Michael; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2011-11-01

    Psilocybin and related hallucinogenic compounds are increasingly used in human research. However, due to limited information about potential subjective side effects, the controlled medical use of these compounds has remained controversial. We therefore analysed acute, short- and long-term subjective effects of psilocybin in healthy humans by pooling raw data from eight double-blind placebo-controlled experimental studies conducted between 1999 and 2008. The analysis included 110 healthy subjects who had received 1-4 oral doses of psilocybin (45-315 µg/kg body weight). Although psilocybin dose-dependently induced profound changes in mood, perception, thought and self-experience, most subjects described the experience as pleasurable, enriching and non-threatening. Acute adverse drug reactions, characterized by strong dysphoria and/or anxiety/panic, occurred only in the two highest dose conditions in a relatively small proportion of subjects. All acute adverse drug reactions were successfully managed by providing interpersonal support and did not need psychopharmacological intervention. Follow-up questionnaires indicated no subsequent drug abuse, persisting perception disorders, prolonged psychosis or other long-term impairment of functioning in any of our subjects. The results suggest that the administration of moderate doses of psilocybin to healthy, high-functioning and well-prepared subjects in the context of a carefully monitored research environment is associated with an acceptable level of risk.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... diagnosed cases with FNAB as either benign or malignant when correlated with histology were 95% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: FNAB is ... foot). This study was conducted in compliance with the guidelines of the Helsinki declaration on biomedical research in human subjects. Confidentiality of the ...

  3. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  4. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  5. What are Agricultural Economics Ph.D. Students Learning about Agribusiness Research Methods and Subject Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa House; James Sterns

    2003-01-01

    .... This ambiguity not only limits any assessment of agribusiness Ph.D.-level training, but also undermines the academic endeavors of those interested in pursuing agribusiness-focused research and graduate instruction...

  6. 42 CFR 2.21 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.21 Relationship to Federal statutes protecting... of the research. (b) Effect of concurrent coverage. These regulations restrict the disclosure and use...

  7. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Abuse, Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.468 Relationship... on the Attorney General, respectively, the power to authorize researchers conducting certain types of...

  8. Who can benefit from virtual reality to reduce experimental pain? A crossover study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, N; Josman, N; Eisenberg, E; Pud, D

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to identify predicting factors affecting experimental pain stimuli reduction by using 'EyeToy', which is an Immersive Virtual Reality System (IVRS). Sixty-two healthy subjects (31 M, 31 F) underwent a battery of pain tests to determine each participant's baseline sensitivity to nociceptive. The battery included thermal pain tests (hot and cold) as well as a paradigm to induce conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Later on, each subject participated in two study conditions in random order: (1) An exposure to tonic heat stimulation (46.5 °C/135 s) to the ankle while participating in VR environment which included an activity requiring limb movements; (2) Same heat stimulation with no exposure to VR. Six pain measures were taken during each study condition (baseline, test 1-5). An interaction of time × treatment was found (RM ANOVA, F(5, 305)  = 24.33, p manipulation for pain reduction in individuals with efficient CPM and in women. These findings constitute a promising platform for future research and hold potential for the improvement and facilitation of clinical treatment. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  9. Assessment of the paraspinal muscles of subjects presenting an idiopathic scoliosis: an EMG pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larivière Christian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that the back muscles of scoliotic subjects present abnormalities in their fiber type composition. Some researchers have hypothesized that abnormal fiber composition can lead to paraspinal muscle dysfunction such as poor neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue. EMG parameters were used to evaluate these impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine the clinical potential of different EMG parameters such as amplitude (RMS and median frequency (MF of the power spectrum in order to assess the back muscles of patients presenting idiopathic scoliosis in terms of their neuromuscular efficiency and their muscular fatigue. Methods L5/S1 moments during isometric efforts in extension were measured in six subjects with idiopathic scoliosis and ten healthy controls. The subjects performed three 7 s ramp contractions ranging from 0 to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC and one 30 s sustained contraction at 75% MVC. Surface EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from the paraspinal muscles at L5, L3, L1 and T10. The slope of the EMG RMS/force (neuromuscular efficiency and MF/force (muscle composition relationships were computed during the ramp contractions while the slope of the EMG RMS/time and MF/time relationships (muscle fatigue were computed during the sustained contraction. Comparisons were performed between the two groups and between the left and right sides for the EMG parameters. Results No significant group or side differences between the slopes of the different measures used were found at the level of the apex (around T10 of the major curve of the spine. However, a significant side difference was seen at a lower level (L3, p = 0.01 for the MF/time parameter. Conclusion The EMG parameters used in this study could not discriminate between the back muscles of scoliotic subjects and those of control subject regarding fiber type composition, neuromuscular efficiency and muscle fatigue at the level

  10. Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.

  11. Social Skills Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Description of Single-Subject Design Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Jennifer M.; Butler, Robert C.

    2007-01-01

    Social skill development is one of the primary areas of intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The purpose of this article was to conduct a retrospective review of social skills intervention research for preschool children with ASD. A review of 17 single-subject design studies from twelve journals (1999-2006) was…

  12. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  13. The efficacy of upper extremity inhibitive casting: a single-subject pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tona, J L; Schneck, C M

    1993-10-01

    This pilot study was designed to examine the effects of short-term (48-hr) upper extremity inhibitive casting, with an encased thermoplastic splint, on problems related to upper motor neuron damage. The subject was an 8 1/2-year-old girl with left upper extremity spasticity. Three different measures were used: (a) rating of videotaped active movements of the child; (b) the Modified Ashworth Scale, a clinical measure of spasticity; and (c) The Biodex System, a measure of torque during passive elbow flexion and extension. After cast removal, subjective improvements were noted in the quality of active movement (through videotapes) and increased awareness and use of the casted hand by the child (through parents' reports). A trend toward decreased spasticity was demonstrated by the Modified Ashworth Scale and a statistically significant decrease in resistance to passive movement was shown by the Biodex recordings. However, this reduction in symptoms was temporary, lasting less than 3 days. The results of this study suggest that short-term inhibitory casting may prove efficacious in the treatment of the child with cerebral palsy, although further research is needed.

  14. Mining activities abroad, a subject of teaching and research; Auslandsbergbau in Lehre und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2008-04-15

    As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)

  15. HEURISTIC POSSIBILITIES OF IN RESEARCH CO-OPERATIONS OF ECONOMIC SUBJECTS INSITUCIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Belokrulova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of institutionalism are explored as an interdisciplinary methodology, synthesizing the modern achievements of philosophy and political science, economic theory, institutional economics and sociology, which describes the interactions between economic subjects more accurately, including the goverment and business on the market of public procurement. There are received solutions for problem situations in the system of the russian public procument on the way of institutionalization of centralized model on the micro level (for example, the Southern Federal University, as well as on the macrolevel in the frame of formation of Federal Contract System, aimed to integrate all stages of goverment contracting – planning, placing the order, controlling and enforcement of state contract.

  16. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jašková Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  17. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…

  18. Art Interpretation as Subject Constitution: Research on the Role of Critical Art History in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traf, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the foundations, development and some of the findings from a research project about how the use of the gaze, as a key idea from critical art history, might affect the understanding of art by art educators. It shows how the use of this key idea involved not just the disruption of a modernist model of art interpretation (based…

  19. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  20. Project Management Practices as a Subject of Research for CSCW: Status and Future Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Leimbach, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The ‘project’ is a prevalent form for organising endeavours of construction, innovation, IT development and organisational change. ‘Projects’ involve coordination and cooperation between colocated and distributed actors, and are relevant for CSCW (computer supported cooperative work) research as ...

  1. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information

  2. Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kotzé, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Proceedings, Puerto Rico, 13 - 15 August 2015 Design science research as research approach in doctoral studies Paula Kotzé CSIR Meraka Institute and Department of Informatics, University of Pretoria paula.kotze@meraka.org.za Alta van der Merwe...

  3. Subjective interpretation, laboratory error and the value of forensic DNA evidence: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W C

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses two factors that may profoundly affect the value of DNA evidence for proving that two samples have a common source: uncertainty about the interpretation of test results and the possibility of laboratory error. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the importance of the analyst's subjective judgments in interpreting some RFLP-based forensic DNA tests. In each case, the likelihood ratio describing the value of DNA evidence is shown to be dramatically reduced by uncertainty about the scoring of bands and the possibility of laboratory error. The article concludes that statistical estimates of the frequency of matching genotypes can be a misleading index of the value of DNA evidence, and that more adequate indices are needed. It also argues that forensic laboratories should comply with the National Research Council's recommendation that forensic test results be scored in a blind or objective manner.

  4. A comparative study of the effects of yoga and swimming on pulmonary functions in sedentary subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa S Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The modality of exercise that is most beneficial and easy to perform has become a topic of research. Yogic exercises are being widely studied; however, postulated benefits of yogic exercises over other exercises must be scientifically explored. Prospective randomized comparative studies involving yoga and other endurance exercises are conspicuous by their absence. Aim: This study was, therefore, designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on pulmonary functions in normal healthy young volunteers. Materials and Methods: 100 volunteers were inducted into the study and randomly divided into two groups: One group underwent 12 weeks training for yogic exercises and other for swimming. The training and data acquisition was done in small cohorts of 10 subjects each. The subjects were assessed by studying their anthropometric parameters and pulmonary function parameters (FVC, FEV1/FVC ratio, PEFR, FEF25-75%, FEF 0.2-1.2 l and MVV both before and after training. Results: All parameters showed statistically significant improvements after both yoga and swimming. Comparison of these improvements for different parameters statistically analyzed by unpaired t test or Mann Whitney U test depicted a statistically better improvement in FVC, FEF25-75% and MVV with swimming as compared to yogic exercises. Conclusions: The output of this study gives slight edge to swimming as a preferred modality of exercise though either yoga or swimming can be advocated as an exercise prescription as both the modalities cause significant improvement of respiratory health. However, other factors like ability of any exercise regime to keep continued motivation and interest of the trainees must be taken into account for exercise prescription.

  5. Antiplatelet therapy and the outcome of subjects with intracranial injury: the Italian SIMEU study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Marchesini, Giulio; Bronzoni, Carolina; Montesi, Danilo; Arietta, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Pre-injury antithrombotic therapy might influence the outcome of subjects with head injuries and positive computed tomography (CT) scans. We aimed to determine the potential risk of pre-injury antiplatelet drug use on short- and long-term outcome of head injured subjects admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Italy for extended observation. Methods A total of 1,558 adult subjects with mild, moderate and severe head injury admitted to Italian EDs were studied. In multivariable...

  6. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. STUDY REGARDING THE ALLOCATION OF PRODUCTION OVERHEADS PROCEDURE: CONVENTIONALITY, SUBJECTIVITY AND INFORMATION DISTORTION IN MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUINEA FLAVIUS-ANDREI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of cost calculating have become obsolete. The loss of relevance of traditional cost calculating systems is mainly due to the existence of a gap between the current model of enterprise control and the model of analysis centres, as well as the difference between the way of composing the actual cost and its image reflected by managerial accounting. The vision of the company on which the method of analysis centres was based no longer corresponds to the present reality. The approach of this study captures the complex and delicate subject of the allocation of production overheads procedure. Through the field research undertaken, it was aimed to identify and possibly solve the problems related to the rational allocation of these expenditures. The own contributions of the study are highlighted in particular at practical level, as an obvious result of the types of research undertaken. One of the fundamental objectives of the present study is to enhance the interest regarding the practical possibilities of protecting against the dangers of a creative managerial accounting system. A managerial accounting system, once implemented, will also attract the manifestation of creative accounting phenomena, especially in times of crisis. Having at their disposal the most relevant set of information, managers are tempted to resort to more or less ingenious techniques that are more or less questionable and more or less legal, in order to improve the financial statement presentation.

  8. An ethical-critical view of the tourism as intercultural subject/ phenomenon for study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Nava Jiménez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultural diversity is undoubtedly one of the features of today's world opportunities for new approaches in social research. Questions such as: Is Tourism an object of study? Is Tourism an intercultural subject for study? need to be analyzed and discussed from a different stand point. The aim of this paper is to consider tourism not only as a social manifestation impregnated of cultural diversity but also as an object of consumption. Tourism is primarily a social phenomenon whose possibility to be analyzed and interpreted depends on the meaning and transcendence of human beings’ understanding. The purpose of this research, through a reflexive analysis of the literature, is to establish a degree of interdisciplinarity between tourism studies and contemporary world rich in cultural diversity and complex social facts. The paper proposes three main axes. First, we will address multiculturalism as and epistemic framework of the phenomenon of tourism. Secondly, we will present a reflective approach to represent a critical-ethical structure between tourism and interculturalism. Thirdly, we propose tourism defines itself.

  9. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ETHNO-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF THE PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shamionov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a consistent analysis of the conceptual approaches to studying the psychological (cultural conditionality of subjective well-being. There are differences in the definition and understanding of subjective well-being, due to the commitment of foreign and domestic researchers to different theoretical trends. The issues of compatibility of different approaches to harmonizing them are discussed in the article. It is proposed to consider subjective well-being as a dynamic system with multiple and multi-level determination. The ethno-cultural determination of subjective well-being should be considered together with the general social, psycho-physiological, age and the others. A relative similarity of the approaches to ethno-psychological and cross-cultural studies of well-being by the Russian and foreign researchers, as well as a tendency to reconcile the various aspects of well-being in empirical research are noted in the article. The theoretical tasks necessary for the unification of the results of empirical research are determined.

  10. The influence of race and ethnicity on becoming a human subject: Factors associated with participation in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A. Garza, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Results suggest that African Americans and Latinos have no automatic predisposition to decline participation in research studies. These results can inform culturally tailored interventions for ethical recruitment of minorities into research and clinical trials.

  11. Research and the Teaching of Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, James P.

    1990-01-01

    Provides an overview to the "Handbook of Research on Social Studies Teaching and Learning," a project sponsored by the National Council for the Social Studies. Identifies the handbook's organization and major topics. Argues this comprehensive review and analysis of social studies educational research promotes improved research, assists…

  12. Research and Development on Automatic Information Organization and Subject Analysis in Recent Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.

  13. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  14. The Three-Level Synthesis of Standardized Single-Subject Experimental Data: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Previous research indicates that three-level modeling is a valid statistical method to make inferences from unstandardized data from a set of single-subject experimental studies, especially when a homogeneous set of at least 30 studies are included ( Moeyaert, Ugille, Ferron, Beretvas, & Van den Noortgate, 2013a ). When single-subject data from multiple studies are combined, however, it often occurs that the dependent variable is measured on a different scale, requiring standardization of the data before combining them over studies. One approach is to divide the dependent variable by the residual standard deviation. In this study we use Monte Carlo methods to evaluate this approach. We examine how well the fixed effects (e.g., immediate treatment effect and treatment effect on the time trend) and the variance components (the between- and within-subject variance) are estimated under a number of realistic conditions. The three-level synthesis of standardized single-subject data is found appropriate for the estimation of the treatment effects, especially when many studies (30 or more) and many measurement occasions within subjects (20 or more) are included and when the studies are rather homogeneous (with small between-study variance). The estimates of the variance components are less accurate.

  15. THE PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH ABOUT IFRS: A BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ARTICLES ON THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Iovine Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.

  16. Subjective evaluation of running footwear depends on country and assessment method: a bi-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Pui W; Lim, Chen Y; Ding, Rui; Sterzing, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (1) the perception of running shoes between China (Beijing) and Singapore and (2) whether running shoe preference depended on assessment methods. One hundred (n = 50 each country) Chinese males subjectively evaluated four shoe models during running by using two assessment procedures. Procedure 1 used a visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess five perception variables. Procedure 2 was a 'head-to-head' comparison of two shoes simultaneously (e.g. left foot: A and right foot: B) to decide which model was preferred. VAS scores were consistently higher in Beijing participants (p shoe discrimination. Moderate agreement was seen between the VAS and 'head-to-head' procedures, with only 14 out of 100 participants matched all 6 pairwise comparisons (median = 4 matches). Footwear companies and researchers should be aware that subjective shoe preference may vary with assessment methods. Practitioner Summary: Footwear preference depends on country and assessment methods. Running shoe perception differed between Beijing and Singapore Chinese, suggesting that footwear recommendation should be country-specific. Individuals' shoe preference measured by visual analogue scale when wearing complete pairs may not reflect that when directly comparing different models in left and right feet.

  17. Afrondende studies geocontaineronderzoek (Final studies geocontainer research)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Breteler, M.; Stolker, C.; De Groot, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the behaviour of geocontainers and other geosystems has been performed in the framework of the WIS-project "Knowledge development Geo-sand elements" and the Delft Cluster project "Construction of large scale sand bodies". Model tests have been performed in several model facilities of

  18. A STUDY OF SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR SUBJECT STREAM IN GHADIABAD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snehlata; Triygee Narayan

    2013-01-01

    ... walks of life.The present study was conducted to know the social intelligence of male and female undergraduate students of science and Arts subject streams studying in various degree colleges of NCR region GZB...

  19. An evaluation study on a university general education subject in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated a university general education subject on leadership and intrapersonal development ("Tomorrow's Leaders", TL) offered at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) based on an online survey using the Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ). At the end of the first semester of the 2013/2014 academic year, 725 Year-1 students completed the online questionnaire. Results showed that the students generally had positive ratings on both the subject attributes and the qualities of teachers. The majority of the participants perceived the subject as beneficial to their holistic development and leadership competencies. Students from the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences (FHSS) and the Faculty of Applied Science and Textiles (FAST) had more favorable evaluation of the subject than students from the Faculty of Construction and Environment (FCE). Students' perceived benefit of the subject was significantly predicted by the subject attributes and teacher attributes. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in South East Nigeria: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attama, CM; Uwakwe, R; Onyeama, GM; Igwe, MN

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. Sociodemographic questionnaire and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) assessed the sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric morbidity, respectively. GHQ positive cases and 10% of noncases for each group were interviewed with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory for specific ICD-10 diagnoses. Results: Fifty-five percent (55/100) subjects with leprosy were GHQ positive cases while 41% (41/100) with albinism were GHQ positive cases. The risk of developing psychiatric morbidity was significantly higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism (OR = 1.76, CI = 1.00 – 3.08, P = 0.04). The prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders among subjects with leprosy were depression 49% (49/100), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) 18% (18/100), alcohol/drug abuse 16% (16/100), whereas in albinism depression was 51% (51/100), GAD 27% (27/100), and alcohol/drug abuse 7% (7/100). Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy had significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than the male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism, respectively. Conclusion: Psychiatric morbidity was higher in subjects with leprosy than in subjects with albinism. Male, married and uneducated subjects with leprosy significantly had higher morbidity than male, married and uneducated subjects with albinism respectively. PMID:26097762

  1. Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects Panorama atual da ética em pesquisa em seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marystella Tomoe Takahashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.Nas últimas décadas, a medicina tem sido cada vez mais permeada pelo conceito de medicina baseada em evidências, na qual a pesquisa clínica possui papel crucial no estabelecimento de diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas. Com o avanço da pesquisa clínica, surgiu a preocupação e o entendimento que certos padrões éticos devam ser obedecidos quando o objeto de estudo é o ser humano. A pesquisa em seres humanos baseia-se nos princípios da autonomia, beneficência, não maleficência e justiça. A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde incorpora à legislação brasileira tais princípios bioéticos consagrados. OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos éticos envolvidos na pesquisa em seres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Análise crítica da Resolução 196/96 do CNS e literatura correlata. CONCLUSÃO: A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde regulamenta a experimentação em seres humanos, no entanto necessita de discussões mais

  2. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR. PMID:20235862

  3. Research fatigue among Tongans in Aotearoa: an exploratory study introducing the Fei'umu research method for empowering the researched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finau, Sitaleki A; Tavite, Si'ata; Finau, Eseta; Fotu, Esita; Tavite, Sunny; Finau, Daleki

    2011-03-01

    There has been a number of references in the literature to over-research and research fatigue, but rarely have the concepts been empirically investigated, and never for Pasifikans. There have been claims that researchers have built careers out of the 'natural experiment situations of the Pacific with minimal benefits to the researched, e.g. the Tongans. In response, an exploratory investigation into the New Zealand Tongan communities' understanding of and participation in, research, (HRC Seeding Grant No. 11/529), was conducted. We consulted 2 different church meetings in Auckland (approximately 50 people in each group). We also engaged in talanoa/discussions of the issues with 5: church leaders from different denominations; Tongan researchers; business owners; and 5 community leaders from Auckland, Wellington, Hamilton and Christchurch, respectively. The study found, that the Tongan communities are subjected to a variety of research, information, and data gatherings, from a myriad of agencies. The respondents used a variety of mechanisms to avoid discomfort, get rid of researchers as expediently as possible, including; heliaki, white lies, sarcasm, or give expected answers, thus confirming research fatigue. The interviews and surveys employing the Tongan language and ethnic specific research approaches were preferred, especially for sensitive issues. The study suggests that ownership of the research process will improve the robustness of the data collection, and the community ownership of research outcomes. The presence of research fatigue will threaten robust data collection and ownership of research findings. This paper discussed research fatigue and its dangers, and suggest ways to address this problem, before researchers are driven further from the researched communities and the utility of research knowledge.

  4. INQUIRE: a case study in evaluating the potential of online MCQ tests in a discursive subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Clarke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a wealth of investigation into the use of online multiple-choice questions as a means of summative assessment, however the research into the use of formative MCQs by the same mode of delivery still remains patchy. Similarly, research and implementation has been largely concentrated within the Sciences and Medicine rather than the more discursive subjects within the Humanities and Social Sciences. The INQUIRE (Interactive Questions Reinforcing Education Evaluation Project was jointly conducted by two groups at the University of Oxford–the Saïd Business School and the Academic Computing Development Team to evaluate the use of online MCQs as a mechanism to reinforce and extend student learning. This initial study used a small set of highly focused MCQ tests that were designed to complement an introductory series of first-year undergraduate management lectures. MCQ is a simple and well-established technology, and hence the emphasis was very much on situating the tests within the student experience. The paper will cover how the online MCQs are intended to fit into the Oxford Undergraduate study agenda, and how a simple evaluation was executed and planned to investigate their usage and impact. The chosen method of evaluation was to combine focus groups with automated online methods of tracking, and the paper discusses the findings of both of these.

  5. "Qualitative" Methods of Social Research in France: Reconstructing the Actor, Deconstructing the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Angermüller

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution gives an overview of the numerous tendencies of open non-standardised social research in France. For various reasons, the label "qualitative" seems to be less distinctive than in the Anglo-Saxon world and Germany. While the interpretive-hermeneutic (verstehend ap­proa­ches have recently come to play a certain role as a result of international reception, a strong tradition that does not fit into the quantitative-qual­itative divide has to be noted: discourse analysis which I will label "quasi-qualitative". A comparison between the interpretive-hermeneutic tendencies of qual­itative sociology and the semiologically informed strands of discourse analysis reveals fundamental differences as well as points of convergence. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503194

  6. Health as a genetic planning project: enthusiasm and second thoughts among biomedical researchers and their research subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hj?rleifsson, Stef?n; Strand, Roger; Schei, Edvin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an interview study among scientists working with Decode genetics in Iceland and lay individuals having recently donated blood to Decode. While genuinely enthusiastic that genetic technologies hold great potential to avert disease, the informants shared concerns that extensive predictive genetic testing, preventive treatment and tailoring of lifestyle to avoid potential disease may cause loss of freedom - people can "worry themselves sick". Undiscriminating use of genetic t...

  7. Sustainable operations in nuclear research reactors. A bibliographical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Rodrigues de Aquino, Afonso [Cidade Univ., Sao Paolo (Brazil). Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares; Marotti de Mello, Adriana [Sao Paolo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia; Tromboni de Souza Nascimento, Paulo [Sao Paolo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia Administracao e Contabilidade

    2017-10-15

    Sustainability is gaining prominence in the area of operations management. By means of a bibliographical research, we identified in literature sustainable operations carried out by operating organizations of nuclear research reactors. The methodology applied consisted in gathering material, descriptive analysis, selection of analytical categories and evaluation of the material collected. The collection of material was performed by a search made on academic and nuclear databases, with keywords structured for the subject of the research. The collected material was analysed and analytical categories on the theme sustainable operations were established. The evaluation of the collected material resulted in references accepted for the study, classified according to the pre-established analytical categories. The results were significant. From then on, a theoretical review on the topic under study was structured, based on pre-defined analytical categories. Thus, we were able to identify gaps in the literature and propose new studies on the subject.

  8. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  9. INQUIRE: a case study in evaluating the potential of online MCQ tests in a discursive subject

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Sophie; Lindsay, Katharine; McKenna, Chris; New, Steve

    2004-01-01

    There has been a wealth of investigation into the use of online multiple-choice questions as a means of summative assessment, however the research into the use of formative MCQs by the same mode of delivery still remains patchy. Similarly, research and implementation has been largely concentrated within the Sciences and Medicine rather than the more discursive subjects within the Humanities and Social Sciences. The INQUIRE (Interactive Questions Reinforcing Education) Evaluation Project was j...

  10. Pretend Play, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Children: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Julie A.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, the authors state, link play to cognitive and affective processes important for a child's development and overall well-being. In this article, the authors examine the relationships involving pretend play, coping, and subjective well-being (the last of which they conceptualize as positive affect--positive mood--and life satisfaction)…

  11. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide...... innovative guidelines to the advancement of more inclusive and empirically sensitive research methods in EU studies....

  12. Study regarding the Implications of Obesity as Perceived by a High-School Age Group of Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana DOBRESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to know the perception on the obesity problem of a high-school age group of subjects that are exposed to its undesired consequences by following their degree of awareness, and the involvement of factors that could influence, prevent, or improve this condition. Starting from the premises detached from the study of the professional literature, we have elaborated the hypothesis stating that presumably the identification of the opinions of a high-school age group of subjects regarding the effects of obesity and the importance of exercise in maintaining one’s fitness, could constitute a starting point for an applicative intervention in the sense of preventing and improving the apparition of this condition. The research methods used were: study of the bibliographical material, the questionnaire inquiry method, the statistical-mathematical method, and the graphical representation method. Conclusions: We identified both a willingness for practicing a physical activity, as well a diversity of activities towards which the group of subjects are oriented. The different orientation of the answers completes the picture of individual perceptions of the inquired segment of the population, the subjects being made aware of the effects obesity has on the body, as well as of the importance of exercise, a conclusion that confirms the hypothesis of this research.

  13. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  14. The Use of Generalizability Theory to Estimate Data Reliability in Single-Subject Observational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Smith, Maria; Suen, Hoi K.

    2007-01-01

    Direct observation of behaviors is a data collection method customarily used in clinical and educational settings. Repeated measures and small samples are inherent characteristics of observational studies that pose challenges to the numerical estimation of reliability for observational data. In this article, we review some debates about the use of…

  15. A Controlled Single Subject Research Design Utilizing a Sensory Motor Intervention System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Joey

    The study investigated and recorded changes in selected psychomotor skills of an 11-year old gifted male with severe motoric problems identified as dysgraphia. A pre-post test design using videotape evaluation recordings was employed to determine changes in psychomotor performance, and a rating scale was designed to establish baseline and…

  16. Assisting Scientific and Technical Research Through Subject Oriented Bibliographies of NTIS Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzwalder, Robert N., Jr.

    A program combining cost-free searching of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) database and document delivery to faculty members was offered at the Kansas State University Libraries. NTIS report usage was monitored from May 1987, five months prior to the onset of the study, until May 1988, at which time the program was terminated.…

  17. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  18. Gender Differences in Natural Language Factors of Subjective Intoxication in College Students: An Experimental Vignette Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., 2009) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication, and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. Method To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (N = 145). Results Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications, and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed, and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. PMID:23841828

  19. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.

    2016-01-01

    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  20. Sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep measures: A population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Miedema, H.M.E.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate and explain sex differences in subjective and actigraphic sleep parameters in community-dwelling elderly persons. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was embedded in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-six

  1. Studies on the behavior of Reinforced Concrete Short Column subjected to fire

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aneesha Balaji; Muhamed Luquman K; Praveen Nagarajan; T.M. Madhavan Pillai

    2016-01-01

    .... Finite element software ANSYS is used to perform the thermal analysis. A set of numerical studies were carried out to quantify the effect of various parameters on short columns subjected to fire...

  2. A prospective follow-up study of younger and older subjects with pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Coryell, William; McCormick, Brett; Shaw, Martha; Allen, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a common and costly public health problem associated with impaired quality of life and high suicide rates. Despite its frequency in the general population, PG course is poorly understood in older adults who are especially vulnerable to its devastating consequences. We enrolled 175 subjects in a longitudinal study of gambling behavior: our case group of 53 older adults with PG (≥ 60 years), and two comparison groups including 72 younger adults with PG (Gambling Screen (SOGS) and National Opinion Research Center DSM Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS) scores ≥ 5. Subjects were evaluated at intake and reassessed every 6 months and drop outs were replaced. Follow-up lasted a mean (SD) of 2.6 (1.4) years. At intake older PGs were more likely to be female, Caucasian, divorced, and to have a lower level of education. Older and younger PGs were similar in gambling severity, but older PGs were more likely to have sought PG treatment. Older PGs had lower rates of lifetime drug use disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They preferred slots, were more likely to receive PG treatment, and were less likely to discontinue participation in the study. Week by week gambling activity levels showed a significant general downward movement for older and younger PGs, although there were no differences between the groups. Elders without PG had no change in their level of gambling activity. We conclude that younger and older PGs moved toward a reduced level of gambling activity during follow-up. Our data challenge the notion that PG is chronic and progressive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Protection of human subjects of biomedical research in the United States. A contrast with recent experience in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    1988-01-01

    In the U.S., the development of extensive regulations for the protection of human subjects of research began in the 1960s and continued through the 1970s. The substance of these regulations reflects the American social and political climate of the time. There is a focus on rights--e.g., to be left alone, to be self-determining--reflected in elaborate requirements to assure the validity and documentation of informed consent. There is also a focus on systems of disinterested review and monitoring procedures to assure uniform adherence to the requirements of the regulations. To the extent that the U.S. has developed extensive regulations in this field, it may be viewed as more advanced than the U.K. And yet, it is apparent that there remain on both sides of the Atlantic very difficult and similar problems regarding the definition of responsible research. Such problems are illustrated by consideration of current controversies about the ethical justification of RCTs. There are some features of the U.S. regulatory system that I can commend to the attention of other nations as they develop policies for the protection of human research subjects. For example, a uniform requirement for informed consent and committee review appears to be responsive to some problems currently encountered in the conduct of RCTs in the U.K. A note of caution is in order, however. Some features of our regulatory policy and practices are excessively inflexible, wasteful of human resources, and occasionally counterproductive.

  4. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Medical and Research Study Records of Human Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Medical & Research Study Records of Human Volunteers System collects demographic and medical information on subjects who participate in research. Learn how this data is collected, used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  5. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive......BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods...... influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...

  6. 數位學習領域主題分析之研究 Subject Analysis on the Field of E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Fu Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 近年來數位化資訊技術應用於教與學情況已成為趨勢,各國紛紛將數位學習的推動列為國家重要政策,對數位學習領域之研究發展極為重視。本研究採廣義數位學習定義之檢索策略,蒐集2000~2009年間合計2,125篇數位學習領域SSCI期刊文獻,以自動化內容探勘工具CATAR進行剖析,再分別以共現字及書目對進行研究主題分析,藉此歸納數位學習領域的研究主題架構。本研究歸納結果,除幫助研究人員檢視自己的領域專長、掌握數位學習各研究主題發展脈絡、做為學者專家選定研究主題之參考,更有助於瞭解國際間數位學習領域的研究發展現況。With the digital development and the global trend of information technology applying teaching and learning in recent years, every country around the world regards the promotion of e-learning as a very important policy of the country. They lay special emphasis on the development of the subject research in e-learning. The present study adopts the search strategy of generalized definition of e-learning and collects 2,125 SSCI periodical literature in total on e-learning field from the years of 2000 till 2009. They are analyzed with automatic context exploration tool CATAR to proceed to dissection. Then they are respectively analyzed with co-occurrence words and bibliographic coupling to proceed to the research subject analysis. Thus it can integrate the frames of research subjects of e-learning field. Not only can the results of the present study help the researchers to look into their own field specialty, to master the development situation of research subject dimensions and to make reference to the scholars and experts to determine their research subjects, but it can also help understand the research development status of international e-learning field.

  7. Research into energy absorption of liquid cabin subjected to close-range explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Siyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the energy absorption of different parts of a liquid cabin under a close-range explosion, a fluid-structure coupling model is built on the basis of experiments, and the deformation of the bulkhead and energy absorption ratio of different parts of the liquid cabin are analyzed, in which the influence of the water, bulkhead thickness ratio and water thickness are also discussed. The results show that the existence of a liquid medium can change the energy absorption model of a cabin. The total energy absorption is mainly affected by the front bulkhead thickness and water thickness, and alterations to the bulkhead thickness ratio or water thickness can also affect the deformation model of the bulkhead and energy absorption ratio of different parts of the cabin. A logical explanation of the energy absorption mechanisms of the liquid cabin is proposed, and some useful suggestions for designs are given.

  8. The dynamics of child abuse in the family as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Lukovtseva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article raises important questions of studying the temporal dynamics of child abuse, considering up-to-date literature. The severity of the problems discussed is proved by statistical data showing the prevalence of child abuse in Russian families. We highlight the ambiguity of relevant terminology, lack of certain features, boundaries and algorithms of psychological work with victims. The dynamic aspects of the problem of abuse are considered in light of the practical needs of adequate psychological prevention, timely and accurate identification of this phenomenon by psychologists. The author puts forward the problem of “starting point” of quantitative and qualitative transformations of child abuse syndrome in the family history, identifying possible problems and prospects for solving these problems. Particular attention is given to the time and the premises of origin acts attributed to manifestations of ill-treatment, in context of a specific family

  9. Subjective and objective outcome in congenital clubfoot; a comparative study of 204 children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Simon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome following management of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot can be assessed in a number of ways. Bjonness stated simply that "the patient is the final judge of whether he has a good foot"; a purely subjective assessment. Others have employed objective measures. Combining subjective evaluation with a more objective assessment of movement and position of the foot, is likely to give a more comprehensive picture of the final result of clubfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare subjective and objective outcome following management of clubfoot, and evaluate sex differences in outcome. Methods We used a patient-administered subjective assessment of outcome following treatment of clubfoot and compared it with objective anthropometry and range of movement of the ankle to assess and compare subjective and objective outcome in clubfoot. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance was tested using Student's t-test test. Results Objective outcome can be assessed using length of the foot, calf circumference and range of movement at the ankle. These are easy to measure, reproducible, and correlate well with subjective outcome. Objective outcome is comparable for boys and girls. However, subjectively, female patients and their parents are less happy with the results of management of clubfoot. Conclusion There is a correlation between the anthropometric measures and the subjective outcome and an objective grading can be designed using foot length, calf muscle bulk and range of movement at the ankle.

  10. Subjective and objective outcome in congenital clubfoot; a comparative study of 204 children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, David; Barker, Simon; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background Outcome following management of congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) can be assessed in a number of ways. Bjonness stated simply that "the patient is the final judge of whether he has a good foot"; a purely subjective assessment. Others have employed objective measures. Combining subjective evaluation with a more objective assessment of movement and position of the foot, is likely to give a more comprehensive picture of the final result of clubfoot. The purpose of this study was to compare subjective and objective outcome following management of clubfoot, and evaluate sex differences in outcome. Methods We used a patient-administered subjective assessment of outcome following treatment of clubfoot and compared it with objective anthropometry and range of movement of the ankle to assess and compare subjective and objective outcome in clubfoot. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance was tested using Student's t-test test. Results Objective outcome can be assessed using length of the foot, calf circumference and range of movement at the ankle. These are easy to measure, reproducible, and correlate well with subjective outcome. Objective outcome is comparable for boys and girls. However, subjectively, female patients and their parents are less happy with the results of management of clubfoot. Conclusion There is a correlation between the anthropometric measures and the subjective outcome and an objective grading can be designed using foot length, calf muscle bulk and range of movement at the ankle. PMID:17598880

  11. The optional subject phenomenon in young children's English: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, R

    1992-02-01

    Recent treatments of the optionality of sentence subjects in young-children's English have sought to link this phenomenon, and its eventual demise, to the development of the child's verb inflection system or to a parameter-resetting within the INFL ('inflection') constituent of the child's grammar. It is claimed that subject optionality disappears when these developments occur. The case-study reported here investigated the productive language of an English child between 2;5 and 3;0. It found that subjects were no longer optional at a stage when none of the reflexes of INFL claimed in the literature to be associated with the disappearance of subject optionality had yet been acquired. The possibility that subjects were present only when communicatively required was rejected. The frequency of subject realization of a Japanese child aged 3;0 was used to provide a measure of expected realization when subjects are not grammatically required. It is concluded that subject obligatoriness in English may be acquired as a characteristic of the language sui generis, independently of developments elsewhere in the child's emerging grammar.

  12. Unveiling Research Agendas: a study of the influences on research problem selection among academic researchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, M.; Sutz, J.

    2016-07-01

    Research problem selection is central to the dynamics of scientific knowledge production. Research agendas result from the selection of research problems and the formulation of individual and/or collective academic strategies to address them. But, why researchers study what they study? This paper presents incipient research focused on the way different factors influence the construction of academic research agendas. It takes a researcher-oriented approach relying on opinions and perspectives of a wide range of researchers in all fields of knowledge. The empirical work is carried out in Uruguay, a country in the periphery of mainstream science, whose academic community struggles in search of a balance between the requirements of the world community of scholars and the demands from different national stakeholders. The methodology and research results from this study may be relevant to other countries, at different peripheries. Further, understanding the interplay of influences that shape research agendas is an important tool for policy analysis and planning everywhere. (Author)

  13. Research Methods in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research methods and designs from the social sciences and beyond can, and should, be applied in research directed at EU affairs. The purpose of this edited collection is twofold: (1) to provide a state-of-the-art examination of social science research methods in EU studies and (2) to provide inno...

  14. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using systems theory. The paper also addresses the underlying assumptions of this research methodology and how these affect the way research questions are answered. In reviewing this methodology, an example is ...

  15. Influence of specific muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum--a 'single-subject research design'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Johanna; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena

    2008-03-01

    Many women suffer from back pain and experience activity limitation post-partum. To our knowledge the physiological factors and physiotherapy related to back pain post-partum have received limited evaluation and the effectiveness of specific physiotherapeutic approaches to exercise should be tested. In addition, there has been limited research on kinesiophobia in women with back pain post-partum. The purpose of the current study was to test the influence of specific trunk muscle training on pain, activity limitation and kinesiophobia in 10 subjects with back pain post-partum. The treatment consisted of specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles. Pain was rated based on the visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain drawings. Activity limitation was recorded using the Disability Rating Index. Kinesiophobia was evaluated using the Swedish version of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. An A-B-A single-subject research design was used and a number of measurements were obtained during each phase. The analysis consisted of a visual inspection and a two standard deviation band test (2-SD). The visual analysis showed a trend towards reduced pain and activity limitation for all 10 subjects. The 2-SD test showed mixed results among all subjects. In addition, all subjects reported kinesiophobia before and after treatment. Individual specific deep muscle training of the transversus abdominus and multifidus muscles reduced pain and activity limitation in women with back pain post-partum. Further research is needed to determine more precisely how kinesiophobia affects women with back pain post-partum.

  16. The Chinese and Kazakh Languages Comparative Study: Subject-Predicate Sentence Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhalyk Abdurakyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares subject-predicate sentence and subject-predicate-object sentence forms with extended sentence of the Kazakh language. It compares Chinese and Kazakh sentences with subject-predicate sentence structure and studies differences of verb-predicate sentences word order. Detailed comparative study of Chinese and Kazakh language differences and characteristics. Morphology structure of Chinese language belongs to radical language, and Kazakh language belongs to the type of adhesive language, syntax of Chinese and Kazakh Languages in the same syntactic structure often used in different ways, the morphological role in Chinese and Kazakh language is also not the same, and even the same kind of grammatical means in Chinese and Kazakh languages are various. According to the analysis of languages, the different positions of word order, the function of words and grammatical word order are different too. The same syntax is very considerable, and lead to different syntactic structures. Chinese thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - action- object. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - predicate - object. Kazakh thinking reflects the realities as follows: subject - object - action. It is reflected in the grammatical structure: Subject - object - predicate. Chinese and Kazakh predicate and object places in a sentence are different, but their dominance relationship is the same.

  17. The Fiction of Respect Individual Autonomy as a Kind Of Clínical Research Human Subject Explotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petersen Nascimento Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article promotes a discussion of western legal concept which sees individuals as subjects of rights, discussing the advisability of such a formulation in the context of clinical trials in humans, since the commonly borderline situation of vulnerability in which they are volunteers who submit to such procedures. For this purpose, it was used as a theoretical framework to work "Critical Introduction to Law" Michel Mialle, in which the author states in a forceful way that the construction of the legal institute of the "subject of law" and the imposition of unrestricted recognition of individual autonomy constitute a construction of the bourgeois state to facilitate the domination of vulnerable, so that this, although not legally obliged to practice certain behaviors, see forced by circumstances to act in line with the interests of that institution. It is argued, therefore, that autonomy to consent to participation in scientific trials must be assessed in each case, with special attention to circumstances which might vulnerabilizar voluntary research and mitigate their individual autonomy in the face of the experiments, under penalty to be subjecting the individual to harmful procedures to their lives and health for the benefit of capital society's interests.

  18. Prevalence of renal artery stenosis in subjects with moderate hypertension. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik B; Borglykke, Anders; Jørgensen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aim. To examine the prevalence of significant renal artery stenosis (RAS) in subjects with moderate to severe hypertension. Materials and methods. Subjects aged 50-66 years with blood pressure >160/100 mmHg or receiving antihypertensive treatment were selected from the population study...... to balloon angioplasty. Two patients had reduced size and function of the affected kidney. Among the non-invasively treated patients, one showed stenosis progression at the 2-year follow-up examination. Conclusion. In subjects aged 50-66 years with hypertension grade II-III, RAS is rare among men...

  19. Empathy for social exclusion involves the sensory-discriminative component of pain: a within-subject fMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Novembre, Giovanni; Zanon, Marco; Silani, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that experiencing events that represent a significant threat to social bonds activates a network of brain areas associated with the sensory-discriminative aspects of pain. In the present study, we investigated whether the same brain areas are involved when witnessing social exclusion threats experienced by others. Using a within-subject design, we show that an ecologically valid experience of social exclusion recruits areas coding the somatosensory components of phys...

  20. Local Community Studies In Social Studies Course: An Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Selanik Ay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Social Studies can be defined as “bonding process based on verification with social reality and dynamic information obtained as a result of this process”. In this context, it is essential to unify the Social Studies course with the real life and to benefit from the society in teaching-learning process in order to enable the learned information to be applied in the real life. In the Social Studies course, students should encounter with the real life itself. Thus, students can produce multidimensional alternative solutions for the cases they encounter and they can explain the best solution with justifications. Considering these arguments, it can be claimed that involving the subjects and studies related to the society and near environment in the Social Studies courses increases the effectiveness of Social Studies teaching. Local community studies, which are associated with the Social Studies program by means of a detailed and good plan, can draw students’ attention and thus permanent learning can occur. In this sense, teachers should benefit from the local community studies in the Social Studies course which reflects the real life.The aim of this study is to determine how local community studies will be applied in Social Studies course in the primary education schools. In line with this aim, the following research questions were addressed:1. How can the activities ofa. benefitting from institutions and organizations in local communitiesb. benefitting from people in local communitiesc. using Internet and library sourcesd. benefitting from special days and current eventswhich are carried out in the Social Studies course taught with local community studies, be arranged?2. Do the local community studies help the students determine the problems in their environments and find out the solutions for these problems?3. What are the students’ opinions about the Social Studies course taught with local community studies ?4. Does the Social Studies

  1. From objects to research subjects: contributions of childhood sociology to the development of an ethnography of indigenous peoples’ children education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Elisa Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ethnographic research with children requires the precision of the thick description of facts observed, such as those involving other social groups. Researches with children, however, are recent, especially considering the use of the preposition with, which means recognizing them as social actors and including them as active participants in the research process, possibilities opened up by the Childhood Sociology. Adopting this perspective, one seeks to develop a differentiated position in the research area, the atypical adult one (CORSARO, 1990; 2002; 2005; FERREIRA, 2008, in order to deepen the cultures of children, as the meanings closest to their worldview are investigated. The theoretic-methodological concepts developed by the studies on Childhood Sociology, their relations to the studies on Anthropology, and the ethnographic research with indigenous people’s children constitute the basis of this paper, whose aim is to reflect on the entry in the area and the adult’s position in researches with children.

  2. Phenomenological features of dreams: Results from dream log studies using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Tracey L; Claudatos, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Self-ratings of dream experiences were obtained from 144 college women for 788 dreams, using the Subjective Experiences Rating Scale (SERS). Consistent with past studies, dreams were characterized by a greater prevalence of vision, audition, and movement than smell, touch, or taste, by both positive and negative emotion, and by a range of cognitive processes. A Principal Components Analysis of SERS ratings revealed ten subscales: four sensory, three affective, one cognitive, and two structural (events/actions, locations). Correlations (Pearson r) among subscale means showed a stronger relationship among the process-oriented features (sensory, cognitive, affective) than between the process-oriented and content-centered (structural) features--a pattern predicted from past research (e.g., Bulkeley & Kahan, 2008). Notably, cognition and positive emotion were associated with a greater number of other phenomenal features than was negative emotion; these findings are consistent with studies of the qualitative features of waking autobiographical memory (e.g., Fredrickson, 2001). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: an experimental study in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Robinson, Michael E; Barabas, Josh A; George, Steven Z

    2008-02-11

    The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST) to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. No interaction (p = 0.38) between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  4. How to report a research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Paul; Rawson, James V; Heilbrun, Marta E; Lee, Janie M; Kelly, Aine M; Sanelli, Pina C; Bresnahan, Brian W; Paladin, Angelisa M

    2014-09-01

    Incomplete reporting hampers the evaluation of results and bias in clinical research studies. Guidelines for reporting study design and methods have been developed to encourage authors and journals to include the required elements. Recent efforts have been made to standardize the reporting of clinical health research including clinical guidelines. In this article, the reporting of diagnostic test accuracy studies, screening studies, therapeutic studies, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, cost-effectiveness assessments (CEA), recommendations and/or guidelines, and medical education studies is discussed. The available guidelines, many of which can be found at the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research network, on how to report these different types of health research are also discussed. We also hope that this article can be used in academic programs to educate the faculty and trainees of the available resources to improve our health research. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Case Study of Teaching Marketing Research Using Client-Sponsored Projects: Method, Challenges, and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Liliana L.; Davies, W. Martin

    2009-01-01

    This case study outlines the use of client-sponsored research projects in a quantitative postgraduate marketing research subject conducted in a 12-week semester in a research-intensive Australian university. The case study attempts to address the dearth of recent literature on client-sponsored research projects in the discipline of marketing.…

  6. AXIOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICS AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS STUDY OF THE FUTURE ENGINEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Slipukhina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. Formation and development of the value orientations of the individual is the groundwork of education of young people at all educational levels. Necessity for axiologization of the process of education of the future engineers is strengthened by the specifics of technical and technological activity in the situation of the widespread use of ICT. Integration of value-motivational factors with the physics and technical disciplines study is an actual aspect in the development of modern higher technical education. Methods. The research uses a conceptual and comparative analysis of psycho-pedagogical and methodological literature, innovative experience and generalization of the authors’ long-term experience in pedagogical activity, as well as observation, conversations with teachers and students of higher educational institutions. Results. By the concretization of the functions, the essence of axiology in the system of higher education has been found out. The importance of transferring the motives of educational activity from the final result to the process and the determining role of motives for self-education has been established. The interrelations between the degree of value-motivational development of the personality and his individual characteristics are investigated. There is shown the essence of the phenomenon of attitude to study, its types have been determined. The research concretizes the place and importance of the most important professionally significant moral and ethical principles. Conclusions. Axiologization of higher technical education is a powerful means of forming the social, personal, subject and professional competence of the future engineer. Creation of the corresponding personally oriented didactic means is based on interdisciplinary methodological approaches in higher education.

  7. International Research Study of Public Procurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telgen, Jan; Harland, C.; Callender, G.; Harland, C.; Nassimbeni, G.; Schneller, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we examine the specific issue of public procurement, its importance to local, regional, national, and international economies as evidenced in a unique international comparative research study – the International Research Study of Public Procurement (IRSPP). First the public

  8. Research Strategies in European Union Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James; Lynggaard, Kennet; Löfgren, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The contributing chapters of this book all illustrate the richness and diversity of problem-driven research in EU studies. This concluding chapter draws together the insights of this rich diversity in order to move the study of research strategies beyond the dichotomies of the past towards a new ...

  9. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Case Study on Teaching of Energy as a Subject for 9th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Bayrak, Celal; Aykutlu, Isil

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how energy subject is taught in 9th grades. The study is designed as a descriptive case study with the participation of 3 physics teachers and 85 students. Data were obtained through observation, interviews, and documents, and they were analyzed through descriptive analysis method. In the observations made at the…

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire with Turkish Adolescents: A Generalizability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Tyler L.; Arslan, Gökmen

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on the first investigation of the generalizability of the psychometric properties of the Student Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SSWQ) beyond the original development and replication studies. Previous studies tested an English version of the SSWQ with urban, mostly Black/African American, low socioeconomic status,…

  12. Diet in subjects with irritable bowel syndrome: A cross-sectional study in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligaarden Solveig C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS often relate symptoms to the intake of certain foods. This study assesses differences in diet in subjects with and without IBS. Methods The cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Norway in 2001. Out of 11078 invited subjects, 4621 completed a survey about abdominal complaints and intake of common food items. IBS and IBS subgroups were classified according to Rome II criteria. Results IBS was diagnosed in 388 subjects (8.4% and, of these, 26.5% had constipation-predominant IBS (C-IBS, 44.8% alternating IBS (A-IBS, and 28.6% diarrhoea-predominant IBS (D-IBS. Low intake of dairy products (portions/day (Odds Ratio 0.85 [CI 0.78 to 0.93], p = 0.001 and high intake of water (100 ml/day (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15], p = 0.002, tea (1.05 [1.01 to 1.10], p = 0.019 and carbonated beverages (1.07 [1.01 to 1.14], p = 0.023 were associated with IBS. A lower intake of dairy products and a higher intake of alcohol and carbonated beverages were associated with D-IBS and a higher intake of water and tea was associated with A-IBS. In subjects with IBS the severity of symptoms was associated with a higher intake of vegetables and potatoes in subjects with C-IBS, with a higher intake of vegetables in subjects with A-IBS, and with a higher intake of fruits and berries, carbonated beverages and alcohol in subjects with D-IBS. Conclusions In this study, the diet differed in subjects with and without IBS and between IBS subgroups and was associated with the severity of symptoms.

  13. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  14. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  15. ¿Quién es el sujeto en la investigación educativa? / Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects?Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  16. a Comparative Study of Alto Saxophone Reeds Through Spectral and Subjective Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Caroline Blythe

    The purpose of this study was to analyze six brands of cane reeds and five brands of synthetic reeds to determine the differences in tone quality produced by each. Spectral analysis was used to determine the individual reed which conformed most closely to the average profile of each brand. A panel of seven saxophone performers then presented their opinions of the each reed's tone quality upon hearing a live performance of an excerpt from Eugene Bozza's Aria for alto saxophone and piano performed on the reeds most representative of each brand. The evaluation form used by the judges included ten sets of bipolar adjectives: good-bad, harmonious-dissonant, clean-dirty, light-dark, pleasurable-painful, beautiful-ugly, strong-weak, complex -simple, masculine-feminine, and interesting-boring. The results indicated that the primary factors influencing the tone quality of a given reed were the strength of the overtones present regardless of their order and the dominance of either the fundamental or the first overtone. Although professional musicians normally hand-select their reeds for performance, this research based on both spectral and subjective analyses provides clear evidence for both musicians and music educators to refine and improve their reed selection process.

  17. Physical activity reduces the risk of dementia in mild cognitive impairment subjects: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Giulia; Vanacore, Nicola; Maggiore, Laura; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Mariani, Claudio; Clerici, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Leisure activities, particularly exercise, play a protective role against dementia in healthy people, but it is unknown if this protective effect could be generalized to subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To investigate the influence of leisure activities on the risk of progression of MCI to dementia. 176 MCI subjects attending a memory clinic underwent a standardized lifestyle questionnaire between October 2007 and May 2010. Social, cognitive, and physical scores were derived based on the assiduity of interpersonal contacts and on the frequency of participation in individual leisure activities. Subjects were requested to return every 12 months for dementia surveillance. The outcome measure was the risk of dementia associated with social, cognitive, and physical scores. Over a median follow-up time of 2.59 year, 92 (52.2%) MCI subjects developed dementia. Subjects with physical scores in the highest third had a lower risk (HR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23-0.85) of dementia compared with those in the lowest third. No association was found between cognitive or social scores and the risk of dementia. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective clinical study which demonstrates that high levels of participation in physical leisure activities are associated with reduced risk of dementia in subjects with MCI. In line with findings coming from community-based studies on healthy elderly, our finding suggests that the protective role of exercise against the development of dementia can be generalized to MCI subjects seen in clinical practice. Clinicians should encourage MCI subjects to participate in physical leisure activities.

  18. Insulin resistance is accompanied by increased von Willebrand factor levels in nondiabetic women: a study of offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects compared to offspring of nondiabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2002-01-01

    : We compared vWF, fibrinogen and fibronectin in 88 nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects (relatives) and 103 offspring of nondiabetic subjects (controls). Other measurements included urinary albumin excretion rate, blood pressure, lipid profile and insulin resistance using homeostasis......OBJECTIVES: To examine whether levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), fibrinogen and fibronectin are related to a parental history of type 2 diabetes and to determine possible explanatory factors for high versus low vWF and fibrinogen. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES...

  19. Myofascial trigger points in subjects presenting with mechanical neck pain: a blinded, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Alonso-Blanco, C; Miangolarra, J C

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the differences in the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the upper trapezius,sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae and suboccipital muscles between patients presenting with mechanical neck pain and control healthy subjects. Twenty subjects with mechanical neck pain and 20 matched healthy controls participated in this study. TrPs were identified, by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition, when there was a hypersensible tender spot in a palpable taut band, local twitch response elicited by the snapping palpation of the taut band, and reproduction of the referred pain typical of each TrP. The mean number of TrPs present on each neck pain patient was 4.3 (SD: 0.9), of which 2.5 (SD: 1.3) were latent and 1.8 (SD: 0.8) were active TrPs. Control subjects also exhibited TrPs (mean: 2; SD: 0.8). All were latent TrPs. Differences in the number of TrPs between both study groups were significant for active TrPs (P latent TrPs (P > 0.5). Moreover, differences in the distribution of TrPs within the analysed cervical muscles were also significant (P Active TrPs were more frequent in patients presenting with mechanical neck pain than in healthy subjects. ©2006 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  1. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  2. A comparative study of simple auditory reaction time in blind (congenitally) and sighted subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pritesh Hariprasad; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, H B; Shah, C J

    2013-07-01

    Reaction time is the time interval between the application of a stimulus and the appearance of appropriate voluntary response by a subject. It involves stimulus processing, decision making, and response programming. Reaction time study has been popular due to their implication in sports physiology. Reaction time has been widely studied as its practical implications may be of great consequence e.g., a slower than normal reaction time while driving can have grave results. To study simple auditory reaction time in congenitally blind subjects and in age sex matched sighted subjects. To compare the simple auditory reaction time between congenitally blind subjects and healthy control subjects. STUDY HAD BEEN CARRIED OUT IN TWO GROUPS: The 1(st) of 50 congenitally blind subjects and 2(nd) group comprises of 50 healthy controls. It was carried out on Multiple Choice Reaction Time Apparatus, Inco Ambala Ltd. (Accuracy±0.001 s) in a sitting position at Government Medical College and Hospital, Bhavnagar and at a Blind School, PNR campus, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Simple auditory reaction time response with four different type of sound (horn, bell, ring, and whistle) was recorded in both groups. According to our study, there is no significant different in reaction time between congenital blind and normal healthy persons. Blind individuals commonly utilize tactual and auditory cues for information and orientation and they reliance on touch and audition, together with more practice in using these modalities to guide behavior, is often reflected in better performance of blind relative to sighted participants in tactile or auditory discrimination tasks, but there is not any difference in reaction time between congenitally blind and sighted people.

  3. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemilä, H

    1996-07-01

    Several studies have observed an increased risk of respiratory infections in subjects doing heavy physical exercise. Vitamin C has been shown to affect some parts of the immune system, and accordingly it seems biologically conceivable that it could have effects on the increased incidence of respiratory infections caused by heavy physical stress. In this report the results of three placebo-controlled studies that have examined the effect of vitamin C supplementation on common cold incidence in subjects under acute physical stress are analyzed. In one study the subjects were school-children at a skiing camp in the Swiss Alps, in another they were military troops training in Northern Canada, and in the third they were participants in a 90 km running race. In each of the three studies a considerable reduction in common cold incidence in the group supplemented with vitamin C(0.6-1.0 g/day) was found. The pooled rate ratio (RR) of common cold infections in the studies was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.35-0.69) in favour of vitamin C groups. Accordingly, the results of the three studies suggest that vitamin C supplementation may be beneficial for some of the subjects doing heavy exercise who have problems with frequent upper respiratory infections.

  4. One-year prospective replication study of an untreated sample of community dysthymia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, J P; McCune, K J; Kaye, A L; Braith, J A; Friend, R; Roberts, W C; Belyea-Caldwell, S; Norris, S L; Hampton, C

    1994-07-01

    This study replicates an earlier naturalistic-prospective investigation of nontreatment, community DSM-III-R dysthymia subjects. Major goals were to determine spontaneous remission rates and monitor the stability of psychosocial functioning levels over time. Twenty-four dysthymia subjects were followed for 1 year. Three remissions (13%) were diagnosed at the final interview. At a 4-year diagnostic follow-up contact with the remitters only, one remitter had relapsed and two remained in remission. Subjects were monitored for depressive symptom intensity, personality functioning, general medical distress, cognitive functioning, coping stylistics, interpersonal functioning, quality of their social support resources, and general family functioning. Stable levels of psychosocial functioning were maintained across all measures over the 1-year period. Current psychometric findings confirm the conclusions of the earlier nontreatment prospective study that dysthymia is a chronic mood disorder with stable psychosocial features and is unlikely to remit spontaneously over time.

  5. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  6. Becoming a Subject: A Memory Work Study of the Experience of Romantic Jealousy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Langdridge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we aim to contribute to psychosocial debates around selfhood by focusing empirically upon memories of jealousy and the ways in which potential subjectivities are both opened up and closed down. The paper presents a phenomenological narrative analysis of our research on jealousy produced through a memory work group. We identify three types of jealous memories (real, virtual and in-between and elucidate the narrative structure of jealous experiencing. Memories of jealousy invariably involved some anticipatory context in which the actors engaged with potential subjectivities, which were then disrupted when the physical or psychological presence of another became apparent, triggering powerful embodied feelings. We argue that much of the power of jealousy comes from the way in which it is ambiguous and anxiety provoking as a result of a challenge to perceived subjectivities. Our findings are discussed in relation to extant mainstream literature on jealousy and critical theories of subjectivity, embodiment and relationality. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs120258

  7. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  8. Towards More Case Study Research in Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Duxbury

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship as an emerging discipline has made good strides, but according to some, has fallen short of bringing its theory and literature up to the standards of others in the management sciences. Rich with the descriptive detail needed for insightful theory building in entrepreneurship, scholars have called for more case study research, particularly those incorporating non-retrospective and longitudinal observations. At the same time however, it has become rare to find such research published in A-level journals dedicated to entrepreneurship. A survey presented here of major entrepreneurship journals over the past six years revealed a publication rate of only 3% using the case study method. This presents a major impediment for developing fresh research in this field based upon the study of real cases. The author explores how the case study method has been applied to entrepreneurship research and provides recommendations for improved publication rates.

  9. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  10. Nurse researchers in corrections: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferszt, Ginette G; Hickey, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The United States has more people, per capita, in prisons and jails than any other country in the world. Because the prison population is largely composed of people who have been economically and socially disadvantaged, a very high percentage enter correctional facilities in poor health. Because of the large concentrated numbers of women, men, and youth in prisons and jails, an exceptional opportunity exists for nurses and other researchers to conduct creative and innovative research to improve the health care of this hard-to-reach population. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurse researchers who have been successful in conducting studies in different correctional settings. A qualitative descriptive design was used, and telephone interviews with 16 participants were completed. The participants described how they established credibility, the challenges they faced, and the unexpected personal and professional rewards they received. Recommendations for potential researchers will hopefully lead to an increase in research with this invisible population.

  11. Glucose challenge increases circulating progenitor cells in Asian Indian male subjects with normal glucose tolerance which is compromised in subjects with pre-diabetes: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bairagi Soumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematopoietic stem cells undergo mobilization from bone marrow to blood in response to physiological stimuli such as ischemia and tissue injury. The aim of study was to determine the kinetics of circulating CD34+ and CD133+CD34+ progenitor cells in response to 75 g glucose load in subjects with normal and impaired glucose metabolism. Methods Asian Indian male subjects (n = 50 with no prior history of glucose imbalance were subjected to 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. 24 subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 17 subjects had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and 9 had impaired fasting glucose (IFG. The IGT and IFG subjects were grouped together as pre-diabetes group (n = 26. Progenitor cell counts in peripheral circulation at fasting and 2 hour post glucose challenge were measured using direct two-color flow cytometry. Results The pre-diabetes group was more insulin resistant (p + cells (p = 0.003 and CD133+CD34+ (p = 0.019 cells was seen 2 hours post glucose challenge in the NGT group. This increase for both the cell types was attenuated in subjects with IGT. CD34+ cell counts in response to glucose challenge inversely correlated with neutrophil counts (ρ = -0.330, p = 0.019, while post load counts of CD133+CD34+ cells inversely correlated with serum creatinine (ρ = -0.312, p = 0.023. Conclusion There is a 2.5-fold increase in the circulating levels of haematopoietic stem cells in response to glucose challenge in healthy Asian Indian male subjects which is attenuated in subjects with pre-diabetes.

  12. Voluntary control of corticomuscular coherence through neurofeedback: a proof-of-principle study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Carlowitz-Ghori, K; Bayraktaroglu, Z; Waterstraat, G; Curio, G; Nikulin, V V

    2015-04-02

    Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) relates to synchronization between activity in the motor cortex and the muscle activity. The strength of CMC can be affected by motor behavior. In a proof-of-principle study, we examined whether independent of motor output parameters, healthy subjects are able to voluntarily modulate CMC in a neurofeedback paradigm. Subjects received visual online feedback of their instantaneous CMC strength, which was calculated between an optimized spatial projection of multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) in an individually defined target frequency range. The neurofeedback training consisted of either increasing or decreasing CMC strength using a self-chosen mental strategy while performing a simple motor task. Evaluation of instantaneous coherence showed that CMC strength was significantly larger when subjects had to increase than when to decrease CMC; this difference between the two task conditions did not depend on motor performance. The exclusion of confounding factors such as motor performance, attention and task complexity in study design provides evidence that subjects were able to voluntarily modify CMC independent of motor output parameters. Additional analysis further strengthened the assumption that the subjects' response was specifically shaped by the neurofeedback. In perspective, we suggest that CMC-based neurofeedback could provide a therapeutic approach in clinical conditions, such as motor stroke, where CMC is altered. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Incomplete Hippocampal Inversion: a comprehensive MRI study of over 2000 subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eCury

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete-hippocampal-inversion (IHI, also known as malrotation, is an atypical anatomical pattern of the hippocampus, which has been reported in healthy subjects in different studies. However, extensive characterization of IHI in a large sample has not yet been performed. Furthermore, it is unclear whether IHI are restricted to the medial-temporal lobe or are associated with more extensive anatomical changes. Here, we studied the characteristics of IHI in a community-based sample of 2008 subjects of the IMAGEN database and their association with extra-hippocampal anatomical variations. The presence of IHI was assessed on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using visual criteria. We assessed the association of IHI with other anatomical changes throughout the brain using automatic morphometry of cortical sulci. We found that IHI were much more frequent in the left hippocampus (left: 17%, right: 6%, χ2-test, p<10-28. Compared to subjects without IHI, subjects with IHI displayed morphological changes in several sulci located mainly in the limbic lobe. Our results demonstrate that IHI are a common left-sided phenomenon in normal subjects and that they are associated with morphological changes outside the medial temporal lobe.

  14. Incomplete Hippocampal Inversion: A Comprehensive MRI Study of Over 2000 Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Claire; Toro, Roberto; Cohen, Fanny; Fischer, Clara; Mhaya, Amel; Samper-González, Jorge; Hasboun, Dominique; Mangin, Jean-François; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Buechel, Christian; Cattrell, Anna; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lemaitre, Hervé; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Orfanos, Dimitri P; Paus, Tomas; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Frouin, Vincent; Schumann, Gunter; Glaunès, Joan A; Colliot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The incomplete-hippocampal-inversion (IHI), also known as malrotation, is an atypical anatomical pattern of the hippocampus, which has been reported in healthy subjects in different studies. However, extensive characterization of IHI in a large sample has not yet been performed. Furthermore, it is unclear whether IHI are restricted to the medial-temporal lobe or are associated with more extensive anatomical changes. Here, we studied the characteristics of IHI in a community-based sample of 2008 subjects of the IMAGEN database and their association with extra-hippocampal anatomical variations. The presence of IHI was assessed on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using visual criteria. We assessed the association of IHI with other anatomical changes throughout the brain using automatic morphometry of cortical sulci. We found that IHI were much more frequent in the left hippocampus (left: 17%, right: 6%, χ(2)-test, p < 10(-28)). Compared to subjects without IHI, subjects with IHI displayed morphological changes in several sulci located mainly in the limbic lobe. Our results demonstrate that IHI are a common left-sided phenomenon in normal subjects and that they are associated with morphological changes outside the medial temporal lobe.

  15. Localization and patterns of Cerebral dyschromatopsia: A study of subjects with prospagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Daniel; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Barton, Alistair R S; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Cerebral dyschromatopsia is sometimes associated with acquired prosopagnosia. Given the variability in structural lesions that cause acquired prosopagnosia, this study aimed to investigate the structural correlates of prosopagnosia-associated dyschromatopsia, and to determine if such colour processing deficits could also accompany developmental prosopagnosia. In addition, we studied whether cerebral dyschromatopsia is typified by a consistent pattern of hue impairments. We investigated hue discrimination in a cohort of 12 subjects with acquired prosopagnosia and 9 with developmental prosopagnosia, along with 42 matched controls, using the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test. We found impaired hue discrimination in six subjects with acquired prosopagnosia, five with bilateral and one with a unilateral occipitotemporal lesion. Structural MRI analysis showed maximum overlap of lesions in the right and left lingual and fusiform gyri. Fourier analysis of their error scores showed tritanopic-like deficits and blue-green impairments, similar to tendencies displayed by the healthy controls. Three subjects also showed a novel fourth Fourier component, indicating additional peak deficits in purple and green-yellow regions. No subject with developmental prosopagnosia had impaired hue discrimination. In our subjects with prosopagnosia, dyschromatopsia occurred in those with acquired lesions of the fusiform gyri, usually bilateral but sometimes unilateral. The dyschromatopsic deficit shows mainly an accentuation of normal tritatanopic-like tendencies. These are sometimes accompanied by additional deficits, although these could represent artifacts of the testing procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omo, J O; Sede, M A; Esan, T A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of a measured portion of fresh raw carrot for 20 specified numbers of strokes. The raw carrot was recovered into a cup and strained through a standard mesh sieve of 5 mm by 1 mm, it was air dried for 30 min and weighed with FEM digital series weighing scale. The masticatory performance ratio was then determined. The age range of the subjects was 34-64 years with the mean age being 52.2 ± 8.2 years. The difference between the total masticatory performance score at the post- and pre-treatment phases was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The improvement in masticatory performance was marked among the younger age groups (P = 0.001), unilateral free end saddle subjects (P = 0.001), and among the male gender (P < 0.05). Masticatory performance improved with the provision of RPD. However, the improvement was marked among the younger age groups, unilateral free end saddle subjects, and the male gender; thereby supporting the need for RPDs in patients with SDA.

  17. Groundwater and climate change research scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, C.R.; Cheetham, M.; Guha, P.

    2006-01-01

    This scoping study has reviewed much of the published literature in the field of climate change and groundwater research. Whilst it is not exhaustive with regard to groundwater quality issues, most of the published literature relating to climate change and groundwater resources, particularly in the UK, is covered. Further work is required to identify current research needs relating to the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. The study of the effects of climate chan...

  18. Uganda nursing research agenda: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, L A; Gray, J; Opollo, J; Mbalinda, S

    2015-06-01

    Use a Delphi Methodology to identify nursing research priorities in Uganda. Identifying nursing research priorities, empowering researchers, and encouraging relevant studies can advance attaining global health goals. The Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union identified the need to establish a nursing research agenda. Nurse leaders have a priority of increasing the influence of nurses in practice and policy. This study was conducted as a preliminary step in a long-term strategy to build nurses' capacity in nursing research. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. The 45 study participants were nurses in practice, nurse faculty and members of the Uganda Nurses and Midwives Union. In the initial round, the participants wrote their responses during face-to-face meetings and the follow-up rounds were completed via email. Maternal and child morbidity and HIV/AIDS were identified as research priorities. Nurses also identified nursing practice, education and policy as key areas that nursing research could impact. Demographic characteristics such as length of time in nursing were not collected. Additionally, first round participants completed a pencil-paper survey and the follow-up rounds were done by email. Nurse Leaders in Uganda identified areas where research efforts could have the most impact and were most relevant to nursing practice. Health policy decisions have historically been made without nursing input. Nursing research can provide evidence to inform policy and, ultimately, improve population health. The focus of nursing research in priority areas can be used to guide nursing contribution in policy discussions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Sample size considerations for clinical research studies in nuclear cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuzan, Cody; West, Erin A; Duong, Jimmy; Cheung, Ken Y K; Einstein, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Sample size calculation is an important element of research design that investigators need to consider in the planning stage of the study. Funding agencies and research review panels request a power analysis, for example, to determine the minimum number of subjects needed for an experiment to be informative. Calculating the right sample size is crucial to gaining accurate information and ensures that research resources are used efficiently and ethically. The simple question "How many subjects do I need?" does not always have a simple answer. Before calculating the sample size requirements, a researcher must address several aspects, such as purpose of the research (descriptive or comparative), type of samples (one or more groups), and data being collected (continuous or categorical). In this article, we describe some of the most frequent methods for calculating the sample size with examples from nuclear cardiology research, including for t tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA), non-parametric tests, correlation, Chi-squared tests, and survival analysis. For the ease of implementation, several examples are also illustrated via user-friendly free statistical software.

  20. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (a) theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (b) one cannot generalize from a single case, therefore, the single-case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (c) the case study is most...

  1. Inhibitory behavioral control: A stochastic dynamic causal modeling study comparing cocaine dependent subjects and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangsuo Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine dependence is associated with increased impulsivity in humans. Both cocaine dependence and impulsive behavior are under the regulatory control of cortico-striatal networks. One behavioral laboratory measure of impulsivity is response inhibition (ability to withhold a prepotent response in which altered patterns of regional brain activation during executive tasks in service of normal performance are frequently found in cocaine dependent (CD subjects studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, little is known about aberrations in specific directional neuronal connectivity in CD subjects. The present study employed fMRI-based dynamic causal modeling (DCM to study the effective (directional neuronal connectivity associated with response inhibition in CD subjects, elicited under performance of a Go/NoGo task with two levels of NoGo difficulty (Easy and Hard. The performance on the Go/NoGo task was not significantly different between CD subjects and controls. The DCM analysis revealed that prefrontal–striatal connectivity was modulated (influenced during the NoGo conditions for both groups. The effective connectivity from left (L anterior cingulate cortex (ACC to L caudate was similarly modulated during the Easy NoGo condition for both groups. During the Hard NoGo condition in controls, the effective connectivity from right (R dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to L caudate became more positive, and the effective connectivity from R ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC to L caudate became more negative. In CD subjects, the effective connectivity from L ACC to L caudate became more negative during the Hard NoGo conditions. These results indicate that during Hard NoGo trials in CD subjects, the ACC rather than DLPFC or VLPFC influenced caudate during response inhibition.

  2. Ocean energy researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on ocean energy systems. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  3. Pesquisa em contracepção: opinião de pesquisadores, sujeitos e defensoras dos direitos das mulheres Research on contraception: opinion of researchers, subjects and advocates of women rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Hardy

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a opinião de pesquisadores, de mulheres - sujeitos de pesquisa, e de defensoras dos direitos das mulheres sobre o significado de "pesquisa" e "cobaia". MÉTODOS: Pesquisadores (11, mulheres (18 e defensoras (10 foram entrevistados. O estudo foi qualitativo e a análise dos dados foi temática. RESULTADOS: Os participantes tiveram dificuldade em explicar o que é pesquisa; alguns não conseguiram. Para pesquisadores e maioria das mulheres, sujeitos de pesquisa não são cobaias, porque têm liberdade de escolha. Para a maioria das defensoras, sujeitos são cobaias, ainda que consintam em participar de um estudo. CONCLUSÕES: Foi surpreendente a dificuldade dos pesquisadores em explicar o que é pesquisa. As diferentes opiniões sobre o termo "cobaia" refletem a controvérsia sobre seu significado em pesquisa. Seguramente o termo "cobaia" não se aplica à maior parte dos estudos realizados hoje no Brasil, mas os diferentes significados identificados servem para alertar os pesquisadores a prestar atenção aos aspectos éticos de seus estudos.OBJECTIVE: To survey the opinion of researchers, women - subjects of research- and of advocates of women's rights about the meaning of "research" and "guinea pigs". Methods: Researchers (11, women (18 and advocates (10 were interviewed. The study was qualitative and a thematic analysis was carried out. RESULTS: Participants experienced difficulty to explain what research meant and some were unable to do so. For the researchers and most of the women, subjects are not guinea pigs, because they have freedom of choice. Most of the advocates, however, said that subjects are guinea pigs, even when they consent to participate in a study. CONCLUSIONS: The difficulty experienced by researchers when explaining the meaning of research was surprising. The different opinions about "guinea pig" reflect the controversy about its meaning in research. Certainly the expression "guinea pig" does not apply to

  4. Subjectivities in Research in Science Education presented at the National Symposium of Physics Education of the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Choiti Yamazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in a public university in the country, which aimed to identify the presence elements ordinarily related to subjective phenomena, in the works published in National Symposium of Physics Education, an event that provides meeting between teachers, researchers and students from around the country. The elements to which we have referred are found in contemporary didactic and pedagogical proposals, because it is identified that purely cognitive or even cultural rights are not sufficient to understand the phenomena that happen in the classroom, or more broadly, in education as a whole. The analysis contemplated the publications of the past 3 symposia, and the results infer a small increase of citations of these elements. However, this growth must be questioned because the quotes are made in isolation, not being taken to support the analysis of the authors. In addition, this research also shows that the presence of these elements is very small compared with the total number of papers published in the events.

  5. A Comparison Study of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Single Subject Mathematics Credential Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierra, Vicki Ann

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive study compares the entry-level pedagogical content knowledge of single subject mathematics credential candidates based on career status and undergraduate majors. Career changers from science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) fields are compared to first career candidates to see if they bring different skills and knowledge to…

  6. Building Virtually Free Subject Area Expertise through Social Media: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the ongoing success of the liaison model is the need for liaison librarians to stay informed and up-to-date about recent developments in the subject areas of their assigned academic departments and programs. This article describes an exploratory study conducted to determine whether information obtained from the social media accounts of…

  7. Understanding the Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR): An electromyographic study in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.; Meijer, O.G.; Bruijn, S.M.; Strijers, R.L.M.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.; van Royen, B.J.; Wu, W; Xia, C.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    The Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR) is an important test in diagnosing pelvic girdle pain (PGP). It is difficult to understand what happens normally during the ASLR, let alone why it would be impaired in PGP. In the present study, healthy subjects performed the ASLR under normal conditions, with

  8. Amputation, phantom pain and subjective well-being : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosmans, J.C.; Suurmeijer, T.P.B.M.; Hulsink, M.; van der Schans, C.P.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the impact of an amputation and of phantom pain on the subjective well-being of amputees. Sixteen lower-limb amputees were interviewed. A semi-structured interview and two Visual Analogue Scales were used. To interpret the results, a new

  9. Autism and perplexity: a qualitative and theoretical study of basic subjective experiences in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads G; Skodlar, Borut; Sass, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    Autistic traits and perplexity are considered core features of schizophrenia in phenomenological psychiatry. They express a fundamental disturbance of the self-world relation (including disturbances of self and intersubjectivity). The aim of our study was to examine this disturbance by exploring ...... in detail how autism and perplexity are experienced subjectively....

  10. Assessment of abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagga, Deepika; Singh, Namita; Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, D. [Base Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Delhi Cantt (India); Garg, Mohan L. [Panjab University, Department of Biophysics, Chandigarh (India); Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India); INMAS, DRDO, NMR Research Centre, Delhi (India)

    2014-01-15

    Chronic alcohol abuse has been traditionally associated with impaired cognitive abilities. The deficits are most evident in higher order cognitive functions, such as abstract reasoning, problem solving and visuospatial processing. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the neuropsychological basis of poor abstract reasoning abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An abstract reasoning task-based fMRI study was carried out on alcohol-dependent subjects (n = 18) and healthy controls (n = 18) to examine neural activation pattern. The study was carried out using a 3-T whole-body magnetic resonance scanner. Preprocessing and post processing was performed using SPM 8 software. Behavioral data indicated that alcohol-dependent subjects took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. Analysis of the fMRI data indicated that for solving abstract reasoning-based problems, alcohol-dependent subjects showed enhanced right frontoparietal neural activation involving inferior frontal gyrus, post central gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and occipito-temporal gyrus. The extensive activation observed in alcohol dependents as compared to controls suggests that alcohol dependents recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioral demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks or compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance. (orig.)

  11. The Influence of Subjective Life Expectancy on Retirement Transition and Planning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl; Loh, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the construct of subjective life expectancy (SLE), or the estimation of one's probable age of death. Drawing on the tenets of socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999), we propose that SLE provides individuals with their own unique mental model of remaining time that is likely to affect their…

  12. Reciprocal relations between physical disability, subjective health, and atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michiel; Lyass, Asya; Murabito, Joanne M; Magnani, Jared W; Lubitz, Steven A; Massaro, Joseph M; Ellinor, Patrick T; Benjamin, Emelia J

    BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF)-related symptoms and physical performance are relied upon to guide therapeutic management of patients with AF. We sought to understand whether AF predisposes to or is a result of physical disability and poor subjective health in the community. METHODS: We studied

  13. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: A general population study

    OpenAIRE

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; FERNANDEZ-MENDOZA, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Bixler, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5–12 yr. old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7,312...

  14. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0-77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0-47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and cardiovascular risk factors in prehypertensive subjects: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, one of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is known to be associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced cardiovagal modulation. Similar to hypertension, prehypertension is associated with increased risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events. We planned this study to find the association between prehypertension, cardiovagal modulation, oxidative stress, and associated CV risk factors. We recruited 178 subjects through hypertension screening camps conducted in Puducherry, India. Subjects were grouped into prehypertensive (n = 97) and normotensive (n = 81) groups. They were further subdivided, based on age, as young (20-39 years) and middle-aged (40-60 years) adults. We measured basal physiological parameters, heart rate variability, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)), and CV risk factors. We found significant increase in oxidative stress in prehypertensive subjects of both age groups but the cardiovagal modulation decreased significantly in young prehypertensive subjects when compared with normotensive subjects. Correlation of TAC with root mean square of the sum of successive R wave to R wave (RR) interval differences (RMSSD), a cardiovagal modulation parameter (r = 0. 437; P risk factors. The correlation between MAP and RMSSD (r = 0.199; P = 0.009) was reduced after adjusting for CV risk factors. Prehypertension in young adults is associated with increased oxidative stress and altered cardiovagal modulation. The risk factors for CVDs in prehypertensive young adults were found to be equivalent to that of middle-aged adults who are in the twilight zone for developing CV dysfunctions.

  16. The management of subjective quality of life by short-stay hospital patients: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlinski Evelyn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life in a group of 47 short stay patients as they progressed through the stages of hospitalization for surgery. Method Participants completed a questionnaire measuring subjective quality of life, positive and negative affect, self-esteem, optimism and cognitive flexibility, the day prior to admission (T1, two days post-operation (T2 and one week after discharge (T3. Neuroticism and Extroversion were measured at Time 1. Results All variables remained stable across the three times, apart from positive affect, which dropped significantly post-operation but returned to its previous level post discharge. Conclusion Although the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life was supported at Time 1, the analyses raise doubts about the stability of personality. This finding is consistent with recent discussions of personality.

  17. Multilevel meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S Natasha; Ferron, John; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2012-12-01

    One way to combine data from single-subject experimental design studies is by performing a multilevel meta-analysis, with unstandardized or standardized regression coefficients as the effect size metrics. This study evaluates the performance of this approach. The results indicate that a multilevel meta-analysis of unstandardized effect sizes results in good estimates of the effect. The multilevel meta-analysis of standardized effect sizes, on the other hand, is suitable only when the number of measurement occasions for each subject is 20 or more. The effect of the treatment on the intercept is estimated with enough power when the studies are homogeneous or when the number of studies is large; the power of the effect on the slope is estimated with enough power only when the number of studies and the number of measurement occasions are large.

  18. Eligibility for Statin Treatment in Korean Subjects with Reduced Renal Function: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sub Moon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between statin eligibility and the degree of renal dysfunction using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III and the American College of Cardiology (ACC/American Heart Association (AHA guidelines in Korean adults.MethodsRenal function was assessed in 18,746 participants of the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study from January 2011 to December 2012. Subjects were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: stage 1, eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2; stage 2, eGFR 60 to 89 mL/min/1.73 m2; and stages 3 to 5, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Statin eligibility in these groups was determined using the ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, and the risk for 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS and Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE.ResultsThere were 3,546 (18.9% and 4,048 (21.5% statin-eligible subjects according to ATP III and ACC/AHA guidelines, respectively. The proportion of statin-eligible subjects increased as renal function deteriorated. Statin eligibility by the ACC/AHA guidelines showed better agreement with the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO recommendations compared to the ATP III guidelines in subjects with stage 3 to 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD (κ value, 0.689 vs. 0.531. When the 10-year ASCVD risk was assessed using the FRS and PCE, the mean risk calculated by both equations significantly increased as renal function declined.ConclusionsThe proportion of statin-eligible subjects significantly increased according to worsening renal function in this Korean cohort. ACC/AHA guideline showed better agreement for statin eligibility with that recommended by KDIGO guideline compared to ATP III in subjects with CKD.

  19. Decreased muscle mass in Korean subjects with intracranial arterial stenosis: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ho-Jung; Jung, Hwanseok; Lee, Taeyoung; Kim, Jongho; Park, Jongsin; Kim, Hacsoo; Cho, Junghwan; Lee, Won-Young; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Oh, Hyung-Geun

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. Decreased muscle mass is one of the major causes of chronic disease in adults. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between muscle mass and ICAS in Korean adults. For this study, we selected a total of 10,530 participants (mean age, 43.3 years; 8558 men) in a health screening program, for whom transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound was used to detect >50% ICAS based on criteria modified from the stroke outcomes and neuroimaging of intracranial atherosclerosis trial. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated with muscle mass/weight (kg) * 100. Among the total patient population, 322 (3.1%) subjects had ICAS. Subjects with ICAS were older, and had higher mean values for fasting glucose, body mass index and blood pressure compared with those without ICAS. Subjects with ICAS had significantly lower muscle mass, SMI and higher percent body fat compared with those without ICAS. In logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the highest tertile of muscle mass had the lowest odds ratio for ICAS with the lowest tertile group of muscle mass as the reference group even after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, sex, smoking and exercise (OR 0.650, 95% CI 0.442-0.955). Subjects with ICAS had significantly decreased muscle mass compared with those without ICAS in Korean adults. The risk for ICAS was lower in subjects with higher muscle mass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HIV-1 resistance rarely observed in subjects using darunavir once-daily regimens across clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathouwers, Erkki; Wong, Eric Y; Luo, Donghan; Seyedkazemi, Sareh; De Meyer, Sandra; Brown, Kimberley

    2017-11-16

    Darunavir 800 mg once daily (QD) is indicated for HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced (without darunavir resistance-associated mutations [RAMs]) individuals, and has been evaluated in phase 2/3 studies with durations between 48 and 192 weeks. To summarize the development (or identification) of post-baseline resistance (RAMs and antiretroviral phenotypic susceptibility) among subjects receiving darunavir QD dosing. Seven phase 2/3 studies with available genotypes/phenotypes for subjects treated with ritonavir- or cobicistat-boosted darunavir 800 mg QD regimens were assessed: ARTEMIS (NCT00258557; n = 343), GS-US-299-0102 (NCT01565850; n = 153), GS-US-216-0130 (NCT01440569; n = 313), ODIN (NCT00524368; n = 294), INROADS (NCT01199939; n = 54), MONET (NCT00458302; n = 256), and PROTEA (NCT01448707; n = 273). Genotypic analyses were conducted at baseline (except switch studies enrolling virologically suppressed subjects [MONET, PROTEA]). Criteria for post-baseline resistance testing and evaluation of the development (or identification [switch studies]) of RAMs (respective IAS-USA mutations) varied slightly across studies. Among 1686 subjects treated with darunavir 800 mg QD regimens, 184 had protocol-defined virologic failure; 182 had post-baseline genotypes analyzed. Overall, 4/1686 (0.2%) developed (or had identified [switch studies]) primary protease inhibitor and/or darunavir RAMs (ARTEMIS, n = 1; GS-US-216-0130, n = 1; ODIN, n = 1; MONET, n = 1). Only 1/1686 (1%) subject lost darunavir phenotypic susceptibility (ODIN; possibly related to prior ritonavir-boosted lopinavir virologic failure). Among 1103 subjects using a nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (N[t]RTI) backbone, 10 (0.9%) developed ≥ 1 N(t)RTI RAM (8 had the emtricitabine RAM M184I/V). Darunavir has a high genetic barrier to resistance. Across a diverse population of HIV-1-infected subjects treated with darunavir 800 mg QD regimens, the

  1. The influence of expectation on spinal manipulation induced hypoalgesia: An experimental study in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabas Josh A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms thorough which spinal manipulative therapy (SMT exerts clinical effects are not established. A prior study has suggested a dorsal horn modulated effect; however, the role of subject expectation was not considered. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of subject expectation on hypoalgesia associated with SMT. Methods Sixty healthy subjects agreed to participate and underwent quantitative sensory testing (QST to their leg and low back. Next, participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive, negative, or neutral expectation instructional set regarding the effects of a specific SMT technique on pain perception. Following the instructional set, all subjects received SMT and underwent repeat QST. Results No interaction (p = 0.38 between group assignment and pain response was present in the lower extremity following SMT; however, a main effect (p Conclusion The current study replicates prior findings of c- fiber mediated hypoalgesia in the lower extremity following SMT and this occurred regardless of expectation. A significant increase in pain perception occurred following SMT in the low back of participants receiving negative expectation suggesting a potential influence of expectation on SMT induced hypoalgesia in the body area to which the expectation is directed.

  2. Subject description of non-fiction literature for adults: expert-theoretical basis for the realisation of the »Hidden Treasure« research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogorelec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Library users searching through non-fiction library material by subject in online OPACs, expect to be able to search fiction by subject as well. The research project Skriti zaklad (Hidden Treasure was launched in 2002 and was aimed at improving the current subject description of non-juvenile literary works in Slovenian libraries. An overview of the current practice of fiction subject description in Slovenian libraries revealed that Universal Decimal Classification class numbers are usually assigned, while subject headings or abstracts are scarce. The article presents a model designed for subject description of fiction, with special emphasis on subject headings, for the Bežigrad High School Library and the Bežigrad Public Library (both in Ljubljana.

  3. [Utilization of a self-contained psychometry-oriented device, for study of affective and cognitive function of a subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouguier-Soule, J; Nouguier, J; Bicakova-Rocher, A; Gorceix, A; Reinberg, A

    1999-01-01

    We appraised the possibility to use the Psycho-Log 24, an ambulatory, adapted to chronopsychometry device, which realizes simplified questionnaires and performance test adaptable to each subject; this device has dimensions like a pocketbook; its storage capacity is compatible with a long time use. 9 adult volunteers (8 healthy subjects and 1 depressive patient) participated to this study. All of them effected reaction times (TRS) during 3 to 31 days at the rate of at least 4 sessions/day; some of them completed mental calculations (CM), letters cancellations (BRL) and auto-estimation scales (from 1 to 9 items, also measured by a classic method). For TRS and all the subjects, the frequencies histograms calculated by hour and on a 24 h scale, showed a bimodal variation, with a major peak suggesting a circadian rhythm. 5 subjects had different time for the daily best performances of each hand (shifted from 5 to 12 h). In the healthy adults, for BRL and CM, the best performances in speed and precision are shifted and could be related to the "fatigue" auto-estimated peaks. There is a significant correlation between auto-estimations by Psycho-Log and the classic method. The coherence between the auto-estimations of the depressive subject is strong during the remission stage, and lower during the relapse stage. The used method seems an effective mean to know the temporal structure of the cognitive and affective functions of a subject, and to estimate the preserving of this structure; the method first could constitute an exploratory mean for an objective evaluation of the drugs effects and patients quality of life, secondly could be implicated in researches with diagnosis target.

  4. A Quantitative Synthesis of Methodology in the Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research for Students with Disabilities: 1985-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Johnson, Austin H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the methods used to conduct meta-analyses of single-subject research involving students with and at-risk for disabilities. Specifically, the procedures used for preparing, aggregating, analyzing, and evaluating single-subject data across 68 primary syntheses were examined. In addition to these…

  5. Indtroduction To Research Methodologies In Language Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo Muhartoyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bahasa merupakan bidang yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan pengajar di Fakultas Sastra. Artikel ini mencoba menggambarkan berbagai metodologi riset dalam bidang bahasa dengan cara yang sederhana. Metodologi riset ini mencakup experimental research, quasi experimental research, etnografi, dan studi kasus. Artikel ini juga membahas konsep metode riset kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Masalah validitas dan keabsahan sebuah laporan riset dibahas secara singkat.

  6. Incomplete Hippocampal Inversion: A Comprehensive MRI Study of Over 2000 Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Claire eCury; Roberto eToro; Fanny eCohen; Clara eFischer; Amel eMhaya; Jorge eSamper-Gonzalez; Dominique eHasboun; Jean-Francois eMangin; Tobias eBanaschewski; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Uli eBromberg; Christian eBuechel; Anna eCattrell; Patricia eConrod; Herta eFlor

    2015-01-01

    The incomplete-hippocampal-inversion (IHI), also known as malrotation, is an atypical anatomical pattern of the hippocampus, which has been reported in healthy subjects in different studies. However, extensive characterization of IHI in a large sample has not yet been performed. Furthermore, it is unclear whether IHI are restricted to the medial-temporal lobe or are associated with more extensive anatomical changes. Here, we studied the characteristics of IHI in a community-based sample of 20...

  7. Multicenter study of subjective acceptance during magnetic resonance imaging at 7 and 9.4 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Jaane; Nagel, Armin M; Ladd, Susanne C; Theysohn, Jens M; Ladd, Mark E; Möller, Harald E; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert; Pohmann, Rolf; Scheffler, Klaus; Brechmann, André; Stadler, Jörg; Felder, Jörg; Shah, N Jon; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the subjective discomfort and sensory side effects during ultrahigh field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations in a large-scale study and to evaluate differences between magnetic resonance (MR) sites. Four MR sites with a 7-T MR system and 2 MR sites with a 9.4-T MR system participated in this multicenter study with a total number of 3457 completed questionnaires on causes of discomfort and sensations during the examination. For a pooled retrospective analysis of the results from the partially different questionnaires, all data were adapted to an answer option with a 4-point scale (0 = no discomfort/side effect, 3 = very unpleasant/very strong sensation). To differentiate effects evoked by the low-frequency time-varying magnetic fields due to movement through the static magnetic field, most questionnaires separated the manifestation of sensory side effects during movement on the patient table from manifestation while lying still in the isocenter. In general, a high acceptance of UHF examinations was found, where in 82% of the completed questionnaires, the subjects stated the examination to be at least tolerable. Although in 7.6% of the questionnaires, subjects felt discomfort during the examination, only 0.9% of the image acquisitions had to be terminated prematurely. No adverse events occurred in any of the examinations. Only 1% of the subjects were unwilling to undergo further UHF MRI examinations. Examination duration was the most complained cause of discomfort, followed by acoustic noise and lying still. All magnetic-field-related sensations were more pronounced when moving the patient table versus the isocenter position (19%/2% of the subjects felt unpleasant vertigo during the moving/stationary state). In general, vertigo was the most often stated sensory side effect and was more pronounced at 9.4 T compared with 7 T. However, the results varied substantially among the different sites. The high levels

  8. New evidence of increased risk of rhinitis in subjects with COPD: a longitudinal population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergqvist J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joel Bergqvist,1 Anders Andersson,2 Anna-Carin Olin,3 Nicola Murgia,3,4 Linus Schiöler,3 Mogens Bove,5 Johan Hellgren1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, 2Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, 3Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 4Department of Medicine, Section of Occupational Medicine, Respiratory Diseases and Toxicology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 5Department of ENT and Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, NU Hospital Group, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of developing noninfectious rhinitis (NIR in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Materials and methods: This is a longitudinal population-based study comprising 3,612 randomly selected subjects from Gothenburg, Sweden, aged 25–75 years. Lung function was measured at baseline with spirometry and the included subjects answered a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. At follow-up, the subjects answered a questionnaire with a response rate of 87%. NIR was defined as symptoms of nasal obstruction, nasal secretion, and/or sneezing attacks without having a cold, during the last 5 years. COPD was defined as a spirometry ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC <0.7. Subjects who reported asthma and NIR at baseline were excluded from the study. The odds ratios for developing NIR (ie, new-onset NIR in relation to age, gender, body mass index, COPD, smoking, and atopy were calculated. Results: In subjects with COPD, the 5-year incidence of NIR was significantly increased (10.8% vs 7.4%, P=0.005 and was higher among subjects aged >40 years. Smoking, atopy, and occupational exposure to gas, fumes, or dust were also associated with new-onset NIR. COPD, smoking, and atopy remained

  9. The risk of subjective symptoms in mobile phone users in Poland – An epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Szyjkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the type and incidence of subjective symptoms related to the use of mobile phones in Polish users. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2005 using a questionnaire survey. Although it has been quite a long time, up to now, no such data have been published for Poland. The questionnaire consisted of 53 questions concerning sex, age, education, general health, characteristics of a mobile phone (hand-held, loud-speaking unit as well as the habits associated with its use (frequency and duration of calls, text messages, etc. and complaints associated with using a mobile phone. Results: As many as 1800 questionnaires were sent. The response was obtained from 587 subjects aged 32.6±11.3 (48.9% women, 51.1% men; the age did not differ significantly between men and women. The subjects owned a cell phone for an average of 3 years. Majority of the respondents used the phone intensively, i.e. daily (74% or almost daily (20%. Headaches were reported significantly more often by the people who talked frequently and long in comparison with other users (63.2% of the subjects, p = 0.0029, just like the symptoms of fatigue (45%, p = 0.013. Also, the feeling of warmth around the ear and directly to the auricle was reported significantly more frequently by the intensive mobile phone users, compared with other mobile phone users (47.3%, p = 0.00004 vs. 44.6%, p = 0.00063, respectively. Most symptoms appeared during or immediately after a call and disappeared within 2 h after the call. Continuous headache, persisting for longer than 6 h since the end of a call, was reported by 26% of the subjects. Conclusions: Our results show that the mobile phone users may experience subjective symptoms, the intensity of which depends on the intensity of use of mobile phones.

  10. Beanblock® (standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris) in mildly overweight subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, R; Belcaro, G; Hu, S; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Ippolito, E; Corsi, M; Gizzi, G

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Beanblock®, a standardized extract of Phaseolus vulgaris L., on weight control in healthy overweight subjects on a weight management plan that combined lifestyle and dietary advice. Sixty overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2) healthy subjects were enroled. All subjects were instructed to follow a weight management plan, accompanied by dietary advice. Thirty subjects used Beanblock® for at least 12 weeks (50 mg tablets, two times daily). The remaining 30 subjects did not receive any supplementation (management-only). The main endpoints were changes in body weight and waist circumference, with plasmatic oxidative stress, satiey and appetite being also evaluated. At week 12, the supplementation with Beanblock® was associated with a reduction in body weight (from 82.8 ± 9.1 kg to 78.8 ± 8.9 kg; p < 0.0001) and a decrease of waist circumference from 94.4 ± 10.3 cm to 88.2 ± 10.0 cm (p < 0.0001). Conversely, only marginal changes were observed in the control group. Oxidative stress was also significantly decreased with Beanblock® (from 380.4 ± 14.8 to 340.7 ± 14.8 Carr Units; p < 0.0001). Satiety and appetite improved in the supplement group. No side effects were observed and compliance was optimal. Beanblock®, in association with a health management plan, was useful for weight control in mildly overweight healthy subjects.

  11. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Harding, Mark J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Mahoney, James J.; Reyes, Jennifer A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 gene (ANKK1) and/or the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 minutes prior to cocaine administration, and at 5, 10,15, and 20 minutes following administration. The influence of polymorphisms in the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on subjective experience of cocaine in the laboratory was tested. Participants with a T allele of ANKK1 rs1800497 experienced greater subjective ‘high’ (p = 0.00006), ‘any drug effect’ (p = 0.0003), and ‘like’ (p = 0.0004) relative to the CC genotype group. Although the variant in the DRD2 gene was shown to be associated with subjective effects, LD analysis revealed this association was driven by the ANKK1 rs1800497 variant. A participant’s ANKK1 genotype may identify individuals who are likely to experience greater positive subjective effects following cocaine exposure, including greater ‘high’ and ‘like’, and these individuals may have increased vulnerability to continue using cocaine or they may be at greater risk to relapse during periods of abstinence. However, these results are preliminary and replication is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24528631

  12. Antiplatelet therapy and the outcome of subjects with intracranial injury: the Italian SIMEU study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Andrea; Servadei, Franco; Marchesini, Giulio; Bronzoni, Carolina; Montesi, Danilo; Arietta, Luca

    2013-03-21

    Pre-injury antithrombotic therapy might influence the outcome of subjects with head injuries and positive computed tomography (CT) scans. We aimed to determine the potential risk of pre-injury antiplatelet drug use on short- and long-term outcome of head injured subjects admitted to emergency departments (EDs) in Italy for extended observation. A total of 1,558 adult subjects with mild, moderate and severe head injury admitted to Italian EDs were studied. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, the short-term outcome was assessed by an evaluation of head CT scan at 6 to 24 hours after trauma and the long-term outcome by the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at six months. Head CT scan comparisons showed that 201 subjects (12.9%) worsened. The risk of worsening was increased two fold by the use of antiplatelet drugs (106, 19.7% treated versus 95, 9.3% untreated; relative risk (RR) 2.09, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.71). The risk was particularly high in subjects on clopidogrel (RR 5.76, 95% CI 3.88 to 8.54), independent of the association with aspirin. By logistic regression, 5 of 14 items were independently associated with worsening (Glasgow coma scale (GCS), Marshall category, antiplatelet therapy, intraventricular hemorrhage, number of lesions). After six months, only 4 of 14 items were predictors of unfavorable outcome (GOS 1 to 3) (GCS score, Marshall category, age in decades, intracerebral hemorrhage/contusion). The risk increased by 50% in the group treated with antiplatelet therapy (RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.95; Pclopidogrel) is a risk factor for both short-term and long-term unfavorable outcome in subjects with head injury, increasing the risk of progression and death, permanent vegetative state and severe disability.

  13. Bilateral transfer phenomenon: A functional magnetic resonance imaging pilot study of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggetti, Carla; Ausenda, Carlo D; Squarza, Silvia; Cadioli, Marcello; Grimoldi, Ludovico; Cerri, Cesare; Cariati, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    The bilateral transfer of a motor skill is a physiological phenomenon: the development of a motor skill with one hand can trigger the development of the same ability of the other hand. The purpose of this study was to verify whether bilateral transfer is associated with a specific brain activation pattern using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The motor task was implemented as the execution of the Nine Hole Peg Test. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 right-handers and five left-handers) underwent two identical fMRI runs performing the motor task with the non-dominant hand. Between the first and the second run, each subject was intensively trained for five minutes to perform the same motor task with the dominant hand. Comparing the two functional scans across the pool of subjects, a change of the motor activation pattern was observed. In particular, we observed, in the second run, a change in the activation pattern both in the cerebellum and in the cerebral cortex. We found activations in cortical areas involved in somatosensory integration, areas involved in procedural memory. Our study shows, in a small group of healthy subjects, the modification of the fMRI activation pathway of a motor task performed by the non-dominant hand after intensive exercise performing the same task with the dominant hand. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Usual Care Physiotherapy During Acute Hospitalization in Subjects Admitted to the ICU: An Observational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haines, Kimberley J; Berney, Sue; Warrillow, Stephen; Harrold, Meg; Denehy, Linda

    2015-10-01

    Physiotherapists play an important role in the provision of multidisciplinary team-based care in the ICU. No studies have reported usual care respiratory management or usual care on the wards following ICU discharge by these providers. This study aimed to investigate usual care physiotherapy for ICU subjects during acute hospitalization. One hundred subjects were recruited for an observational study from a tertiary Australian ICU. The frequency and type of documented physiotherapist assessment and treatment were extracted retrospectively from medical records. The sample had median (interquartile range) APACHE II score of 17 (13-21) and was mostly male with a median (interquartile range) age of 61 (49-73) y. Physiotherapists reviewed 94% of subjects in the ICU (median of 5 [3-9] occasions, median stay of 4.3 [3-7] d) and 89% of subjects in acute wards (median of 6 [2-12] occasions, median stay of 13.3 [6-28] d). Positioning, ventilator lung hyperinflation, and suctioning were the most frequently performed respiratory care activities in the ICU. The time from ICU admission until ambulation from the bed with a physiotherapist had a median of 5 (3-8) d. The average ambulation distance per treatment had a median of 0 (0-60) m in the ICU and 44 (8-78) m in the acute wards. Adverse event rates were 3.5% in the ICU and 1.8% on the wards. Subjects received a higher frequency of physiotherapy in the ICU than on acute wards. Consensus is required to ensure consistency in data collection internationally to facilitate comparison of outcomes. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Diagnostic inaccuracy and subject exclusions render placebo and observational studies of acute otitis media inconclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R

    2008-11-01

    Diagnostic accuracy and appropriate inclusion/exclusion criteria representative of children at greatest risk is of paramount importance in trials to evaluate placebo or observation as an option for acute otitis media (AOM) management. Twelve observational studies spanning the time frame 1958-2005 and 13 natural history studies spanning the time frame 1968-2006 were evaluated for the diagnostic criteria, inclusion criteria, and exclusion criteria applied within the study design. Although a bulging or full tympanic membrane (TM) with effusion is the best indication of a diagnosis of bacterial AOM based on tympanocentesis findings, few observational and natural history studies required a bulging TM. Examination of subject inclusion criteria showed that many subjects did not have AOM but rather had no middle ear disease at all or they had otitis media with effusion. Exclusion criteria of subjects were also remarkable. Frequently children bias in exclusion criteria among placebo/natural history trials in AOM. The current data favoring observation of children with AOM should be reconsidered until better studies are conducted.

  16. Alcohol drinking patterns and habits among a sample of PONS study subjects: preliminary assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźniak, Krzysztof; Łobaszewski, Jakub; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Bylina, Jerzy; Mańczuk, Marta; Zatoński, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol drinking is a major contributing factor to death, disease, injury and social problems such as violence or child neglect and abuse, especially in Eastern Europe. To preliminary evaluate the prevalence and social and behavioural patterns of alcohol drinking in a pilot group of the Polish-Norwegian Study (PONS study) subjects. Open-ended prospective cohort study conducted in Świetokrzyskie province. A pilot group of subjects aged 45-64 years has been examined. Data on alcohol drinking were collected for 3,845 respondents with the use of the Health State Questionnaire administered by the CAPI method. In males, 72.3% drank alcohol currently, 22.7% were former drinkers, and only 5% never drinkers. Among females, the percentage of current alcohol drinkers was significantly lower than in males, while the percentages of former and never drinkers was higher (50.3%, 35.4% and 14.6%, respectively). 7.4% of males and 0.8% of females drank alcohol daily or almost daily, and weekly alcohol drinking was respectively at level of 32.2% and 15.7%. Males drank mainly vodka (or other spirits) and beer, females grape wine and vodka. PONS study includes interesting dataset for assessing prevalence and patterns of alcohol drinking at population level. Alcohol drinking seems to be common among PONS subjects. Comparison with nation-wide surveys shows on higher number of alcohol abstainers and lower number of binge drinkers among PONS study subjects. On the other hand, frequency and social patterns of alcohol drinking seem to be consistent with data found in national studies.

  17. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA ON OVERWEIGHT HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS: DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhani Pashine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa on serum lipid profile in overweight hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods: This was a double blind randomised control study. The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, CSM Medical University, Lucknow from July 2010-June 2011. A total of 120 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule whose BMI>25 and total cholesterol>200 mg/dl and/or triglyceride>150 mg/dl, were divided randomly using random number table into 2 groups Group-I (Aquous extract of Turmeric-1.4 gm per day (n=53 and Group-II (Placebo (n=52 for three months. They were given the same color capsules without revealing their identity, with the instructions to take the contents of each pack twice a day before meal for 90 days. Subjects were asked to give their 12 hour fasting blood samples on 0, 30, 60 and 90 day. The paired t-test was used to compare the changes amongst follow-ups and unpaired t-test was used to compare between groups. p-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: At the baseline, both the groups were similar in anthropometric and clinical parameters. Treatment group produced significant (p<0.0001 reduction in lipid profiles such as serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol and VLDL- cholesterol in hypercholesteremic group from 0 day to 30, 60 and 90 day of follow-ups. However, there was no significant change in the placebo group. The percentage reduction was higher in the subjects of Turmeric group as compared to Placebo. Conclusion: Aquous extract of Turmeric has shown lipid lowering properties among overweight hyperlipidemic subjects.

  18. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransohoff, David F

    2013-04-01

    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  19. Feasibility study on a complete system of production, transportation and utilization of about 7 MTa of CWS from Shenmu area and Yellow Sea (China). Results of a Beijing symposium on the subject in Beijing (April 1994) and creation of a World Laboratory research centre ad hoc in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, G.; Wang Zuna [ICSC World Lab., Lausanne (Switzerland). Project NET-1

    1996-12-31

    The authors had occasion at a coal-water slurry conference in Clearwater to present a preliminary part of a feasibility study, in cooperation with an Italian and a Chinese team, for a complete integrated project of mining, slurryfication, transportation via pipeline, and utilization of 7 millions tons/year of coal. This study started in 1987 and was presented to the Chinese authority on April 1994 in a specific symposium in Beijing with a participation of 60 scientists from Italy and P.R. China. During this long period of cooperation and exchange between the parties, it was possible to organize a complete and advanced Centre of Research in Beijing supplied with modern equipment that is now in full operation and is producing work of very good quality. The goal of this paper is to summarize the above mentioned experience and describe the new Centre, the present status and the future developments. The study and the equipment of the Centre was sponsored by the World Laboratory an International Institution established in Lausanne under the presidency of Prof. A. Zichichi. This organization supported particularly by the Italian government is responsible for several programs of cooperation between N-S-E-W countries in all the critical areas of planetary importance (health, energy, agriculture, food, environment).

  20. Longitudinal Study of the Decline in Renal Function in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Baba

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease is an important concern in preventive medicine, but the rate of decline in renal function in healthy population is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and rate of decline of eGFR in healthy subjects and to evaluate factors associated with this decline using a large cohort in Japan.Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed with healthy subjects aged ≥18 years old who received a medical checkup. Reference values for eGFR were obtained using a nonparametric method and those for decline of eGFR were calculated by mixed model analysis. Relationships of eGFR decline rate with baseline variables were examined using a linear least-squares method.In the cross-sectional study, reference values for eGFR were obtained by gender and age in 72,521 healthy subjects. The mean (±SD eGFR was 83.7±14.7 ml/min/1.73 m2. In the longitudinal study, reference values for eGFR decline rate were obtained by gender, age, and renal stage in 45,586 healthy subjects. In the same renal stage, there was little difference in the rate of decline regardless of age. The decline in eGFR depended on the renal stage and was strongly related to baseline eGFR, with a faster decline with a higher baseline eGFR and a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR. The mean (±SD eGFR decline rate was ‒1.07±0.42 ml/min/1.73 m2/year (‒1.29±0.41%/year in subjects with a mean eGFR of 81.5±11.6 ml/min/1.73 m2.The present study clarified for the first time the reference values for the rate of eGFR decline stratified by gender, age, and renal stage in healthy subjects. The rate of eGFR decline depended mainly on baseline eGFR, but not on age, with a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR.

  1. Longitudinal Study of the Decline in Renal Function in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Mika; Shimbo, Takuro; Horio, Masaru; Ando, Masahiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Masuda, Katsunori; Matsuo, Seiichi; Maruyama, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease is an important concern in preventive medicine, but the rate of decline in renal function in healthy population is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and rate of decline of eGFR in healthy subjects and to evaluate factors associated with this decline using a large cohort in Japan. Methods Retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were performed with healthy subjects aged ≥18 years old who received a medical checkup. Reference values for eGFR were obtained using a nonparametric method and those for decline of eGFR were calculated by mixed model analysis. Relationships of eGFR decline rate with baseline variables were examined using a linear least-squares method. Results In the cross-sectional study, reference values for eGFR were obtained by gender and age in 72,521 healthy subjects. The mean (±SD) eGFR was 83.7±14.7ml/min/1.73m2. In the longitudinal study, reference values for eGFR decline rate were obtained by gender, age, and renal stage in 45,586 healthy subjects. In the same renal stage, there was little difference in the rate of decline regardless of age. The decline in eGFR depended on the renal stage and was strongly related to baseline eGFR, with a faster decline with a higher baseline eGFR and a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR. The mean (±SD) eGFR decline rate was ‒1.07±0.42ml/min/1.73m2/year (‒1.29±0.41%/year) in subjects with a mean eGFR of 81.5±11.6ml/min/1.73m2. Conclusions The present study clarified for the first time the reference values for the rate of eGFR decline stratified by gender, age, and renal stage in healthy subjects. The rate of eGFR decline depended mainly on baseline eGFR, but not on age, with a slower decline with a lower baseline eGFR. PMID:26061083

  2. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  3. A descriptive study of the oral status in subjects with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olate, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniella; Neumann, Stephanie; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune pathology of varying prevalence. Its involvement in exocrine glands requires that greater attention be paid to patients' oral health. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the oral health of subjects with SS in constant medical follow-ups. Variables such as the presence of periodontal infections, decay and alterations in the oral mucosa were analyzed, and the individual's salivary flow was measured. The data were analyzed descriptively and with the chi-squared test, considering pdental check-up every 6 months in only 9% of cases, whereas the rest had one every 1 or 2 years. All the subjects recounted presenting with dry mouth and associated significantly the ingestion of fluids and teeth brushing to improve the sensation of dryness. The salivary flow was objectively seen to be compromised, showing a significant reduction in those with more time since diagnosis of the disease; more than 90% of subjects exhibited periodontal inflammation and a high level of caries. The mucosa presented a low level of pathology. In conclusion, education in oral health is imperative for subjects with this pathology and more frequent check-ups may be useful in decreasing the levels of oral pathology.

  4. The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; von Soest, Tilmann; Vollrath, Margarete E; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine the etiology of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth within a transactional framework of stress. Participants were women (N = 1,499) from the Akershus Birth Cohort. These women were followed from pregnancy to 8 weeks postpartum. We modeled predisposing factors (e.g., fear of childbirth) and precipitating factors (subjective and objective birth experiences) as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by means of the Impact of Event Scale, objective birth experiences by means of birth journals, and subjective birth experiences by means of three questions. A structural equation model showed that subjective birth experiences had the highest association with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, they mediated the effect of predisposing factors and objective birth experiences. The results suggest that women's subjective birth experiences are the most important factor in the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth.

  5. Subjective and objective sleep and self-harm behaviors in young children: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singareddy, Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh B; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L; Shaffer, Michele L; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-10-30

    Significant association between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation and/or attempts is reported in adults and adolescents. However, there is paucity of studies exploring the association between sleep and self-harm behaviors (SHB) in young children and are limited to only subjective sleep measures. We examined the association between SHB and both subjective and objective sleep in a population-based sample of 5-12 yr old. Parents of every student in 3 local school (K-5) districts (n=7312) was sent a screening questionnaire. Randomly selected children from this sample underwent a comprehensive history, physical examination, a 9-h overnight polysomnogram and completed several questionnaires. Among the final sample (n=693), 27 children had SHB with adjusted prevalence of 3%. There was no difference in age, gender, obesity, or socioeconomic status in subjects with or without SHB. Significantly more children with SHB had subjective sleep difficulty and depression. Difficulty maintaining sleep and frequent nightmares were associated with SHB independent of depression or demographics. Polysomnographic %REM-sleep was significantly higher in the SHB group after adjusting for demographics and depression. These data indicate that parent reported sleep disturbances are independently associated with SHB. It is possible that higher REM-sleep is a non-invasive biomarker for risk of self-harm behaviors in young children. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoothness without smoothing: why Gaussian naive Bayes is not naive for multi-subject searchlight studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Rajeev D S; Lee, Yune-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial smoothness is helpful when averaging fMRI signals across multiple subjects, as it allows different subjects' corresponding brain areas to be pooled together even if they are slightly misaligned. However, smoothing is usually not applied when performing multivoxel pattern-based analyses (MVPA), as it runs the risk of blurring away the information that fine-grained spatial patterns contain. It would therefore be desirable, if possible, to carry out pattern-based analyses which take unsmoothed data as their input but which produce smooth images as output. We show here that the Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) classifier does precisely this, when it is used in "searchlight" pattern-based analyses. We explain why this occurs, and illustrate the effect in real fMRI data. Moreover, we show that analyses using GNBs produce results at the multi-subject level which are statistically robust, neurally plausible, and which replicate across two independent data sets. By contrast, SVM classifiers applied to the same data do not generate a replication, even if the SVM-derived searchlight maps have smoothing applied to them. An additional advantage of GNB classifiers for searchlight analyses is that they are orders of magnitude faster to compute than more complex alternatives such as SVMs. Collectively, these results suggest that Gaussian Naive Bayes classifiers may be a highly non-naive choice for multi-subject pattern-based fMRI studies.

  7. Smoothness without smoothing: why Gaussian naive Bayes is not naive for multi-subject searchlight studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev D S Raizada

    Full Text Available Spatial smoothness is helpful when averaging fMRI signals across multiple subjects, as it allows different subjects' corresponding brain areas to be pooled together even if they are slightly misaligned. However, smoothing is usually not applied when performing multivoxel pattern-based analyses (MVPA, as it runs the risk of blurring away the information that fine-grained spatial patterns contain. It would therefore be desirable, if possible, to carry out pattern-based analyses which take unsmoothed data as their input but which produce smooth images as output. We show here that the Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB classifier does precisely this, when it is used in "searchlight" pattern-based analyses. We explain why this occurs, and illustrate the effect in real fMRI data. Moreover, we show that analyses using GNBs produce results at the multi-subject level which are statistically robust, neurally plausible, and which replicate across two independent data sets. By contrast, SVM classifiers applied to the same data do not generate a replication, even if the SVM-derived searchlight maps have smoothing applied to them. An additional advantage of GNB classifiers for searchlight analyses is that they are orders of magnitude faster to compute than more complex alternatives such as SVMs. Collectively, these results suggest that Gaussian Naive Bayes classifiers may be a highly non-naive choice for multi-subject pattern-based fMRI studies.

  8. Smoothness without Smoothing: Why Gaussian Naive Bayes Is Not Naive for Multi-Subject Searchlight Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizada, Rajeev D. S.; Lee, Yune-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Spatial smoothness is helpful when averaging fMRI signals across multiple subjects, as it allows different subjects' corresponding brain areas to be pooled together even if they are slightly misaligned. However, smoothing is usually not applied when performing multivoxel pattern-based analyses (MVPA), as it runs the risk of blurring away the information that fine-grained spatial patterns contain. It would therefore be desirable, if possible, to carry out pattern-based analyses which take unsmoothed data as their input but which produce smooth images as output. We show here that the Gaussian Naive Bayes (GNB) classifier does precisely this, when it is used in “searchlight” pattern-based analyses. We explain why this occurs, and illustrate the effect in real fMRI data. Moreover, we show that analyses using GNBs produce results at the multi-subject level which are statistically robust, neurally plausible, and which replicate across two independent data sets. By contrast, SVM classifiers applied to the same data do not generate a replication, even if the SVM-derived searchlight maps have smoothing applied to them. An additional advantage of GNB classifiers for searchlight analyses is that they are orders of magnitude faster to compute than more complex alternatives such as SVMs. Collectively, these results suggest that Gaussian Naive Bayes classifiers may be a highly non-naive choice for multi-subject pattern-based fMRI studies. PMID:23922740

  9. Alterations of sensory perceptions in healthy elderly subjects during fasting and refeeding. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Catherine; Moreau, Karine; Brandolini, Marion; Livingstone, Barbara; Beaufrère, Bernard; Boirie, Yves

    2002-01-01

    Sensory perception losses may contribute to age-related malnutrition by affecting food selection and consumption. To determine the effects of a 36-hour fast followed by a 6-hour refeeding period on sensory perceptions in 7 healthy elderly subjects (65-80 years of age) and 6 healthy young subjects (18-35 years of age). Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings were recorded on visual analogue scales in response to three different classes of odorant stimuli (salt, sweet and sour). Odorant stimuli were administered three times during the study, twice during the fasting period (12 and 24 h fasted) and once at the end of the re-nutrition period. A significant difference was found between the two groups for the self-perceived hunger ratings in response to the sour stimuli. A significant difference was observed between the two groups for olfactory ratings as regards the salt and sour odorant stimuli. Among the metabolic changes associated with fasting and refeeding, blood glucose was significantly related (r(2) = 0.97, p = 0.001) to the perception of hunger in the control group subjects, but no such relationship was found for the elderly subjects (r(2) = 0.16, p = NS). (1) Self-perceived hunger and olfactory ratings are specifically affected in healthy elderly. (2) Nutritional status can modulate sensory perceptions in elderly and young during the transition from fasting to refeeding. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Original article Entitlement and subjective well-being: a three-nations study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The current study investigated the role of three facets of entitlement (active, passive and revenge in various forms of subjective well-being (SWB: hedonistic and two facets of eudaimonic well-being (social and psychological. Social well-being was based on Keyes’ model (1998 and psychological well-being on Ryff’s model (1989. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three nations (Poland, Puerto Rico and Vietnam on student samples (Poland, n = 245, Vietnam, n = 115, and Puerto Rico, n = 300. To assess entitlement level the Entitlement Questionnaire was used. The level of hedonistic well-being was measured with the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and eudaimonic well-being by the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF. Results Active entitlement was positively related to all aspects of SWB. Revenge entitlement was negatively related to hedonistic and psychological SWB in all samples and negatively related to social well-being only in Poland. Passive entitlement was unrelated to SWB. Conclusions The current study shows cross-cultural similarities in relationships of entitlement with hedonistic and psychological well-being and cross-cultural differences in the relationship of entitlement with social well-being. Additionally, the study indicates positive meaning of healthy aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being and negative meaning of dysfunctional aspects of entitlement for subjective well-being.

  11. Further Study on Strain Growth in Spherical Containment Vessels Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Strain growth is a phenomenon observed in the elastic response of containment vessels subjected to internal blast loading, which is featured by the increased vibration amplitude of the vessel in a later stage. Previous studies attributed the strain growth in spherical containment vessels to the beating between two close vibration modes, the interactions between the vessel vibration and the reflected shock waves and the structural perturbation. In this paper, it is shown th...

  12. Student Research in an Introductory Psychology Course: Outcomes of Two Experiential Learning Projects and Implications for Instruction of Human Subjects Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes student learning and personal outcomes associated with learning research methods in introductory psychology, via one of two semester-long projects: one involving performing naturalistic observation of the behavior of community members, and the other involving performing a 60-minute interview of local veterans regarding…

  13. Physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability: An 8-year longitudinal observational study among musculoskeletal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Paech, Juliane; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-06-13

    Physical exercise recommendations become particularly effective when embedded into medical rehabilitation. However, little is known about long-term behaviour maintenance and its effect on sickness absence and subjective employability. The current longitudinal observational study investigated self-reported physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability over a period of 8 years. A total of 601 (T0) outpatients (mean age 45.14 years; standard deviation 10.73 years, age range 18-65 years) with different orthopaedic disorders were recruited during their 3-week medical rehabilitation in Germany. Of these, 61.7% (n = 371) were female. Follow-ups were carried out at 6 months (T1, n = 495), 12 months (T2, n = 340), 3 years (T3, n = 296) and 8 years (T4, n = 142) after baseline. Patient characteristics, exercise status, social-cognitive variables, sickness absence and subjective employability were obtained via self-report questionnaires. SPSS hierarchical regression models were used for data analysis, controlling for baseline measures and sociodemographic variables. Physical exercise status 6 months after rehabilitation treatment (T1) predicted sickness absence at 12 months (T2). Inactive people were 3.28 times more likely to be on sick leave at T2. In addition, physical exercise at T1 predicted subjective employability 12 months (T2) and 3 years (T3) later. Those who met the recommendations to be physically active for at least 40 min a week were more likely to feel able to work. Exercise appears to play an important role in reducing sickness absence and subjective employability and should be promoted within and after rehabilitation treatment.

  14. An international study of research misconduct policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Rasmussen, Lisa M; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    Research misconduct is an international concern. Misconduct policies can play a crucial role in preventing and policing research misconduct, and many institutions have developed their own policies. While institutional policies play a key role in preventing and policing misconduct, national policies are also important to ensure consistent promulgation and enforcement of ethical standards. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about research misconduct policies across the globe. We found that twenty-two of the top forty research and development funding countries (55%) had a national misconduct policy. Four countries (18.2%) are in the process of developing a policy, and four (18.2%) have a national research ethics code but no misconduct policy. All twenty-two countries (100%) with national policies included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in the definition of misconduct, but beyond that there was considerable diversity. Unethical authorship was mentioned in 54.6% of the misconduct definitions, followed by unethical publication practices (36.4%), conflict of interest mismanagement (36.4%), unethical peer review (31.8%), misconduct related to misconduct investigations (27.3%), poor record keeping (27.3%), other deception (27.3%), serious deviations (22.7%), violating confidentiality (22.7%), and human or animal research violations (22.7%). Having a national policy was positively associated with research and development funding ranking and intensiveness. To promote integrity in international research collaborations, countries should seek to harmonize and clarify misconduct definitions and develop procedures for adjudicating conflicts when harmonization does not occur.

  15. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    Systems theory is used to explore innovation, change and ... methodology for aligning an innovative, interpretive qualitative case .... importance. Researchers can adopt either a single-case or multiple-case study design depending on the phenomenon in question. A single-case design could be criticized for its inability to ...

  16. Endotoxin Studies And Biosolids Stabilization Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation has three parts; a review of bench-scale endotoxin research, a review of observations from a field scale endotoxin release study, and discussion of biosolids stabilization and characterization by PLFA/FAME microbial community analysis. Endotoxins are part of th...

  17. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  18. Reye's Syndrome: A Review of Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Thomas P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Clinical and pathological studies of Reye's syndrome indicate that symptoms range from influenza-related encephalitis-type disease to cranial pressure, cerebral edema, hemorrhage, and coma. Biochemical research on the blood, ammonia, and the liver is increasing in sophistication, and hopes for future insight into the etiology of Reye's syndrome…

  19. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huihui Liu; Xiaohong Zhang; Rui Chang; Weining Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to explore the status of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being and to investigate the relationship among the three elements. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 224 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Tianjin, China, was conducted. Self-esteem scale, job satisfaction scale, and subjective well-being scale were used to explore the status of ICU nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being....

  20. Subjective Reactions to International Research Participation: An Illustration of Ethical Considerations With Women Heading Households in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jessica E; Banford Witting, Alyssa; Ponnamperuma, Lakmal; Wickrama, Thulitha

    2017-06-19

    here are unique ethical considerations in conducting international research with war and disaster-affected populations that are important for ensuring adequate protection of participants. Of particular importance is the distress that participants may experience as a result of being asked about traumatic stressors, psychological symptoms, and life problems. In this study, trauma-affected Tamil women in Eastern Sri Lanka were asked to report on their research-participation experience after taking part in a larger study on risk and resiliency. Results indicated that most participants experienced emotional upset as a result of taking part in the study. However, the degree of distress was generally not more than they anticipated, and most participants reported they would have participated had they known in advance how they would feel. Most participants perceived some benefit as a result of participating and agreed that items were personally relevant. Emotional distress from participation positively correlated with culturally specific symptoms of anxiety and depression. Contextual stressors and social support were not associated with participation-related distress. We discuss these findings as well as general issues that might arise in international research with trauma-affected populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  2. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...... and concludes with the Kuhnian insight that a scientific discipline without a large number of thoroughly executed case studies is a discipline without systematic production of exemplars, and that a discipline without  exemplars is an ineffective one. Social science may be strengthened by the execution of more...

  3. [Co-production of knowledge about custody criteria with subjects affected by their parents' custody dispute: a participatory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenborn, Karl-Franz

    2004-03-01

    This article explores methods within a longitudinal study for allowing subjects more direct participation in research as co-producers of scientific knowledge concerning custody decision-making after divorce. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to evaluate the scientific custody criteria that were applied to children after their parents' divorce. The results of the study, published after the first survey, showed the relevance of children's personal preferences and residence wishes for custody regulations. This was formulated as a general rule for custody decision-making. In the second survey, a copy of our scientific publication written after the first survey, including summaries and a questionnaire was sent to the children involved. They were asked to judge the presentation of the custody problem, the custody recommendations and the presentation of their case history in our publication. Most of the participants (60%) voted for the application of the custody criterion "personal relationship preferences and residence wishes", but they also pointed out the difficulties for the child to articulate those wishes. Together with other studies, the participatory study contributed to a paradigm shift: from an understanding of the custody problem as a structural question concerning the suitability of maternal, paternal or joint custody to a conceptualisation of the custody problem as a decision-making process that demands the participation of the child and professional support if need be. Finally, the value of participatory research methods in divorce research and longitudinal social studies of children and childhood are discussed.

  4. The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Richter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Yael Richter1, Yael Herzog1, Tzafra Cohen1, Yael Steinhart21Enzymotec LTD, Migdal-HaEmeq, Israel; 2Department of Marketing, Haifa Graduate School of Management, University of Haifa, IsraelObjective: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3 in improving memory abilities.Methods: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. The Cognitive Drug Research test battery was used to assess the effect on their cognitive abilities.Results: PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition.Conclusion: PS-omega-3 may have a favorable effect on memory in subjects with subjective memory complaints. PS-omega-3 may serve as a safe alternative to phosphatidylserine extracted from bovine cortex.Keywords: cognitive, memory, omega-3, phosphatidylserine

  5. A pharmacogenomic study on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in healthy subjects using the DMETTM Plus platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y; Jiang, F; An, H; Park, H J; Choi, J H; Lee, H

    2017-03-01

    Genetic association studies on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus have reported conflicting results, except for the role of the CYP3A5*3 polymorphism. The objective of this study was to identify genetic variants affecting the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus using the DMETTM Plus microarray in 42 healthy males. Aside from CYP3A5*3, the rs3814055 polymorphism in the NR1I2 gene was associated with the tacrolimus pharmacokinetics based on false discovery rate-corrected multiple tests and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator analysis. The area under the concentration-time curve to the last quantifiable time point (AUClast) was 3.42 times greater in subjects with homozygous mutations in both genes (CYP3A5*3/*3 and NR1I2 T/T) than in wild-type subjects. The two variants explained the 54% variability in the tacrolimus AUClast. An in vitro luciferase reporter assay indicated that downregulation of PXR expression is the likely molecular mechanism responsible for the increased exposure to tacrolimus in subjects carrying the rs3814055 C>T variant.

  6. ROLE OF INTERNET - RESOURCES IN FORMING OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AT THE STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.

  7. Pilot study of light therapy and neurocognitive performance of attention and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Marconi, Daniela; Limpido, Lucilla; Tarolla, Emanuele; Caroti, Eleonora

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether light therapy improves healthy subjects' neurocognitive performance of attention, memory, and language. Ten subjects were treated with white bright light for 5 days and a control group of 10 with no treatment were assessed with a battery of neurocognitive tests which included the Stroop Colour Word Interference Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Story Recall Test, and the Word Pairs Recall Test. Analysis showed improvements in cognitive scores in both groups, although on all the cognitive tests the mean difference scores between baseline and endpoint were significantly larger in the light-treated group. These preliminary results suggest that short-term bright light may exert beneficial effects on cognitive functions.

  8. An Experimental Study of a Midbroken 2-Bay 6-Storey Reinforced Concrete Frame subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, P. S.; Taskin, B.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1997-01-01

    A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim of the w......A 2-bay, 6-storey model test reinforced concrete frame (scale 1:5) subjected to sequential earthquakes of increasing magnitude is considered in this paper. The frame was designed with a weak storey, in which the columns are weakened by using thinner and weaker reinforcement bars. The aim...... of the work is to study global response to a damaging strong motion earthquake event of such buildings. Special emphasis is put on examining to what extent damage in the weak storey can be identified from global response measurements during an earthquake where the structure survives, and what level...

  9. Repeating tests: different roles in research studies and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monach, Paul A

    2012-10-01

    Researchers often decide whether to average multiple results in order to produce more precise data, and clinicians often decide whether to repeat a laboratory test in order to confirm its validity or to follow a trend. Some of the major sources of variation in laboratory tests (analytical imprecision, within-subject biological variation and between-subject variation) and the effects of averaging multiple results from the same sample or from the same person over time are discussed quantitatively in this article. This analysis leads to the surprising conclusion that the strategy of averaging multiple results is only necessary and effective in a limited range of research studies. In clinical practice, it may be important to repeat a test in order to eliminate the possibility of a rare type of error that has nothing to do analytical imprecision or within-subject variation, and for this reason, paradoxically, it may be most important to repeat tests with the highest sensitivity and/or specificity (i.e., ones that are critical for clinical decision-making).

  10. Metabolic correlates of general cognitive function in nondemented elderly subjects: an FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Kwak, Young Bin; Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Chang Hyung; Chey, Jean Yung; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    While many studies examined the neural correlates of individual cognitive functions, few made efforts to identify the neural networks associated with general cognitive function. General cognitive function decline in the elderly population is not infrequent. This study examined the brain areas associated with general cognitive function in the elderly subjects. Community-dwelling 116 elderly subjects without dementing illnesses (age, 71{+-}5 y; 13 males and 103 females) participated. General cognitive ability was assessed with the Dementia Rating Scale (K-DRS), which is composed of five subtests of attention, initiation and perseveration, construction, conceptualization, and memory. The EVLT (Elderly Verbal Learning Test), a nine-word list learning test, was used for general memory assessment. Brain FDG PET scans were acquired in all subjects. Brain regions where metabolic levels are correlated with the total scores of K-DRS and EVLT were examined using SPM99. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100) between the total score of K-DRS and glucose metabolism in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri, bilateral inferior frontal gyri, left caudate, left inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, bilateral unci, right parahippocampal gyrus, and right anterior cingulate gyrus. A significant positive correlation between the total score of EVLT and glucose metabolism was shown in the right precuneus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, bilateral inferior parietal lobules, left anterior cingulate gyrus, left caudate, right inferior frontal gyrus (P < 0.01 uncorrected, k=100). Our data showed the brain regions that are associated with general cognitive function in the elderly. Those regions may serve as the neural substrated of cognitive dysfunction associated with neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases in elderly subjects.

  11. Recruiting and motivating black subjects to complete a lengthy survey in a large cohort study: an exploration of different strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Patti; Butler, Terry; Hall, Sonja; Bennett, Hannelore; Montgomery, Susanne B; Fraser, Gary

    2014-04-03

    The effectiveness of multiple innovative recruitment strategies for enrolling Black/African American participants to the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) is described. The study's focus is diet and breast, prostate and colon cancer. Promotions centered on trust, relationship building and incentives for increasing enrollment and questionnaire return rate. Of the sub-studies described, one had a randomized control group, and the others, informal controls. The subjects are from all states of the U.S. and some provinces of Canada. The offer of a Black art piece, follow-up calls, a competitive tournament as well as other strategies accounted for nearly 3,000 additional returns even though they were often used in small subsets. Flexibility and multiple strategies proved advantageous in gaining the cooperation of Blacks, who are usually reluctant to participate in research studies. Lessons learned during initial enrollment should help us retain our final Black cohort of 26,000, and obtain new information when required.

  12. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension–Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  13. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  14. Studying and researching with social media

    CERN Document Server

    Poore, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Wondering what your lecturers are looking for in a blog post? Asking yourself how that's different from writing an essay (or a wiki page)? Unsure if Twitter really can be used to build your online profile as a researcher? If you want -- or need -- to integrate social media tools into your studies and research, this practical book is your one-stop shop. Megan Poore shares the secrets of how to harness the power of social media tools to improve your academic productivity. Inside, you'll find out how to: ...write a good blog post ...contribute to a wiki ...maximise your grades when creating an audio-visual presentation ...find and share the latest research via Twitter ...keep safe online. Featuring handy illustrations and exercises, as well as guidance on broader issues such as copyright, avoiding plagiarism, and cyberbullying, you'll find out all you need to successfully use social media to support your study and research. Megan Poore is Assistant Professor in Teacher Education at the University of Canberra.

  15. Are dentists happy? A study among dental practitioners in coastal Andhra Pradesh using subjective happiness scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Kaipa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of dental professionals in the society is vital. This profession allows the flexibility to balance a professional and personal life. Practice of dentistry at times is quite stressful, and stress impedes happiness and subjective well-being. Several studies have reported about stress among dental professionals and their various effects; however, studies evaluating the level of happiness (happiness index among dentists are few and lack in this geographic region. Objectives: The present study was conducted to assess the subjective happiness level among dental professionals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 194 dentists in Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire measuring dimensions of professional satisfaction by Subjective Happiness Scale was used to assess the happiness level. The results were expressed in percentages, means, and mean rank. Independent samples nonparametric tests (Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test and multivariable analyses were used to assess the determinants of happiness. Results: The mean happiness index of the respondents was 21.71 (0.26 standard error. Overall 67% of the respondents had an above average happiness score. Higher happiness score was found to be significantly associated with age, postgraduate degree, male gender, type of professional attachment, duration of practice, urban location of practice, and spouse employment status in univariate analysis. However, multivariable analysis showed association with type of professional attachment only. Conclusion: Although dentistry has been recognized as a stressful profession, majority of the dentists under study had a happiness score above the mean, and the level of satisfaction was influenced by various sociodemographic factors.

  16. Intracardiac electrocardiographic assessment of precordial TASER shocks in human subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Winslow, James E; Fitzgerald, David M; Bozeman, William P

    2017-11-01

    Case reports of cardiac arrest in temporal proximity to Conducted Electrical Weapon(CEW) exposure raise legitimate concerns about this as a rare possibility. In this pilot study, we respectfully navigate the oversight and regulatory hurdles and demonstrate the intra-shock electrocardiographic effects of an intentional transcardiac CEW discharge using subcutaneous probes placed directly across the precordium of patients with a previously implanted intracardiac EKG sensing lead. Adults scheduled to undergo diagnostic EP studies or replacement of an implanted cardiac device were enrolled. Sterile subcutaneous electrodes were placed at the right sternoclavicular junction and the left lower costal margin at the midclavicular line. A standard police issue TASER Model X26 CEW was attached to the subcutaneous electrodes and a 5 s discharge was delivered. Continuous surface and intracardiac EKG monitoring was performed. A total of 157 subjects were reviewed for possible inclusion and 21 were interviewed. Among these, 4 subjects agreed and completed the study protocol. All subjects tolerated the 5 s CEW discharge without clinical complications. There were no significant changes in mean heart rate or blood pressure. Interrogation of the devices after CEW discharge revealed no ventricular pacing, dysrhythmias, damage or interference with the implanted devices. In this pilot study, we have successfully navigated the regulatory hurdles and demonstrated the feasibility of performing intracardiac EKG recording during intentional precordial CEW discharges in humans. While no CEW-associated dysrhythmias were noted, the size of this preliminary dataset precludes making conclusions about the risk of such events. Larger studies are warranted and should consider exploring variations of the CEW electrode position in relation to the cardiac silhouette. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Clinical research, comparison of the subjective visual function in patients with epiphora and patients with second-eye cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil-Hussain, Namir; Khooshebah, Ramona

    2005-03-01

    To assess the subjective visual disability of patients with epiphora and to compare the results with that of patients waiting for second eye cataract surgery. A prospective, randomised, questionnaire-based study. Forty-six patients with epiphora listed for dacryocystorhinostomy and 50 patients having second eye cataract extraction were enrolled. A questionnaire focusing on functional visual disability in daily life and based on VF-14 was completed for each participant. Eighty-six percent of patients with epiphora and 41% of second-eye cataracts had difficulty reading small print (P vs. 42%) (P watching television (63.1% vs. 19%) (P vs. 10%) (P reading signs (39.1% vs. 4%) (P < 0.05), respectively. There is widespread recognition of the effect of cataract on visual function. This has resulted in substantial government funding to improve access to cataract surgery. In comparison, epiphora is rarely considered as a significant cause of visual disability. This study suggests that patients with epiphora suffer the same if not more of a visual handicap than patients awaiting second eye cataract surgery.

  18. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  19. Enacted Sexual Stigma, Stigma Consciousness, and Subjective Happiness Scale Adaptation: A Two-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Jenna; Fernández-Agis, Inmaculada; Parrón-Carreño, Tesifon; Alarcón-Rodríguez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Violence against people due to their sexual orientation is a phenomenon that exists within a framework of sexual stigma and sexual prejudice that can result in enacted stigma. The present study primarily aimed to validate the Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS; for lesbian, gay, and bisexual [LGB] populations) in the Spanish context by using samples from two countries (Spain [N = 157] and the United States [N = 83]). Also, to examine how the construct of stigma consciousness correlates with anti-LGBQ (anti-lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) hate crime victimization and violent incidents, as well as examine whether the former influences subjective happiness. The population from the United States reported higher stigma consciousness and received more anti-LGBQ threats and insults. Hate crime victimization was the same across the two samples and positively correlated with violent incidents in both samples. Subjective happiness was negatively correlated with SCQ, although its subscales it did not correlate with enacted stigma measures. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  2. [Subjective family image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in adolescence: a controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwautz, A; Haidvogl, M; Wagner, G; Nobis, G; Wöber-Bingöl, C; Friedrich, M H

    2002-11-01

    The family environments of patients with eating disorders have been studied extensively in recent decades. The "Subjective Family Image Test" is an instrument developed especially to measure differential perceptions by family members. Assessments of subjective family image in families of adolescents by means of this test have been carried out in only a few samples. We aimed first to investigate subjective perceptions by adolescents of their family relations in a larger clinical sample of female adolescents (n = 118) suffering from anorexia nervosa of either subtype or from bulimia nervosa and to compare these perceptions with those of healthy controls (n = 96). Second we investigated intra-familial differences in perception. The main findings were that bulimia nervosa patients perceived lower individual autonomy and lower emotional connectedness than all other groups, the adolescents with bulimia perceived significantly lower autonomy and emotional connectedness within the family than their fathers, and the restrictive anorexia nervosa patients perceived higher connectedness than their fathers. The relevance of these findings for understanding family dynamics are discussed.

  3. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  4. Longitudinal Study of Hypertensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Overall and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Michel E; Gnakaméné, Jean-Barthélémy; Bahous, Sola Aoun; Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Thomas, Frédérique

    2017-06-01

    Despite adequate glycemic and blood pressure control, treated type 2 diabetic hypertensive subjects have a significantly elevated overall/cardiovascular risk. We studied 244 816 normotensive and 99 720 hypertensive subjects (including 7480 type 2 diabetics) attending medical checkups between 1992 and 2011. We sought to identify significant differences in overall/cardiovascular risk between hypertension with and without diabetes mellitus. Mean follow-up was 12.7 years; 14 050 all-cause deaths were reported. From normotensive to hypertensive populations, a significant progression in overall/cardiovascular mortality was observed. Mortality was significantly greater among diabetic than nondiabetic hypertensive subjects (all-cause mortality, 14.05% versus 7.43%; and cardiovascular mortality, 1.28% versus 0.7%). No interaction was observed between hemodynamic measurements and overall/cardiovascular risk, suggesting that blood pressure factors, even during drug therapy, could not explain the differences in mortality rates between diabetic and nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Using cross-sectional regression models, a significant association was observed between higher education levels, lower levels of anxiety and depression, and reduced overall mortality in diabetic hypertensive subjects, while impaired renal function, a history of stroke and myocardial infarction, and increased alcohol and tobacco consumption were significantly associated with increased mortality. Blood pressure and glycemic control alone cannot reverse overall/cardiovascular risk in diabetics with hypertension. Together with cardiovascular measures, overall prevention should include recommendations to reduce alcohol and tobacco consumption and improve stress, education levels, and physical activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Alcohol drinking pattern and subjective health in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranges, Saverio; Notaro, James; Freudenheim, Jo L; Calogero, Rachel M; Muti, Paola; Farinaro, Eduardo; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H; Trevisan, Maurizio

    2006-09-01

    Some patterns of alcohol consumption (e.g. binge drinking, drinking outside of meals) have been associated with detrimental effects on health outcomes. Subjective health provides a global assessment of health status and is a strong predictor of total mortality; however, little is known about its relationship with alcohol drinking pattern. The association between several drinking patterns (i.e. drinking intensity and frequency, frequency of intoxication, drinking outside of meals, and beverage type) and subjective health was examined in a random sample of 3586 women and men. A population-based cross-sectional study. Subjective health was assessed using the physical and mental health component summaries of the Short Form-36 health survey questionnaire. Alcohol consumption refers to the 30 days before the interview. Analysis of covariance compared gender-specific mean scores across alcohol drinking patterns. Overall, non-current drinkers reported poorer physical and mental health than life-time abstainers and current drinkers, while no consistent differences were found between life-time abstainers and current drinkers. In female current drinkers, daily drinking, beer and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better mental health. In male current drinkers, moderate alcohol consumption (2-2.9 drinks per day), wine and mixed beverage consumption were associated with better physical health. Intoxication and liquor consumption were associated with poorer mental health in women and poorer physical health in men. No consistent associations were found for drinking outside meals. Aspects of drinking pattern may affect subjective health differentially in women and men. Overall, intoxication and liquor drinking are associated with poorer self-perceived health status than regular, moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages.

  6. Impact of a lifestyle program on vascular insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome subjects: the RESOLVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, Agnes; Obert, Philippe; Dutheil, Frederic; Diagne, Lamine; Chapier, Robert; Lesourd, Bruno; Courteix, Daniel; Walther, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    Impaired insulin-dependent vasodilation might contribute to microvascular dysfunction of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to assess the insulin vasoreactivity in MetS, and to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle program. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Laser Doppler measurements were used to assess cutaneous blood flux (CBF) and flowmotion in response to iontophoresis of insulin and acetylcholine (ACh) in 38 MetS and 18 controls. Anthropometric, plasma insulin, glycemia, and inflammatory markers were measured. MetS subjects (n = 24) underwent a 6-month lifestyle intervention (M6) with a 3-week residential program (D21). The absolute and relative peak insulin and ACh CBF were significantly higher in controls than in MetS subjects. Significant inverse correlations were found between peak insulin CBF and glycemia, insulin and glycated hemoglobin, active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and IL-6. With respect to flowmotion, MetS subjects showed lower values in total spectrum CBF and in all its components (except respiratory one). At D21 and M6, peak insulin CBF increased and was no longer different from control values whereas peak ACh CBF did not change. From D21, all the different components and the total CBF spectrum became similar to the control values. The changes in peak insulin CBF and in endothelial component between M6 and baseline were inversely correlated with the change in CRP and PAI-1. The local vasodilatory effects to insulin and its overall flowmotion are impaired in MetS subjects in relation to inflammation. The lifestyle intervention reversed this insulin-induced vascular dysfunction in parallel to decreased inflammation level.

  7. Randomized pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction studies of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shampa; Li, Jianguo; Armstrong, Jon; Learoyd, Maria; Edeki, Timi

    2015-10-01

    We assessed pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftazidime-avibactam administered ± metronidazole, and whether drug-drug interactions exist between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. The first study (NCT01430910) involved two cohorts of healthy subjects. Cohort 1 received ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg) as a single infusion or as multiple intravenous infusions over 11 days to evaluate ceftazidime-avibactam pharmacokinetics. Cohort 2 received ceftazidime, avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days to assess drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam. The second study (NCT01534247) assessed interaction between ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole in subjects receiving ceftazidime-avibactam (2000-500 mg), metronidazole (500 mg), or metronidazole followed by ceftazidime-avibactam over 4 days. In all studies, subjects received a single-dose on the first and final days, and multiple-doses every 8 h on intervening days. Concentration-time profiles for ceftazidime and avibactam administered as single- or multiple-doses separately or together with/without metronidazole were similar. There was no evidence of time-dependent pharmacokinetics or accumulation. In both interaction studies, 90% confidence intervals for geometric least squares mean ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentrations for each drug were within the predefined interval (80-125%) indicating no drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. There were no safety concerns. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters and safety of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole were similar after single and multiple doses with no observed drug-drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole.

  8. Randomized pharmacokinetic and drug–drug interaction studies of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shampa; Li, Jianguo; Armstrong, Jon; Learoyd, Maria; Edeki, Timi

    2015-01-01

    We assessed pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ceftazidime–avibactam administered ± metronidazole, and whether drug–drug interactions exist between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime-avibactam and metronidazole. The first study (NCT01430910) involved two cohorts of healthy subjects. Cohort 1 received ceftazidime–avibactam (2000–500 mg) as a single infusion or as multiple intravenous infusions over 11 days to evaluate ceftazidime–avibactam pharmacokinetics. Cohort 2 received ceftazidime, avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam over 4 days to assess drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam. The second study (NCT01534247) assessed interaction between ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole in subjects receiving ceftazidime–avibactam (2000–500 mg), metronidazole (500 mg), or metronidazole followed by ceftazidime–avibactam over 4 days. In all studies, subjects received a single-dose on the first and final days, and multiple-doses every 8 h on intervening days. Concentration-time profiles for ceftazidime and avibactam administered as single- or multiple-doses separately or together with/without metronidazole were similar. There was no evidence of time-dependent pharmacokinetics or accumulation. In both interaction studies, 90% confidence intervals for geometric least squares mean ratios of area under the curve and maximum plasma concentrations for each drug were within the predefined interval (80–125%) indicating no drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole. There were no safety concerns. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic parameters and safety of ceftazidime, avibactam, and metronidazole were similar after single and multiple doses with no observed drug–drug interaction between ceftazidime and avibactam, or ceftazidime–avibactam and metronidazole. PMID:26516584

  9. [Exploratory population study of overweight and obese subjects' perceptions: Searching for improved management practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutze, C; Pétré, B; Dardenne, N; Donneau, A-F; Streel, S; Albert, A; Scheen, A; Husson, E; Guillaume, M

    2017-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health problems of growing concern. Few studies have investigated the representations and perceptions of subjects with overweight and obesity, especially in the general population, as compared to people in a medical weight loss process. The objective of this study was to fill this gap by enabling participants to express their feelings and experience about their overweight, and to assess the extent of the body mass index (BMI) as a determinant of these perceptions. A total of 4155 persons participated in an exploratory study conducted in Wallonia (Belgium). Data were collected by means of a web-based questionnaire. This study investigated the following parameters: sociodemographic and anthropometric factors, perceived health, quality of life, diet perception, enrolment in a weight loss process and weight loss target. The influence of BMI was considered, on one hand, looking at how the above variables evolve according to BMI category, secondly, as a mediation factor in the relationship between socioeconomic level and these same variables. A large majority (87.5%) of subjects were overweight (32.2%) or obese (obese class I 29.9%, class II 14.8%, class III 10.6%). Perceived health was found to deteriorate with the BMI (Ppsychological quality of life reported by the subjects decreased significantly with the BMI (Presignation and powerlessness which can seize obese individuals (especially when BMI increases). As a consequence, there is a need for more adapted weight management to achieve a genuine therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Glycemic markers and relation with arterial stiffness in Caucasian subjects of the MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Effect of prediabetes and normal glucose on arterial stiffness remains controversial. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial glucose (PG and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in Caucasian adults. The secondary aim was to analyse this relationship by glycaemic status.Cross-sectional study. Setting: Primary care. Participants: 2,233 subjects, 35-74 years. Measures: FPG (mg/dL and HbA1c (% of all subjects were measured using standard automated enzymatic methods. PG (mg/dL was self-measured at home two hours after meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner for one day using an Accu-chek ® glucometer. CAVI was measured using a VaSera VS-1500® device (Fukuda Denshi, and baPWV was calculated using a validated equation.CAVI and baPWV values were significantly higher in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in glucose normal and prediabetes groups (p<0.001. FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV. The β regression coefficient for: HbA1c was 0.112 (CI 95% 0.068 to 0.155 with CAVI, 0.266 (CI 95% 0.172 to 0.359 with baPWV; for PG was 0.006 (CI 95% 0.004 to 0.009 and for FPG was 0.005 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.008 with baPWV; and for PG was 0.002 (CI 95% 0.001 to 0.003 and 0.003 (CI 95% 0.002 to 0.004 with CAVI (p<0.01 in all cases. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, FPG, PG and HbA1c were positively associated with CAVI and baPWV in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.FPG, PG and HbA1c show a positive association with CAVI and baPWV, in Caucasian adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors. When analysing by hyperglycaemic status, the association is only maintained in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01428934. Registered 2 September 2011. Retrospectively registered. Last updated September 8, 2016.

  11. Post-Structuralist Potentialities for Studies of Subjectivity and Second Language Learning in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a proliferation of studies investigating, complicating, and reimagining the relationship between second language learning and identity. Yet, with only a handful of exceptions, these studies are limited to adolescent and adult second language learners. In this article, the author proposes that identity research with…

  12. Virtuous Subjects: A Critical Analysis of the Affective Substance of Social Studies Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmsing, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…

  13. Understanding the Subjective Experiences of the Chief Diversity Officer: A Q Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravley-Stack, Kara; Ray, Chris M.; Peterson, Claudette M.

    2016-01-01

    The research presented within this study focuses on the work of postsecondary institutional leaders, chief diversity officers (CDOs), who are change agents within the academy to address historical inequalities in education. Applying the Inclusive Excellence Change Model as the theoretical framework to guide this Q Method study, the researchers…

  14. FY 2000 research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices. R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables and faults current limiters, R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications, and study on the total systems and related subjects; 2000 nendo koryu chodendo denryoku kiki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo soden cable kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo genryuki kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, denryokuyo chodendo magnet no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices has been started, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables include grasping the mechanical characteristics associated with integration necessary for fabrication of large current capacity and long cables; development of barrier cable materials by various methods; and development of short insulated tubes as cooling technology for long superconducting cables, and grasping its thermal/mechanical characteristics. The R and D of faults current limiters include introduction of the unit for superconducting film fabrication, determination of the structures and layouts for large currents, and improvement of performance of each device for high voltages. R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications include grasping the fundamental characteristics of insulation at cryogenic temperature, completion of the insulation designs for high voltage/current lead bushing, and development of prototype sub-cooled nitrogen cooling unit for cooling each AC power device. Study on the total systems and related subjects include analysis for stabilization of the group model systems, to confirm improved voltage stability when the superconducting cable is in service. (NEDO)

  15. Bariatric Surgery and the Incidence of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis in the Swedish Obese Subjects Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglio, Cristina; Peltonen, Markku; Rudin, Anna; Carlsson, Lena M S

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bariatric surgery (vertical gastroplasty, gastric banding, or gastric bypass) compared with usual care on the incidence of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the Swedish Obese Subjects study. This report includes 1,991 subjects who underwent bariatric surgery and 2,018 controls with obesity from the SOS study; none of them had psoriasis or PsA at baseline. Information about psoriasis and PsA diagnosis was retrieved through the Swedish National Patient Register and questionnaires. During follow-up for up to 26 years, bariatric surgery was associated with a lower incidence of psoriasis compared with usual care (number of events = 174; hazard ratio 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47-0.89; P = 0.008). Both smoking and a longer duration of obesity were independently associated with a higher risk for psoriasis. No significant difference was detected among the three surgical procedures in terms of lowering the risk of developing psoriasis. The association between bariatric surgery and psoriasis incidence was not influenced by baseline confounders. No significant difference in the risk of developing PsA (number of events = 46) was detected when comparing the surgery and the control groups. This study shows that bariatric surgery is associated with a lower risk of developing psoriasis compared with usual care. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  16. Suppression of gastric acid with intravenous esomeprazole and omeprazole: results of 3 studies in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhss, K; Wilder-Smith, C; Kilhamn, J; Fjellman, M; Lind, T

    2007-06-01

    To identify the optimal pharmacodynamic dosing regimen for esomeprazole administered intravenously (i.v.) and to compare acid suppression with various esomeprazole i.v. and omeprazole i.v. dosing regimens. A total of 90 healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative subjects participated in three randomized, crossover studies of esomeprazole i.v. Comparative acid output study: an open-label study that compared single 40 mg i.v. doses (administered over 30 min) of esomeprazole and omeprazole. Dose-ranging study: an open-label study that compared acid control with five different doses of esomeprazole i.v., administered over 24 h. Comparative pH study: a double-blind study that compared esomeprazole i.v. and omeprazole at doses of 80 mg (over 30 min) + 8 mg/h (for 23.5 h). In the comparative acid output study, estimated mean pentagastrin-stimulated acid output was reduced from 33.9 mmol/h at baseline to 5.4 mmol/h at 4 - 5.5 h with esomeprazole vs. 9.5 mmol/h with omeprazole (p 6 (12.6 h) than the lower doses (11.0 and 10.7 h for 40 + 8 mg/h and 80 + 4 mg/h, respectively) and significantly more time with pH > 4 (21.5 vs. 19.7 and 19.2 h, respectively; p 4 was similar between esomeprazole (21.4 h) and omeprazole (21.1 h). Esomeprazole was superior to omeprazole in reducing stimulated acid secretion. Control of intragastric pH was similar for esomeprazole and omeprazole at a dose of 80 + 8 mg/h. An esomeprazole i.v. dosage regimen of 80 + 8 mg/h appeared to be optimal for acid suppression in healthy subjects under study.

  17. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism during sevoflurane anaesthesia in healthy subjects studied with positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlünzen, L; Juul, N; Hansen, K V

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts its effects in the human brain remains unknown. In the present study, we quantified the effects of sevoflurane on regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rGMR) in the human brain measured with positron emission tomography. METHODS: Eight...... monitored and bispectral index responses were registered. Statistical parametric maps and conventional regions of interest analysis were used to determine rGMR differences. RESULTS: All subjects were unconsciousness at 1.0 MAC sevoflurane. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters were constant over time...

  18. A descriptive study of the oral status in subjects with Sjögren’s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olate, Sergio; Muñoz, Daniella; Neumann, Stephanie; Pozzer, Leandro; Cavalieri-Pereira, Lucas; de Moraes, Márcio

    2014-01-01

    Sjögren’s Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune pathology of varying prevalence. Its involvement in exocrine glands requires that greater attention be paid to patients’ oral health. A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the oral health of subjects with SS in constant medical follow-ups. Variables such as the presence of periodontal infections, decay and alterations in the oral mucosa were analyzed, and the individual’s salivary flow was measured. The data were analyzed descriptively and wit...

  19. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase in subjects of Mediterranean origin. A family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerli, G C; Mongiat, R; Gualandri, V; Orsini, G B; Porta, E

    1984-01-01

    Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was assayed in subjects of Mediterranean origin and the distribution of the data obtained seems to confirm the existence of two alleles coding for low and high enzyme activity. In order to define the limits of expected genotypes less arbitrarily we studied families where parents' genotypes could allow us to define that of the children. Gene frequencies were calculated from genotype frequencies of an unrelated population and from crossings distribution by the Hardy-Weinberg equation. We observed a good agreement between gene frequencies obtained by these two different methods.

  20. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  1. Radiological research in Europe: a bibliometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mela, G.S. [Department of Internal Medicine, DIMI, University of Genoa, Largo R. Benzi, 8, 16132 Genova (Italy); Martinoli, C.; Poggi, E.; Derchi, L.E. [Department of Radiology, DICMI, University of Genoa, Largo R. Benzi, 8, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    an important issue for the scientific research community. Although not flawless, and often criticized for a variety of reasons, citation analysis is a commonly used technique in this field, is a frequent means to ''weight'' the scientific production of researchers and is one of the criteria used to assign research grants. Our study shows that European radiology is growing and its production is increasing over time, thus indicating strong commitment to research from European radiologists; however, European radiological research has not yet reached leadership in the literature, and mean indexes addressing the level of resources allocated to research are lower in Europe than in the U.S. This latter point has notable exceptions, but indicates inadequacy of funding, at least in some nations, and in Europe as a whole. The development of research programs within the framework of the European Union specifically aimed to radiology could lead to further advancement of our discipline. (orig.)

  2. Case studies of patient safety research classics to build research capacity in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andermann, Anne; Wu, Albert W; Lashoher, Angela; Norton, Peter; Arora, Narendra Kumar; Bates, David W; Larizgoitia, Itziar

    2013-12-01

    Strengthening research capacity is a key priority and rate-limiting step for conducting patient safety research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, but also in other settings where such research is currently limited. Case studies of classic publications in patient safety research were therefore developed as part of a larger strategy aimed at increasing the knowledge base and building the research capacity required for making health care safer and reducing harm to patients. A multistep method was used to develop the case studies, which involved developing a theoretical framework for classifying patient safety research articles; purposively selecting articles to illustrate a range of research methods and study designs; and involving the articles' lead authors to provide context, review the summaries, and offer advice to future patient safety researchers. The series of patient safety research case studies used 17 examples to illustrate how different research methods and study designs can be used to answer different types of research questions across five stages of the research cycle: (1) measuring harm, (2) understanding causes, (3) identifying solutions, (4) evaluating impact, and (5) translating evidence into safer care. No single study design or research method is better in all circumstances. Choosing the most appropriate method and study design depends on the stage in the research cycle, the objectives, the research question, the subject area, the setting, and the resources available. Beyond serving as didactic tools in assisting future leaders in patient safety research to build up their own competencies, the case studies help to illuminate the burgeoning field of patient safety research as a an important vehicle for reducing patient harm and improving health outcomes worldwide.

  3. Environmental Studies Research Funds : annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    The Environmental Studies Research Funds (ESRF) was created to finance environmental and social studies pertaining to the manner in which petroleum exploration, development and production activities on frontier lands should be conducted. ESRF is directed by a 12 member management board with representatives from the federal government, regional petroleum boards, the oil and gas industry, and the general public. The ESRF management board sets priorities for study topics, determines the program budget and facilitates the development of study proposals on behalf of the Minister of Natural Resources Canada and the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. In 2000, thee new studies were approved with a total value of $480,000. In addition to these 3 new studies, the ESRF 2000 study program included three continuing studies. The 6 studies were: (1) practical considerations for cumulative effects monitoring and assessment in Eastern Canadian offshore areas, (2) effects of seismic exploration on the east coast fishery, (3) seabird attraction to offshore platforms and seabird monitoring from offshore support vessels and other ships, (4) updating the CSA offshore structure standards, (5) identification of ecologically and commercially important areas in the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, and (6) abstracting of existing studies and reports related to the oil and gas development in the North. This report also included a financial statement of the ESRF for 2000 along with plans for 2001 and a list of ESRF reports published since its inception in 1983.

  4. Tire Crumb Research Study Literature Review / Gap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to more fully understand data gaps in human exposure and toxicity to tire crumb materials, ATSDR, CPSC and EPA undertook a collaborative effort in the form of a scientific literature review and subsequent gaps analysis. The first objective of the Literature Review and Gap Analysis (LRGA) collaboration was to identify the existing body of literature related specifically to human exposure to tire crumb materials through the use of synthetic turf athletic fields and playgrounds. The second objective was to characterize and summarize the relevant data from the scientific literature. The final objective was to review the summary information and identify data gaps to build on the current understanding of the state-of-the-science and inform the development of specific research efforts that would be most impactful in the near-term. Because of the need for additional information, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) launched a multi-agency action plan to study key environmental human health questions. The Federal Research Action Plan includes numerous activities, including research studies (U.S. EPA, 2016). A key objective of the Action Plan is to identify key knowledge gaps.

  5. A Q-Methodology Study of Patients’ Subjective Experiences of TIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Spurgeon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. An expanding body of research has focused on a range of consequences of TIA. However, no work has been conducted on the patient’s subjective experience of TIA. Aim. To capture patients’ first-hand experiences of TIA. Method. Using Q-methodology which employs both qualitative and quantitative approaches, 39 statements relating to the clinical, physical, affective, and psychological impact of TIA were distilled from the literature and from patient narratives. Consistent with conventional Q-methodology, a purposive sample of twentythree post-TIA patients sorted these statements into a normally-distributed 39-cell grid, according to the extent to which each represented their experience of TIA. Results. Casewise factoranalysis was conducted on the sorted statements. Eight factors emerged which were labelled: lack of knowledge/awareness of TIA; life impact; anxiety; interpersonal impact; depression; physical consequences; cognitive avoidance/denial; constructive optimism. Conclusions. Five of the eight factors confirmed existing research on the impact of TIA, but three new issues emerged: deep-seated anxiety, denial and constructive optimism. The emerging perspectives highlight areas to target in the management of TIA and could inform health education messages, patient information, individualised caremanagement, and enhancement of coping strategies. With development, the findings could be used as a basis for psychometric risk assessment of TIA patients.

  6. [Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio G; Pessolano, Fernando A; Suárez, Adrián A; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC) was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga), esophageal pressure (Pes), thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max). Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi) were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP), abdominal pattern (AP) and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1) The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2) Only with 6 kg (NP and AP) the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001), 3) the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects). Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  7. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation...

  8. Mapping Translation Technology Research in Translation Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne; Christensen, Tina Paulsen; Flanagan, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Due to the growing uptake of translation technology in the language industry and its documented impact on the translation profession, translation students and scholars need in-depth and empirically founded knowledge of the nature and influences of translation technology (e.g. Christensen...... section aims to improve this situation by presenting new and innovative research papers that reflect on recent technological advances and their impact on the translation profession and translators from a diversity of perspectives and using a variety of methods. In Section 2, we present translation....../Schjoldager 2010, 2011; Christensen 2011). Unfortunately, the increasing professional use of translation technology has not been mirrored within translation studies (TS) by a similar increase in research projects on translation technology (Munday 2009: 15; O’Hagan 2013; Doherty 2016: 952). The current thematic...

  9. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  10. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  11. Topical advances and recent studies in paleolimnological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Whitmore

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Paleolimnology combines the disciplines of limnology, geology and ecology, but because of challenges that separate investigators from direct knowledge about past lake conditions, the field is multidisciplinary by necessity. As a result, paleolimnology is influenced continuously by advances in many disciplines. As with limnological studies in recent decades, paleolimnology has diverged largely from the ecological and theoretical focuses of early investigators, but recent studies demonstrate the need for more integration of ecological and paleolimnological research. This paper provides a brief overview of recent paleolimnological investigations that have addressed questions related to theoretical ecology, as well as applied lake-management and climate research issues. We examine the use of transfer function models for estimating past water-quality conditions, and important caveats expressed by investigators about limitations in the development and use of such models. Paleolimnological research has contributed new insights about biological, physical and chemical processes in lakes that have been subject to change because of climate drivers and anthropogenic influences. These findings are relevant to predicting how lakes will respond to climate change, and will require new management approaches in the future. As the range of paleolimnological studies expands, there will be greater need for basic limnological research in order for paleolimnological investigators to better understand how sediments reflect lake processes of those regions.

  12. Authorship Trends and Collaborative Research in Veterinary Sciences: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda Arya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the collaboration in research and authorship trend in the area of veterinary sciences all over the world with special reference to India. The study is based on the data collected from ‘CABI abstracts” for the period of 2006-2010. The findings of the study revealed that collaborative research has been preferred by the scientists over that of solitary research. Average degree of collaboration was found 0.84, which also indicates dominance of collaborative research over solo research. Subject analysis showed a good research in the area of animal nutrition and veterinary physiology.

  13. Study regarding the relevance of the accounting subjects in the economic vocational training of non-accountant specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Bădicu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The responsibility for the skills of specialists in the economic field belongs to universities, which, by modernizing the curriculum, must take into account the requirements of the professional environment (employers, where the role of the economic specialist extends beyond narrow knowledge, flexibility and high capacity to address various problems. From this perspective, in order to enhance the role of the academic environment and to develop the professional skills of the graduating economists, it is necessary to correlate the competencies and the requirements about educational outcomes. With regard to the relevance of the accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accountant economic specialists, given the competing interests of universities, students and employers in the field of education, we proposed a debate with the view to design strategies of accounting education in the higher economic education of the Republic of Moldova. The article represents a study based on the documentation of the university curriculum in undergraduate programs. With the view to test and validate the necessity of studying accounting subjects in the professional training of non-accounting economic specialists, a questionnaire was developed and implemented. The general research idea refers to the need to study accounting in economic education and practice, which could have an impact over the competitiveness of the Economics graduate.

  14. Single-subject design study of 2 types of supramalleolar orthoses for young children with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Janna S; Martin, Kathy S; Miller, Ellen W

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 2 types of supramalleolar orthoses on gross motor skills of young children with Down syndrome. Two children participated in this prospective single-subject, alternating treatment design with 3 conditions: baseline phase with shoes but without orthoses (A), first intervention phase (B1), and second intervention phase (B2). The Gross Motor Function Measure was used to collect data on motor skills. The 2-standard deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both children demonstrated improvement, using the SureStep compared to shoes only, and 1 child also improved with the DAFO #4. Both families chose to continue using the SureStep at the conclusion of the study. Orthoses for young children with Down syndrome continue to be the standard of care; however, research has yet to confirm the most effective type of orthosis or when developmentally to introduce orthoses.

  15. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between eslicarbazepine acetate and lamotrigine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L; Nunes, T; Sicard, E; Rocha, J-F; Falcão, A; Brunet, J-S; Lefebvre, M; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2010-04-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs are often used in combination. Both eslicarbazepine (main metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate, ESL) and lamotrigine undergo conjugation with glucuronic acid, and both eslicarbazepine and its glucuronide and lamotrigine glucuronide undergo extensive renal elimination; therefore, there is a potential for interaction. This study investigated the interaction between ESL and lamotrigine in healthy subjects. Open-label study in two parallel groups of 16 healthy volunteers each. After an 8-day treatment with ESL or lamotrigine, ESL (1200 mg once-daily) and lamotrigine (150 mg once-daily) were co-administered for 19 days. Geometric mean ratios (GMR) and 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve in the dosing interval (AUC(0-24)) were calculated for eslicarbazepine (ESL active metabolite) and lamotrigine. The C(max) and AUC(0-24) GMR (90% CI) were, respectively, 95% (87-102%) and 96% (91-102%) for eslicarbazepine, and 88% (82-94%) and 86% (81-92%) for lamotrigine. The 90% CI of the C(max) and AUC(0-24) GMR fell within the prespecified acceptance interval (80-125%) both for eslicarbazepine and lamotrigine. There was no significant pharmacokinetic interaction between ESL and lamotrigine in healthy subjects. Therefore, no dosage adjustment appears to be usually required in either lamotrigine or ESL when the drugs are co-administered.

  16. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  17. Research study for an entrepreneurship practical guide

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, João

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a research study, which is aimed to be published later, in the form of a practical guide for those who have an idea and plan to go one step forward on the creation of a brand and/or a business. The main questions addressed are regarding the main concerns of an entrepreneur, identifiying the main topics that an entrepreneur's practical guide must approach. This work aims to provide relevant and important insights for those who want to start a business, taking i...

  18. A pilot study of subjective well-being in colorectal cancer patients and their caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Janet Graham,1 Pavlina Spiliopoulou,1 Rob Arbuckle,2 Julie Ann Bridge,3 James Cassidy1 1Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson, West of Scotland Cancer Center, Glasgow, UK, 2Adelphi Values, Adelphi Mill Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK; 3Eli Lilly Pty Ltd., West Ryde, NSW, Australia Background: Traditional endpoints in oncology are based on measuring the tumor size and combining this with a time factor. Current studies with immunotherapy show that even when median survival is unaltered, a significant proportion of patients can achieve prolonged survival. Objective tumor response does not always mean “overall” improvement, especially if toxicity is harsh. Novel agents are significantly expensive, and it is therefore crucial to measure the impact on “quality” of life, in addition to “quantity”.Materials and methods: We studied the preferences and experiences of cancer patients and their caregivers, measuring subjective well-being (SWB ratings, EQ5D descriptions and time trade-off preferences.Results: We studied 99 patients and 88 caregivers. Life satisfaction ratings were similar between the two groups, but daily mood was significantly lower in caregivers (P<0.1. Anxiety/depression affected SWB, while pain and mobility did not. Positive thoughts about health were associated with better daily moods in both groups, and stage IV cancer was associated with lower life satisfaction. Cancer in remission was associated with better daily moods, but, interestingly, not with patient life satisfaction. Patients with better daily mood and positive thoughts about family were less willing to “trade-off” life years.Conclusion: Caregivers are as anxious or depressed as patients, and report similar levels of life satisfaction but lower daily mood. A focus on SWB could provide a valid assessment of treatment benefit. Given the interesting results of this pilot study, we suggest a larger study should be conducted, measuring SWB over time. Keywords

  19. Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: A study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Låftman, Sara Brolin; Bergström, Malin; Modin, Bitte; Östberg, Viveca

    2014-07-01

    Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents' homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15-16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening fMRI Study on 113 Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompus, Kristiina; Specht, Karsten; Ersland, Lars; Juvodden, Hilde T.; van Wageningen, Heidi; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Westerhausen, Rene

    2012-01-01

    We report fMRI and behavioral data from 113 subjects on attention and cognitive control using a variant of the classic dichotic listening paradigm with pairwise presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. The syllable stimuli were presented in a block-design while subjects were in the MR scanner. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to…