WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject research focus

  1. Focus group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael

    2015-05-13

    A focus group is usually understood as a group of people brought together by a researcher to interact as a group. Focus group research explicitly uses interaction as part of its methodology. This article summarises the practice of running focus groups, explores the nature of focus group data and provides an example of focus group analysis.

  2. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic......Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  3. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  4. Research in focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This section presents a brief review of articles on dental implants considered of special interest for the reader, in order to encourage the development of research, the interest for data analysis and the attention to scientific publications. Your comments are welcome. Please contact Dr Michele Nieri at michelenieri@gmail.com.

  5. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  6. Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzinger, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say.

  7. Focus on nuclear fusion research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, Petr; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2011), s. 62-63 ISSN 0375-8842 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * COMPASS * fusion energy * tokamak * EURATOM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ipp.cas.cz/Tokamak/clanky/energetika_COMPASS.pdf

  8. Researching Risk: Narrative, Biography, Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Henwood

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to the development of methodological practices promoting greater epistemic reflexivity in risk research and in social science generally. Knowledge of the specific practices researchers will find useful cannot exist separately from any particular empirical project. Accordingly, we report on, and provide a reflective account of, the "nuclear risk" project that was part of the Social Contexts and Responses to Risk (SCARR network in the UK (2003-2008. A key focus is exploring the value of narrative methods—especially narrative elicitation methods—for understanding people's perceptions of, and ways of living with, risk. We credit our deployment of a narrative method with producing a rich form of data on risk-biography intersections, which have carried great significance in our analytical work on the way biographical experiences, dynamically unfolding through space and time, can be interrupted by risk events. Arguments from the literature on reflexive modernity are deployed to make the case for: researching risk in everyday life as a problematic in and of itself; placing concepts of risk-biography, risk-reflexivity and risk-subjectivity at centre stage; and finding ways to inquire into the social and psychic complexities involved in the dynamic construction and reconstruction of risk phenomena. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001201

  9. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  10. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Sergienko

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The traditional method of subjective refractometry with application of trial lenses was developed on the basis of data of large optical aberrations and significant depth of focus which values should be taken into account during interpretation of results of subjective refractometry. Our data regarding to prevalence of emmetropic refraction falls in line with basic science provisions in respect of the physiology of the eye.

  11. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Nikolai M.; Gromova, Anastasia; Sergienko, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the impact of the depth of focus on subjective refraction and distribution of myopic and hyperopic refractions. Methods A total of 450 eyes of 305 subjects in the age range of 23–34 years were recruited for the study. A distribution of refractions was examined using a traditional method of the subjective refractometry on the basis of point-like posterior focus notion. Correction of the results was made on the assumption that the emmetropic eye retains high visual acuity when applying convex lenses with values which are fewer or equal to the depth of focus values. The following values of the depth of focus were used: ±0.55 D, ±0.35 D and ±0.2 D for visual acuity 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Results Application of the traditional method of refractometry produced the following occurrence of refractions: hypermetropia 59.3%, myopia 22% and emmetropia 18.7%. After correction of the initial results of values of the depth of focus the distribution of refractions was as follows: hypermetropia 12.7%, myopia 22% and emmetropia 65.3%. Conclusion The traditional method of subjective refractometry with application of trial lenses was developed on the basis of data of large optical aberrations and significant depth of focus which values should be taken into account during interpretation of results of subjective refractometry. Our data regarding to prevalence of emmetropic refraction falls in line with basic science provisions in respect of the physiology of the eye.

  12. Focus groups in research in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Šarić

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of literature concerning the use of focus groups in research in psychology. Particulary, some specific problems with the implementation of focus groups as a researchmethod are emphasised, and some characteristics of analysis of focus group data are discussed. The main objectives are to define focus groups as a method of data collection, to draw attention to someparticularities of its use in psychological research and to encourage researchers to use focus groups as thoughtfully and meaningfully as possible.

  13. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  14. Subject to Form: Research Interviews, Performative Subjectivity, Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigianides, Sophia Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I analyze teacher, literacy coach and researcher subjectivities in a five-year study of on-site professional development with middle-grade Language Arts teachers in a school designated by its district and state as severely underperforming. Interested in the role of research interviews as both research method and cultural…

  15. Focus groups in nursing research: methodological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Rasika S

    2012-01-01

    Focus groups have been increasingly used as a data collection method in nursing research. The key feature of focus groups is the active interaction among participants to explore their views and opinions. In this respect, focus groups are distinct from other methods such as Delphi groups, nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus panels, which seek to determine a consensus between participants. Compared with other data collection methods, it can be concluded that the real strength of focus groups is not simply in exploring what participants have to say, but in providing insights into the sources of complex behaviors and motivations. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the focus group as a research tool in nursing research, particularly in nursing education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Scope: National. NPS Focus Digital Library and Research Station information system manages images and archives of images as well as documents described by linked...

  17. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  18. Research Assistant Training Manual: Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This manual is a practical training guide for graduate and undergraduate research assistants (RAs) working in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to research assistants working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to train RAs on how to plan and conduct focus groups for…

  19. CELEBRATING OUR SUBJECTIVITY: Research as Lived Experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When we celebrate our subjectivity we are learning new ways of telling our research tales. The research becomes a ... This paper is a celebration of learning from my research at two levels. the personal and the professional. ... some value hack into their lives. (Chairperson and parent speaking at the. Annual Let Laverton ...

  20. NEESPI focus issues in Environmental Research Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julian; Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2010-05-01

    In 2007 and 2009 Environmental Research Letters published focus issues (edited by Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja) made up of work carried out by NEESPI participants. Here, we present the content of those focus issues as an invaluable resource for researchers working in the NEESPI study area. The first of the two issues, published in 2007 with title 'Northern Hemisphere High Latitude Climate and Environmental Change', presents a diverse collection of articles that are assembled into five groups devoted to studies of climate and hydrology, land cover and land use, the biogeochemical cycle and its feedbacks, the cryosphere, and human dimensions. The second issue, published in 2009, with title 'Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia' presents diverse, assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia.

  1. Toward a common focus in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David N

    2012-12-01

    Documenting the schisms in clinical psychology, the author suggests that clinical scientists lay aside theoretical allegiances and work together by adopting a common focus in psychotherapy research on the determinants of effectiveness. Citing evidence showing that personal and interpersonal factors are primary determinants of effectiveness, the author suggests that humanism, broadly defined, provides the best philosophical and theoretical "home" for psychotherapy. Based on the evidence presented in the article, the author describes the revolutionary changes that must occur in research, training, and practice to bring clinical psychology into alignment with the findings of contemporary science. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. BIOENERGIA - Focus on wood in bioenergy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [Jyvaeskylae Science Park, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The most important area of research on wood fuel production is the development of various methods, machines and systems connected to this area, in order to produce economically competitive fuels. The integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to wood products industry and wood fuel for energy production, have been chosen the main research area because they seem to be most promising. The growing amount of small-sized trees ant the need of their first thinnings have created a demand for new harvesting methods. At the moment the economical aspects restrict the harvesting of the first thinning trees either for industrial use or energy production. Research on peat production focuses on the complete use of a bog and on the development of peat production methods and machines. Development work in this area aims at decreasing production costs and also at reducing the drainage water and other elements in environmental load around the peat production sites. The use of bioenergy research will be focused on the small-scale (<20 MW{sub th},) applications. In the long term, the increase of bioenergy in heating of small houses and farms and buildings, as well as in the production of heat and power has been estimated. Research into the conversion of biomass is concentrated on the production of biomass-based liquid fuels

  3. Single-Subject Research in Gifted Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Brandi; Little, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Single-subject research (SSR) is an experimental research tradition that is well established in other fields (e.g., special education, behavior analysis) but has rarely been applied to topics in gifted education. In this Methodological Brief, Brandi Simonsen and Catherine A. Little from the University of Connecticut highlight the key features of…

  4. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  5. Research Education: Perspectives and subjective processes involved in educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm H. Tillema

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Educational research acknowledges that researcher’s beliefs and training play a role in framing the outcomes of any study. Research not only consists of defining objectives and following certain methods (search but also of making decisions over the steps taking during the inquiry process (research.Establishing a conceptual framework to guide actions on the subjective processes in research is then crucial to control them. With that purpose in mind we offer researchers and Teacher Educators a heuristic tool to be conscious on the risks that can be taken when immersed in research interpretative process. This instrument could be utilised in PhD programs, masters and research projects.

  6. Female Entrepreneurship as Subject of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almiralva Ferraz Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s main goal is to study the literature produced about “female entrepreneurship”, so as to scrutinize and deepen scientific reasoning referring to women entrepreneurs whilst investigating the degree of theoretical consolidation this field of knowledge has achieved. To this end, and from a critical perspective, we assessed research published in Brazilian and international journals from 1970 on, so as to offer a systematic review of the object in focus. Despite the contributions given by previous research – which does, after all, provide us with relevant information and data concerning women entrepreneurs –, most of it merely describes small segments of the female entrepreneur population, and does not advance in applying or developing theories. Moreover, in most cases, research was quantitative and empirical and attempted to draw a “profile” of women entrepreneurs. Few studies specifically carried out a theoretical analysis on the topic “gender”. Apparently, the main concern of many of these studies was to focus on the sexual structure of organizations and on its impact upon business activities. Thus, it seems appropriate to use new points-of-view to study the “female entrepreneurship” phenomenon – or, at least, to establish new ideas for investigation.

  7. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  8. Culturally Responsive Focus Groups: Reframing the Research Experience to Focus on Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Katrina L. Rodriguez PhD; Jana L. Schwartz PhD; Maria K. E. Lahman PhD; Monica R. Geist PhD

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups are a frequently employed and valued method of data collection in the Social Sciences. This article specifically addresses maximizing the benefits of focus groups through the framework of culturally responsive research practice. Discussion of authors' research projects which utilized focus groups are presented in order to illuminate the advantages of using culturally responsive focus groups (CRFGs) in data collection. Three types of focus groups are discussed: traditional focus g...

  9. LGBT COMMUNITY IN THE FOCUS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The LGBT community and the attitude towards it became one of the dividing factors between Russia and Europe long ago. This factor quite often creates political precedents and becomes a basis for various provocations. In the Russian mass conscience the topic, which has long been considered tabooed, today has a sensitive character; therefore classic survey methods are hardly suitable for its study; on the other hand, various projective techniques have proved to be more useful. This article presents the data of a number of Russian sociological surveys on the attitudes towards LGBT representatives and of the RUDN University Sociology Chair scientific team research on this subject. The article also presents the results of a number of focus groups aimed at identifying attitudes towards LGBT representatives and based on the application of the vignette method, which is a special type of projective techniques. The high efficiency of vignette method for the study of such a sensitive subject was proved. The method allows overcoming of some barriers in respondents’ conscience determined by the ‘radical’ character of the issues under study, and also reduces the general social pressure upon respondents. The research with the application of vignette method resembled a kind of a narrative game, therefore adapting this method to the focus group research helps to obtain more detailed and interesting data due to the group dynamics.

  10. Dream as a subject of psychological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Egorova,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the main theoretical concepts of a dream: dream definitions, ideas about its genesis, functions, dream location in the structure of activity. We analyze the similarities and differences between the approaches. The results of empirical studies of adolescent and adult dreams are generalized, dream functions in adolescence are analyzed. Based on the analysis of different approaches, we chose theoretical basis of our own research – A. Leontiev activity theory, L.S. Vygotsky concept, K. Lewin's model. We formulated and substantiated the definition of dream as emotionally colored image of the desired future, having a subjective significance. We show the significance and hypotheses of our research: 1 the content of dreams is connected not only with a situation of frustration, but also with the teenager abilities, 2 the dream is involved in regulating of values choice; 3 restoration and development of the ability to dream can be used in the practice of counseling and psychotherapy as an effective tool to help adolescents and adults

  11. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  12. User Experience Research: Modelling and Describing the Subjective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Glanznig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available User experience research in the field of human-computer interaction tries to understand how humans experience the interaction with technological artefacts. It is a young and still emerging field that exists in an area of tension. There is no consensus on how the concept of user experience should be defined or on how it should be researched. This paper focuses on two major strands of research in the field that are competing. It tries to give an overview over both and relate them to each other.Both start from the same premise: usability (focusing on performance is not enough. It is only part of the interaction with technological artefacts. And further: user experience is not very different from experience in general. Then they develop quite different accounts of the concept. While one focuses more on uncovering the objective in the subjective, on the precise and the formal, the other one stresses the ambiguous, the human and suggests to live with the subjectivity that is inherent in the concept of (user experience. One focuses more on evaluation rather than design and the other more on design than evaluation. One is a model and the other one more a framework of thought.Both can be criticised. The model can be questioned in terms of validity and the results of the other approach do not easily generalize across contexts – the reliability can be questioned. Sometimes the need for a unified view in user experience research is emphasized. While I doubt the possibility of a unified view I think it is possible to combine the two approaches. This combination has only rarely been attempted and not been critically reflected.

  13. Descriptive Analysis of Single Subject Research Designs: 1983-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Diana; Gast, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Single subject research methodology is commonly used and cited in special education courses and journals. This article reviews the types of single subject research designs published in eight refereed journals between 1983 and 2007 used to answer applied research questions. Single subject designs were categorized as withdrawal/reversal, time…

  14. Impact of astigmatism and high-order aberrations on subjective best focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Susana; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Sawides, Lucie; Hernandez, Martha; Marin, Gildas

    2015-08-01

    We studied the role of native astigmatism and ocular aberrations on best-focus setting and its shift upon induction of astigmatism in 42 subjects (emmetropes, myopes, hyperopes, with-the-rule [WTR] and against-the-rule [ATR] myopic astigmats). Stimuli were presented in a custom-developed adaptive optics simulator, allowing correction for native aberrations and astigmatism induction (+1 D; 6-mm pupil). Best-focus search consisted on randomized-step interleaved staircase method. Each subject searched best focus for four different images, and four different conditions (with/without aberration correction, with/without astigmatism induction). The presence of aberrations induced a significant shift in subjective best focus (0.4 D; p < 0.01), significantly correlated (p = 0.005) with the best-focus shift predicted from optical simulations. The induction of astigmatism produced a statistically significant shift of the best-focus setting in all groups under natural aberrations (p = 0.001), and in emmetropes and in WTR astigmats under corrected aberrations (p < 0.0001). Best-focus shift upon induced astigmatism was significantly different across groups, both for natural aberrations and AO-correction (p < 0.0001). Best focus shifted in opposite directions in WTR and ATR astigmats upon induction of astigmatism, symmetrically with respect to the best-focus shift in nonastigmatic myopes. The shifts are consistent with a bias towards vertical and horizontal retinal blur in WTR and ATR astigmats, respectively, indicating adaptation to native astigmatism.

  15. [Dementia - a relevant subject in psychiatric research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancata, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    Demographic change calls for increased efforts in dementia research. A systematic analysis of a German-speaking psychiatric journal was performed. 18.2 % of all papers published in were related to dementia and cognition. Dementia is a main issue; only papers regarding schizophrenia were more common. Health service research is largely lacking. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Rethinking the Focus Group in Media and Communications Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Peter; Livingstone, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Relates the history of the focus group as a research tool, explores its recent revival, and reappraises the method and its appropriateness for media and communications research. Argues that the focus group discussion should be regarded as a socially situated communication. Discusses the various relations this may bear toward different approaches…

  17. Methodological Aspects of Focus Groups in Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Anja P. Tausch; Natalja Menold

    2016-01-01

    Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in this specific context. For this reason, we interviewed nine researchers who had conducted focus groups in the context of a project devoted to the development of an electronic personal health record. We performed qualitative content analysis on the interview data relating to recruitment, communication between the focus g...

  18. Are depressive symptomatology and self-focused attention associated with subjective memory impairment in older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Juhee; Oh, Kyung Ja; Seo, Sang Won; Na, Duk L

    2014-04-01

    Subjective memory impairment (SMI) refers to conditions in which people complain of memory problems despite intact cognition. The primary purpose of the present study was to examine the roles of self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology in subjective memory complaints. One hundred and eight patients who visited a memory disorder clinic with complaints of memory decline, but who were found on subsequent neuropsychological assessment to have normal cognitive function, were recruited to participate in the study. The severity of subjective memory complaints was measured with the modified Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire. In addition, neuropsychological functions, self-focused attention, and depressive symptomatology were also assessed. The results showed that the severity of SMI was not significantly correlated with any of the neuropsychological test scores except for the complex figure copy. The severity of SMI, however, was significantly correlated with self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology significantly contributed to the severity of subjective memory complaints over and above the neuropsychological test performance. The interaction effects between self-focused attention/depressive symptomatology and objective memory performance on the severity of SMI were not significant. In conclusion, self-focused attention and depressive symptomatology appear to play important roles in the severity of SMI, even though it is not clear how these factors interact with objective memory performance. Clinical implications as well as limitations of the present study were discussed.

  19. Focus group interviews in nursing research: part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Focus groups are used by researchers in the social and behavioural sciences to explore phenomena and are accepted as a legitimate qualitative methodology. The primary goal of focus groups is to use interaction data resulting from discussion among participants to increase the depth of the enquiry and reveal aspects of the phenomenon assumed to be otherwise less accessible. This article, the first of three articles on focus groups, examines the nature of focus groups, issues...

  20. Methodological Aspects of Focus Groups in Health Research: Results of Qualitative Interviews With Focus Group Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, Anja P; Menold, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    Although focus groups are commonly used in health research to explore the perspectives of patients or health care professionals, few studies consider methodological aspects in this specific context. For this reason, we interviewed nine researchers who had conducted focus groups in the context of a project devoted to the development of an electronic personal health record. We performed qualitative content analysis on the interview data relating to recruitment, communication between the focus group participants, and appraisal of the focus group method. The interview data revealed aspects of the focus group method that are particularly relevant for health research and that should be considered in that context. They include, for example, the preferability of face-to-face recruitment, the necessity to allow participants in patient groups sufficient time to introduce themselves, and the use of methods such as participant-generated cards and prioritization.

  1. Heuristic Inquiry: Intensifying Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lee

    1996-01-01

    Recommends using a number of qualitative research techniques, specifically for research regarding art education teaching techniques and teachers. Argues that the process of teaching and the subject of art are so subjective that researchers should embrace unabashedly qualitative approaches to research. Briefly describes these approaches. (MJP)

  2. Progress in paediatric parasitology: a preface to a topic focusing on ever younger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Chiodini, Peter; Booth, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Without realizing it perhaps, the research activities of many parasitologists are often focused upon the study of parasites most commonly found in children. Though there is little recognition of paediatric parasitology as a separate topic within medical parasitology, with the global interest in promotion of maternal and child health, alleviation of diseases associated with poverty and requirements of 'child-sized' medicines, a more formal consideration is now timely. Recent research, for example, has highlighted that defining precisely the 'first-age' at which parasites interfere with a child's health, or normal developmental processes, is being revised. Attention is now drawn towards ever younger subjects, for parasites have the capacity to also influence the health of the foetus within the in utero environment, altering immune-development. These subtle, yet evolutionary profound interactions perhaps manifest themselves as to why some children are more prone to infection(s), develop overt disease and sadly die while others do not. Here, we address the growing importance of paediatric parasitology and its applications within disease control strategies as highlighted in the 2010 Autumn Symposium of the British Society of Parasitology.

  3. Unraveling Researcher Subjectivity Through Multivocality in Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mizzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the notion of including multivocality as an autoethnographic method to: (a illustrate that there is no single and temporally-fixed voice that a researcher possesses, (b unfix identity in a way that exposes the fluid nature of identity as it moves through particular contexts, and (c deconstruct competing tensions within the autoethnographer as s/he connects the personal self to the social context. After providing a short, multivocal vignette based on the author's previous work assignment as a teacher educator in Kosovo, the author offers a reflective analysis of his approach. His analysis includes a critical discussion around the benefits and challenges of using such a method in autoethnography. The author concludes that research-oriented institutions might be resistant to validating multivocality as research practice given the myopic view that "voice" is linear, categorizable, and one-dimensional. In this way, the use of multivocality in autoethnography can also be understood as a way to liberate research practices from oppressive institutional rules and restrictions.

  4. Extrapolating Subjectivity Research to Other Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banea, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Socrates articulated it best, "Speak, so I may see you." Indeed, language represents an invisible probe into the mind. It is the medium through which we express our deepest thoughts, our aspirations, our views, our feelings, our inner reality. From the beginning of artificial intelligence, researchers have sought to impart human like…

  5. The use of focused ethnography in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Edward Venzon; Higginbottom, Gina

    2013-03-01

    To provide an overview of the relevance and strengths of focused ethnography in nursing research. The paper provides descriptions of focused ethnography and discusses using exemplars to show how focused ethnographies can enhance and understand nursing practice. Orthodox ethnographic approaches may not always be suitable or desirable for research in diverse nursing contexts. Focused ethnography has emerged as a promising method for applying ethnography to a distinct issue or shared experience in cultures or sub-cultures and in specific settings, rather than throughout entire communities. Unfortunately, there is limited guidance on using focused ethnography, particularly as applied to nursing research. Research studies performed by nurses using focused ethnography are summarised to show how they fulfilled three main purposes of the genre in nursing research. Additional citations are provided to help demonstrate the versatility of focused ethnography in exploring distinct problems in a specific context in different populations and groups of people. The unique role that nurses play in health care, coupled with their skills in enquiry, can contribute to the further development of the discipline. Focused ethnography offers an opportunity to gain a better understanding and appreciation of nursing as a profession, and the role it plays in society. Focused ethnography has emerged as a relevant research methodology that can be used by nurse researchers to understand specific societal issues that affect different facets of nursing practice. As nurse researchers endeavour to understand experiences in light of their health and life situations, focused ethnography enables them to understand the interrelationship between people and their environments in the society in which they live.

  6. "Doing death": Reflecting on the researcher's subjectivity and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renske C

    2017-01-01

    Given that death is a universal concept, the idea that a researcher must be objective when studying this topic is common place and problematic. Thus, this article adds to the literature by discussing the complexity of subjectivity within death studies. Three key elements of subjectivity form the basis of this discussion: (a) the researcher's cultural background, (b) the researcher's personal experiences, and (c) the emotional impact of research on the researcher. It is argued that transparency about the subjective nature of death studies research can be fruitful in understanding the research process before, during, and after fieldwork.

  7. Research Timeline: Form-Focused Instruction and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a timeline of research on form-focused instruction (FFI). Over the past 40 years, research on the role of instruction has undergone many changes. Much of the early research concentrated on determining whether formal instruction makes any difference in the development of learner language. This question was motivated in part by…

  8. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  9. Ethics of Research Involving Human Subjects in Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Seth Allan; Wilkins, Leslie T.

    1977-01-01

    Research in criminal justice involving human subjects has increased greatly, yet we have no code of ethics to guide such research. This paper argues that the primary purpose of a code should be protection of these research subjects, who are especially susceptible to mistreatment because of their prisoner status. (Author)

  10. Exploring a Knowledge-focused Trajectory for Researching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the past twenty years of environmental learning in the South African curriculum in order to consider how one might best research a knowledge focus within the Fundisa for Change national teacher education programme. In exploring this knowledge focus, the paper draws on international literature.

  11. THE APPLICATION OF ONLINE FOCUS GROUPS IN MARKET RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Mandić, Miroslav; Crnković, Ksenija; Vranešević, Tihomir

    2013-01-01

    Focus groups, as important exploratory and qualitative methods of research, have become ever more present in theory and practice. The object of this research is to explore the applicability of online focus groups and to find out whether the traditional approach could possibly be exchanged with the new one. Also, the object is to summarize new reachable surveys and to compare theory with practice. The data was collected from in-depth interviews and secondary sources. The main questions are: Is...

  12. The focus group method and possibilities of its application in kinantropological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luděk Šebek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In our article we deal with the problematics of focus groups and their implementation in kinantropological research. The primary target of an analysis of electronic information resources of the Palacky University was to look up research projects built upon the of focus group metodology. The analysis of accessible articles put forward that particularly in the field of kinantropological research, the method is used scarcely. The main objective of our article was to introduce the focus group as a valuable research method and outline the potential applications in kinantropology. On the basis of the summarized information on focus groups research we concluded that the focus groups may represent an effective tool for capturing such phenomenons as the affect of social environment, subcultural aspects, or self efficacy on development of attitudes to lifelong learning in the context of motor activity. The confirmation of the outlined possibilities will be the subject of our further research.

  13. Towards a typology of focus: Subject position and microvariation at the discourse–syntax interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L. Jiménez-Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work I explore the different discourse–syntax interface properties of focus fronting in Standard Spanish (SS and Southern Peninsular Spanish (SPS including Andalusian and Extremaduran varieties. In SS it is taken for granted that in focus fronting the verb is obligatorily adjacent to the preposed constituent. I show that this is not the case in SPS, where this condition is optional. I carry out an analysis of three types of foci which involve movement to the left periphery (contrastive focus, mirative focus and quantifier fronting and one type of topic (resumptive preposing. Discourse, syntactic, and semantic properties are taken into account to illustrate this typology. Crucially, only contrastive and mirative focus contexts allow for preverbal subjects in SPS, which are proposed to be Given Topics in this variety. On the other hand, resumptive preposing is shown to entail a case of topic fronting. I use different experiments with empirical data and judgements by native speakers to test my proposal that focus-verb (or topic-verb adjacency is subject to microparametric variation in Spanish.

  14. Research and Its Relationship to Nurse Education: Focus and Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Examination of two British mental health journals and a government document on the future of nursing found a lack of focus on clinical research and little reference to the role of research and development in practice. The increasing importance of evidence-based practice demands a strategy for developing nurses' capacity to understand, undertake,…

  15. Subjectivity and Reflexivity: Locating the Self in Research on Dislocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    I argue in this article that recognizing the role of subjectivity and bringing in the researcher's positionality as a tool in the research process can not only enhance the ethical integrity of the research but also enhance both the research process and the analysis and interpretation of the data. Cultural studies theorists have long argued that…

  16. Human subject research for engineers a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    de Winter, Joost C F

    2017-01-01

    This Brief introduces engineers to the main principles in ethics, research design, statistics, and publishing of human subject research. In recent years, engineering has become strongly connected to disciplines such as biology, medicine, and psychology. Often, engineers (and engineering students) are expected to perform human subject research. Typical human subject research topics conducted by engineers include human-computer interaction (e.g., evaluating the usability of software), exoskeletons, virtual reality, teleoperation, modelling of human behaviour and decision making (often within the framework of ‘big data’ research), product evaluation, biometrics, behavioural tracking (e.g., of work and travel patterns, or mobile phone use), transport and planning (e.g., an analysis of flows or safety issues), etc. Thus, it can be said that knowledge on how to do human subject research is indispensable for a substantial portion of engineers. Engineers are generally well trained in calculus and mechanics, but m...

  17. Subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused attention: cortical-hippocampal-insular and amygdala contributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens C C Bauer

    Full Text Available In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat. Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10, primary somatosensory cortex (BA1, premotor cortex (BA 6, precuneus (BA 7, temporopolar cortex (BA 38, inferior parietal lobe (BA 39, hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32 = 0.54, p = 0.0013 and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32 = 0.46, p = 0.007. All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention.

  18. Subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused attention: cortical-hippocampal-insular and amygdala contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Clemens C C; Barrios, Fernando A; Díaz, José-Luis

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the neurobiological foundations of qualitative subjective experiences, the present study was designed to correlate objective third-person brain fMRI measures with subjective first-person identification and scaling of local, subtle, and specific somatosensory sensations, obtained directly after the imaging procedure. Thus, thirty-four volunteers were instructed to focus and sustain their attention to either provoked or spontaneous sensations of each thumb during the fMRI procedure. By means of a Likert scale applied immediately afterwards, the participants recalled and evaluated the intensity of their attention and identified specific somatosensory sensations (e.g. pulsation, vibration, heat). Using the subject's subjective scores as covariates to model both attention intensity and general somatosensory experiences regressors, the whole-brain random effect analyses revealed activations in the frontopolar prefrontal cortex (BA10), primary somatosensory cortex (BA1), premotor cortex (BA 6), precuneus (BA 7), temporopolar cortex (BA 38), inferior parietal lobe (BA 39), hippocampus, insula and amygdala. Furthermore, BA10 showed differential activity, with ventral BA10 correlating exclusively with attention (r(32) = 0.54, p = 0.0013) and dorsal BA10 correlating exclusively with somatosensory sensation (r(32) = 0.46, p = 0.007). All other reported brain areas showed significant positive correlations solely with subjective somatosensory experiences reports. These results provide evidence that the frontopolar prefrontal cortex has dissociable functions depending on specific cognitive demands; i.e. the dorsal portion of the frontopolar prefrontal cortex in conjunction with primary somatosensory cortex, temporopolar cortex, inferior parietal lobe, hippocampus, insula and amygdala are involved in the processing of spontaneous general subjective somatosensory experiences disclosed by focused and sustained attention.

  19. Ethical considerations in research. Focus on vulnerable groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaké Ketefian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to describe the need to protect the rights of human subjects participating in nursing research, and procedures for doing so. The path taken to the task at hand was to approach the topic by discussing the philosophical underpinnings of human subject protection and describing the approach for doing this in all cases where humans are used as research subjects. These underpinnings include specific ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, and the procedures used in the U.S. for protecting the rights of human subjects. Once the process was clarified, the considerations necessary to protect the special groups referred to as ''vulnerable'' are discussed. Given the author’s access to U.S. documents and the fact that U.S. government agencies took early steps to formalize rules and regulations for the protection of human subjects, vulnerable or otherwise, the experience of the United States was selected for presentation. It is recognized that there are now relevant international documents that are exceedingly helpful, and also, that various countries may have their own guidelines for investigators to follow. In such cases researchers can engage in comparative analysis between their own guidance and the processes described here, and decide their path accordingly.

  20. Wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance: A locative account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Corr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the hypothesis that wide-focus subject-verb inversion in Ibero-Romance is a type of locative inversion, involving a null locative argument. Ibero-Romance displays fine-grained, systematic variation determined by verbal class and variety, offering evidence that Ibero-Romance neutral word order is SVO, rather than VSO as claimed by some null-subject accounts. It is proposed that ‘locative’ subject-verb inversion is a consequence of grammatically-encoded deictic features correlating with the semantic properties of the verbs involved. The locative element, available unequally across Ibero-Romance, can surface in different positions in the left periphery, yielding the variation encountered. The data indicate that the licensing of these constructions depends neither on the null-subject parameter, since this type of inversion also occurs in non- and partial null-subject varieties, nor on the unaccusative/unergative division, though in both cases a degree of correspondence exists.

  1. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavans, Richard; Boyack, Kevin W

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  2. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters–altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic) fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry) and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed. PMID:28056043

  3. The Research Focus of Nations: Economic vs. Altruistic Motivations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Klavans

    Full Text Available What motivates the research strategies of nations and institutions? We suggest that research primarily serves two masters-altruism and economic growth. Some nations focus more research in altruistic (or non-economic fields while others focus more research in fields associated with economic growth. What causes this difference? Are there characteristics that would suggest why a nation is more aligned with altruism or economic growth? To answer this question, we have identified nine major fields of research by analyzing the publication activity of 4429 institutions using Scopus data. Two fields of research are clearly altruistic (there is relatively little involvement by industry and two fields are clearly aligned with economic growth. The altruistic vs. economic nature of nations based on their publication profiles across these fields is correlated with national indicators on wealth, education, capitalism, individualism, power, religion, and language. While previous research has suggested that national research strategy is aligned with national wealth, our analysis shows that national wealth is not highly correlated with the tradeoff between altruistic and economic motives. Instead, the tradeoff is largely captured by a culture of individualism. Accordingly, implications for national research strategies are discussed.

  4. Clinical Perspective Qualitative adolescent health researchfocus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, ...

  5. Broadening Participation in Research Focused, Upper-Division Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Robert A.; McGuire, John P.

    2015-01-01

    We address several challenges faced by those who wish to increase the number of faculty participating in upper-division learning communities that feature a student research experience. Using illustrations from our own learning community, we describe three strategies for success that focus on providing low cost incentives and other means to promote…

  6. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  7. 76 FR 44512 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... organizations (CROs), data and safety monitoring committees, community-based organizations, and other entities... neuroscience has led to substantial advances in the understanding of human physiology, cognition, and behavior... subjects? What entity or organization should develop and disseminate such standardized document formats...

  8. Focusing Information Systems Post-Graduate Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Ridley

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mechanisms that assist Information Systems post-graduate research students to focus their projects. An evaluation is presented of the experiences of Information Systems research students in focussing their research projects based on a survey conducted of students who participated in two of the first three Information Systems doctoral consortia to be held in Australia. The survey sought to determine whether a doctoral consortium or 'systematic expert review' is the most valuable mechanism for focussing a research proposal. Systematic expert review was considered by the students to be more effective than the doctoral consortium process for the purpose of focussing their research project proposals.

  9. Focus on environmental justice: new directions in international research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2017-03-01

    More than three decades since the emergence of the environmental justice (EJ) movement in the U.S., environmental injustices continue to unfold across the world to include new narratives of air and water pollution, as well as new forms of injustices associated with climate change, energy use, natural disasters, urban greenspaces, and public policies that adversely affect socially disadvantaged communities and future generations. This focus issue of Environmental Research Letters provides an interdisciplinary forum for conceptual, methodological, and empirical scholarship on EJ activism, research, and policy that highlights the continuing salience of an EJ perspective to understanding nature-society linkages. The 16 letters published in this focus issue address a variety of environmental issues and social injustices in multiple countries across the world, and advance EJ research by: (1) demonstrating how environmental injustice emerges through particular policies and political processes; (2) exploring environmental injustices associated with industrialization and industrial pollution; and (3) documenting unjust exposure to various environmental hazards in specific urban landscapes. As the discourse of EJ continues to evolve both topically and geographically, we hope that this focus issue will help establish research agendas for the next generation of EJ scholarship on distributive, procedural, participatory, and other forms of injustices, as well as their interrelationships.

  10. Subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P R; Maisto, S A

    2000-11-01

    Attributions regarding alcohol treatment research protocols influencing clinical outcomes have persisted for more than 25 years. Although well-designed alcohol treatment outcome studies typically involve frequent, and often comprehensive, research assessment protocols, procedures are seldom in place to control or account for possible subject reactivity to the research protocol. This article presents a theoretical basis for a relationship between research protocols and treatment outcomes. The article reviews the relevant alcohol treatment outcome literature and presents a "weight of evidence" regarding subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research assessment protocols. Also, the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy and self-efficacy) model was coupled with self-regulation theory to provide a theoretical explanation of how research assessment protocols might contribute to clinically relevant behavioral change. Researcher attributions, empirical investigations and theoretical considerations all provide evidence that is consistent with the existence of subject reactivity to research assessment protocols. Recommendations are made regarding interpretation of data collected as part of an alcohol treatment outcome study, control of potential subject reactivity confounding variables and directions for future research.

  11. Rethinking the Subject of Higher Education: Subjectivity, Normativity and Desire in Student Equity Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I reflect on three questions arising from my recent research on student equity in higher education and gender in education. These questions relate to the goals, focus and politics of student equity research in the context of a changing higher education landscape in Australia. The paper concludes with an argument for student equity…

  12. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  13. Development of a Research Agenda Focused on Academic Health Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Brownson, Ross C; Livingood, William C; Keck, C William; Amos, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    An academic health department (AHD) is a formal partnership between an academic institution and a governmental public health agency. Case studies have described the value of individual AHDs in the areas of student engagement, practice-based research, workforce development, and service. With growing interest in AHDs and the increasing importance of academic-practice linkages in both academic programs' and public health agencies' accreditation processes, articulating a research agenda focused on the AHD model can be useful for stimulating the research and practice fields to further develop the evidence base for AHDs. We provide a research agenda, developed through an iterative process involving academicians, practitioners, and others interested in academic-practice linkages.

  14. Longitudinal research on subjective aging, health, and longevity : Current evidence and new directions for research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben J.; Wurm, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we carry out a narrative review of the longitudinal impact of subjective aging on health and survival. We have a specifi c focus on the different pathways which can explain the relation of subjective aging to health and survival. We focus on the three most common conceptualizations

  15. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  16. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  17. Tonal association in neutral and subject-narrow-focus sentences in Brazilian Portuguese: a comparison with European Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Romani Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative description and analysis of the intonational contours of Brazilian Portuguese (BP sentences in neutral and subject-narrow-focus conditions. Making use of the literature on European Portuguese (EP intonation, it also compares BP intonation with the intonation of EP sentences under the same conditions, looking for similarities and differences between the intonational patterns of these two Portuguese varieties. Our results indicate that BP neutral sentences can optionally show pitch accents associated with all prosodic words (ωs. In subject-narrow- focus conditions, the same type of pitch accents that are found associated with non-focused subjects can also be found with focused subjects. In addition, it is also possible to find a phrasal accent associated with the right boundary of the phonological phrase (φ that contains the focused subject. In contrast to BP, in EP neutral sentences, pitch accents are associated with the I-initial and I-final ωs. Furthermore, in this variety, in subject-narrow-focus conditions there is always a special bitonal pitch accent carried by the focused subject and there are no phrasal accents associated with boundaries of the φ that contains the subject.

  18. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  19. Single Subject Research: A Synthesis of Analytic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alresheed, Fahad; Hott, Brittany L.; Bano, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the synthesis of single subject design has employed visual inspection to yield significance of results. However, current research is supporting different techniques that will facilitate the interpretation of these intervention outcomes. These methods can provide more reliable data than employing visual inspection in isolation. This…

  20. Current Research in Bookkeeping/Accounting and Basic Business Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanassy, Louis C., Comp.

    1976-01-01

    Listed are 26 doctoral and masters theses completed during the years 1974-5 involving research in bookkeeping/accounting and basic business subjects. The entries are arranged alphabetically by author and include the title of the study and the name of the associated institution. (MS)

  1. A 15-Year Review of Trends in Representation of Female Subjects in Islamic Bioethics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zeenat; Kuzian, Edyta; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    Gender representation in Islamic bioethics research in the twenty-first century has not been studied. To study temporal trends in representation of female subjects in Islamic bioethics research, PubMed-listed publications on Islamic bioethics from years 2000 to 2014 were reviewed for gender participation in human subjects' research. There were temporal trends of increasing publications of Islamic bioethics-related human subjects' research (64 papers over 15 years; R (2) = 0.72; p < 0.0004). Female subjects were well represented with a trend toward increasing participation. This was true for women from Muslim-majority countries even in non-gender-focused studies over the past 15 years.

  2. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  3. Human subjects protection issues in QUERI implementation research: QUERI Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie Mona

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Subjects protections approaches, specifically those relating to research review board oversight, vary throughout the world. While all are designed to protect participants involved in research, the structure and specifics of these institutional review boards (IRBs can and do differ. This variation affects all types of research, particularly implementation research. Methods In 2001, we began a series of inter-related studies on implementing evidence-based collaborative care for depression in Veterans Health Administration primary care. We have submitted more than 100 IRB applications, amendments, and renewals, and in doing so, we have interacted with 13 VA and University IRBs across the United States (U.S.. We present four overarching IRB-related themes encountered throughout the implementation of our projects, and within each theme, identify key challenges and suggest approaches that have proved useful. Where applicable, we showcase process aids developed to assist in resolving a particular IRB challenge. Results There are issues unique to implementation research, as this type of research may not fit within the traditional Human Subjects paradigm used to assess clinical trials. Risks in implementation research are generally related to breaches of confidentiality, rather than health risks associated with traditional clinical trials. The implementation-specific challenges discussed are: external validity considerations, Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, risk-benefit issues, the multiple roles of researchers and subjects, and system-level unit of analysis. Discussion Specific aspects of implementation research interact with variations in knowledge, procedures, and regulatory interpretations across IRBs to affect the implementation and study of best methods to increase evidence-based practice. Through lack of unambiguous guidelines and local liability concerns, IRBs are often at risk of applying both variable and inappropriate or

  4. Focusing the research agenda for simulation training visual system requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles J.

    2014-06-01

    Advances in the capabilities of the display-related technologies with potential uses in simulation training devices continue to occur at a rapid pace. Simultaneously, ongoing reductions in defense spending stimulate the services to push a higher proportion of training into ground-based simulators to reduce their operational costs. These two trends result in increased customer expectations and desires for more capable training devices, while the money available for these devices is decreasing. Thus, there exists an increasing need to improve the efficiency of the acquisition process and to increase the probability that users get the training devices they need at the lowest practical cost. In support of this need the IDEAS program was initiated in 2010 with the goal of improving display system requirements associated with unmet user needs and expectations and disrupted acquisitions. This paper describes a process of identifying, rating, and selecting the design parameters that should receive research attention. Analyses of existing requirements documents reveal that between 40 and 50 specific design parameters (i.e., resolution, contrast, luminance, field of view, frame rate, etc.) are typically called out for the acquisition of a simulation training display system. Obviously no research effort can address the effects of this many parameters. Thus, we developed a defensible strategy for focusing limited R&D resources on a fraction of these parameters. This strategy encompasses six criteria to identify the parameters most worthy of research attention. Examples based on display design parameters recommended by stakeholders are provided.

  5. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  6. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Claude; Waters, Michael; Allen, David; Obasanjo, Iyabo

    2013-09-30

    Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures.The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan; 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models; 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for: 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics.

  7. Who is the research subject in cluster randomized trials in health research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is part of a series of papers examining ethical issues in cluster randomized trials (CRTs in health research. In the introductory paper in this series, we set out six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the CRT is to be set on a firm ethical foundation. This paper addresses the first of the questions posed, namely, who is the research subject in a CRT in health research? The identification of human research subjects is logically prior to the application of protections as set out in research ethics and regulation. Aspects of CRT design, including the fact that in a single study the units of randomization, experimentation, and observation may differ, complicate the identification of human research subjects. But the proper identification of human research subjects is important if they are to be protected from harm and exploitation, and if research ethics committees are to review CRTs efficiently. We examine the research ethics literature and international regulations to identify the core features of human research subjects, and then unify these features under a single, comprehensive definition of human research subject. We define a human research subject as any person whose interests may be compromised as a result of interventions in a research study. Individuals are only human research subjects in CRTs if: (1 they are directly intervened upon by investigators; (2 they interact with investigators; (3 they are deliberately intervened upon via a manipulation of their environment that may compromise their interests; or (4 their identifiable private information is used to generate data. Individuals who are indirectly affected by CRT study interventions, including patients of healthcare providers participating in knowledge translation CRTs, are not human research subjects unless at least one of these conditions is met.

  8. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  9. Older adults’ attitudes toward noncompetent subjects participating in Alzheimers research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; TenHave, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective Since research that enrolls noncompetent patients with Alzheimers disease and does not present potential benefit to subjects is the source of substantial ethical controversy, we assessed willingness to have a proxy for research decision making, and, for each of two Alzheimers disease biomarker studies (minimal risk blood draw and a greater than minimal risk blood draw and lumbar puncture), willingness to grant an advance consent, and willingness to grant a proxy leeway over advance consent. Methods Face to face survey of 538 persons 65 and over who resided in the Southeastern Pennsylvania region Results The majority 83% (445/538) granted advance consent to a blood draw study and nearly half to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture 259 (48%). Most persons (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: blood draw 434 (81%), and 375 (70%) blood draw plus lumbar puncture. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and spinal fluid sample studies were, respectively, 92% (497/538) and 75% (404/538). Multi-variate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude about biomedical research. Conclusions Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimers disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness. PMID:18923066

  10. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    discoveries and the resolution to outstanding and unresolved issues. It should be emphasized that the DOE funding provided the crucial support for the close and meaningful collaborations of the focused research group that go far beyond simply putting the research papers from each group together. Indeed, the majority of the publications involved multiple PIs and collaborations between theory and experiments.

  11. Subjective soundscapes qualitative research in the experience and evaluation of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Uwe

    2004-05-01

    If the subjective experience and evaluation of environmental noise shall be considered and integrated into the current soundscape research, the use of qualitative research methods used in sociology and psychology will become necessary. A triangulation of research methods for measuring objective noise and for the subjective evaluation of noises and sounds on the background of subjective meanings of health and healthy living will be a fruitful way to a more comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon of soundscapes in the context of health and quality of life. In this contribution, a selection of qualitative research methods will be presented that allows for analyzing subjective experiences with environmental noise. Interviews focusing on narratives of episodes and situations (e.g., the episodic interview, Flick, 2002) will be outlined. Issues of how to assess the quality of qualitative research and its results will be addressed and finally the benefits and limits of the triangulation of different methods (e.g., interviews and focus groups or interviews and physical measures) will be discussed. Research experiences from the author's recent studies on health concepts of health professionals will be used for illustration.

  12. The Applied Behavior Analysis Research Paradigm and Single-Subject Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A; Hodge, Samuel Russell

    2015-10-01

    There are basic philosophical and paradigmatic assumptions that guide scholarly research endeavors, including the methods used and the types of questions asked. Through this article, kinesiology faculty and students with interests in adapted physical activity are encouraged to understand the basic assumptions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) methodology for conducting, analyzing, and presenting research of high quality in this paradigm. The purposes of this viewpoint paper are to present information fundamental to understanding the assumptions undergirding research methodology in ABA, describe key aspects of single-subject research designs, and discuss common research designs and data-analysis strategies used in single-subject studies.

  13. Anencephalic fetuses and research embryos: subjects of rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naara Luna

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the emergence of social subjects in the form of beings which had previously been embedded in mother's bodies and which have later become defined and circumscribed by biomedicine: extracorporeal embryos, created by in vitro fertilization, and anencephalic fetuses. The embryos were at the center of the controversy regarding their use in scientific research during the debates for the approval of Brazil's new biosecurity law. Anencephalic fetuses became the center of a debate regarding the relaxing of Brazil's abortion laws. This article analyzes mass media news stories provided mostly by a systematic review of articles published in O Globo newspaper between 2000 and 2005 in order to recover the arguments presented in these debates. The arguments to justify or ban embryo research or to anticipate the birth of anencephalic fetuses coincide, in large part, because the are derived from the same value configuration and are founded upon the person: Dumont's individual-as-value.

  14. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  15. Archives of Medical Research: an historical and subject coverage overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozoya, X; Rivera-Arce, E; Domínguez, F; Arellano, M L; Muñoz, O

    1995-01-01

    A bibliometric study about the subject content of the articles published in the Mexican scientific journal Archives of Medical Research is reported. The journal, published by the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), is comprised of 100 regular issues and 12 special supplements giving a total amount of 1,424 reports on medical research performed in Mexico during the last 25 years. According to the type of studies published during this period, we found that there is a similar percent of biomedical and clinical reports in the journal (47 and 42%, respectively) and a low proportion of epidemiological and medical educational reports (8 and 3%, respectively). Six thematic areas of research have been permanently published in this journal: investigations on infectious and neurological diseases being the areas mainly represented (34% of the total, corresponding to 17% in each area), followed by studies in reproductive biology (10%) and endocrine (7%), oncological (5%) and cardiovascular (3%) diseases. The tendency of the subjects covered by the journal during this period shows an increment in reports on infectious and parasitic disorders together with an increase in publications related to medicinal plant pharmacology; reproductive biology and endocrine studies show also an increasing tendency. On the other hand, a moderate decrease in studies related to neurological, oncological and cardiovascular diseases is observed. The origin of contributions during the last five years has balanced the proportion of papers published from IMSS scientists, other Mexican biomedical researchers and foreign contributions, thus reflecting favorably the recent changes in the journal's policies. This journal represents a clear example of a scientific publication edited in a developing country, originating as a national publication that evolved progressively into an international biomedical journal.

  16. Evaluation of Subjective Measurement Systems with Focus on Workmanship Scratches and Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Jesse

    2011-02-24

    The presence of workmanship defects at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) is not a new problem nor is it an easy one to remedy. The lack of well defined parameters, subjective evaluations, and operator dependency makes this problem difficult to analyze. At the time of project assignment, workmanship defects comprised approximately 50% of all non-conformance reports for internally produced products. Not all of these non-conformances result in product rejections, thus inferring that inconsistency in evaluations were present. The purpose of this study was to identify a method for evaluating an operator’s ability to properly characterize subjective defects. Since the scope of the project was limited to no funding, scratch depth was selected as the only criteria to evaluate. It was determined that the introduction of a reference standard coupled with a predefined gate-sorting technique approved by the customer can statistically improve an operators ability to perform subjective evaluations.

  17. Research ethics in Internet-enabled research: human subjects issues and methodological myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Joseph B

    2002-01-01

    As Internet resources are used more frequently for research on social and psychological behavior, concerns grow about whether characteristics of such research affect human subjects protections. Early efforts to address such concerns have done more to identify potential problems than to evaluate them or to seek solutions, leaving bodies charged with human subjects oversight in a quagmire. This article critiques some of these issues in light of the US Code of Federal Regulations' policies for the Protection of Human Subjects, and argues that some of the issues have no pertinence when examined in the context of common methodological approaches that previous commentators failed to consider. By separating applicable contexts from those that are not, and by identifying cases where subjects' characteristics are irrelevant and/or impossible to provide, oversight committees may be able to consider research applications more appropriately, and investigators may be less ethically bound to ascertain and demonstrate those characteristics.

  18. Recent research activities and future subjects on stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushita, Kouhei [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-12-01

    This report reviews the recent studies on the stable- and radio-isotopes of chlorine from a viewpoint of environmental science, partly including historic references on this element. First, general properties, occurrence, and utilization of chlorine are described. Secondly, current status and research works on chlorine-compounds, which attract special attention in recent years as environmentally hazardous materials, are reported. Thirdly, research works on stable chlorine isotopes, {sup 35}Cl and {sup 37}Cl, are described with a focus laid on the newly-developed techniques; isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Fourthly, recent research works on chlorine radioisotopes, {sup 36}Cl etc., are described, focusing on the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its application to geochemistry and others. Finally, taking account of the above-mentioned recent works on Cl isotopes, possible future research subjects are discussed. (author)

  19. The case for evidence-based rulemaking in human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Benjamin

    2010-06-01

    Here I inquire into the status of the rules promulgated in the canonical pronouncements on human subjects research, such as the Declaration of Helsinki and the Belmont Report. The question is whether they are ethical rules or rules of policy. An ethical rule is supposed to accurately reflect the ethical fact (the fact that the action the rule prescribes is ethically obligatory), whereas rules of policy are implemented to achieve a goal. We should be skeptical, I argue, that the actions prescribed by the rules are ethically obligatory, and consequently we should focus our attention on how to craft the rules so as to promote the legitimate goals of human subjects research. Unfortunately, this cannot be done without evidence about the likely effects of various candidate policies-evidence we currently lack. Therefore, we should take the rules as mere starting points, subject to revision as the evidence comes in.

  20. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  1. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  2. Analysis on evolution and research focus in psychiatry field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Duan, Zhiguang

    2015-05-07

    With the dramatic rise in mental disorders and mental illnesses, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. This has led to a rise in the number of scientific research papers being published in this field. We selected research papers in ten psychiatric journals that were published during 1983 to 2012. These ten journals were those with the top Impact Factor (IF) as indicated by the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded). We utilized information visualization software (CiteSpace) to conduct co-citation and Hierarchal clustering analysis to map knowledge domains to determine the evolution and the foci of research in this field. In the evolution of the field of psychiatry, there were four stages identified. The result of hierarchal clustering analysis revealed that the research foci in the psychiatric field were primarily studies of child and adolescent psychiatry, diagnostic and classification criteria, brain imaging and molecular genetics. The results provide information about the evolution and the foci of the research in the field of psychiatry. This information can help researchers determine the direction of the research in the field of psychiatry; Moreover, this research provides reasonable suggestions to guide research in psychiatry field and provide scientific evidence to aid in the effective prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

  3. Subjective evaluation of noise from neighbours with focus on low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing tendency to use lightweight constructions in the building industry. One unwanted side effect of this tendency is poor sound insulation at low frequencies. The purpose of this investigation has been to examine the subjective effects of the resulting increase of low frequency noise...... from neighbours in dwellings using listening tests. The results of the experiments confirm that noise from neighbours transmitted through light constructions is indeed rated more annoying than noise transmitted through heavier constructions....

  4. The Effect of Different Attentional Focus Instructions during Finger Movement Tasks in Healthy Subjects: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Rossettini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available External focus of attention (EFA and internal focus of attention (IFA represent commonly used strategies to instruct subjects during exercise. Several studies showed EFA to be more effective than IFA to improve motor performance and learning. To date the role of these strategies on motor performance during finger movement was less studied. The objective of the study was to investigate motor performance, patient’s preference induced by IFA and EFA, and the focus during control condition. Ten healthy right-handed participants performed a finger movement task in control, EFA, and IFA conditions (counterbalanced. Errors, patient’s preference, and type of attentional focus spontaneously adopted during the control condition were recorded. EFA determined less error (p<0.01 compared to control and IFA. Participants preferred EFA against IFA and control condition. In the control group 10% of subjects adopted a purely EFA, 70% of subjects adopted a purely IFA, and 20% of subjects adopted a mixture of the two foci. Our results confirm that EFA is more effective than IFA and control in finger movement task. Due its clinical relevance, the interaction between attention and finger movement should be further investigated.

  5. Focus: Bridging the Chemistry-Statistics Gap: Chemometrics Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analytical Chemistry, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents highlights of a conference that provided an open forum for experts in statistics and in chemistry to exchange views on how research in statistical modeling and analysis can affect research in chemistry. A list of activities to reach new "customers" (including teaching chemometrics in high school) is included. (JN)

  6. Threshold Concepts: A Point of Focus for Practitioner Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Naomi; Carmichael, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Participants with teaching and research experience across eight disciplinary areas were introduced to the idea of "threshold concepts" and were then invited to identify potential threshold concepts in their own disciplines through small-scale research activities. Participants conceptualized their involvement in different ways: for some it provided…

  7. The Use of Single-Subject Research to Identify Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Robert H.; Carr, Edward G.; Halle, James; McGee, Gail; Odom, Samuel; Wolery, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Single-subject research plays an important role in the development of evidence-based practice in special education. The defining features of single-subject research are presented, the contributions of single-subject research for special education are reviewed, and a specific proposal is offered for using single-subject research to document…

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Subject for Both Fundamental Research and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single domain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been a vivid subject of intense research for the last fifty years. Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles and nanostructures has been achieved by both bottom-up and top-down approaches. Single domain MNPs show Néel-Brown-like relaxation. The Stoner-Wohlfarth model describes the angular dependence of the switching of the magnetization of a single domain particle in applied magnetic fields. By varying the spacing between the particles, the inter-particle interactions can be tuned. This leads to various supermagnetic states such as superparamagnetism, superspin glass, and superferromagnetism. Recently, the study of the magnetization dynamics of such single domain MNPs has attracted particular attention, and observations of various collective spin wave modes in patterned nanomagnet arrays have opened new avenues for on-chip microwave communications. MNPs have the potential for various other applications such as future recording media and in medicine. We will discuss the various aspects involved in the research on MNPs.

  9. Opening Switch Research on a Plasma Focus VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-26

    These disturbances do not occur at the minimum radius of the pinch as would be expected according to the Kruskal- Schwarzschild Theory23. Such...plasma focus could be designed to permit longer energy transfer times by increasing the anode radius . As to the progress of the two students supported... radius . As to the progress of the two students supported by the contract, Mr. Frank Venneri, has successfully built and operated a curved-crystal soft

  10. Couples' experiences with prostate cancer: focus group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Janet; Schafenacker, Ann; Northouse, Laurel; Mood, Darlene; Smith, David; Pienta, Kenneth; Hussain, Maha; Baranowski, Karen

    2002-05-01

    To explore the experiences of couples living with prostate cancer, the impact of the illness on their quality of life, their ability to manage symptoms, and their suggestions for interventions that would help them to improve their daily experiences. Descriptive, qualitative. Six focus groups were used to obtain the data; two were patient-only groups, two were spouse-caregiver groups, and two were dyad groups. The focus groups were conducted at two comprehensive cancer centers in the midwestern region of the United States. 42 participants: 22 men with prostate cancer and 20 spouse-caregivers. Focus group discussions were tape-recorded, and the content was analyzed. Quality of life, symptom experience, and areas for intervention. Four major themes emerged from the data: enduring uncertainty, living with treatment effects, coping with changes, and needing help. Participants had a need for information and support. Both men and spouse-caregivers felt unprepared to manage treatment effects. Symptoms had a broad effect on couples, not just men. Positive effects of the illness, as well as negative effects, emerged from the themes. Attention needs to be given to methods of providing information and support to couples coping with prostate cancer. Both patients and partners need to be included in discussions about the effect of the illness and treatments so that both can feel more prepared to manage them.

  11. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: environmental health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy population is seen as an important precondition for economic growth and competitiveness. Research into environmental health is therefore concerned with understanding the exposure and magnitude of impact on humans from environmental hazards...

  12. Interview series focuses on IDRC-funded research on climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Conversation is a series of interviews and videos of research partners working on climate change adaptation projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, funded through IDRC's Climate Change and Water program.

  13. Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, Nicholas J; Goetz, Laura H

    2017-08-21

    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e.g., nutrient supplementation) or disease prevention strategy (e.g., specific diet). However, as compelling and intuitive as personalized nutrition might be in the current era in which data-intensive biomedical characterization of individuals is possible, appropriately and objectively vetting personalized nutrition strategies is not trivial and requires novel study designs and data analytical methods. These designs and methods must consider a very integrated use of the multiple contemporary biomedical assays and technologies that motivate them, which adds to their complexity. Single-subject or N-of-1 trials can be used to assess the utility of personalized interventions and, in addition, can be crafted in such a way as to accommodate the necessarily integrated use of many emerging biomedical technologies and assays. In this review, we consider the motivation, design, and implementation of N-of-1 trials in translational nutrition research that are meant to assess the utility of personalized nutritional strategies. We provide a number of example studies, discuss appropriate analytical methods given the complex data they generate and require, and consider how such studies could leverage integration of various biomarker assays and clinical end points. Importantly, we also consider the development of strategies and

  14. In focus: molecular and cell biology research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xuebiao; Li, Dangsheng; Pei, Gang

    2013-09-01

    An interactive, intellectual environment with good funding opportunities is essential for the development and success of basic research. The fast-growing economy and investment in science, together with a visionary plan, have attracted foreign scholars to work in China, motivated world-class Chinese scientists to return and strengthened the country's international collaborations. As a result, molecular and cell biology research in China has evolved rapidly over the past decade.

  15. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    and pyridostigmine bromide were examined for their impact on thermoregulation and physical performance in hot and cold environments. Wearing CB-PC... thermoregulation and the ability to perform in hot or cold environments. Military nutrition research focused on evaluating the nutri- tional adequacy of...Army published official medical/performance doctrines for operations in the heat and cold and at high altitude. The current Global War on Terrorism

  16. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Sanna-Maria; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kangasniemi, Mari; Halkoaho, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe nurse leaders' perceptions of ethical recruitment in clinical research. Nurse leaders are expected to get involved in clinical research, but there are few studies that focus on their role, particularly the ethical issues. Qualitative data were collected from ten nurse leaders using thematic one-to-one interviews and analysed with content analysis. Nurse leaders considered clinical research at their workplace in relation to the key issues that enabled ethical recruitment of study subjects in clinical research. These were: early information and collaboration for incorporating clinical research in everyday work, an opportune and peaceful recruitment moment and positive research culture. Getting involved in clinical research is part of the nurse leader's professional responsibility in current health care. They have an essential role to play in ensuring that recruitment is ethical and that the dignity of study subjects is maintained. The duty of nurse leaders is to maintain good contact with other collaborators and to ensure good conditions for implementing clinical research at their site. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the overall situation on their wards. Implementing clinical research requires careful planning, together with educating, supporting and motivating nursing staff. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  18. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  19. The changing conceptions and focus of health research in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    immigrants required that the environment be understood; agricultural productivity required improvement and the disease situation had to be managed. The mission of research was therefore to address the issues first from the point of view of the immigrants, then the needs of the ... Tuberculosis Investigation Centre (Nairobi),.

  20. Refocusing International Astronomy Education Research Using a Cognitive Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    For over 40 years, the international astronomy education community has given its attention to cataloging the substantial body of "misconceptions" in individual's thinking about astronomy, and to addressing the consequences of those misconceptions in the science classroom. Despite the tremendous amount of effort given to researching and disseminating information related to misconceptions, and the development of a theory of conceptual change to mitigate misconceptions, progress continues to be less than satisfying. An analysis of the literature and our own research has motivated the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research to advance a new model that allowing us to operate on students' astronomical learning difficulties in a more fruitful manner. Previously, much of the field's work binned erroneous student thinking into a single construct, and from that basis, curriculum developers and instructors addressed student misconceptions with a single instructional strategy. In contrast this model suggests that "misconceptions" are a mixture of at least four learning barriers: incorrect factual information, inappropriately applied mental algorithms (e.g., phenomenological primitives), insufficient cognitive structures (e.g., spatial reasoning), and affective/emotional difficulties. Each of these types of barriers should be addressed with an appropriately designed instructional strategy. Initial applications of this model to learning problems in astronomy and the space sciences have been fruitful, suggesting that an effort towards categorizing persistent learning difficulties in astronomy beyond the level of "misconceptions" may allow our community to craft tailored and more effective learning experiences for our students and the general public.

  1. COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AS THE SUBJECT OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Аleyevskaya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the issue of development of the communicative competence is well studied in pedagogical theory and practice. Nevertheless there is no consensus among researchers regarding the interpretation of the notion. This fact determines the relevance of the subject in the context of the reform of the national higher education. The labour market puts forward increasing requirements to graduates’ adaption potential within the system “human – human”. This draws special attention to the problem of communicative co mpetence. Materials and Methods: the authors carried out a sociological research on the communicative component of the competence cluster among master’s degree students who specialise in pedagogical education in order to determine “the importance of weight indicators” of separate competencies. Results: the authors substantiate the necessity of broadening a communicative competence in conditions of transition to a multilevel system of higher education; define its essence and structure taking into account the generic unity of Bachelor’s and Master’s degree programmes. The article presents the informative content of communication components in accordance with the proposed structure of communicative competence, containing motivation-value-based, cognitive, activity-based, reflective and evaluative components. The authors show the potential of communicative competence in the context of the new federal state educational standards (FGOS VO 3+. Further the authors make analysis of the requirements set to graduates upon completion of undergraduate and graduate programmes in “Pedagogical Education”, specify the role of separate competencies in extending graduates’ communicative competence. Discussion and Conclusions: the results of the research presented in the article enable to specify the structure and content of the communicative competence of a university graduate, reflecting the willingness and ability to productive

  2. Enterprising or altruistic selves? Making up research subjects in genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Richard; Prainsack, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of direct-to-consumer (DTC) personal genomics companies in 2007 was accompanied by considerable media attention and criticism from clinical geneticists and other health professionals, regulators, policy advisors, and ethicists. As well as offering genetic testing services, some firms are also engaged in building their own databases and conducting research with the data obtained from their customers. In this paper, we examine how one of these companies, 23andMe, is creating a certain kind of 'research subject' in opposition to that constituted in conventional forms of disease research. Drawing on debates about neoliberalism, contemporary health discourses and subjectivity, we consider two kinds of subjectivities produced through the discursive and material practices of 23andMe and UK Biobank, namely, 'enterprising' and 'altruistic' selves. We argue that the 23andMe model promotes the idea that curiosity about one's genome on the one hand, and participation in research on the other, are not only compatible but complementary aspects of being an entrepreneurial subject of contemporary health and medicine framed by the technologies of web 2.0. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. FOREWORD: Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia Focus on innovation in ceramics research in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akio; Hishita, Shunichi; Osada, Minoru; Haneda, Hajime

    2010-10-01

    Ceramics, as broadly defined, include all materials other than organic substances and metals, either crystalline or amorphous. They have been used by humans since early history and have contributed considerably to improving the quality of our life. In most cases, however, high-temperature treatment is necessary to prepare ceramics. This burdens the environment and there is therefore a great need for new ceramics processing methods. Recent technologically advanced ceramics are often composed of nanocrystallites, which have great potential for innovation in terms of exploring practical applications of nanomaterials and, consequently, reducing the environmental load. The ceramics industry had long flourished in Asia, particularly in East Asia, and even today, this region is leading the development of related materials. In line with these traditions, Japanese and Korean ceramics societies have been co-sponsoring seminars on ceramics since the 1980s. Having become more international in scope and context, a series of these seminars is now known as the International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics. This focus issue contains eight key articles presented at the 26th International Japan-Korea Seminar on Ceramics held on 24-26 November 2010 at the Tsukuba International Congress Center. In particular, Fabbri et al review electrode materials for protonic solid-oxide fuel cells, and Kamiya et al outline the present situation and future prospects for transparent transistors, particularly those based on amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O films. Eitel et al discuss the progress in engineering high-strain lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. Kim and Kumar review a simple processing method for producing porous ceramics using polysiloxane precursors, Kamiya and Iijima focus on surface modification and characterization of nanomaterials, and Wan et al briefly review the strategy of reducing lattice thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials and propose new materials for thermoelectric devices

  4. The Human Model: Changing Focus on Autism Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muotri, Alysson Renato

    2016-04-15

    The lack of live human brain cells for research has slowed progress toward understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders. A human model using reprogrammed patient somatic cells offers an attractive alternative, as it captures a patient's genome in relevant cell types. Despite the current limitations, the disease-in-a-dish approach allows for progressive time course analyses of target cells, offering a unique opportunity to investigate the cellular and molecular alterations before symptomatic onset. Understanding the current drawbacks of this model is essential for the correct data interpretation and extrapolation of conclusions applicable to the human brain. Innovative strategies for collecting biological material and clinical information from large patient cohorts are important for increasing the statistical power that will allow for the extraction of information from the noise resulting from the variability introduced by reprogramming and differentiation methods. Working with large patient cohorts is also important for understanding how brain cells derived from diverse human genetic backgrounds respond to specific drugs, creating the possibility of personalized medicine for autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Upgrading Our EPO Through Focused Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Dye, A.

    2012-01-01

    Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children's understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu's, or teacher's questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.

  6. 34 CFR 97.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  7. Discourse, Subject, and Agency. Linking Discourse Analysis and Biographical Research with the Help of the Concept of Articulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Spies

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available For a significant period of time biographical research did not focus on the influence of discourses on biographical narratives. In contrast, discourse analysis often disregarded the subject-constituting impact of discourses. This article deals with the theoretical question of how to work with both: discourse and subject. Therefore, I will introduce Stuart HALL's concept of articulation. Since the early 1990's HALL has been working on questions of (cultural identity. In this context he developed an understanding of subjects that enables them not only to be seen as effects of discourses, but also allows focusing on discourses in subject conceptions. Neither biographical research nor discourse analysis In German speaking countries have embraced the work of HALL. But his concept of articulation could link biographical research and discourse analysis, and could also be used for further empirical work. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902369

  8. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. PMID:27475714

  10. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Justification for Subjectivity in Art Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Rob

    1996-01-01

    Highlights some of the fundamental differences between positivistic and qualitative research methods regarding art education. Defends qualitative research and argues that applying natural science research principles to human endeavors is often futile. Discusses the special problems and advantages of qualitative research. (MJP)

  12. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Hsi Yuan; Sang-Bing Tsai; Chien-Yun Dai; Hsiao-Ming Chen; Wan-Fei Chen; Chia-Huei Wu; Guodong Li; Jiangtao Wang

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency...

  13. Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-11-01

    Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication.

  14. 75 FR 57469 - Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other Related Issues... availability of a guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data... guidance document entitled, ``Guidance on Withdrawal of Subjects From Research: Data Retention and Other...

  15. 45 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... Subjects § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to...

  16. 32 CFR 219.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human subjects in the research...

  17. 49 CFR 11.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 11.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  18. 28 CFR 46.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 46.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  19. 16 CFR 1028.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1028.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  20. 7 CFR 1c.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving... HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed...

  1. 22 CFR 225.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 225.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is...

  2. 40 CFR 26.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 26.119 Section 26.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects...

  3. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  4. Behavioral obesity research: Where have all the single subjects gone?

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jean E.; Gross, Alan M.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent reviews of the literature concerning behavioral treatments of obesity have concluded that behavioral methods have not been as successful in treating this problem as might have been predicted in the early years of behavior modification. Among the many potential reasons for this lack of success is the growing trend to utilize group statistical designs rather than single subject designs to examine the problem of obesity, in spite of the fact that single case methodology has provided ...

  5. A Framework for Conducting Critical Dialectical Pluralist Focus Group Discussions Using Mixed Research Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Frels, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    Although focus group discussions (FGDs) represent a popular data collection tool for researchers, they contain an extremely serious flaw: FGD researchers have ultimate power over all decisions made at every stage of the research process--from the conceptualization of the research, to the planning of the research study, to the implementation of the…

  6. In Europe, hooligans are prime subjects for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, M

    2000-07-28

    CAMBRIDGE, U.K.--One of the few burgeoning areas of violence research here and in Europe is football hooliganism. With lower homicide rates than in the United States and fewer incidences of killing sprees such as the Littleton school shooting, Europeans are less concerned about violence than Americans are--and that translates into less money for research on the topic. Moreover, some scientists argue that strict regulation of animal studies has dealt a severe blow to a once-proud European tradition of behavioral research on animal aggression.

  7. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  8. Protecting the Teaching and Learning Environment: A Hybrid Model for Human Subject Research Public Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenstein, Kristi N.

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for research involving human subjects have long been a critical issue in higher education. Federal public policy for research involving human subjects impacts institutions of higher education by requiring all federally funded research to be passed by an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Undergraduate research is no exception. Given the…

  9. Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, P; Stewart, K; Treasure, E; Chadwick, B

    2008-03-22

    This paper explores the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. The paper examines each method in detail, focusing on how they work in practice, when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dentistry. Examples of empirical studies that have used interviews or focus groups are also provided.

  10. 15 CFR 27.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... intention of involving human subjects. 27.119 Section 27.119 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 27.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human...

  11. Historic Preservation An unusual way to protect human subjects in research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, Ellen L.

    2001-09-15

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) at the Hanford Site interacts with human subjects in a variety of ways, some of which constitute human subjects research. A key element in this work is determining what constitutes 'research' and thus requires application of special measures to protect human subjects.

  12. Focus groups as a qualitative method for crosscultural research in social gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1995-04-01

    The focus group approach for collecting qualitative data can be usefully applied in social gerontological studies, both in a single setting and cross-culturally. The experiences of the research terms participating in the Comparative Study of Asian Elderly in employing focus groups are described, and their advantages and disadvantages as a general method for gathering basic qualitative data are discussed. While the method has promise, it also should be recognized that conducting focus group research within the context of a comparative study compounds the considerable time, effort, and funds that focus group research for basic social science already requires.

  13. The Focus Group Interview: Rising to the Challenge in Qualitative Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of expanding the focus group interview into the field of English as a Second Language (ESL), where this research methodology is yet to be thoroughly explored. Specifically, it aims to challenge popular criticisms about the reliability and validity of the focus group as a qualitative research methodology. It does…

  14. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  15. Preparing for and conducting focus groups in nursing research: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Owen; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    Focus group interviews are widely used in health research to explore phenomena and are accepted as a legitimate qualitative methodology. They are used to draw out interaction data from discussions among participants; researchers running these groups need to be skilled in interviewing and in managing groups, group dynamics and group discussions. This article follows Doody et al's (2013) article on the theory of focus group research; it addresses the preparation for focus groups relating to the research environment, interview process, duration, participation of group members and the role of the moderator. The article aims to assist researchers to prepare and plan for focus groups and to develop an understanding of them, so information from the groups can be used for academic studies or as part of a research proposal.

  16. Sexual dysfunction in testicular cancer patients subjected to post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: a focus beyond ejaculation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, K; Karatzas, A; Papandreou, C; Daliani, D; Zachos, I; Pisters, L L; Tzortzis, V

    2016-05-01

    Post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) represents an integral part of multidisciplinary treatment of advanced germ cell cancer; however, it is associated with a high complications rate. The present study aimed to describe sexual disorders in 53 patients with testicular cancer who underwent full bilateral, non-nerve-sparing PC-RPLND in our institution, focusing beyond ejaculatory dysfunction. The International Index for Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire was used as diagnostic tool of male sexual functioning pre-operatively and three months after RPLND, while post-operatively patients were asked to describe and evaluate changes in selected sexual parameters. Study findings demonstrate mixed pattern of changes in sexual functioning, with no difference in erectile functioning before and after operation. However, orgasmic function and intercourse and overall sexual satisfaction were found significantly impaired post-operatively. Sexual desire and frequency of attempted sexual intercourses were found significantly increased post-operatively, in comparison with pre-operative levels. With regard to patients' subjective perception on sexual functioning alterations after PC-RPLND, a significant number of patients reported higher levels of sexual desire, no difference in erectile function and worse orgasmic function and satisfaction post-operatively. Thus, patients subjected to PC-RPLND should be closely and routinely evaluated due to close relationship of sexual dissatisfaction with secondary psychological disorders. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The Journal Project and the I in Qualitative Research: Three Theoretical Lenses on Subjectivity and Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judith

    2012-01-01

    From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…

  18. Learning and memory and its relationship with the lateralization of epileptic focus in subjects with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fuentes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : In medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE, previous studies addressing the hemispheric laterality of epileptogenic focus and its relationship with learning and memory processes have reported controversial findings. Objective : To compare the performance of MTLE patients according to the location of the epileptogenic focus on the left (MTLEL or right temporal lobe (MTLER on tasks of episodic learning and memory for verbal and visual content. Methods : One hundred patients with MTLEL and one hundred patients with MTLER were tested with the following tasks: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Logical Memory-WMS-R to evaluate verbal learning and memory; and the Rey Visual Design Learning Test (RVDLT and the Visual Reproduction-WMS-R to evaluate visual learning and memory. Results : The MTLEL sample showed significantly worse performance on the RAVLT (p < 0.005 and on the Logical Memory tests (p < 0.01 than MTLER subjects. However, there were no significant between-group differences in regard to the visual memory tests. Discussion : Our findings suggest that verbal learning and memory abilities are dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, while visual abilities are less dependent on the right temporal lobe.

  19. [Disability studies: social exclusion a research subject].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The article presents disability studies and elaborates, as their central feature, the distinction between societal disability and impairment which can be described on an individual and medical level. Disability studies define disability as socially caused exclusion. Participation and inclusion, seen as sociopolitical control and counter-terms, do, in fact, have a different content, depending on usage and context. Using the example of the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD), the respective understanding of disability is depicted. Against this background, the deficits of implementation of the UN CRPD, as criticized by the responsible UN Committee, are shown. Finally, a research agenda for disability studies is outlined, that deals with, among other things, implementation strategies and conflicts of interest in terms of inclusion, furthering widely unquestioned economic conditions and especially the negative impact of European austerity politics.

  20. [Literature review of the subject of a research project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J C

    2012-01-01

    It can be very complicated to obtain relevant information through searching the medical literature if you do not know how it is organized and indexed or if you do not know how to use the specialized databases. For a successful review of the literature, you need to know what you are looking for and the key words for an effective search of the specialized databases and libraries and especially of the internet. It is essential to critically evaluate the information selected. Finally, using a reference manager can facilitate the gathering, organization, systematization, and integration of the bibliographic references in the documents generated in the study. This article aims to provide guidelines for efficient searching for information and for accurate, critical use of the literature. It makes recommendations about strategies for managing references to help to ensure the success of a research project. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. 48 CFR 752.7012 - Protection of the individual as a research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in Research Supported by USAID”, issued April 19, 1995, as from time to time amended (a copy of which... Policy when humans are the subject of research, as defined in 22 CFR 225.102(d), performed as part of the... individual as a research subject. 752.7012 Section 752.7012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...

  2. 14 CFR 1230.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention... SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1230.119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving...

  3. 10 CFR 745.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving....119 Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects, but it is later proposed to involve human...

  4. Single-Subject Designs and Action Research in the K-12 Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sean A.; Ross, Margaret E.; Chesser, Svetlana S.

    2011-01-01

    In as much as educational research is concerned with individual student assessment and development, it is surprising that single-subject designs are not more readily utilized in classroom-based action research. The purpose of this article is to emphasize benefits of single-subject research in the K-12 setting, given that teachers teach and assess…

  5. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  6. 'Best practice' in focus group research: making sense of different views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tim

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the broad epistemological debates which underpin conflicting statements on 'rigour' and 'good practice' in qualitative research; to relate divergences in statements of 'good practice' in focus group design made by the pre-eminent commentators on focus group methodology to these broader epistemological debates; and to stimulate further reflection on the range of possible uses for focus groups in health services research. Considerations of the analysis of focus group data are beyond the scope of this paper. Focus groups are a popular form of qualitative data collection, and may be defined as a particular form of group interview intended to exploit group dynamics. While qualitative research may be broadly characterized as concerned with exploring people's lived experiences and perspectives in context, it is a heterogeneous field incorporating many theoretical traditions. Consequently, qualitative researchers may be informed by a wide range of assumptions about the nature of knowledge (epistemology). These assumptions, whether implicit or explicit, have important consequences for claims about rigour and 'good practice' in data collection. Thus, while there is broad agreement over the general form of focus groups, statements of 'good practice' in terms of its application are varied. A close reading of texts by the two pre-eminent commentators on the practical application of focus groups identifies differences in 'best practice' focus group design related to their respective epistemological assumptions, and differences principally related to sampling techniques, composition of groups, the perceived role of group interaction and the nature of inference. Explicit consideration of the epistemological basis of divergent statements of 'best practice' in focus group design forces health services researchers to balance the demands of theory with the practicalities of conducting focus group research within complex host organisations; and

  7. What Should Autism Research Focus Upon? Community Views and Priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members,…

  8. Design Research with a Focus on Learning Processes: An Overview on Achievements and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediger, Susanne; Gravemeijer, Koeno; Confrey, Jere

    2015-01-01

    Design research continues to gain prominence as a significant methodology in the mathematics education research community. This overview summarizes the origins and the current state of design research practices focusing on methodological requirements and processes of theorizing. While recognizing the rich variations in the foci and scale of design…

  9. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Stephen Edward

    2014-01-01

    Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  10. The "Subject of Ethics" and Educational Research OR Ethics or Politics? Yes Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a theoretical context for research into "the subject of ethics" in terms of how students come to see themselves as self-reflective actors. I maintain that the "subject of ethics," or ethical subjectivity, has been overlooked as a necessary aspect of creating politically transformative spaces in education. At…

  11. An All Electronic, Adaptive, Focusing Schlieren System for Flight Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to develop an electronic, focusing schlieren system for flight research based on electronic cameras and spatial light modulators as dynamic...

  12. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: Water resource governance systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rascher, J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research in Water Resource Governance Systems focuses on areas of policy, governance, water resource planning and management and social-ecological systems. The objective is to ensure the equitable, efficient and sustainable deployment of water...

  13. Focus of Research on the Collagen-based Biomaterials in CLRI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Focus of Research on the Collagen-based Biomaterials in CLRI: Patient care and pain reduction. Living with Skin; It is a challenge to an institution that lives with dead skin for leather making; Some still do.

  14. Policy-Relevant Research within the Community Colleges: An IHE Focus for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dennis A., II; Campbell, Dale F.

    2015-01-01

    Grounded in policy-relevant research, the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Florida is focused on supporting local, state, and national postsecondary policy development as well as training the next generation of institutional leaders. IHE conducts rigorous scholarship focused on postsecondary policy analysis and supporting the…

  15. Using Single-Subject Research to Establish the Evidence Base of Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Harjusola-Webb, Sanna; Landrum, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Research in the field of special education often incorporates single-subject designs to investigate the effectiveness of educational practices for students with disabilities. As such, it is important that educators and educational professionals understand the characteristics of single-subject research methodologies and how those characteristics…

  16. 38 CFR 17.85 - Treatment of research-related injuries to human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2...

  17. 45 CFR 690.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 690.119 Section 690.119 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  18. 38 CFR 16.119 - Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research undertaken without the intention of involving human subjects. 16.119 Section 16.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans... the intention of involving human subjects. In the event research is undertaken without the intention...

  19. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subjective Time Perceptions and Aging Well: A Review of Concepts and Empirical Research - A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrian, Martina; Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-01-01

    understanding of human development across the lifespan. To this end, we call for theoretical and empirical interlinkages between yet loosely connected conceptual developments related to subjective time. These endeavors should be paralleled by an extension of methodological procedures (e.g., implementation of longitudinal research designs as well as a focus on the oldest-old) in order to inform a "lifespan theory of subjective time." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: water and human health research in CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water and Human Health team researches water related science to address the CSIR’s mandate, national priorities and to improve quality of life for all. The overall aim of the research is to achieve a sustainable balance between the use of water...

  2. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  3. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed.

  4. Eliciting community perspectives on research with older adults living with HIV through focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Annie L; Brown, Brandon; Taylor, Jeff; Estevez, Marlene; Loftus, Rick

    2017-12-01

    Approximately half of all people living with HIV in the US are age 50 and older. Existing research highlights the health challenges of these individuals, but little work has focused on gathering input about concerns in participating in HIV and aging research. Prior to designing a prospective cohort study on HIV and aging, we elicited feedback from potential participants on general attitudes toward participation in a prospective HIV cohort study, and perspectives on important research topics relevant to older adults living with HIV.Three qualitative focus groups were formed.Three focus groups (5-7 participants each; N = 18) were held with older adults living with HIV. All discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis.Participants emphasized the importance of data confidentiality, shared concerns about study biases arising from sponsored research, and suggested that conflicts of interest should be independently assessed by "representative" boards made of community members. They urged researchers to be mindful of research "burnout," because many people with HIV participate in multiple research studies. A number of priority research areas emerged, including the gap in provision of end-of-life services.Many older adults with HIV are knowledgeable about the research process and offer valuable insights to researchers. Addressing participant concerns can facilitate inclusion and enhance HIV research success.

  5. Environmental equity research: review with focus on outdoor air pollution research methods and analytic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qun; Chen, Dongmei; Buzzelli, Michael; Aronson, Kristan J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review environmental equity research on outdoor air pollution and, specifically, methods and tools used in research, published in English, with the aim of recommending the best methods and analytic tools. English language publications from 2000 to 2012 were identified in Google Scholar, Ovid MEDLINE, and PubMed. Research methodologies and results were reviewed and potential deficiencies and knowledge gaps identified. The publications show that exposure to outdoor air pollution differs by social factors, but findings are inconsistent in Canada. In terms of study designs, most were small and ecological and therefore prone to the ecological fallacy. Newer tools such as geographic information systems, modeling, and biomarkers offer improved precision in exposure measurement. Higher-quality research using large, individual-based samples and more precise analytic tools are needed to provide better evidence for policy-making to reduce environmental inequities.

  6. Process research on Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples: linking theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Paul S; Johnson, Susan M

    2013-03-01

    The focus of this article is on the link among theory, process, and outcome in the practice of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for couples. We describe the EFT model of change and the EFT perspective on adult love as the reflection of underlying attachment processes. We outline the manner in which theory and research inform EFT interventions. This leads into a detailed review of the literature on the processes of change in EFT. We highlight the client responses and therapist operations that have emerged from process research and their relation to treatment outcomes. We discuss the implications of this body of research for clinical practice and training. © FPI, Inc.

  7. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  8. Effects of Focus of Accounting Research on the Quality of Accounting Education in Malaysian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Kabiru Isa Dandago; Nor Azlina Binti Shaari

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the impact of focus of research in accounting on the quality of accounting education in Malaysian Universities. Research in accounting is very important in Malaysian Universities, in particular, and the Malaysian tertiary educational institutions, in general, and it is expected that academic research in accounting would improve the quality of accounting education in the country. The study is mainly a literature review type, with some informal interviews conducted for confir...

  9. Neither Objective nor Neutral? Reflecting on My Subjectivity throughout the Research Process in Takiwa School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Vicki

    An educational researcher describes and reflects on a qualitative research project she conducted, focusing on her positioning, neutrality, and objectivity throughout the research process and during subsequent data analysis. The research took place in a K-12 school in a remote rural New Zealand community inhabited by Maori, 1970s…

  10. Focus on Research in Learning Disabilities: Reports from the Research Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischner, Jeannette, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Eight articles report on findings of the five Research Institutes in Learning Disabilities. T. Bryan reports on "The Chicago Institute for Learning Disabilities" with findings concerning children's conversational skills, how children account for success and failure, children's ingratiation tactics, children who forget quickly, and children's…

  11. Contextualize that sort focus in the work and research training of the pedagogical career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ruiz-Ducasse

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper have purpose of perfecting continuous for learning and teaching process in the pedagogy careers, in this case, from a sort focus perspective. From development didactic of the labor investigative practice, he suggests idea about of the woman role. This work will let a change in the way proceeding of the professors’ future, to using the possibility that offer of the subject, for to guarantee a tally behaved and educate formation, which will let a first educate labor.

  12. Clinical Research in Vulnerable Populations: Variability and Focus of Institutional Review Boards' Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kästner

    Full Text Available Children and patients with cognitive deficits may find it difficult to understand the implication of research. In the European Union (EU, clinical studies outside the EU directives concerning medicinal products or medical devices, i.e., "miscellaneous clinical studies", have no legally mandated timelines for institutional review boards' (IRB decisions.To evaluate the review process of IRBs for two different "miscellaneous" multicenter clinical research protocols involving vulnerable subjects (children and adult stroke patients.Descriptive and comparative statistics. Protocol 1 is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional screening study of a symptomatic pediatric population at risk for Fabry disease involving genetic testing (NCT02152189. Protocol 2 is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint post-market study to evaluate the effectiveness of stent retrievers (NCT02135926. After having obtained positive initial IRB votes at the main study site, both protocols were subsequently submitted to the remaining IRBs.Protocol 1 was submitted to 19 IRBs. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to-final vote was 34 (IQR 10-65; range 0 to 130 days. Two IRBs accepted the coordinating center's IRB votes without re-evaluation. Changes to the informed consent documents were asked by 7/19 IRBs, amendments to the protocol by 2. Protocol 2 was submitted to 16 IRBs. Fifteen decisions were made. No IRB objected to the study. Median time-to final vote was 59 (IQR 10 to 65; range 0 to 128 days, which was not statistically significantly different compared with protocol 1 (Wilcoxon test. Two IRBs accepted a previous IRB decision and did not conduct an independent review. Eight/16 IRBs required changes to the informed consent documents; two IRBs recommended an amendment of the protocol.Both clinical research protocols involving vulnerable populations were well accepted. IRB workflows and decision times varied substantially

  13. The changing face of homicide research: The shift in empirical focus and emerging research trends

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannou, Maria; Hammond, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Homicidal behaviour is influenced by a complex interaction of behavioural, situational, and environmental factors that raise many challenging psychological questions. A large and continually-growing body of research has explored the crime of homicide, its epidemiology, victims and perpetrators. The area is developing rapidly, opening up new avenues of study.\\ud This special issue of the Journal of Criminal Psychology brings together an exciting array of papers on homicidal behaviour, examinin...

  14. Analysing group interaction in focus group research: Impact on content and the role of the moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Grønkjær

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between group participants is considered the distinct advantage and hallmark of focus group research. It is therefore necessary to include the social interaction dynamics in analysing focus group data. Little information is however available on analysis of the social interaction in the group and the analytical outcome for the content of the data. This paper contributes to the discussion of the value of participant interaction in focus group research by analysing sequences of interaction collected recently during a research project. This project utilized focus groups to investigate the perceptions and meanings of alcohol use in Denmark. As a frame for analysing group interaction, elements of conversation analysis were used. The aim of this paper is to illustrate group interaction and its impact on the content of focus group data, and highlight the role and some of the challenges posed by group interaction for moderating the focus group discussion. The interaction analyses led to the construction of four interactional events: Negotiating and constructing normality in interaction, disagreement and/or consensus, homogeneity and the impact on interaction and content, and coming to and making sense of a dead-end (including the risk of hierarchical issues. The interactional events are followed by considerations on the impact they may have on the role of the moderator.

  15. Qualitative adolescent health research - focus groups: a rural South African example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onya, He; Flisher, Aj

    2004-10-01

    This paper introduces nine steps that are recommended in conducting focus group discussions in rural communities and gives an example of how they can appropriately and fruitfully be employed in adolescent health behavioural research. The paper also reviewed issues related to methods of data collection, data analysis, reliability and validity in qualitative research. Focus group discussions took place in classrooms in three schools in Mankweng, Limpopo Province of South Africa. Three groups (boys only, girls only and mixed) took part in each school. Participants were selected from the pool of standard seven (grade 9) students from the chosen schools. The nine steps that were involved in using focus group discussions as a research method and the Mankweng experience is discussed. These steps include: (1) conducting a social influence analysis; (2) identifying the specific information to collect; (3) designing focus group discussion guide; (4) choosing the participants for the focus group discussion; (5) selecting focus group discussion moderators; (6) training focus group discussion moderators; (7) conducting the focus group discussion; (8) analysing the data collected; (9) formulating study conclusions and policy recommendations. Little adolescent health research in South Africa has been based upon methods that can capture the complexity of the role of significant others in adolescent health and development and the powerlessness of rural communities in dealing with the 'new morbidity' of adolescent risk behaviours. Understanding what sort of power relations, for example, that are involved in being relatively disadvantaged and how the power of such social groups can be increased is common concern of development managers and other individuals and institutions engaged in policy changes and implementation and deserve to be an essential component of child and adolescent health research. Well-collected and well-analysed qualitative data is needed in order to clearly

  16. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  17. Hans Jonas' thought on the ethics of research on human subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thinking and teachings of Hans Jonas was on the need for medical research to advance beyond the use animals for research and experimentations to research on human subjects. Jonas upholds the established view that medicine is an experimental science and that most medical advances are product of trial and error ...

  18. The Role of Subjectivity in Teacher Expertise Development: Mindfully Embracing the "Black Sheep" of Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Western cultures, subjectivity has often been seen as the "black sheep" of educational research because of its heavy emphasis on objectivity. Consequently many research initiatives in education share the assumption that objective reasoning should play a central role. However, mentoring teachers' practice improvement research often…

  19. Emerging Evidence from Single-Subject Research in the Field of Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Amy T.; Davidson, Roseanna; Banda, Devender R.

    2007-01-01

    Professionals in the field of deaf-blindness are challenged to use instructional practices that have been tested using experimental methodology. Single-subject design has been examined as a form of research that assists in substantiating practice. In a review of the literature, the authors identified 54 single-subject studies from 1969 to 2006…

  20. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  1. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  2. Forming Focus Groups for Pediatric Pain Research in Nursing: A Review of Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Brenna L; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2017-08-24

    Within current priorities for pain research set by the American Society for Pain Management Nursing, there is a paucity of pediatric pain research. Qualitative approaches are helpful when researching topics about which little is known. Focus groups are one method of qualitative data collection and have been successfully implemented with children and parents. The purpose of this paper was to identify ideal conditions for nurse researchers to employ when using focus groups as a data collection method for studies aiming to investigate pain in children. The aims of this paper are to identify focus group conditions (1) facilitating adequate scientific rigor and trustworthiness and (2) eliciting the richest data from participants. A critique of research studies that used focus groups with children, parents/caregivers, or nurses in hospital or community settings was performed to achieve the stated aims. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines directed the process of selecting studies for inclusion in this review. The final sample for critique included four studies. Methods such as transcription processes and approaches to analysis used in the four publications were appraised for scientific rigor and usefulness in pediatric pain research. Researchers investigating priority areas must consider trustworthiness and strategies to eliciting quality data when planning to employ focus groups as a data collection method. Nurses in the clinical setting can use findings of this report to strengthen pain assessment practices as well as evaluate qualitative work for inclusion in evidence-based policies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Review of the Research in Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Stephanie A; Johnson, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    Emotionally Focused Therapy for Couples (EFT) is a brief evidence-based couple therapy based in attachment theory. Since the development of EFT, efficacy and effectiveness research has accumulated to address a range of couple concerns. EFT meets or exceeds the guidelines for classification as an evidence-based couple therapy outlined for couple and family research. Furthermore, EFT researchers have examined the process of change and predictors of outcome in EFT. Future research in EFT will continue to examine the process of change in EFT and test the efficacy and effectiveness of EFT in new applications and for couples of diverse backgrounds and concerns. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  4. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  5. Beyond trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology: bridging research and practice with war-affected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth E; Kulkarni, Madhur; Kushner, Hallie

    2006-10-01

    This article examines the centrality of trauma-focused psychiatric epidemiology (TFPE) in research with war-affected populations. The authors question the utility of the dominant focus on posttraumatic stress disorder and other disorders of Western psychiatry, and they identify a set of critical research foci related to mental health work with communities affected by political violence. Core assumptions of TFPE and its roots in logical positivism and the biomedical model of contemporary psychiatry are explored. The authors suggest that an alternative framework--social constructivism--can serve as a bridge between researchers and practitioners by helping to refocus research efforts in ways that are conceptually and methodologically more attuned to the needs of war-affected communities and those working to address their mental health needs. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Children as Subjects in Nutrition Research: A Retrospective Look at Their Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Tamar; Economos, Christina; Folta, Sara; Sacheck, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore children's motivations for and perceived benefits and barriers to nutrition research participation. To explore children's perspectives on how to improve the research experience. Design: Seven focus group sessions were conducted during March 2008 with research participants from a trial that examined the effects of pre-exercise…

  7. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  8. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff’s skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices. PMID:28886088

  9. An empirical research on relationships between subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency and knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu-Hsi; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Dai, Chien-Yun; Chen, Hsiao-Ming; Chen, Wan-Fei; Wu, Chia-Huei; Li, Guodong; Wang, Jiangtao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among employees' usage intention pertaining to mobile information devices, focusing on subjective judgement, technology acceptance tendency, information sharing behavior and information transfer. A research model was established to verify several hypotheses. The research model based on integrated concepts of knowledge management and technology acceptance modeling. Participants were employees of enterprises in Taiwan, selected by combining snowball and convenience sampling. Data obtained from 779 e-surveys. Multiple-regression analysis was employed for hypothesis verification. The results indicate that perceived ease-of-use of mobile devices was affected by computer self-efficacy and computer playfulness directly; meanwhile, perceived ease-of-use directly affects perceived usefulness. In addition, perceived ease-of-use and perceived usefulness can predict information-sharing behavior in a positive manner, and impact knowledge transfer as well. Based on the research findings, it suggested that enterprises should utilize mobile information devices to create more contact with customers and enrich their service network. In addition, it is recommended that managers use mobile devices to transmit key information to their staff and that they use these devices for problem-solving and decision-making. Further, the staff's skills pertaining to the operation of mobile information devices and to fully implement their features are reinforced in order to inspire the users' knowledge transfer. Enhancing the playfulness of the interface is also important. In general, it is useful to promote knowledge transfer behavior within an organization by motivating members to share information and ideas via mobile information devices. In addition, a well-designed interface can facilitate employees' use of these devices.

  10. Broadening the focus of bat conservation and research in the USA for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Weller; Paul Cryan; O’Shea Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Appropriately, bat conservation in the USA during the 20th century focused on species that tend to aggregate in large numbers and locations (e.g. maternity roosts, hibernacula) where populations are most vulnerable. Extensive research into habitat needs (primarily for roosting) of reproductive females during the previous 2 decades has produced a wealth of information...

  11. Focus on CSIR research in pollution and waste: Integrated waste management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Research into integrated waste management is undertaken in view of the impact of increasing populations and a strong national focus on industrial, agricultural and urban growth that is likely to result in the increase of human induced pressures...

  12. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  13. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  14. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for many years, with Research Ethics Committees as their cornerstone. Although these oversight systems aim to ensure that the ethical quality of research is in order, they have been criticized for imped...

  15. Question order sensitivity of subjective well-being measures: focus on life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy in survey instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghee; McClain, Colleen; Webster, Noah; Han, Saram

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the effect of question context created by order in questionnaires on three subjective well-being measures: life satisfaction, self-rated health, and subjective life expectancy. We conducted two Web survey experiments. The first experiment (n = 648) altered the order of life satisfaction and self-rated health: (1) life satisfaction asked immediately after self-rated health; (2) self-rated health immediately after life satisfaction; and (3) two items placed apart. We examined their correlation coefficient by experimental condition and further examined its interaction with objective health. The second experiment (n = 479) asked life expectancy before and after parental mortality questions. Responses to life expectancy were compared by order using ANOVA, and we examined interaction with parental mortality status using ANCOVA. Additionally, response time and probes were examined. Correlation coefficients between self-rated health and life satisfaction differed significantly by order: 0.313 (life satisfaction first), 0.508 (apart), and 0.643 (self-rated health first). Differences were larger among respondents with chronic conditions. Response times were the shortest when self-rated health was asked first. When life expectancy asked after parental mortality questions, respondents reported considering parents more for answering life expectancy; and respondents with deceased parents reported significantly lower expectancy, but not those whose parents were alive. Question context effects exist. Findings suggest placing life satisfaction and self-rated health apart to avoid artificial attenuation or inflation in their association. Asking about parental mortality prior to life expectancy appears advantageous as this leads respondents to consider parental longevity more, an important factor for true longevity.

  16. Research in the hospital setting on human subjects. Protecting the patient and the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, R

    1993-10-01

    A hospital's institutional review board is charged with the responsibility of fully protecting the rights of research subjects. In doing so, the board establishes that research protocols are based on sound scientific principles, that benefits to research subjects outweigh the risks, and that the subject's consent is informed and not coerced. Although it has been argued that risk management has no role in the activities of such boards, the literature indicates that risk management and quality assurance principles apply to all areas of the institution, including the activities of the board. The institution must ensure that its researchers and board members are as fully protected as possible from civil and criminal liability and that the integrity of those conducting the research is established and maintained. The institution must also provide sufficient support for the board to conduct its reviews and educate the research community and board members on current and evolving laws and regulations governing human research. Risk prevention and quality assurance strategies should recognize the rights of the research subject as paramount while protecting the institution, its researchers, and the community served.

  17. Learning from Latino voices: Focus Groups' Insights on Participation in Genetic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Priscilla; Cummings, Cory; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-08-01

    There is a paucity of genetics research examining alcohol use among Latinos. The purpose of this study is to examine Latino perceptions of participation in alcohol studies that collect biological samples, an important precursor to increasing their participation in genetics research. A synthesis of the literature addressing participation of racial/ethnic minorities in alcohol genetics research was undertaken. We developed a framework of themes related to barriers and facilitators for participation, which we then used to analyze two focus groups held with 18 Latino participants. From the literature review, we identified nine themes related to facilitators of and barriers to participation. They are, on continua: curiosity to disinterest; trust to mistrust; understanding to confusion; safety to danger; inclusion to exclusion; sense of connection to disconnection; hope to despair; ease to hassle; and benefit to cost. Another theme emerged from the focus groups: previous experience to no previous experience with health research. Applying the themes from the literature review to Latino perspectives on providing biological samples for alcohol research helps expand their definition and applicability. Consideration of these themes when designing recruitment/retention materials and strategies may encourage Latino participation in alcohol genetics research. An understanding of these themes and their significance for Latinos is offered in the form of "guiding questions" for researchers to consider as we strive for more inclusive research. Focus group participants were Mexican American; future research should further explore perspectives of this heterogeneous demographic group by studying other Latino subgroups. (Am J Addict 2017;26:477-485). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Risk of vicarious trauma in nursing research: a focused mapping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Breckenridge, Jenna P; Jones, Christine; Herber, Oliver Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    To provide a snapshot of how vicarious trauma is considered within the published nursing research literature. Vicarious trauma (secondary traumatic stress) has been the focus of attention in nursing practice for many years. The most pertinent areas to invoke vicarious trauma in research have been suggested as abuse/violence and death/dying. What is not known is how researchers account for the risks of vicarious trauma in research. Focused mapping review and synthesis. Empirical studies meeting criteria for abuse/violence or death/dying in relevant Scopus ranked top nursing journals (n = 6) January 2009 to December 2014. Relevant papers were scrutinised for the extent to which researchers discussed the risk of vicarious trauma. Aspects of the studies were mapped systematically to a pre-defined template, allowing patterns and gaps in authors' reporting to be determined. These were synthesised into a coherent profile of current reporting practices and from this, a new conceptualisation seeking to anticipate and address the risk of vicarious trauma was developed. Two thousand five hundred and three papers were published during the review period, of which 104 met the inclusion criteria. Studies were distributed evenly by method (52 qualitative; 51 quantitative; one mixed methods) and by focus (54 abuse/violence; 50 death/dying). The majority of studies (98) were carried out in adult populations. Only two papers reported on vicarious trauma. The conceptualisation of vicarious trauma takes account of both sensitivity of the substantive data collected, and closeness of those involved with the research. This might assist researchers in designing ethical and protective research and foreground the importance of managing risks of vicarious trauma. Vicarious trauma is not well considered in research into clinically important topics. Our proposed framework allows for consideration of these so that precautionary measures can be put in place to minimise harm to staff. © 2016

  19. The Research on Coordinated Decision-Making Method Tax System Based on Subject Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academically, the research of subject database of tax system aims to set up an efficient, harmonious virtual data application environment. Subject data, in application and management, has been on demand polymerized and autonomously collaborated and has reached a balance between instantaneity and accuracy. This paper defines the connotation and characteristics enterprise informationization, designs a value system of enterprise informationization which is subject database oriented, and builds a model for the import of the subject database of enterprise informationization. Meantime, this paper describes the structure of the subject database based information import model and forges the model’s theoretical basis of subject data import in tax system. Using the model can make an analysis on the information of data warehouse, storage information, and tax information to provide decision support for the tax administrators.

  20. What are Agricultural Economics Ph.D. Students Learning about Agribusiness Research Methods and Subject Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa House; James Sterns

    2003-01-01

    .... This ambiguity not only limits any assessment of agribusiness Ph.D.-level training, but also undermines the academic endeavors of those interested in pursuing agribusiness-focused research and graduate instruction...

  1. Vithanage Receives 2009 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Meththika Vithanage has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to recent Ph.D. recipients for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Vithanage’s thesis is entitled “Effect of tsunami on coastal aquifers: Field studies and tank experiments.” She was formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards Focus Group reception during the 2009 AGU Fall Meeting, held 14-18 December in San Francisco, Calif. Vithanage received her B.S. in natural resources from Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka in 2002 and an M.S. in environmental science from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, in 2005. In 2009, she attained a Ph.D. in hydrogeology under the supervision of Karsten Jensen and Peter Engesgaard in the Department of Geology and Geography at University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Her research interests include groundwater flow modeling, density-dependent flow and solute transport modeling, and water quality analysis.

  2. Medicare Claims Data Resources: A Primer for Policy-Focused Radiology Health Services Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard

    2017-12-01

    As societal stakeholders call for increased evidence-based health policy, considerable attention has focused on Medicare, the country's largest payer. Concurrently, medical imaging has come under considerable scrutiny as a contributor to rising health care expenditures. Accordingly, many recent studies have focused on multiple factors related to the utilization of imaging among Medicare beneficiaries. This article summarizes several national Medicare fee-for-service data sources relevant to supporting ongoing investigations. Aggregated 100% data sets include the Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files and the Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data: Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File. The former focuses on services, specialties, and sites of service; the latter focuses on providers. Both permit high-level national assessments of imaging utilization and spending. Individual 5% random-sample claims-level data sources include the Carrier Standard Analytical File Limited Data Set and the Research Identifiable File, which contain greater beneficiary-level information. Both facilitate more robust patient- and encounter-level analyses and some assessment of downstream outcomes but involve greater costs and require greater privacy oversight. More recently, Medicare data are being merged with registry data (eg, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare Linked Database files), creating opportunities for even more robust analyses given richer clinical information. Understanding these data sets and trade-offs in their use will aid policy-focused imaging health services researchers in most effectively conducting their investigations. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Profiles of Urine Drug Test in Clinical Pain Patients vs Pain Research Study Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-ting; Vo, Trang T; Cohen, Abigail S; Ahmed, Shihab; Zhang, Yi; Mao, Jianren; Chen, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    To examine similarities and differences in urine drug test (UDT) results in clinical pain patients and pain subjects participating in pain research studies. An observational study with retrospective chart review and data analysis. We analyzed 1,874 UDT results obtained from 1) clinical pain patients (Clinical Group; n = 1,529) and 2) pain subjects consented to participate in pain research studies (Research Group; n = 345). Since several medications such as opioids used in pain management are drugs of abuse (DOA) and can result in a positive UDT, we specifically identified those cases of positive UDT due to nonprescribed DOA and designated these cases as positive UDT with DOA (PUD). We found that 1) there was a higher rate of PUD in clinical pain patients (41.3%) than in pain research study subjects (14.8%); 2) although subjects in the Research Group were informed ahead of time that UDT will be conducted as a screening test, a substantial number (14.8%) of pain research study subjects still showed PUD; 3) there were different types of DOA between clinical pain patients (cannabinoids as the top DOA) and research study subjects (cocaine as the top DOA); and 4) a common factor associated with PUD was opioid therapy in both Clinical Group and Research Group. These results support previous findings that PUD is a common finding in clinical pain patients, particularly in those prescribed opioid therapy, and we suggest that UDT be used as routine screening testing in pain research studies. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Single-subject research design: recommendations for levels of evidence and quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser Logan, Lynne; Hickman, Robbin R; Harris, Susan R; Heriza, Carolyn B

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this article is to present a set of evidence levels, accompanied by 14 quality or rigor questions, to foster a critical review of published single-subject research articles. In developing these guidelines, we reviewed levels of evidence and quality/rigor criteria that are in wide use for group research designs, e.g. randomized controlled trials, such as those developed by the Treatment Outcomes Committee of the American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine. We also reviewed methodological articles on how to conduct and critically evaluate single-subject research designs (SSRDs). We then subjected the quality questions to interrater agreement testing and refined them until acceptable agreement was reached. We recommend that these guidelines be implemented by clinical researchers who plan to conduct single-subject research or who incorporate SSRD studies into systematic reviews, and by clinicians who aim to practise evidence-based medicine and who wish to critically review pediatric single-subject research.

  5. Identifying Evidence-Based Special Education Interventions from Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Sugai, George

    2013-01-01

    Special educators are required to use evidence-based academic and behavioral interventions in their classrooms (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). No rigorous and comprehensive database currently exists to support educators. Within the field of special education, single-subject research is the primary research methodology (Horner, Carr, Halle,…

  6. "Biosphere Reserve"--The Actual Research Subject of the Sustainable Development Process"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasaev, Gabibulla R.; Sadovenko, Marina Yu.; Isaev, Roman O.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the analyzed issue is caused by the growing slippage of research funds of sustainable development in its practice. The purpose of the article is the theoretical basis of the biosphere reserve as a scientific research subject that is relevant to rules of the scientific activity. The leading approach to the study of this issue is…

  7. Use of the single subject design for practice based primary care research

    OpenAIRE

    Janosky, J.

    2005-01-01

    The use of a single subject research design is proposed for practice based primary care research. An overview of the rationale of the design, an introduction to the methodology, strengths, limitations, a sample of recent literature citations, a working example, and possible clinical applications are presented.

  8. Ethics in action: Approving and improving medical research with human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, Jean Philippe de Jong presents a new understanding of ethical oversight on medical research with human subjects and proposes that two philosophies for ethical oversight exist: '(dis)approving' and 'improving'. Systems for ethical oversight on medical research have been in place for

  9. The self as subject autoethnographic research into identity, culture, and academic librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Deitering, Anne-Marie; Stoddart, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using autoethnography as their research method, the 21 academic librarian authors of The Self as Subject: Autoethnographic Research into Identity, Culture, and Academic Librarianship investigate aspects of what it means to be a librarian. Starting with a reflective examination of themselves, they each investigate questions of culture, values, and identity. The Self as Subject presents a collection of reflective narratives that, taken together, explore the varied dimensions of librarianship in the present moment. It also examines autoethnography's potential to help librarians answer questions that cannot be answered by traditional, empirical research methods and to reveal voices that are obscured by aggregations of data.

  10. The Impact of Natural Disasters on Youth: A Focus on Emerging Research beyond Internalizing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Lai, Betty; Patterson, Alexandria; Glasheen, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews youth outcomes following exposure to natural disaster, with a focus on three relatively understudied outcomes: externalizing behavior problems, physical health, and posttraumatic growth. Recent, high-impact studies focusing on each outcome are summarized. Studies highlighted in this review utilize innovative and comprehensive approaches to improve our current understanding of youth broad-based physical and mental health outcomes beyond PTSD. The review concludes with recommendations to advance the field of youth disaster research by exploring how disasters may impact children across multiple domains, as well as using cutting edge ecobiological approaches and advanced modeling strategies to better understand how youth adjust and thrive following natural disaster.

  11. Deliberate Microbial Infection Research Reveals Limitations to Current Safety Protections of Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David L; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Mimnall, Rebecca K

    2015-08-01

    Here we identify approximately 40,000 healthy human volunteers who were intentionally exposed to infectious pathogens in clinical research studies dating from late World War II to the early 2000s. Microbial challenge experiments continue today under contemporary human subject research requirements. In fact, we estimated 4,000 additional volunteers who were experimentally infected between 2010 and the present day. We examine the risks and benefits of these experiments and present areas for improvement in protections of participants with respect to safety. These are the absence of maximum limits to risk and the potential for institutional review boards to include questionable benefits to subjects and society when weighing the risks and benefits of research protocols. The lack of a duty of medical care by physician-investigators to research subjects is likewise of concern. The transparency of microbial challenge experiments and the safety concerns raised in this work may stimulate further dialogue on the risks to participants of human experimentation.

  12. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  13. Human Subjects Protections in Community-Engaged Research: A Research Ethics Framework1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    in the 30 years since the belmont Report, the role of the community in research has evolved and has taken on greater moral significance. Today, more and more translational research is being performed with the active engagement of individuals and communities rather than merely upon them. This engagement requires a critical examination of the range of risks that may arise when communities become partners in research. In attempting to provide such an examination, one must distinguish between established communities (groups that have their own organizational structure and leadership and exist regardless of the research) and unstructured groups (groups that may exist because of a shared trait but do not have defined leadership or internal cohesiveness). In order to participate in research as a community, unstructured groups must develop structure either by external means (by partnering with a Community-Based Organization) or by internal means (by empowering the group to organize and establish structure and leadership). When groups participate in research, one must consider risks to well-being due to process and outcomes. These risks may occur to the individual qua individual, but there are also risks that occur to the individual qua member of a group and also risks that occur to the group qua group. There are also risks to agency, both to the individual and the group. A 3-by-3 grid including 3 categories of risks (risks to well-being secondary to process, risks to well-being secondary to outcome and risks to agency) must be evaluated against the 3 distinct agents: individuals as individual participants, individuals as members of a group (both as participants and as non-participants) and to communities as a whole. This new framework for exploring the risks in community-engaged research can help academic researchers and community partners ensure the mutual respect that community-engaged research requires. PMID:20235860

  14. Validity and reliability of subjective wellbeing indicators in sociological research: The measurement of life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the level of accuracy i.e. validity and reliability of subjective well-being indicators in sociological research, in case of life satisfaction. First, the relationship between subjective and objective indicators of well-being is presented. Second, the concept of life satisfaction is defined, and the findings of research related to the validity (convergent, discriminant, and predictive and reliability (test-retest, and internal consistency of life satisfaction measures are presented. Third, these findings were reassessed using data originating from large international surveys, which have not been used for this purpose yet. The results in this paper generally contribute to, in quite a large extent existing agreement within the scientific literature about the satisfactory level of validity and reliability of life satisfaction measures i.e. subjective indicators of well-being.

  15. Online Facebook Focus Group Research of Hard-to-Reach Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.

  16. Where are human subjects in Big Data research? The emerging ethics divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Metcalf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are growing discontinuities between the research practices of data science and established tools of research ethics regulation. Some of the core commitments of existing research ethics regulations, such as the distinction between research and practice, cannot be cleanly exported from biomedical research to data science research. Such discontinuities have led some data science practitioners and researchers to move toward rejecting ethics regulations outright. These shifts occur at the same time as a proposal for major revisions to the Common Rule—the primary regulation governing human-subjects research in the USA—is under consideration for the first time in decades. We contextualize these revisions in long-running complaints about regulation of social science research and argue data science should be understood as continuous with social sciences in this regard. The proposed regulations are more flexible and scalable to the methods of non-biomedical research, yet problematically largely exclude data science methods from human-subjects regulation, particularly uses of public datasets. The ethical frameworks for Big Data research are highly contested and in flux, and the potential harms of data science research are unpredictable. We examine several contentious cases of research harms in data science, including the 2014 Facebook emotional contagion study and the 2016 use of geographical data techniques to identify the pseudonymous artist Banksy. To address disputes about application of human-subjects research ethics in data science, critical data studies should offer a historically nuanced theory of “data subjectivity” responsive to the epistemic methods, harms and benefits of data science and commerce.

  17. Guest Editorial: The Nexus of Violence, Violence Research, and Development. Introduction to the Focus Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Imbusch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This focus section of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence is dedicated to violence and violence research in the Global South. It examines the causes, forms, perpetrators, processes, and outcomes of violence. While the contributions go into detail on what is commonly understood as politically motivated violence, they also examine societal, criminal, urban, and gendered violence, as well as the involvement of youth. Four articles explore the significance of violence in specific regions: Africa south of the Sahara, West Asia and North Africa, East Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors describe and assess the state of research within and about the different countries. Two further articles review the body of research on the causes of civil war, which has
    been the dominant issue in much violence-related research on the global South since the end of the Cold War.

  18. The use of Facebook for virtual asynchronous focus groups in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2017-10-19

    The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.

  19. Analysis of the intellectual structure of human space exploration research using a bibliometric approach: Focus on human related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tai Sik; Lee, Yoon-Sun; Lee, Jaeho; Chang, Byung Chul

    2018-02-01

    Human space exploration (HSE) is an interdisciplinary field composed of a range of subjects that have developed dramatically over the last few decades. This paper investigates the intellectual structure of HSE research with a focus on human related factors. A bibliometric approach with quantitative analytical techniques is applied to study the development and growth of the research. This study retrieves 1921 papers on HSE related to human factors from the year 1990 to the year 2016 from Web of Science and constructs a critical citation network composed of 336 papers. Edge-betweenness-based clustering is used to classify the citation network into twelve distinct research clusters based on four research themes: "biological risks from space radiation," "health and performance during long-duration spaceflight," "program and in-situ resources for HSE missions," and "habitat and life support systems in the space environment." These research themes are also similar to the classification results of a co-occurrence analysis on keywords for a total of 1921 papers. Papers with high centrality scores are identified as important papers in terms of knowledge flow. Moreover, the intermediary role of papers in exchanging knowledge between HSE sub-areas is identified using brokerage analysis. The key-route main path highlights the theoretical development trajectories. Due to the recent dramatic increase in investment by international governments and the private sector, the theoretical development trajectories of key research themes have been expanding from furthering scientific and technical knowledge to include various social and economic issues, thus encouraging massive public participation. This study contributes to an understanding of research trends and popular issues in the field of HSE by introducing a powerful way of determining major research themes and development trajectories. This study will help researchers seek the underlying knowledge diffusion flow from multifaceted

  20. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  1. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicano, Elizabeth; Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-10-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom's pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people's day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Evaluating Single-Subject Treatment Research: Lessons Learned from the Aphasia Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, Pélagie M.; Robey, Randall R.

    2007-01-01

    The mandate for evidence-based practice has prompted careful consideration of the weight of the scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic value of various clinical treatments. In the field of aphasia, a large number of single-subject research studies have been conducted, providing clinical outcome data that are potentially useful for clinicians and researchers; however, it has been difficult to discern the relative potency of these treatments in a standardized manner. In this paper we describe an approach to quantify treatment outcomes for single-subject research studies using effect sizes. These values provide a means to compare treatment outcomes within and between individuals, as well as to compare the relative strength of various treatments. Effect sizes also can be aggregated in order to conduct meta-analyses of specific treatment approaches. Consideration is given to optimizing research designs and providing adequate data so that the value of treatment research is maximized. PMID:17151940

  3. Health Benefits of Animal Research: The Dog as a Research Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, William I.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the role of dogs in research, considering their use in studies related to: behavior; aging; anesthesia; gastrointestinal surgery; the brain; organ transplants; radiobiology; trauma and shock; arterial diseases; hemophelia; ophthalmology; diabetes; nutrition; cancer; lupus; cyclic neutropenia; thyroiditis; hepatitis; skeletal system,…

  4. Protection of human subjects of biomedical research in the United States. A contrast with recent experience in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    1988-01-01

    In the U.S., the development of extensive regulations for the protection of human subjects of research began in the 1960s and continued through the 1970s. The substance of these regulations reflects the American social and political climate of the time. There is a focus on rights--e.g., to be left alone, to be self-determining--reflected in elaborate requirements to assure the validity and documentation of informed consent. There is also a focus on systems of disinterested review and monitoring procedures to assure uniform adherence to the requirements of the regulations. To the extent that the U.S. has developed extensive regulations in this field, it may be viewed as more advanced than the U.K. And yet, it is apparent that there remain on both sides of the Atlantic very difficult and similar problems regarding the definition of responsible research. Such problems are illustrated by consideration of current controversies about the ethical justification of RCTs. There are some features of the U.S. regulatory system that I can commend to the attention of other nations as they develop policies for the protection of human research subjects. For example, a uniform requirement for informed consent and committee review appears to be responsive to some problems currently encountered in the conduct of RCTs in the U.K. A note of caution is in order, however. Some features of our regulatory policy and practices are excessively inflexible, wasteful of human resources, and occasionally counterproductive.

  5. Designing oversight for nanomedicine research in human subjects: systematic analysis of exceptional oversight for emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney M.

    2011-04-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed.

  6. Designing Oversight for Nanomedicine Research in Human Subjects: Systematic Analysis of Exceptional Oversight for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M.; Jones, Cortney

    2012-01-01

    The basic procedures and rules for oversight of U.S. human subjects research have been in place since 1981. Certain types of human subjects research, however, have provoked creation of additional mechanisms and rules beyond the Department of Health & Human Services (DHHS) Common Rule and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) equivalent. Now another emerging domain of human subjects research—nanomedicine—is prompting calls for extra oversight. However, in 30 years of overseeing research on human beings, we have yet to specify what makes a domain of scientific research warrant extra oversight. This failure to systematically evaluate the need for extra measures, the type of extra measures appropriate for different challenges, and the usefulness of those measures hampers efforts to respond appropriately to emerging science such as nanomedicine. This article evaluates the history of extra oversight, extracting lessons for oversight of nanomedicine research in human beings. We argue that a confluence of factors supports the need for extra oversight, including heightened uncertainty regarding risks, fast-evolving science yielding complex and increasingly active materials, likelihood of research on vulnerable participants including cancer patients, and potential risks to others beyond the research participant. We suggest the essential elements of the extra oversight needed. PMID:23226969

  7. The social process of escalation: a promising focus for crisis management research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Johan; Dekker, Sidney; Nyce, James M; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis

    2012-06-15

    This study identifies a promising, new focus for the crisis management research in the health care domain. After reviewing the literature on health care crisis management, there seems to be a knowledge-gap regarding organisational change and adaption, especially when health care situations goes from normal, to non-normal, to pathological and further into a state of emergency or crisis. Based on studies of escalating situations in obstetric care it is suggested that two theoretical perspectives (contingency theory and the idea of failure as a result of incomplete interaction) tend to simplify the issue of escalation rather than attend to its complexities (including the various power relations among the stakeholders involved). However studying the process of escalation as inherently complex and social allows us to see the definition of a situation as normal or non-normal as an exercise of power in itself, rather than representing a putatively correct response to a particular emergency. The concept of escalation, when treated this way, can help us further the analysis of clinical and institutional acts and competence. It can also turn our attention to some important elements in a class of social phenomenon, crises and emergencies, that so far have not received the attention they deserve. Focusing on organisational choreography, that interplay of potential factors such as power, professional identity, organisational accountability, and experience, is not only a promising focus for future naturalistic research but also for developing more pragmatic strategies that can enhance organisational coordination and response in complex events.

  8. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  9. Swedish nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in clinical practice: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, Doris M; Ericsson, Terese; Borglin, Gunilla

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, nursing research is seen as an integral part of professional nursing although implementing knowledge derived from nursing research into the practice setting is still problematic. Current research, conducted mainly with a descriptive quantitative design, highlights the struggle experienced by Registered Nurses (RNs) to use and implement research findings in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this naturalistic inquiry was to explore nurses' perception of nursing research and its implementation in a clinical context. A qualitative approach was chosen, and four focus group discussions were conducted. The groups comprised a total of 16 RNs (three men and 13 women) working in a secondary care setting. The transcribed texts were analysed, inspired by Burnard's description of content analysis. The texts were interpreted as representing three predominant themes: scholastic, individual and contextual influences highlighted as influential components impacting on the RNs' views on research and its implementation as well as on their readiness to accept and support it. However, the most influential aspect permeating our themes was their educational background--the type of qualification they held. In general, the RNs with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing viewed research and the implementation of knowledge in practice more favourably than those RNs with a diploma. Our findings, although based on a small qualitative study, are congruent with others, indicating that further research is warranted concerning the impact of education on RNs' views of nursing research and its implementation. Hence, it might well be that the RNs' educational point of departure needs to be stressed more than what so far have been anticipated. In the meanwhile, it is possible that a number of strategies could be tested to promote a more favourable view in these issues and where the nursing education has the possibility to influence this endeavour. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of

  10. Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of evidence-based practices continues to provoke issues of disagreement across multiple fields. One area of contention is the role of single-subject design (SSD) research in providing scientific evidence. The debate about SSD's utility centers on three issues: sample size, effect size, and serial dependence. One potential…

  11. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  12. Implementation of Subjective Probability Estimates in Army Intelligence Procedures: A Critical Review of Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    subjective probabil- ity estimates have been incorporated routinely into tactical intelligence comunications . Research in the area of intelligence...analysis: Report on Phase I. Report FSC-71-5047. Gaithersburg, Md.: International Business Machines (IBM), Federal Systems Division, 1971. Kelly, C. W

  13. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  14. Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical Research into the Radical Subjective solution of the Measurement problem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, D.; Whitmarsh, S.

    2007-01-01

    Schrodinger's Cat: Empirical research into the radical subjective solution of the measurement problem Dick J. Bierman & Stephen Whitmarsh The most controversial of all solutions of the measurement problem holds that a measurement is not completed until a conscious observation is made. In other

  15. Research monitoring by US medical institutions to protect human subjects: compliance or quality improvement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Jean Philippe; van Zwieten, Myra C. B.; Willems, Dick L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects, institutions in the USA have begun to set up programmes to monitor ongoing medical research. These programmes provide routine, onsite oversight, and thus go beyond existing oversight such as investigating suspected misconduct or

  16. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  17. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  18. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  19. Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranseika, Vilius; Piasecki, Jan; Waligora, Marcin

    2017-02-01

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, talk to patients to be better able to understand what can be potentially different concerns and interests prevalent in the target population. The subjective standard of disclosure should be seen as a moral ideal that perhaps can never be perfectly implemented but still can and should be used as a normative ideal guiding research practice. In the light of these discussions, we call for more empirical research on what considerations are likely to be perceived as relevant by potential research participants recruited from different socio-economic and cultural groups.

  20. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2010-10-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  1. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan

    2007-12-01

    Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (in depth interviews and focus groups). We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals and reference lists of relevant publications for existing checklists used to assess qualitative studies. Seventy-six items from 22 checklists were compiled into a comprehensive list. All items were grouped into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. Duplicate items and those that were ambiguous, too broadly defined and impractical to assess were removed. Items most frequently included in the checklists related to sampling method, setting for data collection, method of data collection, respondent validation of findings, method of recording data, description of the derivation of themes and inclusion of supporting quotations. We grouped all items into three domains: (i) research team and reflexivity, (ii) study design and (iii) data analysis and reporting. The criteria included in COREQ, a 32-item checklist, can help researchers to report important aspects of the research team, study methods, context of the study, findings, analysis and interpretations.

  2. Research on health equity in the SDG era: the urgent need for greater focus on implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanathan, Kumanan; Diaz, Theresa

    2016-12-09

    The tremendous increase in knowledge on inequities in health and their drivers in recent decades has not been matched by improvements in health inequities themselves, or by systematic evidence of what works to reduce health inequities. Within health equity research there is a skew towards diagnostic studies in comparison to intervention studies showing evidence of how interventions can reduce disparities. The lack of sufficient specific evidence on how to implement specific policies and interventions in specific contexts to reduce health inequities creates policy confusion and partly explains the lack of progress on health inequities. In the field of research on equity in health, the time has come to stop focusing so much energy on prevalence and pathways, and instead shift to proposing and testing solutions. Four promising approaches to do so are implementation research, natural experimental policy studies, research on buy-in by policy-makers to action on health inequities, and geospatial analysis. The case for action on social determinants and health inequities has well and truly been made. The community of researchers on health equity now need to turn their attention to supporting implementation efforts towards achievements of the Sustainable Development Goals and substantive reductions in health inequities.

  3. Reflexivity and the "Acting Subject": Conceptualizing the Unit of Analysis in Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, James A

    2016-07-06

    The ways in which social scientists conceptualize the "reflexive" human subject have important consequences for how we go about our research. Whether and how we understand human subjects to be the authors of our own actions helps to structure what we say about health, health care, and the many other topics addressed in qualitative health research. In this article, I critically discuss assumptions of human reflexivity that are built into qualitative social science of health and medicine. I describe three alternative ways of understanding reflexive thought and human action derived from the theoretical works of Pierre Bourdieu, Bruno Latour, and George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, respectively. I then apply these three different ways of thinking about reflexivity and the acting subject to the analysis of an excerpt of participant observation data from a health services research study of transitions from hospital to home, illuminating the different kinds of analyses that arise from each perspective. I conclude with a call for social scientists to commit to the search for better ways of understanding the human subject, resisting the temptation to "settle" on theoretical statements that close down the path to more sophisticated conceptualizations of human thought and action. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The persistence of the subjective in neuropsychopharmacology: observations of contemporary hallucinogen research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlitz, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    The elimination of subjectivity through brain research and the replacement of so-called "folk psychology" by a neuroscientifically enlightened worldview and self-conception has been both hoped for and feared. But this cultural revolution is still pending. Based on nine months of fieldwork on the revival of hallucinogen research since the "Decade of the Brain," this paper examines how subjective experience appears as epistemic object and practical problem in a psychopharmacological laboratory. In the quest for neural correlates of (drug-induced altered states of) consciousness, introspective accounts of test subjects play a crucial role in neuroimaging studies. Firsthand knowledge of the drugs' flamboyant effects provides researchers with a personal knowledge not communicated in scientific publications, but key to the conduct of their experiments. In many cases, the "psychedelic experience" draws scientists into the field and continues to inspire their self-image and way of life. By exploring these domains the paper points to a persistence of the subjective in contemporary neuropsychopharmacology.

  5. The Patient-Worker: A Model for Human Research Subjects and Gestational Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Emma; Fulfer, Katy

    2017-01-13

    We propose the 'patient-worker' as a theoretical construct that responds to moral problems that arise with the globalization of healthcare and medical research. The patient-worker model recognizes that some participants in global medical industries are workers and are owed worker's rights. Further, these participants are patient-like insofar as they are beneficiaries of fiduciary relationships with healthcare professionals. We apply the patient-worker model to human subjects research and commercial gestational surrogacy. In human subjects research, subjects are usually characterized as either patients or as workers. Through questioning this dichotomy, we argue that some subject populations fit into both categories. With respect to commercial surrogacy, we enrich feminist discussions of embodied labor by describing how surrogates are beneficiaries of fiduciary obligations. They are not just workers, but patient-workers. Through these applications, the patient-worker model offers a helpful normative framework for exploring what globalized medical industries owe to the individuals who bear the bodily burdens of medical innovation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Mark

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute and prolonged (4-weeks ingestion of a supplement designed to improve reaction time and subjective measures of alertness, energy, fatigue, and focus compared to placebo. Methods Nineteen physically-active subjects (17 men and 2 women were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed a supplement (21.1 ± 0.6 years; body mass: 80.6 ± 9.4 kg or placebo (21.3 ± 0.8 years; body mass: 83.4 ± 18.5 kg. During the initial testing session (T1, subjects were provided 1.5 g of the supplement (CRAM; α-glycerophosphocholine, choline bitartrate, phosphatidylserine, vitamins B3, B6, and B12, folic acid, L-tyrosine, anhydrous caffeine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and naringin or a placebo (PL, and rested quietly for 10-minutes before completing a questionnaire on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus (PRE. Subjects then performed a 4-minute quickness and reaction test followed by a 10-min bout of exhaustive exercise. The questionnaire and reaction testing sequence was then repeated (POST. Subjects reported back to the lab (T2 following 4-weeks of supplementation and repeated the testing sequence. Results Reaction time significantly declined (p = 0.050 between PRE and POST at T1 in subjects consuming PL, while subjects under CRAM supplementation were able to maintain (p = 0.114 their performance. Significant performance declines were seen in both groups from PRE to POST at T2. Elevations in fatigue were seen for CRAM at both T1 and T2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively, but only at T2 for PL (p = 0.029. Subjects in CRAM maintained focus between PRE and POST during both T1 and T2 trials (p = 0.152 and p = 0.082, respectively, whereas significant declines in focus were observed between PRE and POST in PL at both trials (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014, respectively. No difference in alertness was seen at T1 between PRE and POST for CRAM (p = 0.083, but a significant

  7. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Gonzalez, Adam; Beller, Noah A; Hoffman, Mattan W; Olson, Mark; Purpura, Martin; Jäger, Ralf

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute and prolonged (4-weeks) ingestion of a supplement designed to improve reaction time and subjective measures of alertness, energy, fatigue, and focus compared to placebo. Nineteen physically-active subjects (17 men and 2 women) were randomly assigned to a group that either consumed a supplement (21.1 ± 0.6 years; body mass: 80.6 ± 9.4 kg) or placebo (21.3 ± 0.8 years; body mass: 83.4 ± 18.5 kg). During the initial testing session (T1), subjects were provided 1.5 g of the supplement (CRAM; α-glycerophosphocholine, choline bitartrate, phosphatidylserine, vitamins B3, B6, and B12, folic acid, L-tyrosine, anhydrous caffeine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and naringin) or a placebo (PL), and rested quietly for 10-minutes before completing a questionnaire on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus (PRE). Subjects then performed a 4-minute quickness and reaction test followed by a 10-min bout of exhaustive exercise. The questionnaire and reaction testing sequence was then repeated (POST). Subjects reported back to the lab (T2) following 4-weeks of supplementation and repeated the testing sequence. Reaction time significantly declined (p = 0.050) between PRE and POST at T1 in subjects consuming PL, while subjects under CRAM supplementation were able to maintain (p = 0.114) their performance. Significant performance declines were seen in both groups from PRE to POST at T2. Elevations in fatigue were seen for CRAM at both T1 and T2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.000, respectively), but only at T2 for PL (p = 0.029). Subjects in CRAM maintained focus between PRE and POST during both T1 and T2 trials (p = 0.152 and p = 0.082, respectively), whereas significant declines in focus were observed between PRE and POST in PL at both trials (p = 0.037 and p = 0.014, respectively). No difference in alertness was seen at T1 between PRE and POST for CRAM (p = 0.083), but a significant decline was recorded at T2 (p = 0

  8. Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.

  9. Family-Focused Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Reflections on 30 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J; Chung, Bowen

    2016-09-01

    Family-focused therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based intervention for adults and children with bipolar disorder (BD) and their caregivers, usually given in conjunction with pharmacotherapy after an illness episode. The treatment consists of conjoint sessions of psychoeducation regarding bipolar illness, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training. This paper summarizes over 30 years of research on FFT and family processes in BD. Across eight randomized controlled trials with adults and adolescents with BD, FFT and mood-stabilizing medications have been found to hasten recovery from mood episodes, reduce recurrences, and reduce levels of symptom severity compared to briefer forms of psychoeducation and medications over 1-2 years. Several studies indicate that the effects of FFT on symptom improvement are greater among patients with high-expressed emotion relatives. New research focuses on FFT as an early intervention for youth at risk for BD, neuroimaging as a means of evaluating treatment mechanisms, and progress in implementing FFT in community mental health settings. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  10. The influence of motivational and mood states on visual attention: A quantification of systematic differences and casual changes in subjects' focus of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A great number of studies have shown that different motivational and mood states can influence human attentional processes in a variety of ways. Yet, none of these studies have reliably quantified the exact changes of the attentional focus in order to be able to compare attentional performances based on different motivational and mood influences and, beyond that, to evaluate their effectivity. In two studies, we explored subjects' differences in the breadth and distribution of attention as a function of motivational and mood manipulations. In Study 1, motivational orientation was classified in terms of regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and in Study 2, mood was classified in terms of valence (positive vs. negative). Study 1 found a 10% wider distribution of the visual attention in promotion-oriented subjects compared to prevention-oriented ones. The results in Study 2 reveal a widening of the subjects' visual attentional breadth when listening to happy music by 22% and a narrowing by 36% when listening to melancholic music. In total, the findings show that systematic differences and casual changes in the shape and scope of focused attention may be associated with different motivational and mood states.

  11. The social process of escalation: a promising focus for crisis management research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergström Johan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study identifies a promising, new focus for the crisis management research in the health care domain. After reviewing the literature on health care crisis management, there seems to be a knowledge-gap regarding organisational change and adaption, especially when health care situations goes from normal, to non-normal, to pathological and further into a state of emergency or crisis. Discussion Based on studies of escalating situations in obstetric care it is suggested that two theoretical perspectives (contingency theory and the idea of failure as a result of incomplete interaction tend to simplify the issue of escalation rather than attend to its complexities (including the various power relations among the stakeholders involved. However studying the process of escalation as inherently complex and social allows us to see the definition of a situation as normal or non-normal as an exercise of power in itself, rather than representing a putatively correct response to a particular emergency. Implications The concept of escalation, when treated this way, can help us further the analysis of clinical and institutional acts and competence. It can also turn our attention to some important elements in a class of social phenomenon, crises and emergencies, that so far have not received the attention they deserve. Focusing on organisational choreography, that interplay of potential factors such as power, professional identity, organisational accountability, and experience, is not only a promising focus for future naturalistic research but also for developing more pragmatic strategies that can enhance organisational coordination and response in complex events.

  12. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  13. Quality standards for real-world research. Focus on observational database studies of comparative effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Nicolas; Reddel, Helen; Martin, Richard; Brusselle, Guy; Papi, Alberto; Thomas, Mike; Postma, Dirjke; Thomas, Vicky; Rand, Cynthia; Chisholm, Alison; Price, David

    2014-02-01

    Real-world research can use observational or clinical trial designs, in both cases putting emphasis on high external validity, to complement the classical efficacy randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high internal validity. Real-world research is made necessary by the variety of factors that can play an important a role in modulating effectiveness in real life but are often tightly controlled in RCTs, such as comorbidities and concomitant treatments, adherence, inhalation technique, access to care, strength of doctor-caregiver communication, and socio-economic and other organizational factors. Real-world studies belong to two main categories: pragmatic trials and observational studies, which can be prospective or retrospective. Focusing on comparative database observational studies, the process aimed at ensuring high-quality research can be divided into three parts: preparation of research, analyses and reporting, and discussion of results. Key points include a priori planning of data collection and analyses, identification of appropriate database(s), proper outcomes definition, study registration with commitment to publish, bias minimization through matching and adjustment processes accounting for potential confounders, and sensitivity analyses testing the robustness of results. When these conditions are met, observational database studies can reach a sufficient level of evidence to help create guidelines (i.e., clinical and regulatory decision-making).

  14. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.

  15. Therapeutic misconception in research subjects: development and validation of a measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Anatchkova, Milena; Albert, Karen; Dunn, Laura B; Lidz, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Therapeutic misconception (TM), which occurs when research subjects fail to appreciate the distinction between the imperatives of clinical research and ordinary treatment, may undercut the process of obtaining meaningful consent to clinical research participation. Previous studies have found that TM is widespread, but progress in addressing TM has been stymied by the absence of a validated method for assessing its presence. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a theoretically grounded measure of TM, assess its diagnostic accuracy, and test previous findings regarding TM's prevalence. A total of 220 participants were recruited from clinical trials at four academic medical centers in the United States. Participants completed a 28-item Likert-type questionnaire to assess the presence of beliefs associated with TM, and a semistructured TM interview designed to elicit their perceptions of the nature of the clinical trial in which they were participating. Data from the questionnaires were subjected to factor analysis, and items with poor factor loadings were excluded. This resulted in a 10-item scale, with three strongly correlated factors and excellent internal consistency; the fit indices of the model across 10 training sets were consistent with the original results, suggesting a stable factor solution. The scale was validated against the TM interview, with significantly higher scores among subjects coded as displaying evidence of TM. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis based on a 10-fold internal cross-validation yielded area under the ROC (AUC) = 0.682 for any evidence of TM. When sensitivity (0.72) and specificity (0.61) were both optimized, positive predictive value was 0.65 and negative predictive value was 0.68, with a positive likelihood ratio of 1.89 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47. In all, 50.5% (n = 101) of the participants manifested evidence of TM on the TM interview, a somewhat lower rate than in most previous studies. The

  16. The possible worlds of global health research: An ethics-focused discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben; Plamondon, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Representations of the world enable global health research (GHR), discursively constructing sites in which studies can legitimately take place. Depoliticized portrayals of the global South frequently obscure messy legacies of colonialism and motivate technical responses to health problems with political and economic root causes. Such problematic representations of the world have not yet been rigorously examined in relation to global health ethics, a major site of scholarly effort towards GHR that promotes justice and fairness. We carried out a discourse analysis of four guidance documents relevant to the ethical practice of GHR, purposively selecting texts covering different genres (UN documents and journal articles) and prominent GHR foci (HIV and clinical trials). In light of increasing acknowledgement of the lessons Indigenous health scholarship holds for global health ethics, the four analyzed texts also included a set of principles developed to support Indigenous nation-building. Three of four documents featured global disparities as reasons for ethical caution. These inequalities appeared without explanation or causes, with generation of new scientific knowledge following as a logical response to such disparities. The fourth - Indigenous health-focused - document clearly identified 'colonialism' as a reason for both inequities in society, and related harmful research practices. Solutions to disparities in this text did not necessarily involve cutting-edge research, but focused instead on empowerment and responsiveness to community priorities and needs. These contrasting representations of the world were accomplished in ways that depended on texts' 'participants', or the people they represented; specific vocabularies or language usages; intertextual relationships to prior texts; and overall objectives or intentions of the author(s). Our results illustrate how ethics and other guidance documents serve as an important terrain for constructing, naturalizing or

  17. Land Use and Climate Impacts on Fluvial Systems (LUCIFS): A PAGES - Focus 4 (PHAROS) research activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, John; Hoffmann, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    LUCIFS is a global research program which is concerned with understanding past interactions between climate, human activity and fluvial systems. Its focus is on evaluating the geomorphic impact of humans on landscapes, with a strong emphasis on geomorphological and sedimentological perspectives on mid- to long-term man-landscape interactions. Of particular relevance are aspects of sediment redistribution systems such as non-linear behaviour, the role of system configuration, scale effects, and emergent properties Over the last decade the LUCIFS program has been investigating both contemporary and long-term river response to global change with the principal aims of i)quantifying land use and climate change impacts of river-borne fluxes of water, sediment, C, N and P; ii) identification of key controls on these fluxes at the catchment scale; and iii) identification of the feedback on both human society and biogeochemical cycles of long-term changes in the fluxes of these materials The major scientific tasks of the LUCIFS-program are: • synthesising results of regional case studies • identify regional gaps and encouraging new case studies • addressing research gaps and formulating new research questions • organising workshops and conferences In this paper we present the LUCIFS program within the new PAGES structure. LUCIFS is located in the Focus 4 (PHAROS) dealing with how a knowledge of human-climate-ecosystem interactions in the past can help inform understanding and management today. In conjunction with the other working groups HITE (Human Impacts on Terrestrial Ecosystems), LIMPACS (Human Impacts on Lake Ecosystems) and IHOPE (Integrated History of People on Earth) PHAROS aims to compare regional-scale reconstructions of environmental and climatic processes using natural archives, documentary and instrumental data, with evidence of past human activity obtained from historical, paleoecological and archaeological records.

  18. The 100 most-cited articles focused on thyroid research: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun S; Yoon, Dae Y; Oh, Ki-Won; Lee, Won-Young; Yun, Eun-Joo; Seo, Young L; Rho, Young-Soo

    2017-05-26

    The number of citations that an article has received reflects its impact on a particular research area. We determined the 100 most-cited articles in thyroid research via the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge database, using the search term. The following parameters were used to analyze the characteristics of the 100 most-cited articles: publication year, journal (including subject category and impact factor), number of citations and annual citations, authors, department, institution, country, type of study, and topic. The number of citations for the 100 most-cited articles ranged from 2,521 to 412 (mean, 643.4) and the number of annual citations ranged from 392.9 to 7.1 (mean, 38.0). The majority of articles were published in 2000-2009 (32%), published in endocrinology journals (29%), originated in the United States (70%), were clinical observation study (31%), and dealt with nodular thyroid disease (32%). Department of Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University College of Medicine (n = 6 each) were the leading institutions and Mazzaferri EL (n = 7) was the most prolific author. Our study presents a detailed list and analysis of the 100 most-cited thyroid research articles, which provides a unique insight into the historical development in this field.

  19. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  20. Health care decision makers' use of comparative effectiveness research: report from a series of focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Lorenzo; Warholak, Terri L; Hines, Lisa E; Taylor, Ann M; Brown, Mary; Hurwitz, Jason; Brixner, Diana; Malone, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is a helpful approach to improve health outcomes by developing and disseminating evidence-based information to patients, clinicians, and other decision makers about the most effective interventions. To (a) identify the factors necessary to increase the use of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) CER reviews in hospitals and managed care organizations; (b) assess current awareness and implementation of CER materials in these facilities and organizations; and (c) inform development of content for a workshop on CER. Pharmacy and therapeutics (PT) committee members and supportive personnel were recruited to participate in focus groups conducted at national health professional meetings. Prior to the sessions, each participant completed a prefocus group questionnaire evaluating the organization and process of the respondent's PT committee, as well as the respondent's role in the PT committee and awareness of AHRQ CER reports. Each session consisted of a focused discussion about CER and sources of evidence for PT monographs, and each participant completed a ballot to rank topics of importance for inclusion in a CER workshop for health care professionals involved in the PT process. Overarching themes were later identified using qualitative analysis of the transcripts of the focus group sessions. Thirty-nine (68%) pharmacists and 18 (32%) physicians involved in the PT process participated in 1 of 7 focus groups. Almost half of the participants had 6-15 years experience with the PT process. Participants represented health plans, hospitals, and health care systems. Two-thirds indicated they were aware of AHRQ's Effective Health Care Program's CER reviews, yet only 26% reported using the reviews in their organizations. The overarching themes reflected the need for timely and conclusive CER information; the role of the pharmacist as central to evidence synthesis for the PT process; and the need for educational programs

  1. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  2. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vasiliki (Vivian); Ptok, Martin; Grech, Helen; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Brechmann, André; Deggouj, Naïma; Kiese-Himmel, Christiane; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Nickisch, Andreas; Demanez, Laurent; Veuillet, Evelyne; Thai-Van, Hung; Sirimanna, Tony; Callimachou, Marina; Santarelli, Rosamaria; Kuske, Sandra; Barajas, Jose; Hedjever, Mladen; Konukseven, Ozlem; Veraguth, Dorothy; Stokkereit Mattsson, Tone; Martins, Jorge Humberto; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2017-01-01

    Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD) or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  3. A European Perspective on Auditory Processing Disorder-Current Knowledge and Future Research Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki (Vivian Iliadou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current notions of “hearing impairment,” as reflected in clinical audiological practice, do not acknowledge the needs of individuals who have normal hearing pure tone sensitivity but who experience auditory processing difficulties in everyday life that are indexed by reduced performance in other more sophisticated audiometric tests such as speech audiometry in noise or complex non-speech sound perception. This disorder, defined as “Auditory Processing Disorder” (APD or “Central Auditory Processing Disorder” is classified in the current tenth version of the International Classification of diseases as H93.25 and in the forthcoming beta eleventh version. APDs may have detrimental effects on the affected individual, with low esteem, anxiety, and depression, and symptoms may remain into adulthood. These disorders may interfere with learning per se and with communication, social, emotional, and academic-work aspects of life. The objective of the present paper is to define a baseline European APD consensus formulated by experienced clinicians and researchers in this specific field of human auditory science. A secondary aim is to identify issues that future research needs to address in order to further clarify the nature of APD and thus assist in optimum diagnosis and evidence-based management. This European consensus presents the main symptoms, conditions, and specific medical history elements that should lead to auditory processing evaluation. Consensus on definition of the disorder, optimum diagnostic pathway, and appropriate management are highlighted alongside a perspective on future research focus.

  4. Health Services Research and Health Economy - Quality Care Training in Gynaecology, with Focus On Gynaecological Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, M P; Fasching, P A; Loehberg, C R; Jud, S M; Schrauder, M G; Bani, M R; Thiel, F C; Hack, C C; Hildebrandt, T; Beckmann, M W

    2011-12-01

    In the era of cost increases and reduced resources in the German healthcare system, the value of health services research and health economics is increasing more and more. Health services research attempts to develop concepts for the most effective ways to organise, manage, finance and deliver high-quality care and evaluates the implementation of these concepts with regard to daily routine conditions. Goals are the assessment of benefits and the economic advantages and disadvantages of new and established diagnostic methods, drugs and vaccines. Regarding these goals, it is clear that health services research goes hand in hand with health economics, which evaluates the benefits of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in relation to the costs. Both scientific fields have focus principally on gynaecology and particularly on gynaecological oncology in Germany, as can be seen by numerous publications. These present several advantages compared with clinical trials - they uncover gaps in health care, question the material, staffing and consequently the financial resources required and they allow the estimation of value and the comparison of different innovations to identify the best options for our patients.

  5. Developing and piloting an online graduate nursing course focused on experiential learning of qualitative research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtslander, Lorraine F; Racine, Louise; Furniss, Shari; Burles, Meridith; Turner, Hollie

    2012-06-01

    Despite the turmoil of a worldwide economic crisis, the health sector remains largely understaffed, and the nursing shortage represents a major issue that jeopardizes graduate nursing education. Access to education remains a challenge, particularly in rural and remote areas. This article reports the process of developing an asynchronous online qualitative research course. This online course was piloted among 16 interdisciplinary students. Participants agreed that experiential learning was useful to understand the intricacies of qualitative research. Within this constructivist approach, students were immersed in real-life experiences, which focused on the development of skills applicable to qualitative research. Based on the findings, we suggest that constructivism and the Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID) model (a four-part approach for fostering the development of complex skills) represent valuable ontological and pedagogical approaches that can be used in online courses. Triangulating these two approaches is also congruent with the student-centered philosophy that underpins nursing graduate programs. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. If, Why, and When Subjective Well-Being Influences Health, and Future Needed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Pressman, Sarah D; Hunter, John; Delgadillo-Chase, Desiree

    2017-07-01

    We review evidence on whether subjective well-being (SWB) can influence health, why it might do so, and what we know about the conditions where this is more or less likely to occur. This review also explores how various methodological approaches inform the study of the connections between subjective well-being and health and longevity outcomes. Our review of this growing literature indicates areas where data are substantial and where much more research is needed. We conclude that SWB can sometimes influence health, and review a number of reasons why it does so. A key open question is when it does and does not do so-in terms of populations likely to be affected, types of SWB that are most influential (including which might be harmful), and types of health and illnesses that are most likely to be affected. We also describe additional types of research that are now much needed in this burgeoning area of interest, for example, cross-cultural studies, animal research, and experimental interventions designed to raise long-term SWB and assess the effects on physical health. This research area is characterised both by potentially extremely important findings, and also by pivotal research issues and questions. © 2017 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  8. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Just, Eric; Podlusky, Sofia; Varga, John; Chang, Rowland W; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-09-13

    Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of 'machine generated' sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text data contained in the electronic health

  9. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  10. A review of social host policies focused on underage drinking parties: suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kimberly G; Francisco, Vincent T; Sparks, Michael; Wyrick, David; Nichols, Tracy; Wolfson, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Underage drinking continues to be a public health concern, partially due to the ease in which adolescents obtain alcohol and consume it in private locations. States and municipalities have implemented strategies to counteract this, including adopting public policies called social host policies, despite limited evidence of effectiveness. Traditionally, these laws have held adults accountable for furnishing alcohol to underage drinkers. However, states and communities are using another policy, also called social host, to deter underage drinking parties where easy access to alcohol and high-risk use occurs. These innovative laws hold individuals who control the property accountable for underage drinking that occurs there, regardless of alcohol source. We conducted a critical analysis of social host policies focused on hosting underage drinking parties and constructed a conceptual model to understand their targeted factors. Future research recommendations are discussed.

  11. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  12. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  13. Caregiving in pediatric epilepsy: results of focus groups and implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gigi; Wagner, Janelle; Andrews, Jeanette; Austin, Joan; Mueller, Martina; Carter, Emma; Griesemer, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    The process of caring for youth with epilepsy (YWEs) has been understudied. Previous research has identified that caregivers of YWEs report increased parenting stress, unanticipated caregiving responsibilities, and negative effects on family life. Using the adapted Caregiving Process Model, perceptions of the caregiving process were explored in four focus groups of caregivers of youth with epilepsy diagnosed at 5 years. Thematic analysis guided the data analysis. The prevalent theme that emerged during the data analysis was navigating the noncontingencies (lack of a perceived relationship between action and outcome, unpredictability). This was supported by the subthemes, namely, blessings and sacrifices, uncertainty today and tomorrow, constant vigilance, and caregiving is more than parenting. The focus groups displayed similarities and differences in caregiving perceptions across the three postdiagnosis time periods, providing support for conceptualization of the caregiving as multifactorial, multidirectional, and fluid process. With this knowledge, epilepsy health-care professionals are encouraged to promote patient and family centeredness, provide information on how to access community resources, and work with caregivers to enhance epilepsy self-management skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral and Rock Physics Focus Group Selects Kantor for 2008 Graduate Research Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Catherine

    2009-03-01

    The Mineral and Rock Physics focus group has selected Innokenty Kantor as the recipient of the 2008 Graduate Research Award. Kantor pursued his Ph.D. in high-pressure mineral physics at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut, University of Bayreuth, Germany, under the supervision of Leonid Dubrovinsky and Catherine McCammon, and he successfully defended his thesis, entitled “High-pressure and high-temperature structural and electronic properties of (Mg, Fe)O and FeO,” in July 2007. Kantor came to Germany with a strong theoretical background after gaining a master's diploma with honors at Moscow State University, Russia. At the University of Bayreuth, he developed experimental experience by mastering the challenging techniques of diamond anvil cell experimentation, Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray and neutron diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Highlights of Kantor's thesis research include the discovery that the rhombohedral distortion in iron oxide (FeO) and magnesium iron oxide ((Mg, Fe)O) does not coincide with the magnetic ordering transition (contrary to what had been assumed for many years); a full description of spin crossover in (Mg, Fe)O above 50 gigapascals including the effect of short-range order; and a new high-pressure monoclinic modification of FeO that may change the interpretation of the B1 → B8 (rock salt to nickel arsenide structure) transition at high pressure and temperature. All of these results have had a significant impact on the research field and influenced models for the behavior of FeO and (Mg, Fe)O at high pressure. Kantor's achievements have been recognized by a number of other awards, most recently the E.ON Bayern Kulturpreis, awarded for one of the best doctoral theses in Bavaria across all research fields.

  15. Effect Sizes as Result Interpretation Aids in Single-Subject Experimental Research: Description and Application of Four Nonoverlap Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih

    2015-01-01

    Single-subject experimental research (SSER), one of the most commonly used research methods in special education and applied behaviour analysis, is a scientific, rigorous and valid method to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural, educational and psychological treatments. However, studies using single-subject experimental research designs are…

  16. Field-based, research-focused experiential learning in undergraduate geoscience and physical geography classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, A. J.; Ackerman, A.; Flynn, M.; Mclain, J.; Moller, C.; Clements, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    Field-based experiential learning in undergraduate courses in geosciences or physical geography is essential for cementing theoretical understanding through observation, illustrating the complexity of natural systems, understanding uncertainty in observational records and providing students with tools to teach themselves beyond the instructor and the classroom. In addition, it helps stimulate interest in pursuing graduate studies and associated research in many important bio-geophysical topics. There is a real challenge to provide this type of learning opportunity to large numbers of students and to students currently under-represented in the geosciences. The learning experience in this case was focused around experimental deployment of a sophisticated atmospheric profiling system over a weekend field trip involving 50 students from three classes in two campuses; San Francisco State University and San Jose State University. Students were involved in experimental design, instrument calibration and field deployment, manual measurements and data analysis phases of field-based experimental research. The results of student work is presented as well as specific student responses to the field experience that highlight the pedagogical values provided as well as challenges to improve the learning opportunity.

  17. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kupcova Skalnikova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a skin cancer with permanently increasing incidence and resistance to therapies in advanced stages. Reports of spontaneous regression and tumour infiltration with T-lymphocytes makes melanoma candidate for immunotherapies. Cytokines are key factors regulating immune response and intercellular communication in tumour microenvironment. Cytokines may be used in therapy of melanoma to modulate immune response. Cytokines also possess diagnostic and prognostic potential and cytokine production may reflect effects of immunotherapies. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of recent advances in proteomic techniques for the detection and quantification of cytokines in melanoma research. Approaches covered span from mass spectrometry to immunoassays for single molecule detection (ELISA, western blot, multiplex assays (chemiluminescent, bead-based (Luminex and planar antibody arrays, ultrasensitive techniques (Singulex, Simoa, immuno-PCR, proximity ligation/extension assay, immunomagnetic reduction assay, to analyses of single cells producing cytokines (ELISpot, flow cytometry, mass cytometry and emerging techniques for single cell secretomics. Although this review is focused mainly on cancer and particularly melanoma, the discussed techniques are in general applicable to broad research field of biology and medicine, including stem cells, development, aging, immunology and intercellular communication.

  18. Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Inform the Development of a Peer-Supported Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program: DIRECTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, Iraj; Camp, Pat; Shum, Jessica; Afshar, Rowshanak; Tang, Tricia; FitzGerald, John Mark

    2017-01-01

    There has been limited research on the role of peer support in self-management for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. This research explored patient acceptability of "peer supporters" in promoting sustained self-management practices after PR and to assess their perceived self-efficacy to manage their disease. This qualitative study used focus groups and individual interviews to identify perspectives of peer supporters and benefits of participation in a PR program. The analysis included systematically reading and reviewing transcripts of the sessions, establishing themes, and sorting responses into thematic categories. A total of 28 patients with COPD (15 males) participated in either a focus group or interview. The majority of participants considered peer supporters to be good facilitators for motivating ongoing exercise after completing PR. Exercise sessions were viewed as extremely beneficial for disease management, and many were satisfied with the care they had received. Most subjects wanted to receive followup sessions with either a professional or peer after the intensive phase of PR. Overall, the concept of having a peer supporter involved in ongoing maintenance of self-management efforts after PR was generally viewed as positive. Integrating a peer support model into PR programs may improve better long-term health outcomes for COPD management as many participants endorsed the need for continued support after the program. It also improved our understanding of the role of "peer supports" in exercise and self-care maintenance after PR. The selection of peers and the specific model used warrants further investigation in a randomized controlled trial.

  19. [The request for consent in clinical research: a randomized study in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, F; De Placido, S; Giusti, C; Gallo, C

    1995-09-01

    To compare two strategies of consent requirement (classical informed consent and randomised consent according to Zelen), the Clinical Data Elaboration Centre of South Italy, within the special project Clinical Application of Oncological Research of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ACRO) invited healthy people visiting the 7th edition of the scientific exhibition "Futuro Remoto" to simulate of being ill and receiving the offer of entering a clinical trial. Within informed consent strategy patients are asked to agree to the randomisation process, while, in the randomised consent, randomised treatment assignment is performed before consent requirement and patients should agree directly to the assigned therapy. Major aims of the study were (a) to compare the strategies in terms of refusal rate to a hypothetical clinical trial, and (b) to estimate whether severity of prognosis affected subjects' decision. 3,217 visiting people participated to the simulation; they were prevalently young, males and with a high level of school education. The study was performed in two different scenarios. In the first one, with one choice option, subject refusing consent could receive standard therapy only; refusal rate was 16% after informed consent and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy). In the other scenario, with two choice options, subjects refusing consent could choose the preferred therapy; refusal rate was 20.6% after informed consent, 48.1% after randomised consent (for standard therapy) and 13.4% after randomised consent (for experimental therapy).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  1. Single-subject research designs in pediatric rehabilitation: a valuable step towards knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiser-Logan, Lynne; Slaughter, Rebecca; Hickman, Robbin

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge translation may be particularly challenging in pediatric rehabilitation, where study findings are often ambiguous owing to low statistical power or inconsistent responses to intervention. Disconnection between research protocols and clinical practicality, as well as variability of responsiveness in heterogeneous pediatric populations, may further impede integration of research findings into everyday practice. Use of single-subject research designs (SSRDs) may bridge the gap between research and practice, with robust design options that better identify and preserve patterns of responsiveness to specific interventions and offer protocols that are more readily implemented in practice settings than can be done in traditional randomized controlled trials. This review defines SSRD, provides examples of research questions that can be answered using SSRD, details the experimental designs that can be used and the level of evidence of each design, and describes statistical analysis approaches and clinical application. This analysis will aid researchers, reviewers, clinicians, and others in better understanding SSRD methodology and its application in everyday practice. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  2. Older adults' attitudes toward enrollment of non-competent subjects participating in Alzheimer's research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; Ten Have, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2009-02-01

    Research that seeks to enroll noncompetent patients with Alzheimer's disease without presenting any potential benefit to participants is the source of substantial ethical controversy. The authors used hypothetical Alzheimer's disease studies that included either a blood draw or a blood draw and lumbar puncture to explore older persons' attitudes on this question. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 538 persons age 65 and older. Questions explored participants' understanding of research concepts, their views on enrolling persons with Alzheimer's disease in research, and their preferences regarding having a proxy decision maker, granting advance consent, and granting their proxy leeway to override the participant's decision. Additional questions assessed altruism, trust, value for research, and perceptions of Alzheimer's disease. The majority (83%) were willing to grant advance consent to a blood draw study, and nearly half (48%) to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Most (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making, and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: 81% for the blood draw study and 70% for the blood draw plus lumbar puncture study. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and lumbar puncture studies, respectively, were 92% and 75%. Multivariate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude toward biomedical research. Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimer's disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness.

  3. The One or the Many: Quantified Subjectivity and Aggregated Uniqueness in Qualitative Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juritzen, Truls I; Soberg, Helene L; Røe, Cecilie; Saebu, Martin; Engen, Grace; Bliksvaer, Trond; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to identify and critically assess qualitative intervention studies of rehabilitation processes that target young adults. By applying a meta-epistemological approach inspired by the works of Michel Foucault and Julia Kristeva, we examine how the included studies present qualitative knowledge and whether they adhere to their own stated principles of qualitative knowledge. Through their stated aims and theoretical framing, the articles draw attention to individual processes of meaning making. Nonetheless, we find that the articles to a great extent emphasize frequencies of the qualitative data they present. Individual processes and experiences are subject to subdivisions and categorization and transformed into manageable objects of knowledge. In conclusion, these studies, with one important exception, contribute to self-marginalization of the knowledge they themselves promote: They undermine the uniqueness of the qualitative knowledge they proclaim by focusing on frequency and the general patterns and categories encompassing the unique. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Preparing children for international travel: need for training and pediatric-focused research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Stefan H F; Leshem, Eyal; Fischer, Philip R; Stauffer, William M; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Christenson, John C

    2014-01-01

    The International Society of Travel Medicine (ISTM) Pediatric Interest Group (PedIG) was created in 2010. We studied the group's professional characteristics and practice patterns to identify clinical areas requiring further training and research related to pediatric international travel. PedIG members were emailed a two-part online questionnaire in September 2011, which comprised questions about professional and practice details, followed by a survey regarding decisions on nine patient scenarios that represent common pediatric pre-travel health challenges. Ninety-three (34%) of 273 members completed the survey. Most were physicians (80%) having a primary specialization in pediatrics (55%) and family medicine (19%). About a third (37%) had acquired the ISTM Certificate in Travel Health (CTH); 14 and 11% chose not to provide malaria chemoprophylaxis for a 2-month-old infant and a 13-year-old child traveling to West Africa, respectively. Azithromycin for empiric treatment of travelers' diarrhea in a 2-year-old traveler to Thailand and Mexico was suggested by 74 and 58%, respectively, while the use of acetazolamide for a 2-month old infant traveling to a high-altitude destination was rarely (13%) chosen. In vaccine-focused scenarios, 71, 69, 21, and 10% would prescribe the meningococcal vaccine for a 6-month-old traveler to Burkina Faso, Japanese encephalitis vaccine to a 10-year-old traveler to Cambodia, hepatitis A vaccine to a 6-month-old traveler to El Salvador, and the typhoid vaccine to a 1-year-old traveler to India, respectively. Members of the PedIG have diverse professional and practice backgrounds. Lack of awareness of established guidelines may place international pediatric travelers at risk for travel-associated morbidity. Strategies are needed to facilitate education and support research in pediatric travel medicine to formulate evidence-based guidelines wherever they are currently missing. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. Utilizing Dietary Micronutrient Ratios in Nutritional Research May be More Informative than Focusing on Single Nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2018-01-19

    The 2015 US dietary guidelines advise the importance of good dietary patterns for health, which includes all nutrients. Micronutrients are rarely, if ever, consumed separately, they are not tissue specific in their actions and at the molecular level they are multitaskers. Metabolism functions within a seemingly random cellular milieu however ratios are important, for example, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine monophosphate, or oxidized to reduced glutathione. Health status is determined by simple ratios, such as the waist hip ratio, or ratio of fat mass to lean mass. Some nutrient ratios exist and remain controversial such as the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and the sodium/potassium ratio. Therefore, examining ratios of micronutrients may convey more information about how diet and health outcomes are related. Summarized micronutrient intake data, from food only, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, were used to generate initial ratios. Overall, in this preliminary analysis dietary ratios of micronutrients showed some differences between intakes and recommendations. Principles outlined here could be used in nutritional epidemiology and in basic nutritional research, rather than focusing on individual nutrient intakes. This paper presents the concept of micronutrient ratios to encourage change in the way nutrients are regarded.

  6. Participatory design in Parkinson's research with focus on the symptomatic domains to be measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Larsen, Frank; Isaacs, Tom; Matthews, Helen; Duffen, Joy; Riggare, Sara; Capitanio, Fulvio; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Domingos, Josefa; Maetzler, Walter; Graessner, Holm

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the objective assessment of health related outcomes using technology providing quality measurements to be applied not only in daily clinical practice, but also in scientific research. Differences in the understandings of the condition and the terminology used between people with Parkinson's (PwPs), clinicians and technical developers may influence the progress of a participatory design process. This paper reports on a participatory design process to achieve a consensus among PwPs, clinicians and technologists over the selection of a set of symptomatic domains to be continuously assessed, in order to provide results relevant to both PwPs and clinicians. The methods used were a Web based user survey, end-user focus groups, ranking by combined methods, a Delphi process performed among clinicians and scientists, and prioritization of the results in a concertation workshop for PwPs, clinicians and technologists. The following symptomatic domains were commonly agreed by PwPs and clinicians to be of central importance in a system of continuous assessment: hypokinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, sway, gait, sleep and cognition. This list satisfied both the needs of the PwPs and the concerns of the clinicians regarding the means of advancing new strategies in assessment and interventions in PD. A participatory design strategy allowed the definition of a consensual list of symptomatic domains. Both the strategy and the achieved results may be of relevance for similar interdisciplinary approaches in the field of PD using a participatory design involving patients, clinicians and technologists.

  7. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  8. Some recent developments in the international guidelines on the ethics of research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    2000-11-01

    We are in a period of reconsideration and revision of international ethical guidelines for the conduct of biomedical research involving human subjects. The proximate cause of much of this activity is the recent controversy over the ethics of the use of a placebo control in the clinical trials of the short-duration regimen of zidovudine for prevention of perinatal transmission of HIV infection, trials that were carried out in several so-called technologically developing countries. Critics of these trials claimed that they were in violation of Article II.3 of the Declaration of Helsinki, which states: "In any medical study, every patient--including those of a control group, if any--should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method. This does not exclude the use of inert placebo in studies where no proven diagnostic or therapeutic method exists." The critics claimed that since the "best proven ... method" is the 076 regimen, this is what must be provided to members of the control groups. Failure to do so, they asserted, was a serious breach of ethics. In response to this allegation, several major international and national agencies convened multidisciplinary groups to consider the ethics of multinational clinical research. The first thing they realized was that Article II.3 was in error in that it did not reflect contemporary ethical thinking. Moreover, it was routinely violated in research conducted in developed as well as in developing countries. What replaces this standard? The 1993 CIOMS International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects include several criteria for justification of research carried out in developing countries. Most importantly, the research must be responsive to the health needs and priorities of the host country. They also require that any therapeutic products developed in such research must be made "reasonably available" to residents of the host country. A new standard is emerging for

  9. RESEARCHING CITY AND SUBJECTIVITY: BODIES AND WANDERINGS OF A FLÂNEUR- CARTOGRAPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Linck de Romero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In light of the cartographic method of research proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari (2011, we present reflections on the study on subjectivity and the contemporary city with an approach to its process and production dimensions. The cartographer’s body is crucial for the methodology and is created along the research process in order to allow for the existence of universes of reference (Rolnik, 1993 of modes of existence in urban life. We then develop relationships between the cartographer’s practice and that of the flâneur as examples of urban wandering (Jacques, 2012 that problematize the possibilities of body experiences in the urban space as a resistance to the contemporary spectacularization of the city. For such, we use concepts-tools from the field of schizoanalysis and those of the authors mentioned in this abstract, developing the idea that urban experiences, in some ways, can prove to be a source of production and knowledge of subjectivity, the city, the body and the relationships between them.

  10. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  11. Woodbridge Research Facility Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study; Focused Feasibility Study for Operable Unit One

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Patricia

    1997-01-01

    ...). A Focused Feasibility Study,, has been conducted to identify and screen remedial alternatives for OUl, to address, contaminated groundwater, surface soil, subsurface soil, and sediment detected...

  12. Chasing Ghosts in Space Radiobiology Research: The Lost Focus on Non-Targeted Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Saganti, Premkumar; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2016-07-01

    The doses and dose-rates of astronaut exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are accurately known, and lead to particle hits per cell nucleus from high charge and energy (HZE) particles of much less than one hit per cell per week. A large number of experiments have shown that additivity of biological effects is a valid assumption for space radiation exposures, while experiments at higher doses and dose-rates than occur in space continue to be a focus of the majority of space radiobiology research. Furthermore HZE particle exposures with mono-energetic particles manifest themselves as a mixed-radiation field due to the contributions of delta-rays and the random impact parameter of a particles track core to DNA and non-DNA targets in cells and tissues. The mixed-field manifestation of mono-energetic HZE particle exposures is well known from theoretical studies of microdosimetry and track structure. Additional mixed-field effects occur for single species experiments due to nuclear fragmentation in particle accelerator beam-lines and biological samples along with energy straggling. In contrast to these well known aspects of space radiobiology there are many open questions on the contribution of non-targeted effects to low dose and dose-rate exposures. Non-targeted effects (NTEs) include bystander effects and genomic instability, and have been shown to be the most important outstanding question for reducing uncertainties in space radiation cancer risk assessment. The dose-rate and radiation quality dependence of NTE's has not been established, while there is an over-arching need to develop 21st century experimental models of human cancer risk. We review possible mechanisms of NTE's and how new experiments to address these issues could be designed.

  13. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  14. Qualitative Research and Consumer Policy: Focus Group Discussions as a Form of Consumer Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Jarvela, Katja; Pulliainen, Annukka; Saastamoinen, Mika; Timonen, Paivi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes our ongoing attempts to involve consumers in innovation and technology policy by means of a national Consumer Panel, using focus group discussions as the primary method of consumer participation. We evaluate our experiences of the usefulness of focus group discussions in this context by considering two examples of studies…

  15. How children can be respected as 'ends' yet still be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, R B

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether or not children may be used as subjects in non-therapeutic research projects has generated a great deal of debate and received answers varying from 'no, never' to 'yes, if societal interests are served'. It has been claimed that a Kantian, deontological ethics would necessarily rule out such research, since valid consent would be impossible. The present paper gives a deontological argument for allowing children to be subjects in certain types of research. PMID:3735361

  16. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2017-06-01

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  17. Psychometric evaluation and establishing norms of Croatian SF-36 health survey: framework for subjective health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslić Sersić, Darja; Vuletić, Gorka

    2006-02-01

    To provide population norms and evaluate metric characteristics of the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey, an internationally used instrument for assessing subjective health. The questionnaire was administered to a representative sample of Croatian adult population (n=9070). Three standard techniques were used in data analysis: reliability tests, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. The population norms were presented in two standard forms--the SF-36 Health Profile and percentile values for different age groups of men and women. The Croatian version of the SF-36 had generally acceptable metric characteristics including its construct validity. The internal consistency of the SF-36 scales ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. Pearson bivariate correlations showed moderate associations between SF-36 scales, and factor analysis provided one latent dimension underlying all SF-36 scales which explained 63.3% of the score variance. Less favorable results were obtained concerning its discriminative validity. All SF-36 scales showed negative asymmetry of score distributions, and some had high floor and ceiling effects--skewness estimations ranged from -0.12 to -0.91, with the highest floor effect of 30% and ceiling effect of 63%. Presented population norms for the Croatian version of SF-36 Health Survey showed that SF-36 may be used as a valid and reliable instrument in research in subjective health of Croatian population.

  18. Documentation of ethical conduct of human subject research published in Saudi medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gaai, E A; Hammami, M M; Al Eidan, M

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the documentation of ethical conduct (obtaining institutional review board approval and consent and following ethical guidelines) of human subject research studies published in Saudi Arabian medical journals between 1979 and 2007. Studies were classified as retrospective, prospective noninterventional, interventional or survey/interview. Of 1838 studies published in 286 journal issues of 11 Saudi Arabian medical journals, only 0.9% documented the ethical guidelines followed, with a significantly higher rate for studies published after year 2000 (1.7%). Of 821 studies requiring institutional review board approval, 8.6% documented obtaining the approval and informed consent, with a significantly higher rate for interventional studies (19.4%), post-year 2000 studies (19.7%) and studies performed outside Saudi Arabia (15.9%). The low documentation rate suggests editor's lack of rigor and/or investigators' ignorance of guidelines. The higher documentation rate after year 2000 suggests an ongoing improvement.

  19. Focus group: cost-effective and methodologically sound ways to get practitioners involved in your empirical RE research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia

    2015-01-01

    Focus groups are a qualitative research method helping researchers collect and analyze information from practitioners in industry, in order to better understand how a Requirements Engineering (RE) phenomenon happens from the perspective of those working in the field. It is useful in both exploratory

  20. Ethical aspects of research into Alzheimer disease. A European Delphi Study focused on genetic and non-genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vorm, A; Vernooij-Dassen, M J F J; Kehoe, P G; Olde Rikkert, M G M; van Leeuwen, E; Dekkers, W J M

    2009-02-01

    Although genetic research into Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing, the ethical aspects of this kind of research and the differences between ethical issues related to genetic and non-genetic research into AD have not yet received much attention. (1) To identify and compare the five ethical issues considered most important by surveyed expert panellists in non-genetic and genetic AD research and (2) to compare our empirical findings with ethical issues in genetic research in general as described in the literature. A modified Delphi study in two rounds Genetic and non-genetic research into AD generated an approximately equal number of topics with a considerable overlap. Different priorities in the ethics of both types of research were found. Genetic research raised new topics such as "confidentiality of genetic information" and "implications of research for relatives" which changes the impact and application of existing ethical topics such as "informed consent" and is judged to have more impact on both individuals and society. A difference with the results of more theoretical approaches on ethical aspects related to AD research was also found. Different priorities are given to ethical issues in genetic and non-genetic research. These arise partly because genetic research causes unique and new questions, mostly related to the position of family members and the status of and access to genetic information. Differences found between the results of our empirical study and the more theoretical literature, suggest an additional value for empirical research in medical ethics.

  1. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tong, Allison; Sainsbury, Peter; Craig, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    ... (indepth interviews and focus groups). Methods We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell Protocols, Medline, CINAHL, systematic reviews of qualitative studies, author or reviewer guidelines of major medical journals...

  2. Ethical aspects of research into Alzheimer disease. A European Delphi Study focused on genetic and non-genetic research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorm, A. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Kehoe, P.G.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Leeuwen, E. van; Dekkers, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although genetic research into Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing, the ethical aspects of this kind of research and the differences between ethical issues related to genetic and non-genetic research into AD have not yet received much attention. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify and compare

  3. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  4. Advances in Proteomic Techniques for Cytokine Analysis: Focus on Melanoma Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kupcová Skalníková, Helena; Čížková, Jana; Červenka, Jakub; Vodička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 2697. E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05534S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1609 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cytokine * cancer * melanoma * secretome * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2016

  5. Challenges to socio-economic research in a changing society - with a special focus on Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poppel, Birger; Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole; Winther, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    The process of changes in Arctic societies has been from a cultural order to an economic order, and from a closed society based on barter and subsistence to a society based on economic exchange through monetary means. Consequently, understanding the currents of change requires a definite focus...

  6. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahl, J.; Bodroza-Solarov, M.; Busscher, N.; Hajslova, J.; Kneifel, W.; Kokornaczyk, M.O.; Ruth, van S.M.; Schulzova, V.; Stolz, P.

    2014-01-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, gas chromatography–mass

  7. Guidance on Performing Focused Ethnographies with an Emphasis on Healthcare Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M. A.; Pillay, Jennifer J.; Boadu, Nana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Focused ethnographies can have meaningful and useful application in primary care, community, or hospital healthcare practice, and are often used to determine ways to improve care and care processes. They can be pragmatic and efficient ways to capture data on a specific topic of importance to individual clinicians or clinical specialties. While…

  8. Interventional oncology research in the United States: slowing growth, limited focus, and a low level of funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Daniel S; Itagaki, Michael W

    2010-11-01

    To establish the characteristics of published interventional oncology (IO) research, including the volume, growth, geographic distribution, type of research, and funding patterns, and to determine how IO research compares with overall radiology research. This retrospective bibliometric analysis of public data was exempt from Institutional Review Board approval. IO articles published between 1996 and 2008 were identified in the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database. Country of origin, article methodology, study topic, and source of funding were recorded. Growth was analyzed by using linear and nonlinear regression. Total journal articles numbered 3801, including 847 (22.3%) from the United States, 722 (19.0%) from Japan, and 390 (10.3%) from China. World publications grew with a sigmoid (logistic) pattern (predicted maximum of 586.8 articles per year, P leaders in clinical trial research. U.S. IO research receives less funding than does overall radiology research. IO research focuses primarily on liver cancer. © RSNA, 2010.

  9. Researching Youth Political Participation in Australia: Arguments for an Expanded Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The distinct political lives and lifestyles of young people provide a rich arena for social research. This paper traces the origins of contemporary definitions of political participation, which are often at odds with the real experiences and aspirations of young citizens. Despite a growing body of empirical evidence in this field, researchers are…

  10. The Focus of Current HCI Research in Usability Evaluation and Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a systematic literature study of the research on usability evaluation and feedback. The literature study covers the papers published from five key human-computer interaction journals for a period of four years, and depicts the most current research within the...

  11. Design Research on Inquiry-Based Multivariable Calculus: Focusing on Students' Argumentation and Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Nam; Bae, Younggon; Oh, Kuk Hwan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, researchers design and implement an inquiry based multivariable calculus course in a university which aims at enhancing students' argumentation in rich mathematical discussions. This research aims to understand the characteristics of students' argumentation in activities involving proof constructions through mathematical…

  12. THE TEACHING RESEARCH FOCUSED ON THE MOVEMENT: HEURISTIC APPROACHES AND ELEMENTS OF COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIELLO PAOLA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching research in the motor field that investigates the different features and the specificity of the teaching of the movement activities should fix methodological strategies based on some ontological considerations. The object of this theoretical-argumentative work is a possible definition of a specific field of research on the movement activities, trying to explain their original and exclusive elements which require a selection of some methods of educational research based on precise ontological positions.The method adopted has required a review of literature for a critical exam of the main methodological approaches used to study the movement activities, combining it with some philosophical considerations whichguided the different approaches of the educational research.The results led to the conclusion that it can be necessary an epistemological consideration to assume clear ontological positions to deal with the methodological research on the teaching of the motor activities in the educational field. The methodological complexity demanded by the heuristic activity in the motor field requires amethodology of research based on the interpretative methods and techniques used by the educational research, which have to be shaped according to the main issues of the teaching of the movement, requiring as well the inclusion of specific protocols, techniques and tools which are indispensable to the observation, the analysis andthe evaluation

  13. MARKETING RESEARCH OF THE SUBJECTIVE AND MOTIVATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CONSUMERS OF TOURIST SERVICES OF THE YAROSLAVL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Николаевич Минеев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For today one of the most dynamically developing spheres is tourism. According to the Rosstat, the share of tourist sector in the total volume of GDP is already 4%, and with the allied industries - by 7%. The industry is fraught with deep potential and has the value of the national scale, but for further development it is necessary to understand the needs, desires, and motives of potential tourists at the level of separate territorial entities. Research devoted to the subject of the analysis of user characteristics and features of demand for tourist services is extremely small, which gives it the real theme of the novel.The relevance of the theme is determined by the analysis of the demand for tourist services. The aim of the work is a marketing analysis of the Yaroslavl consumers of tourism products. For realization of this goal, a study was conducted by the method of questioning. The survey has identified the most popular kinds of tourism, the main parameters and motives, which are used by consumers when planning your vacation and tourism, as well as describes and analyses the main types of consumers and their quantitative composition. Study of consumer characteristics will allow organizations to better Orient themselves in them and the values of the clients.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-27

  14. Building Capacity in Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships Through a Focus on Process and Multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Bryant, Angela R; Walker, Deborah J; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Courtney, Dana; Adimora, Ada

    2015-01-01

    In health research, investigators and funders are emphasizing the importance of collaboration between communities and academic institutions to achieve health equity. Although the principles underlying community-academic partnered research have been well-articulated, the processes by which partnerships integrate these principles when working across cultural differences are not as well described. We present how Project GRACE (Growing, Reaching, Advocating for Change and Empowerment) integrated participatory research principles with the process of building individual and partnership capacity. We worked with Vigorous Interventions In Ongoing Natural Settings (VISIONS) Inc., a process consultant and training organization, to develop a capacity building model. We present the conceptual framework and multicultural process of change (MPOC) that was used to build individual and partnership capacity to address health disparities. The process and capacity building model provides a common language, approach, and toolset to understand differences and the dynamics of inequity. These tools can be used by other partnerships in the conduct of research to achieve health equity.

  15. Utility of E-resources in Social Sciences Research: Focusing NASSDOC & ICSSR Consortia

    OpenAIRE

    Randhawa, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Libraries of Social Sciences Research Institutes in India are facing the problem of shrinking/static budgets and simultaneous exponential rise in journal prices. The need of the hour is to find a pragmatic solution to this problem. Something substantial has to be done in order to facilitate access to scholarly resources to social scientists. NASSDOC & ICSSR Consortia is major initiatives that have come to the rescue of social sciences research in India, so that they can cater the needs of aca...

  16. Pan Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): a new research initiative focused on the Northern Pan-Eurasian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petäjä, Tuukka; Lappalainen, Hanna; Zaytseva, Nina; Shvidenko, Anatoli; Kujansuu, Joni; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolai; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennadi; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    The increasing human activities are changing the environment and the humanity is we are pushing the safe boundaries of the globe. It is of utmost importance to gauge with a comprehensive research program on the current status of the environment, particularly in the most vulnerable locations. Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions. The PEEX program aims (i) to understand the Earth system and the influence of environmental and societal changes in pristine and industrialized Pan-Eurasian environments, (ii) to establish and sustain long-term, continuous and comprehensive ground-based airborne and seaborne research infrastructures, and to utilize satellite data and multi-scale model frameworks, (iii) to contribute to regional climate scenarios in the northern Pan-Eurasia and determine the relevant factors and interactions influencing human and societal wellbeing (iv) to promote the dissemination of PEEX scientific results and strategies in scientific and stake-holder communities and policy making, (v) to educate the next generation of multidisciplinary global change experts and scientists, and (vi) to increase the public awareness of climate change impacts in the Pan-Eurasian region. The development of PEEX research infrastructure will be one of the first activities of PEEX. PEEX will find synergies with the major European land-atmosphere observation infrastructures such as ICOS a research infrastructure to decipher the greenhouse gas balance of Europe and adjacent regions, ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network-project), and ANAEE (The experimentation in terrestrial ecosystem research) networks and with the flag ship stations like the SMEARs (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) when design, re-organizing and networking existing

  17. Grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens Focus groups in qualitative research about reading with youths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Márcia Cabral da Silva

    2012-01-01

    .... Além disso, o texto discute os desafios e as reflexões éticas em relação à utilização do método.This paper describes a qualitative research about reading with youths in the educational fields using focus groups methodology...

  18. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  19. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  20. Creation and Results of a Research Project with a Focus on School Management for Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisoňová Mária

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the process of preparation, solution and the results of the research project titled “Content innovation of the course School Management”, followed by preparation of a modern university course book for an e-course situated in LMS Moodle environment for the field of study Education and for the purposes of the continuing education of teachers. The content of the paper includes a detailed characterization of the backgrounds of the solved research tasks, which have been validated by the undertaken researches and surveys not only in Slovakia, but also abroad. Based on the results, the main output of the project has been specified as well as its importance for the quality of undergraduate training of future teachers, for training of managing teaching staff, but also for contemporary headmasters.

  1. Extending Reading Research with a Focus on Cultural Understanding and Research on Intercultural Communication: An Empirical Investigation in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    The work presented here is an empirical study of how advanced learners of English as a foreign language in Argentina access and understand the culture-specific dimensions of literary narrative texts. It has three purposes. First, to extend research into reading in a foreign language to take account of the culture-specific content of texts. Second,…

  2. Design and research of focusable secondary microprism in concentrating photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Limin; Liu, Youqiang; Zhao, Guoming; Wang, Zhiyong

    2017-09-01

    Low tracking accuracy of tracker, wind induced vibration of structure and lens deformation by temperature lead to non-vertical incident irradiation to the Fresnel lens, which necessitates a secondary concentrator in actual engineering application of concentrating photovoltaic module. This paper adds a secondary focusable microprism between Fresnel lens and solar cells in order to improve optical efficiency. The 3D model of microprism is established by SOLIDWORDS and main parameters are optimized using ZEMAX. Results show that combination of Fresnel lens and focusable microprism achieves a higher energy when the secondary microprism upper spherical diameter is 18mm, the opposite side face included angle is 116°, and the side length of the bottom is 2.15mm. The highest energy of solar cell surface can reach 2.4998W, improving 33.2%, and the module height with the secondary microprism is 88mm, which reduces by 5.5mm without secondary microprism. Experimental results show that the optical efficiency of 400X concentrating module system is 88.67%, the acceptance angle is ±1.2°, the 400X module maximum output power is 144.7W.

  3. Trust, responsibility, and freedom: Focus-group research on contemporary patterns of union formation in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Isupova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: While some studies directly address the issue of changes in union formation in Russia and Eastern Europe, few have focused on attitudes and norms regarding marriage and cohabitation. In Russia cohabitation has risen sharply in the last decades, but recently its level has stabilized and even decreased slightly. Objective: We intend to highlight gender and educational differences in perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of cohabitation vs. marriage. Methods: We conducted 8 focus groups in Moscow in January 2012 (4 with men, 4 with women, half with higher educated participants and half with lower educated participants. Results: Participants claimed that trust between men and women underlies preferences for marriage or cohabitation. Participants‟ religious beliefs form a 'three stages of union' theory: cohabitation in the beginning, civil marriage later when trust has developed, and finally a church wedding when trust is established. In union formation the participants‟ ideals are the values of responsibility, freedom, fidelity, and trust. The level of trust is highest for proponents of marriage and ideational cohabitors. People without a strong preference for a certain type of union have the lowest level of interpersonal trust. Conclusions: In a society that currently can be considered anomic, interpersonal trust was found to be the most important factor underlying expressed ideals in choice of union type. It takes different forms for adherents of marriage ("trust with closed eyes" and adherents of cohabitation ("trust with open eyes".

  4. Risk of Bias in Reports of In Vivo Research: A Focus for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Macleod

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of experimental findings depends on the rigour of experimental design. Here we show limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in a random sample of life sciences publications, significantly lower reporting of randomisation in work published in journals of high impact, and very limited reporting of measures to reduce the risk of bias in publications from leading United Kingdom institutions. Ascertainment of differences between institutions might serve both as a measure of research quality and as a tool for institutional efforts to improve research quality.

  5. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  6. Action Research in Physical Education: Focusing beyond Myself through Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ashley; Dyson, Ben; Campbell, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the pedagogical changes that I experienced as a teacher engaged in an action research project in which I designed and implemented an indirect, developmentally appropriate and child-centred approach to my teaching. There have been repeated calls to expunge--or at least rationalise--the use of traditional, teacher-led practice…

  7. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  8. Focus on Academic and Research Libraries: Librarians Speak Out to Journal Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, Dick

    2009-01-01

    What is the economic situation in libraries these days? What are academic and research libraries doing with regard to making the resources in their collections more discoverable? Are they involved in institutional repository (IR) projects? And how do IRs and the availability of open access journals affect library purchasing decisions? Those were…

  9. Integrating Program Assessment and a Career Focus into a Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Mary Scheuer

    2017-01-01

    Sociology research methods students in 2013 and 2016 implemented a series of "real world" data gathering activities that enhanced their learning while assisting the department with ongoing program assessment and program review. In addition to the explicit collection of program assessment data on both students' development of sociological…

  10. Organisation and management of research and development facilities - from cost to profit focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens-van Drongelen, I.C.; Pearson, Alan; Nixon, Bill

    2003-01-01

    In this publication, we present the main findings of a research project into differences in organisation, management and activities between R&D cost centres, semi-profit centres, profit centres, and independent R&D businesses. First, a theoretical framework is presented and then the empirical

  11. NNSA Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program 2008 Symposium--Focus on Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotta, P R; Sketchley, J A

    2008-08-20

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program was authorized by Congress in 1991 to fund leading-edge research and development central to the national laboratories core missions. LDRD anticipates and engages in projects on the forefront of science and engineering at the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, and has a long history of addressing pressing national security needs at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) laboratories. LDRD has been a scientific success story, where projects continue to win national recognition for excellence through prestigious awards, papers published and cited in peer-reviewed journals, mainstream media coverage, and patents granted. The LDRD Program is also a powerful means to attract and retain top researchers from around the world, to foster collaborations with other prominent scientific and technological institutions, and to leverage some of the world's most technologically advanced assets. This enables the LDRD Program to invest in high-risk and potentially high-payoff research that creates innovative technical solutions for some of our nation's most difficult challenges. Worldwide energy demand is growing at an alarming rate, as developing nations continue to expand their industrial and economic base on the back of limited global resources. The resulting international conflicts and environmental consequences pose serious challenges not only to this nation, but to the international community as well. The NNSA and its national security laboratories have been increasingly called upon to devote their scientific and technological capabilities to help address issues that are not limited solely to the historic nuclear weapons core mission, but are more expansive and encompass a spectrum of national security missions, including energy security. This year's symposium highlights some of the exciting areas of research in alternative fuels and technology, nuclear power, carbon

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research on Behavioral Momentum to Enhance Success in Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Richard J.; Abel, Leah; Candel, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of single-subject research studies investigating the effectiveness of antecedent strategies grounded in behavioral momentum for improving compliance and on-task performance for students with autism. First, we assessed the research rigor of those studies meeting our inclusionary criteria. Next, in order to apply a…

  13. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Myofascial treatment for patients with acetabular labral tears: a single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Glenn E; Mortenson, W Ben; Gilbart, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Single-subject research design using 4 consecutive patients. To assess whether treatment using soft tissue therapy (ART or Active Release Technique), stretching, and strengthening of the hip abductors, hip external rotators, and tensor fascia latae muscles reduces pain and improves self-reported hip function in patients with acetabular labral tears who also have posterolateral hip pain of suspected myofascial origin. Acetabular labral tears cause pain in some but not all patients. Pain commonly presents anteriorly but may also present posteriorly and laterally. The standard of care is arthroscopic repair, which helps many but not all patients. It is possible that these patients may present with extra-articular contributions to their pain, such as myofascial pain, making their clinical presentation more complex. No previous study has assessed soft tissue therapy as a treatment option for this subset of patients. This A-B-A design used repeated measures of the Hip Outcome Score and visual analog scale for pain. Four patients were treated for 6 to 8 weeks, using a combination of soft tissue therapy, stretching, and strengthening for the hip abductors, external rotators, and tensor fascia latae. Data were assessed visually, statistically, and by comparing mean differences before and after intervention. All 4 patients experienced both statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in posterolateral hip pain and hip-related function. Three patients also experienced reduction in anteromedial hip pain. Myofascial hip pain may contribute to hip-related symptoms and disability in patients with acetabular labral tears and posterolateral hip pain. These patients may benefit from soft tissue therapy combined with stretching and strengthening exercises targeting the hip abductors, tensor fascia latae, and hip external rotator muscles. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4.

  15. Line focus solar thermal central receiver research study. Final report, April 30, 1977-March 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Canio, D.G.; Treytl, W.J.; Jur, F.A.; Watson, C.D.

    1979-04-01

    The results of a study to examine the line focus central receiver alternative for solar thermal generation of electric power on a commercial scale are presented. The baseline concept consists of the following elements: (1) a solar collector (heliostat) whose geometry is the equivalent of a focused parabolic cylinder. The heliostat reflecting surface is composed of an array of flexible rectangular mirror panels supported along their long edges by a framework which rotates about an axis parallel to the ground plane. The mirror panels in one section (18.3 meters by 3.05 meters (60 feet by 10 feet)) are defocused in unison by a simple mechanism under computer control to achieve the required curvature. Two sections (110 meters/sup 2/(591 feet/sup 2/)) are controlled and driven in elevation by one control/drive unit. (2) A linear cavity receiver, composed of 61-meter (200-foot) sections supported by towers at an elevation of 61 meters (200 feet). Each section receives feedwater and produces turbine-rated steam. The cavity is an open cylinder 1.83 meters (6 feet) in inside diameter, with a 1.22 meter (4 foot) aperture oriented at 45 degrees to the collector field. (3) Heliostat control, consisting of a local controller at each heliostat module which communicates with a master control computer to perform elevation tracking and focal length adjustment. The control logic is open-loop, with sun position computer by the master computer with an algorithm. Image sensors, mounted above and below the receiver aperture, are used to monitor the collector field and provide feedback to the master computer for detection of misaligned heliostats. (WHK)

  16. The strengths and weaknesses of NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry with particular focus on metabolomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have evolved as the most common techniques in metabolomics studies, and each brings its own advantages and limitations. Unlike MS spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy is quantitative and does not require extra steps for sample preparation, such as separation or derivatization. Although the sensitivity of NMR spectroscopy has increased enormously and improvements continue to emerge steadily, this remains a weak point for NMR compared with MS. MS-based metabolomics provides an excellent approach that can offer a combined sensitivity and selectivity platform for metabolomics research. Moreover, different MS approaches such as different ionization techniques and mass analyzer technology can be used in order to increase the number of metabolites that can be detected. In this chapter, the advantages, limitations, strengths, and weaknesses of NMR and MS as tools applicable to metabolomics research are highlighted.

  17. Apoptosis as the focus of an authentic research experience in a cell physiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Shere K

    2016-06-01

    Curriculum-embedded independent research is a high-impact teaching practice that has been shown to increase student engagement and learning. This article describes a multiweek laboratory project for an upper-division undergraduate cell physiology laboratory using apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway as the overarching theme. Students did literature research on apoptotic agents that acted via the mitochondrial pathway. Compounds ranged from natural products such as curcumin to synthetic compounds such as etoposide. Groups of two to three students planned a series of experiments using one of three cultured cell lines that required them to 1) learn to culture cells; 2) determine treatment conditions, including apoptotic agent solubility and concentration ranges that had been reported in the literature; 3) choose two methods to validate/quantify apoptotic capacity of the reagent; and 4) attempt to "rescue" cells from undergoing apoptosis using one of several available compounds/methods. In essence, given some reagent and equipment constraints, students designed an independent experiment to highlight the effects of different apoptotic agents on cells in culture. Students presented their experimental designs as in a laboratory group meeting and their final findings as a classroom "symposium." This exercise can be adapted to many different types of laboratories with greater or lesser equipment and instrumentation constraints, incorporates several core cell physiology methods, and encourages key experimental design and critical thinking components of independent research. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  18. Cognitive and mood assessment in stroke research: focused review of contemporary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Rosalind; Fearon, Patricia; Harrison, Jennifer K; Broomfield, Niall M; Quinn, Terence J

    2012-06-01

    International guidelines recommend cognitive and mood assessments for stroke survivors; these assessments also have use in clinical trials. However, there is no consensus on the optimal assessment tool(s). We aimed to describe use of cognitive and mood measures in contemporary published stroke trials. Two independent, blinded assessors reviewed high-impact journals representing: general medicine (n=4), gerontology/rehabilitation (n=3), neurology (n=4), psychiatry (n=4), psychology (n=4), and stroke (n=3) January 2000 to October 2011 inclusive. Journals were hand-searched for relevant, original research articles that described cognitive/mood assessments in human stroke survivors. Data were checked for relevance by an independent clinician and clinical psychologist. Across 8826 stroke studies, 488 (6%) included a cognitive or mood measure. Of these 488 articles, total number with cognitive assessment was 408 (83%) and mood assessment tools 247 (51%). Total number of different assessments used was 367 (cognitive, 300; mood, 67). The most commonly used cognitive measure was Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination (n=180 articles, 37% of all articles with cognitive/mood outcomes); the most commonly used mood assessment was the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression(n=43 [9%]). Cognitive and mood assessments are infrequently used in stroke research. When used, there is substantial heterogeneity and certain prevalent assessment tools may not be suited to stroke cohorts. Research and guidance on the optimal cognitive/mood assessment strategies for clinical practice and trials is required.

  19. Evolution of the reflection and focusing patterns and stress states in two-fluid cylindrical shell systems subjected to an external shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, S.; Dooley, G.; Williston, K.; Gaudet, J.

    2011-12-01

    Several most important features of the hydrodynamic field induced inside a circular cylindrical shell filled with and submerged into different fluids when it is subjected to an external shock wave are considered. This investigation is a follow-up of an earlier study of the two-fluid shell-shock interaction [S. Iakovlev, Interaction between an external shock wave and a cylindrical shell filled with and submerged into different fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration 322 (2009) 401-437], and it addresses a number of practically important issues not covered in that work. The focus of this study is on the evolution of the respective hydrodynamic patterns in response to the continuous change of the parameters of the fluids, in particular the speed of sound. Along with the analysis of the hydrodynamic patterns it is also demonstrated that when one is concerned with the highest pressure attained inside the shell, the most dangerous combination of the parameters occurs when the ratio of the internal and external acoustic speeds is close to 0.48, with the respective pressure exceeding the maximum incident pressure by more than 110 percent. The effect that the hydrodynamic features discussed have on the stress state of the shell is addressed as well, and it is observed that the maximum tensile stress is significantly affected by the evolution of the considered hydrodynamic features, whereas the maximum compressive stress is not. It is also observed that the maximum tensile stress is very sensitive to the change of the ratio of the acoustic speeds in the internal and external fluids, with as little an increase of the latter as 13 percent resulting in more than doubling of the former in some cases.

  20. The human capacity to reflect and decide: bioethics and the reconfiguration of the research subject in the British biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-06-01

    This article examines how a fundamental element of the British bioethical assemblage - the literature on informed consent published between 1980 and 2000, a period when bioethics became a powerful force in the UK--has influenced contemporary understandings of the research subject. Drawing on Foucault, the article argues that this corpus of texts has created a sphere of possibilities in which research subjects can imagine themselves as human beings who reflect and decide whether they want to participate in medical experimentation. In particular, it shows how the narratives found in these texts portray relationships between researchers and their human subjects as 'paternalistic', and calls for their replacement by new, more ethical relationships characterized by both 'dialogue' and 'respect' and articulated around subjects who can 'think and take decisions'. It also discusses the different strategies- using patient information sheets, a list of possible questions and invitations to take time to reflect--which the bioethical literature has developed in order to realise these new, ethical relationships. As the article suggests, these narratives and strategies provide researchers and research subjects with models and examples of how to interact with each other that are very different from the ones that prevailed before the emergence of bioethics.

  1. The impact factor-based quality assessment of biomedical research institutes in Iran: effect of impact factor normalization by subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2007-04-01

    The journal impact factor is increasingly employed to evaluate the quality of scientific research. This is in contrary to its critical limitations, e.g., its marked variation across scientific disciplines. This study was conducted to describe, in both quantitative and qualitative terms, the contribution of Iranian universities and research institutes to biomedical publications in 2004 and to examine the possible effect of impact factor normalization by subject on their rankings. The Iranian biomedical articles were recruited from Thomson Science Citation Index Expanded and PubMed databases according to Thomson Scientific subject categorization of journals. Three subject-normalized impact factors were employed: rank-normalized impact factor, journal to field impact score, and standardized impact factor. Tehran and Shiraz Universities of Medical Sciences and University of Tehran were the top three institutes regarding the sum of impact factor in 2004. On the basis of the mean crude impact factor, Sharif University of Technology, University of Shiraz, and Baqiyatollah University were ranked as the first to third. However, the subject normalization of impact factor made some considerable changes in impact factor-based rankings of research institutes. The Iranian scientific community and science development policy makers are recommended to employ subject-normalized impact factor, rather than crude impact factor, in quality assessment of biomedical research held in various academic and research institutes.

  2. A Family-Focused Delirium Educational Initiative With Practice and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; McDougall, Graham J; Fick, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Delirium is burdensome and psychologically distressing for formal and informal caregivers, yet family caregivers often have very little understanding or knowledge about delirium. As part of a large multisite intervention study, the Early Nurse Detection of Delirium Superimposed on Dementia (END-DSD), the authors identified a need for family educational materials. This educational initiative's purpose was to develop a delirium admission brochure for family members to aid in the prevention and earlier identification of delirium during hospitalization. A brochure was developed using an iterative approach with an expert panel. Following three iterations, a final brochure was approved. The authors found that an iterative expert consensus approach can be used to develop a brochure for families. Major content areas were helping families understand the difference between delirium and dementia, signs and symptoms of delirium, causes of delirium, and strategies family members can use to prevent delirium. A caregiver-focused educational brochure is one intervention to use in targeting older adults hospitalized with delirium.

  3. Employees as Individually and Collectively Acting Subjects-Key Contributions from Nordic Working Life Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Hasle; Ole Henning Sørensen

    2013-01-01

    .... The paper poses the question whether the distinct character of the Nordic societies has generated working life research that is clearly distinguishable from similar research in other countries...

  4. Reflecting on the current status and focus of e-learning research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue contains six articles from international leading lights in the field of e-learning, so it provides a valuable snapshot of current thinking and research activities. It had arisen out of keynote and theme speaker presentations at two key e-learning conferences last year: ALT-C 2004 ‘Blue Skies and Pragmatism–learning technologies for the next decade', which was held in Exeter; and the Colston Symposium entitled ‘The Evolution of Learning and Web Technologies: survival of the fittest?', which was held in Bristol.

  5. Mexican medicinal plants with anxiolytic or antidepressant activity: Focus on preclinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubalcava, Carolina; Estrada-Camarena, Erika

    2016-06-20

    Anxiety and depression are considered the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. In Mexico, the use of medicinal plants to alleviate the symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is increasing. However, there is little scientific evidence that validates the efficacy of these plants. This evidence needs to be critically revised, and further studied to provided scientific support for their use. To identify the plants that are used in Mexico for the treatment of disorders related to anxiety and depression, and to review the current preclinical and when available, clinical information of these plants. We searched in scientific databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and other web sources such as "Biblioteca digital de la medicina tradicional Mexicana" ) for Mexican plants used for the treatment of anxiety and depression that have been analyzed in preclinical studies. Additional information was obtained from published books. For this review, we also consider those plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of "nervios," "susto" or "espanto;" common terms that describe symptoms related to anxiety and depression disorders. The bibliographic search identified 49 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of disorders related to anxiety and depression. From all these plants, 59% were analyzed in preclinical research, and only 8% were tested in clinical studies; only a few of these studies tried to elucidate their mechanism of action. In general, it is proposed that the plant extracts interact with the GABAergic system. However, only part of these studies attempted to analyze other neurotransmitter systems. Finally, in some cases, drug-herbal interactions were reported. There is a large number of Mexican medicinal plants used as a treatment for anxiety and depression disorders. Although some of these plants have been studied in preclinical research, in most cases these studies are preliminary, and the understanding

  6. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  7. Teaching research ethics better: focus on excellent science, not bad scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Mark; Hunter, Lawrence

    2013-06-01

    A recent report of the United States' Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues highlights how important it is for the research community to enjoy the "earned confidence" of the public and how creating a "culture of responsibility" can contribute to that confidence. It identifies a major role for "creative, flexible, and innovative" ethics education in creating such a culture. Other recent governmental reports from various nations similarly call for a renewed emphasis on ethics education in the sciences. We discuss why some common approaches to ethics education in the graduate sciences fail to meet the goals envisioned in the reports and we describe an approach, animated by primary attention on excellent science as opposed to bad scientists, that we have employed in our ethics teaching that we think is better suited for inspiring and sustaining responsible, trustworthy science. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Focus on methodology: salivary bioscience and research on adolescence: an integrated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Fortunato, Christine K; Beltzer, Emilie K; Virag, Marta; Bright, Melissa A; Out, Dorothée

    2012-08-01

    The characterization of the salivary proteome and advances in biotechnology create an opportunity for developmental scientists to measure multi-level components of biological systems in oral fluids and identify relationships with developmental processes and behavioral and social forces. The implications for developmental science are profound because from a single oral fluid specimen, information can be obtained about a broad array of biological systems and the genetic polymorphisms related to their function. The purpose of this review is to provide a conceptual and tactical roadmap for investigators interested in integrating these measurement tools into research on adolescent health and development. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Knappe, Susanne; Andersson, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective, most maladaptive health behaviours and mental disorders can be conceptualized as the result of developmental dysfunctions......Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories, principles, and methodological approaches to understand mental health, abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope, current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may......-longitudinal studies. This model provides a conceptual framework to identify how individual vulnerabilities interact with environment over time, and promote critical behaviours that might act as proximal risk factors for ill-health and mental disorders. Within the models framework, such improved knowledge is also...

  10. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  11. Using Focus Groups to Research Sensitive Issues: Insights from Group Interviews on Nursing in the Northern Ireland “Troubles”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Jordan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.

  12. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses.

  13. English Water Meadows: historic relics or focus for environmental management and inter-disciplinary research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Hadrian

    2015-04-01

    Irrigated water meadows are found across Europe, from southern Scandinavia to Spain and in the Alpine regions and Italy. While the practice of engineering 'floated' meadow land for deliberate irrigation on hillsides and floodplains is widespread and ancient, since about 1600 AD the practice was widely adopted on floodplains in southern England where they improved the timing and productivity of grazing land and produced hay crops. They also became a part of English consciousness through art and literature. To some, water meadows are a relic of an agrarian past, to others they are the object of a range of foci for conservation, education, sustainable grass production, community engagement and recent research suggests water returned from meadow irrigation is beneficial to river water quality. Historically floodplain 'bedwork' water meadows grew from, and were integral in, the farming system of 'Wessex' involving sheep which produced dung for arable land and later supporting dairy and beef production, as well as hay. Where systems remain, this is largely due to the whim of individuals, the outcome of agri-environmental schemes. Water meadows may be managed by public, voluntary or private sector bodies. What is needed is a fresh look at how land owners, or communities, might micro-target them for heritage, habitat and grassland management. There are therefore interesting questions concerning their future: Who might invest in their restoration and maintenance? How might they be integrated into commercial farming? Are they of sufficient interest to restore en masse to become (once more) a major feature of the English chalk stream valleys? Do they provide a way into academic and public perception, combining environmental science, history, cultural heritage and environmental management? How might restoration and management become vehicles for public engagement? While each of these questions represents a major topic for discussion, this paper is an attempt to consolidate

  14. THE EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH ON THE WEB – A TWO-EDGED TOOL IN FOCUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Lima

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Although  the  use  of  the  internet  is  expanding  rapidly  on  college  campuses,  little  is  known  about  student internet  use,  how  students  perceive  the  reality of  internet  information and  how successful they  are  in  searching  the internet.  The  aim  of  this  project  is  to  analyze  the  biochemical  issues  available  in  web  pages,  evaluating  contents quality,  trustworthiness  and  effectiveness.  Fourteen  sites  were  analyzed  regarding  to  contents,  presence  of bibliographical  references,  authorship,  titles  responsibility  and  adequacy  to  target  public.  The  great  majority  did  not mention  bibliographic  references  and  target  public.  Less  than  half  of  the  researched  sites  divulged  names  and/or graduation  status  of  information providers.  Some  sites  contained  critical  conceptual  errors,  such  as:  participation  of H2O  in  the  photosynthesis  dark  phase,  carnivore  animals  feeding  only  on  herbivores,  the  overall  equation  of photosynthesis with errors, NADH2 instead NAD+, etc. Half of them presented identical texts and figures. None of the analyzed  sites  was  thus  considered  excellent.  Our  data  strengthen  the  need  for  rigorous  evaluation  concerning  to educational research of biochemical themes on the web.

  15. Focus on the research utility of intravascular ultrasound - comparison with other invasive modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoye Angela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS is an invasive modality which provides cross-sectional images of a coronary artery. In these images both the lumen and outer vessel wall can be identified and accurate estimations of their dimensions and of the plaque burden can be obtained. In addition, further processing of the IVUS backscatter signal helps in the characterization of the type of the plaque and thus it has been used to study the natural history of the atherosclerotic evolution. On the other hand its indigenous limitations do not allow IVUS to assess accurately stent struts coverage, existence of thrombus or exact site of plaque rupture and to identify some of the features associated with increased plaque vulnerability. In order this information to be obtained, other modalities such as optical coherence tomography, angioscopy, near infrared spectroscopy and intravascular magnetic resonance imaging have either been utilized or are under evaluation. The aim of this review article is to present the current utilities of IVUS in research and to discuss its advantages and disadvantages over the other imaging techniques.

  16. Inhibitions and implications associated with celebrity participation in social marketing programs focusing on HIV prevention: an exploratory research

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Casais; João F. Proença

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses celebrity participation in social marketing programs focusing on public health, especially on HIV programs. The research identifies the inhibitions of celebrity people and implications that this involvement may have upon their lives. The paper analysis data from in-depth interviews made to twenty-seven Portuguese celebrities from arts, show business and sports. The results show absence of prejudice against HIV. Famous people feel motivated to join public health and HIV ca...

  17. The Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test: an assessment tool for clinical research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C K; O'Donnell, D C; Searight, H R; Barbarash, R A

    1996-01-01

    We developed an instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information among 275 adults entering one of four ambulatory trials. At the conclusion of trial enrollment, subjects rated their understanding of the information presented and completed the Deaconess Informed Consent Comprehension Test (DICCT). Subjects completed the vocabulary subtest of the revised Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R) and the reading subtest of the revised Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT-R). The DICCT for 50 subjects was scored by 2 blinded investigators. Interrater agreement was 0.84 (df = 49, p < 0.001). To investigate the DICCT's potential validity, its scores were correlated with WAIS-R vocabulary scores (r = 0.44, df = 199, p < 0.01) and WRAT-R reading scores (r = 0.39, df = 268, p < 0.01). Understanding of consent information was rated as thorough by 70% of subjects. The mean +/- SD DICCT score was 20.4 +/- 3.9. The DICCT is a reliable instrument to assess comprehension of informed consent information. There is preliminary evidence for the scale's validity. The subjects believed that they had greater understanding of study information than was shown by the DICCT.

  18. Understanding public opinion in debates over biomedical research: looking beyond political partisanship to focus on beliefs about science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Matthew; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2014-01-01

    As social scientists have investigated the political and social factors influencing public opinion in science-related policy debates, there has been growing interest in the implications of this research for public communication and outreach. Given the level of political polarization in the United States, much of the focus has been on partisan differences in public opinion, the strategies employed by political leaders and advocates that promote those differences, and the counter-strategies for overcoming them. Yet this focus on partisan differences tends to overlook the processes by which core beliefs about science and society impact public opinion and how these schema are often activated by specific frames of reference embedded in media coverage and popular discourse. In this study, analyzing cross-sectional, nationally representative survey data collected between 2002 and 2010, we investigate the relative influence of political partisanship and science-related schema on Americans' support for embryonic stem cell research. In comparison to the influence of partisan identity, our findings suggest that generalized beliefs about science and society were more chronically accessible, less volatile in relation to media attention and focusing events, and an overall stronger influence on public opinion. Classifying respondents into four unique audience groups based on their beliefs about science and society, we additionally find that individuals within each of these groups split relatively evenly by partisanship but differ on other important dimensions. The implications for public engagement and future research on controversies related to biomedical science are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 10538 - Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ...) with Sec. 26.109); and whether the ``special problems'' of research involving vulnerable populations...) of the 2006 rule, which defines the scope of the rule as applying to ``all research initiated after... defined in Executive Order 12866. The 2006 rule applies to the conduct and review of research involving...

  20. A Profile of Gender-Based Violence Research in Europe: Findings From a Focused Mapping Review and Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Appleton, Jane V; Clark, Maria; Paavilainen, Eija

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a new form of review: a focused mapping review and synthesis. The aim was to create a contemporary, snapshot profile of the nature and scope of gender-based violence (GBV) studies conducted in Europe. GBV is one of the most prevalent human rights violations in the world affecting mainly women and girls. The policy context of GBV in Europe has gathered momentum in recent years, but we do not have a clear picture of how this relates to research activity. Thirteen journals were purposively selected on their likelihood to publish GBV research. All articles published in these journals during 2015 and meeting our inclusion criteria were retrieved. Data were extracted according to (1) types of methodologies used, (2) geographical location of research, and (3) patterns of research activity/interest. Thirty-two articles met the inclusion criteria. Many titles and abstracts were not explicit about the gendered nature of the research which made retrieval and analysis difficult. A range of methodologies were reported, with single-country research conducted more than international collaborations. Intimate partner violence and sexual abuse attracted most research interest. No studies explored female genital mutilation/cutting and only one investigated early and forced marriage. The findings have implications regarding GBV research in Europe, and we explore them in relation to relevant European policy. Researchers can help raise the profile of the gendered nature of most violence-related research by being explicit about this in their publications. Increasing opportunities for cross-national research will help address the global nature of GBV. Tackling GBV requires synergy of empirical evidence and policy to drive the agenda.

  1. The SAT® and SAT Subject Tests™: Discrepant Scores and Incremental Validity. Research Report 2012-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student performance on the SAT and SAT Subject Tests in order to identify groups of students who score differently on these two tests, and to determine whether certain demographic groups score higher on one test compared to the other. Discrepancy scores were created to capture individuals' performance differences on the…

  2. Are research subjects adequately protected? A review and discussion of studies conducted by the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy E; Sugarman, Jeremy

    1996-09-01

    In light of information uncovered about human radiation experiments conducted during the Cold War, an important charge for the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was to assess the current state of protections for human research subjects. This assessment was designed to enhance the Committee's ability to make informed recommendations for the improvement of future policies and practices for the protection of research subjects. The Committee's examination of current protections revealed great improvement over those from the past, yet some problems remain. Although the data collected by the Committee highlight specific areas in need of attention, the Committee's work should be viewed in part as the beginning of a series of ongoing assessments of the adequacy and effectiveness of the protections afforded to human subjects.

  3. Foucault, the subject and the research interview: a critique of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Self-Management Interventions on Students with Autism: A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Monica E.; Moore, Dennis W.; Anderson, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Self-management interventions aimed at skill acquisition and/or improving behavior of students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders were examined. Twenty-three single-subject research design studies met inclusion criteria. Quality assessment of these studies was conducted using the What Works Clearinghouse guidelines, and treatment effect…

  5. An Analysis of Effect Sizes for Single-Subject Research: A Statistical Comparison of Five Judgemental Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee L.

    2010-01-01

    Effect sizes for single-subject research were examined to determine to what extent they measure similar aspects of the effects of the treatment. Seventy-five articles on the reduction of problem behavior in children with autism were recharted on standard celeration charts. Pearson product-moment correlations were then conducted between two…

  6. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  7. Bibliography of Research Involving Female Subjects; A Compilation of Theses and Dissertations in Physical Education, Health, and Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirduso, Waneen Wyrick, Ed.

    This bibliography is comprised of theses and dissertations which were written by women or which used women as subjects of investigation. The theses were solicited by the National Association for Girls and Women in Sport (NAGWS) Research Committee from 200 colleges and universities. The entries include papers written during the past 30 years. They…

  8. What is the effect of country-specific characteristics on the research performance of scientific institutions? Using multi-level statistical models to rank and map universities and research-focused institutions worldwide

    CERN Document Server

    Bornmann, Lutz; Anegon, Felix de Moya; Mutz, Ruediger

    2014-01-01

    Bornmann, Stefaner, de Moya Anegon, and Mutz (in press) have introduced a web application (www.excellencemapping.net) which is linked to both academic ranking lists published hitherto (e.g. the Academic Ranking of World Universities) as well as spatial visualization approaches. The web application visualizes institutional performance within specific subject areas as ranking lists and on custom tile-based maps. The new, substantially enhanced version of the web application and the multilevel logistic regression on which it is based are described in this paper. Scopus data were used which have been collected for the SCImago Institutions Ranking. Only those universities and research-focused institutions are considered that have published at least 500 articles, reviews and conference papers in the period 2006 to 2010 in a certain Scopus subject area. In the enhanced version, the effect of single covariates (such as the per capita GDP of a country in which an institution is located) on two performance metrics (bes...

  9. Subject, function, and trend in medical ethics research: a comparative study of Chinese and non-Chinese literature using bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanhui; Shen, Jiantong; Li, Youping; Deng, Shaolin; Wu, Taixiang; Chen, Baoqing; Xie, Zhiyi; Qin, Chaoyi; Yu, Zhiyuan; Qin, Chuan; Huang, Jin; Liu, Xuemei; Li, Yan; Jiang, Jie

    2012-05-01

    To perform a comparative quantitative and qualitative analysis of Chinese and non-Chinese medical ethics literature using systematic research and literature analysis in order to discern research trends in the area and provide baseline data as a reference for relevant decision making and further study. We retrieved articles using MeSH terms and keywords related to medical ethics in PubMed and CNKI, and then constructed a set of charts by applying word co-occurrence, The Pathfinder Networks algorithms, an included subject chart, a research field relationship chart, and strategy coordination charts. The total of number of papers retrieved from PubMed was six times that retrieved from CNKI. Outside China, medical ethics has been studied in eight fully shaped subject fields, including morals, ethical review, physician-patient relationships, clinical trials, euthanasia, ethics education, clinical ethics, and health policy. In contrast, medical ethics research in China is still confined to five subject fields: morals, physician-patient relations, medical ethics education, ethical review, and medical research. Medical ethics research outside China emphasizes the application of medical ethics to solve emerging problems in clinical and medical research. It is mainly centered on morals, ethical review, and physician-patient relations. By comparison, medical ethics research in China places greater emphasis on morals and medical education. In order to narrow this gap between China and other countries, we should broaden the research scope of medical ethics and add more applied research, such as ethical review and medical education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  10. Overview of recent endeavors on personal aerial vehicles: A focus on the US and Europe led research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolong; Kreimeier, Michael; Stumpf, Eike; Zhou, Yaoming; Liu, Hu

    2017-05-01

    Personal aerial vehicles, an innovative transport mode to bridge the niche between scheduled airliners and ground transport, are seen by aviation researchers and engineers as a solution to provide fast urban on-demand mobility. This paper reviews recent research efforts on the personal aerial vehicle (PAV), with a focus on the US and Europe led research activities. As an extension of the programmatic level overview, several enabling technologies, such as vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL), automation, distributed electric propulsion, which might promote the deployment of PAVs, are introduced and discussed. Despite the dramatic innovation in PAV concept development and related technologies, some challenging issues remain, especially safety, infrastructure and public acceptance. As such, further efforts by many stakeholders are required to enable the real implementation and application of PAVs.

  11. Research on pinches driven by Speed-2 generator: Hard X-ray and neutron emission in plasma focus configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, L.; Moreno, J.; Silva, P.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Pavez, C. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Pavez, C. [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Castillo, F. [Insitituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM (Mexico); Kies, W. [Heinrich-Heine-Univ., Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Speed-2 is a generator based on Marx technology and was designed in the University of Dusseldorf. Speed-2 consists on 40 +/- Marx modules connected in parallel (4.1 {mu}F equivalent Marx generator capacity, 300 kV, 4 MA in short circuit, 187 kJ, 400 ns rise time, dI/dt {approx} 10{sup 13} A/s). Currently Speed-2 is operating at CCHEN (Chilean nuclear energy commission), being the most powerful and energetic device for dense transient plasma in the Southern Hemisphere. Most of the previous works developed in Speed-2 at Dusseldorf were done in a plasma focus configuration for soft X-ray emission and the neutron emission from Speed-2 was not completely studied. The research program at CCHEN considers experiments in different pinch configurations (plasma focus, gas puffed plasma focus, gas embedded Z-pinch, wire arrays) at current of hundred of kilo- to mega-amperes, using the Speed-2 generator. The Chilean operation has begun implementing and developing diagnostics in a conventional plasma focus configuration operating in deuterium in order to characterize the neutron emission and the hard X-ray production. Silver activation counters, plastics CR39 and scintillator-photomultiplier detectors are used to characterize the neutron emission. Images of metallic plates with different thickness are obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize an effective energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge. (authors)

  12. Cultural-psychological and clinical perspectives of research on phenomena of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolova, Elena T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes certain socio-cultural and personal predispositions, which determine the modern diversity of subjective uncertainty and ambiguity manifestations. It stresses that for the creation of ‘realistic’ clinical psychology (in terms of A.R. Luria one needs to retrace the relations between the resourceful and the psychopathological aspects of the ambiguity phenomenon and the cultural environment with its destructive ideals and mythologems, manipulative media-technologies and all-pervading idea of ‘deconstruction’. Methods for modeling the experiences of ambiguity in experimental settings, in pathopsychological examination and in projective psychological diagnostics are put in comparison. The arguments are adduced for the interpretation of deficient manifestations of subjective uncertainty as a criterion for diagnostics of the severity of personality disorder.

  13. RESEARCHES ON THE ACTIVITY OF SOME ENZYMES WITH DIAGNOSIS VALUE IN SUBJECTS SUFFERING FROM HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mirela Amariei

    2012-06-01

    deviations from the physiologically normal values were noticed, all the other investigated subjects show values higher than the superior limit of the reference interval while, statistically, the values of the seric enzymes are highly significant (p<0.001, with the exception of those of aspartat-aminotransferase (in the 71-86 years group and of Ȗ-glutamyl- transferase (the 41-50 year group, which are insignificant.

  14. A Preliminary Examination to Identify the Presence of Quality Indicators in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Melody; Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in the field of special education put forth a series of papers that proposed quality indicators for specific research designs that must be present for a study to be considered of high quality, as well as standards for evaluating a body of research to determine whether a practice is evidence-based. The purpose of this article was to pilot…

  15. Bias in Amputation Research; Impact of Subjects Missed from a Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bosmans, Joline C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2012-01-01

    For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often underrepresented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the

  16. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students’ Ability to Read Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacum, Edwin B. Van; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach—based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory—means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors’ arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students’ ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students’ evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. PMID:26086657

  17. Certificates of Confidentiality: Protecting Human Subject Research Data in Law and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Leslie E; Patel, Mayank J; Williams Tarver, Brett A; Austin, Jeffrey L; Dame, Lauren A; Beskow, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The federal Certificate of Confidentiality plays an important role in research on sensitive topics by authorizing researchers to refuse to disclose identifiable research data in response to subpoenas in any legal setting. However, there is little known about how effective Certificates are in practice. This article draws on our legal and empirical research on this topic to fill this information gap. It includes a description of the purpose of Certificates, their legislative and regulatory history, and a summary of the few reported and unreported cases that have dealt with Certificates. In addition, we outline other statutory confidentiality protections, compare them to the Certificate's protections, and analyze some of the vulnerabilities of a Certificate's protections. This analysis allows us to make specific recommendations for strengthening the protections afforded to research data. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  18. Grupo focal em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens Focus groups in qualitative research about reading with youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cabral da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma experiência em pesquisa qualitativa sobre leitura com jovens na área da Educação, utilizando-se como método de coleta de dados o grupo focal. O método foi descrito e analisado à luz da abordagem sócio-histórica da linguagem. Além disso, o texto discute os desafios e as reflexões éticas em relação à utilização do método.This paper describes a qualitative research about reading with youths in the educational fields using focus groups methodology. The concept of focus groups was described and analyzed in the light of the social historical perspective of language. Furthermore, this text discusses the challenges and the ethical concerns regarding this methodology.

  19. Action research in rehabilitation with chronic stroke recovery: A case report with a focus on neural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Malene; Bundgaard, Tina H; Zeeman, Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen R; Sørensen, Peter M B; Berro, Hamza M; Larsson, Bodil W

    2016-06-27

    Chronic stroke patients are primarily referred to general rehabilitation, rather than to specific neurorehabilitation. Currently, there are no Danish clinical guidelines for chronic stroke, but recent research in neuroplasticity has contributed to possible rehabilitation interventions for these patients. The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a specialized neuroplastic approach in combination with an already existing training program. The project is designed as an action research project concerning four participants with chronic stroke. Through ten intervention, a neuroplastic focus has been added to their group training program including daily home training. Participants were tested before and after the intervention with MAS, DGI, 6MWT, SSQLS. All four participants improved their functional levels and their quality of life following the intervention. This report indicates that a specific neuroplastic focus in combination with action research has an impact on the participants with chronic stroke. However, there is still no clarity regarding what type of rehabilitation methods can be considered the most efficacious in promoting neuroplasticity. This case report serves as a pilot project for further studies of how to implement neuroplasticity in physical therapy.

  20. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  1. Conceptual Terminological Structure of Pedagogy as the Subject of Historical Pedagogic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Koshkina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the formation and development of pedagogic terminology. The author theoretically substantiates the potential of the historical pedagogic research concerning the conceptual and terminological structure of the Russian pedagogy. The research is based on the following ideas: correlation between the scientific terminology formation and scientific knowledge genesis; philosophic concept as a form and result of reality reflection; linguistic concept of the term as a functional unit of a scientific language; specifics of pedagogic knowledge reflection in conceptual form. The main research findings include identifying methodological requirements for analyzing the conceptual scientific formation in historical context; substantiating the resource basis; revealing the investigation principles; describing the tools and their implementation peculiarities with regard to the specifics of pedagogical concepts and terms. The acquired results can be used while exploring the pedagogic history problems, pedagogic methodology and terminology. In conclusion, the actual research trends of pedagogic terminology formation are reviewed from the historical pedagogic perspective. 

  2. 42 CFR 2.21 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.21 Relationship to Federal statutes protecting... of the research. (b) Effect of concurrent coverage. These regulations restrict the disclosure and use...

  3. 38 CFR 1.468 - Relationship to Federal statutes protecting research subjects against compulsory disclosure of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Abuse, Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (hiv), Or Sickle Cell Anemia § 1.468 Relationship... on the Attorney General, respectively, the power to authorize researchers conducting certain types of...

  4. Economic terms and beyond how researchers in specialised varieties of English can benefit from focusing on terms

    CERN Document Server

    Resche, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This book, which is aimed at researchers in specialised varieties of English, provides an illustration of how linguists can use terms, i.e. the expression of concepts in specialised fields, as entry points to explore any specialised domain, whether academic or professional, and to get acquainted with its history, its culture, and the evolution of the ideas that have nurtured it. Choosing the field of economics as an example, the author approaches terms from a diachronic, descriptive and contextual perspective, focusing on neonyms, metaphorical, ambiguous or indeterminate terms, as well as inte

  5. PROVISION OF RESEARCH SUPPORT SERVICES TO ODL LEARNERS BY TUTORS: A Focus on the Zimbabwe Open University’s Bachelor of Education (Educational Management Research Students’ Supervision Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichaona MAPOLISA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students

  6. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  7. The Need of Education in Respect for Animals (ERA) as a Subject of the Social Education Degree at the University: An Overview Focused on Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, Eduardo; Carrió, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article highlights serious educational gaps related with the respect for animals. We propose to include a new independent subject, named Education in Respect for Animals (ERA), within the curriculum of the Social Education Degree at the university level. Method: This study is based on previous educative experiences and a review of…

  8. Mining activities abroad, a subject of teaching and research; Auslandsbergbau in Lehre und Forschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drebenstedt, C. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bergbau

    2008-04-15

    As globalisation extends in all fields of life, university teaching must cope by integrating internationalisation in its teaching subjects. In the case of raw materials resources and mining, the case is quite clear: Industrialized countries like Germany are big consumers of raw materials, most of which must be imported. Mining companies, including German mining companies, have extended their activities world-wide, and German producers of mining machinery and sytems, consultants and mining specialists are exporting technology and know-how into raw materials producing countries. Universities must take account of these trends if they are to train students for tomorrow's international market. The TU Bergakademie Freiberg is presented as an example. (orig.)

  9. HEURISTIC POSSIBILITIES OF IN RESEARCH CO-OPERATIONS OF ECONOMIC SUBJECTS INSITUCIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Belokrulova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of institutionalism are explored as an interdisciplinary methodology, synthesizing the modern achievements of philosophy and political science, economic theory, institutional economics and sociology, which describes the interactions between economic subjects more accurately, including the goverment and business on the market of public procurement. There are received solutions for problem situations in the system of the russian public procument on the way of institutionalization of centralized model on the micro level (for example, the Southern Federal University, as well as on the macrolevel in the frame of formation of Federal Contract System, aimed to integrate all stages of goverment contracting – planning, placing the order, controlling and enforcement of state contract.

  10. Subjective perceptions of ESP (English for Specific Purposes university teachers’ professional beginnings: Quantitative research into pedagogical content knowledge

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    Jašková Jana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present methodology and results of a quantitative phase within a research into English for Specific Purposes university teachers and their subjectively perceived changes in pedagogical content knowledge from a retrospective view of their professional beginnings. The introduction describes the investigated issues and explains key concepts. The first chapter refers to the theoretical background of teacher professional development. Since the quantitative research phase is a part of a mixed research design, the second chapter deals with the whole research including the research objective and questions. The third chapter is devoted to the quantitative research phase during which an anonymous electronic questionnaire was sent to the whole population of Czech university teachers of English for Specific Purposes and processed statistically as well as descriptively. The fourth chapter presents the obtained quantitative data discussed within the individual components of pedagogical content knowledge - conceptions of purposes for teaching subject matter, curricular knowledge, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of students’ understanding. The conclusion summarises all the information and proposes some recommendations for pedagogical practice.

  11. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  12. Bias in amputation research; impact of subjects missed from a prospective study.

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    Lauren V Fortington

    Full Text Available For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often under-represented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of selection bias by comparing characteristics from a sample included in a prospective study of phantom pain with the actual population who underwent amputation. Only 27% of all potential patients were referred during the first year of the prospective study. The referred patients were 8 years younger (p<0.001 and less likely to have had amputation because of a vascular condition, diabetes or infection (p=0.003 than those not referred. There was also a significant difference in one year survival between the groups; 67% of referred patients survived compared with just 40% of non-referred patients (p=0.004. The biased population in the phantom pain study may have resulted in an underestimation of phantom pain in the original study and subsequent protective factors should be considered within the context of the younger population reported. Selection bias is common in amputation research, and research methods to minimize its impact must be given greater attention.

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Design Writing Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Leslie Ann; Graham, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable concern that students do not develop the writing skills needed for school, occupational, or personal success. A frequent explanation for this is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. A recent meta-analysis of true- and quasi-experimental writing intervention research (S. Graham & D. Perin,…

  14. Art Interpretation as Subject Constitution: Research on the Role of Critical Art History in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traf, Laura

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the foundations, development and some of the findings from a research project about how the use of the gaze, as a key idea from critical art history, might affect the understanding of art by art educators. It shows how the use of this key idea involved not just the disruption of a modernist model of art interpretation (based…

  15. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  16. Project Management Practices as a Subject of Research for CSCW: Status and Future Opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Leimbach, Timo

    2017-01-01

    The ‘project’ is a prevalent form for organising endeavours of construction, innovation, IT development and organisational change. ‘Projects’ involve coordination and cooperation between colocated and distributed actors, and are relevant for CSCW (computer supported cooperative work) research as ...

  17. A research base for teaching in primary school: a coherent scholarly focus on the object of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruksana Osman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a case for a new impetus in creating a coherent research basis for childhood education and teacher education in South Africa. We are proposing a three-level – teacher educators, student teachers and practising teachers – research-led approach that integrates teacher education, schooling and early learning. The aim of the approach is to enhance the quality of learning in primary schools through systematic focus on the object of learning, whether in terms of teaching in school or educating entrants to the teaching profession at the university, or teacher educators inquiring into their practice. There are two thrusts involved: on the one hand bringing the focus of teachers, teaching students and teacher educators coherently onto the object of learning and thereby bringing it to the attention of their respective learners, and on the other hand invoking the principles of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL movement, thereby enabling its sustainability. We illustrate our case with two examples from the literature that show clearly how learning in school can be enhanced when teachers are actively studying what and how their learners are learning in connection with their teaching and where the work is disseminated in a scholarly manner.

  18. Evaluation of Long-Term Cochlear Implant Use in Subjects With Acquired Unilateral Profound Hearing Loss: Focus on Binaural Auditory Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Griet; De Bodt, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul

    Cochlear implantation (CI) in subjects with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss was investigated. The authors of the present study demonstrated the binaural auditory outcomes in a 12- and 36-month prospective cohort outcome study. The present study aimed to do a long-term (LT) evaluation of the auditory outcomes in an analogous study group. LT evaluation was derived from 12 single-sided deaf (SSD) CI recipients and from 11 CI recipients with asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). A structured interview was conducted with each subjects. Speech perception in noise and sound localization were assessed in a CIOFF and in a CION condition. Four binaural effects were calculated: summation effect (S0N0), squelch effect (S0NCI), combined head shadow effect (SCIN0), and spatial release from masking (SRM). At the LT evaluation, the contribution of a CI or a bone conduction device on speech perception in noise was investigated in two challenging spatial configurations in the SSD group. All (23/23) subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation, which ranged from 3 to 10 years after implantation. In the SSD group, a significant combined head shadow effect of 3.17 dB and an SRM benefit of 4.33 dB were found. In the AHL group, on the other hand, the summation effect (2.00 dB), the squelch effect (2.67 dB), the combined head shadow effect (3.67 dB), and SRM benefit (2.00 dB) were significant at LT testing. In both the spatial challenging configurations, the speech in noise results was significantly worse in the condition with the bone conduction device compared with the unaided condition. No negative effect was found for the CION condition. A significant benefit in the CION condition was found for sound localization compared with the CIOFF condition in the SSD group and in the AHL group. All subjects wore their CI 7 days a week at LT follow-up evaluation. The presence of binaural effects has been demonstrated with speech in noise testing, sound localization

  19. A Review of the Key Considerations in Mental Health Services Research: A Focus on Low-Income Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Anton, Margaret; Zachary, Chloe; Pittman, Sarah; Turner, Patrick; Forehand, Rex; Khavjou, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Children have been particularly vulnerable to the economic challenges of the past decade, with half (45 to 51%) of children under the age of 18 living in a low-income home and nearly 22% of those living in poverty. Low-income children are overrepresented in a range of statistics on psychosocial maladjustment issues, but their families are less likely than other socioeconomic groups to participate in mental health services and intervention research. Thus, this review asserts that substantive advances in mental health services and intervention research with low income families must move beyond a between-group, deficit-focused perspective to a more nuanced contemplation of how to: 1) Operationalize the “income” in low-income families; 2) Disentangle the interrelationship of low income, race, and ethnicity; and 3) Optimize recruitment, engagement and retention efforts via sensitivity to the culture of low-income status. Examples of mental health services and intervention research with low-income families will be discussed, and a summary, conclusions, and directions for future research are discussed in the context of these recommendations. PMID:28503361

  20. A Review of the Key Considerations in Mental Health Services Research: A Focus on Low-Income Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Anton, Margaret; Zachary, Chloe; Pittman, Sarah; Turner, Patrick; Forehand, Rex; Khavjou, Olga

    2016-12-01

    Children have been particularly vulnerable to the economic challenges of the past decade, with half (45 to 51%) of children under the age of 18 living in a low-income home and nearly 22% of those living in poverty. Low-income children are overrepresented in a range of statistics on psychosocial maladjustment issues, but their families are less likely than other socioeconomic groups to participate in mental health services and intervention research. Thus, this review asserts that substantive advances in mental health services and intervention research with low income families must move beyond a between-group, deficit-focused perspective to a more nuanced contemplation of how to: 1) Operationalize the "income" in low-income families; 2) Disentangle the interrelationship of low income, race, and ethnicity; and 3) Optimize recruitment, engagement and retention efforts via sensitivity to the culture of low-income status. Examples of mental health services and intervention research with low-income families will be discussed, and a summary, conclusions, and directions for future research are discussed in the context of these recommendations.

  1. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lacum, Edwin B; Ossevoort, Miriam A; Goedhart, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach-based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory-means that we teach students to read research articles by teaching them which rhetorical moves occur in research articles and how they can identify these. Because research articles are persuasive by their very nature, we focused on the rhetorical moves that play an important role in authors' arguments. We designed a teaching strategy using cognitive apprenticeship as the pedagogical approach. It was implemented in a first-year compulsory course in the life sciences undergraduate program. Comparison of the results of a pretest with those of the posttest showed that students' ability to identify these moves had improved. Moreover, students themselves had also perceived that their ability to read and understand a research article had increased. The students' evaluations demonstrated that they appreciated the pedagogical approach used and experienced the assignments as useful. On the basis of our results, we concluded that students had taken a first step toward becoming expert readers. © 2014 E. B. Van Lacum et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Issues to consider for preparing ferrets as research subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Roberta Scipioni

    2006-01-01

    The domestic or European ferret (Mustela putorius furo) has been domesticated for thousands of years. Ferrets have been used for hunting and fur production, as pets, and as models in biomedical research. Despite the relatively small numbers used in the laboratory, ferrets have some unique applications including study of human influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated corona virus. They have served as models for peptic ulcer disease, carotenoid metabolism, cystic fibrosis, and drug emesis screening, among others. Most research ferrets are males, due to estrus-related health problems in females. They may be housed conventionally and are easy to care for when their biology and behavior are understood. Due to the small number of ferret suppliers, animals are often shipped long distances, requiring air transport and intermediate handlers. It is important to minimize shipment stress, especially with weanling and pregnant animals. Additional expertise is required for success with pregnant and whelping ferrets and for rearing of neonates. The animals have specific dietary requirements, and proper nutrition is key. Successful housing requires knowledge of ferret behaviors including social behavior, eating habits, a general inquisitive nature, and a species-typical need to burrow and hide. Regular handling is necessary to maintain well-being. A ferret health care program consists of physical examination, immunization, clinical pathology, and a working knowledge of common ferret diseases. Various research methodologies have been described, from basic procedures such as blood collection to major invasive survival surgery. Ferrets have a distinct niche in biomedical research and are hardy animals that thrive well in the laboratory.

  4. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-01-01

    Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reve...

  5. Subject and discipline-specific publication trends in South African medical research, 1996�2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir S. Pillay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical and health sciences institutions and organisations are faced with challenges in resource allocation for research and publishing. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse South African publication trends in medicine to provide guidance for future strategic planning in academic medicine. We used the Scimago database spanning the years 1996–2011 to analyse South African publication outputs in a number of categories in medicine, as defined in the Scopus database. The data reveal a number of significant growth areas but also reveal areas that should potentially be growing but remain static. In some areas, growth has aligned with the expectations of health and disease trends, but other areas, in which growth would have been expected, have remained static. Interesting features are also revealed when the data are compared with those of other developed and developing countries. For 1996–2011, South African medical publication output ranked 33 in the world based on the number of publications, but 28 based on the h-index. Interestingly, whilst South Africa produced less than 25% of the output of India, the h-index for South Africa is 153 compared with 145 for India. South Africa’s medical publication output has steadily increased over the 14-year period but the number of citations per document has declined. This analysis provides a useful strategic overview for medical institutions and government funding organisations to guide the allocation of research budgets and resources in a discipline- or category-specific manner to influence research outputs.

  6. [Sulfonamide-research on human subjects in Nazi concentration camps: a critical re-evaluation of the epistemological and ethical dimension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelcke, Volker

    2009-01-01

    Existing scholarship on the experiments performed in concentration camps beginning in 1942 on the value of sulfonamides in treatment of wound infections, in which inmates were used as experimental subjects, maintains that not only were the experiments ethically and legally completely reprehensible and unacceptable, but that they were also bad science in the sense that they were investigating questions that had already been resolved by valid medical research. In contrast to this, the paper argues on the basis of contemporary publications that the value of sulfonamides in the treatment of wound infections, including gas gangrene infections, was not yet established, that is, that the questions pursued by the experiments had not been resolved. It also argues that regarding their "design" and methodical principles, the experiments directly followed the rationality of contemporary clinical trials and animal experiments. However, for the step from animal to the human experiment, the experimental "objects" were only in regard to their body, but not to their individuality and subjectivity regarded as "human". In a concluding section, the paper lines out some implications for an adequate historical reconstruction of medical research on humans, in particular the importance of a combined focus on the scientific rationality as well as explicit or implicit value hierarchies. Further, the article points to the potential impact of such a revised image of the sulfonamide experiments for present day debates on the ethics of medical research.

  7. Research and Development on Automatic Information Organization and Subject Analysis in Recent Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Information organization and subject analysis (IOSA is an important issue in the field of library and information science(LIS.As the fast advance in information technology, more and more digital documents are emerging in a pace such that automated IOSA become inevitable. This article firstly introduces the development of related automatic techniques in recent decades and promotes a tranditional viewpoint based on the workflow of:(1 data collection and aggregation, (2 cataloguing, (3 regulation, (4 archving, and (5 usage,to regulate the whole process when applying automated techniques to any IOSA task.Some application examples are then described to let the readers have a feel of the feasibility of these techniques; specifically the applications of keyword extraction, association analysis, document clustering, and topic categorization are mentioned.We conclude that the related techniques and applications are still developing in a quick pace such that only a few percentages of them can be mentioned.This article is intended to promote the mutual cooperation among the LIS and other fields.

  8. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  9. THE PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH ABOUT IFRS: A BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ARTICLES ON THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Iovine Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.

  10. ¿Quién es el sujeto en la investigación educativa? / Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-12-01

    also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects?Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  11. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful

  12. Current outlook of ethics in research with human subjects Panorama atual da ética em pesquisa em seres humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marystella Tomoe Takahashi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, medical care has been increasingly permeated by the concept of evidence-based-medicine, in which clinical research plays a crucial role in establishing diagnostic and treatment. Following the improvements in clinical research, we have a growing concern and understanding that some ethical issues must be respected when the subjects are human beings. Research with human subjects relies on the principles of autonomy, beneficence, no maleficence and justice. Ordinance 196/96 from the National Health Board adds to the Brazilian legislation such renowned bioethical principles. AIM: Discuss the main ethical aspects involved in research with human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Critical analysis of Ordinance 196/96 and related literature. CONCLUSION: Ordinance 196/96 rules research with human subjects; nevertheless, it requires more in-depth discussions regarding the informed consent, use of placebo, research with vulnerable populations and research in developing countries.Nas últimas décadas, a medicina tem sido cada vez mais permeada pelo conceito de medicina baseada em evidências, na qual a pesquisa clínica possui papel crucial no estabelecimento de diretrizes diagnósticas e terapêuticas. Com o avanço da pesquisa clínica, surgiu a preocupação e o entendimento que certos padrões éticos devam ser obedecidos quando o objeto de estudo é o ser humano. A pesquisa em seres humanos baseia-se nos princípios da autonomia, beneficência, não maleficência e justiça. A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde incorpora à legislação brasileira tais princípios bioéticos consagrados. OBJETIVO: Discutir os principais aspectos éticos envolvidos na pesquisa em seres humanos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Análise crítica da Resolução 196/96 do CNS e literatura correlata. CONCLUSÃO: A Resolução 196/96 do Conselho Nacional de Saúde regulamenta a experimentação em seres humanos, no entanto necessita de discussões mais

  13. Correlation Between Insight and Capacity to Consent to Research in Subjects With Bipolar Disorder Type I and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Tobler, Chantal Aristizábal; Gómez, Constanza Ovalle; Triana, Jaime Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) can affect patient autonomy and capacity to consent to participate in research. Other variables associated with the autonomy of patients must be explored in order to improve the quality of the currently available tools. To evaluate the relationship between insight and the capacity to consent to participate in research in patients with BD-I and schizophrenia. A cross-sectional and longitudinal study was conducted with 120 subjects (40 subjects with schizophrenia, 40 with BD-I, and 40 healthy controls). The tools used were the Scale Assessment Insight-Expanded (SAI-E) and the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-CR), which was first adapted culturally, and its validity and reliability assessed. The results obtained on each scale were compared and the association between them were evaluated. There is a direct correlation between the capacity to consent to research, measured using the MacCAT-CR tool, and the degree of insight, measured using the SAI-E scale, with an effect size of 1.3 for BD-I and 2.03 for schizophrenia. The results suggest that there is a correlation between the degree of insight and the capacity to consent to research in subjects with schizophrenia and BD-I. Insight should therefore be included as a relevant variable to assess the capacity to consent, and future studies should include it when researching on or designing new tools which aim at a greater respect of patient autonomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR. PMID:20235862

  15. The SMA Trust: the role of a disease-focused research charity in developing treatments for SMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Brown, V; Mitchell, J; Talbot, K

    2017-09-01

    SMA is a rare hereditary neuromuscular disease that causes weakness and muscle wasting as a result of the loss of spinal motor neurons. In its most severe form, SMA is the commonest genetic cause of death in infants, and children with less severe forms of SMA face the prospect of lifelong disability from progressive muscle wasting, loss of mobility and limb weakness. The initial discovery of the defective gene has been followed by major advances in our understanding of the genetic, cellular and molecular basis of SMA, providing the foundation for a range of approaches to treatment, including gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide treatments and more traditional drug-based approaches to slow or halt disease progression. The approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of Spinraza (nusinersen), the first targeted treatment for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is a historic moment. Disease-focused research charities, such as The SMA Trust (UK), continue to have a crucial role in promoting the development of additional treatments for SMA, both by funding translational research and by promoting links between researchers, people living with SMA and other stakeholders, including pharmaceutical companies and healthcare providers.

  16. Successful research recruitment strategies in a study focused on abused rural women at risk for sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa A; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the successful recruitment methods of a study focused on a pilot intervention for rural women who were experiencing abuse and who also were at risk for sexually transmitted infections. Initial recruitment into the study was the primary challenge, and strategies to overcome recruitment difficulties are discussed. Eighty-seven women were screened, and 20 women were recruited from clinics into a 1-group pretest/posttest pilot study. The main inclusion criterion for the intervention was a past-year history of intimate partner violence (IPV). After 1 month of recruitment, only 10 women agreed to be screened for IPV. Several creative strategies were utilized in the revision of the recruitment plan, with the most successful being knitting by the research staff and incentives to participants for screening. An additional 77 women agreed to be screened for study participation within 3 months of implementing the recruitment changes. Personal involvement by the research staff and a nonthreatening and welcoming environment were necessary components for timely recruitment. Researcher flexibility and reevaluation allowed for changes to the recruitment plan that ultimately proved successful. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panari Chiara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.

  18. "Qualitative" Methods of Social Research in France: Reconstructing the Actor, Deconstructing the Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Angermüller

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution gives an overview of the numerous tendencies of open non-standardised social research in France. For various reasons, the label "qualitative" seems to be less distinctive than in the Anglo-Saxon world and Germany. While the interpretive-hermeneutic (verstehend ap­proa­ches have recently come to play a certain role as a result of international reception, a strong tradition that does not fit into the quantitative-qual­itative divide has to be noted: discourse analysis which I will label "quasi-qualitative". A comparison between the interpretive-hermeneutic tendencies of qual­itative sociology and the semiologically informed strands of discourse analysis reveals fundamental differences as well as points of convergence. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503194

  19. Woodbridge Research Facility Remedial investigation/feasibility study: Focused feasibility study for Operable Unit One. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, P.; Huber, K.; Hanson, K.; Stowers, J.; Ehlers, M.

    1997-11-01

    Operable Unit One (OU1) at the Woodbridge Research Facility (WRF) has been defined as the area encompassing AREEs 1 through 6B (former dumps) and AREE 7 (former Pistol Range). A Focused Feasibility Study,, has been conducted to identify and screen remedial alternatives for OU1, to address, contaminated groundwater, surface soil, subsurface soil, and sediment detected at AREEs associated with OU1. This report summarizes the history, current conditions, and environmental data. Human health and ecological risk assessments are presented. General response actions, technology types, and process options appropriate for the remediation of contaminated media are identified. Process options are screened and assembled into five alternatives. Each alternative is evaluated in detail using the nine criteria identified in the NCP (40 CFR 300.430(e)). The report concludes with a comparison, of the remedial options under consideration.

  20. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

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    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  1. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, J K; Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-02-17

    To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Qualitative focus group interview study. Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Online focus groups and qualitative research in the social sciences : their merits and limitations in a study of housing and youth

    OpenAIRE

    Moore,T. E.; McKee, K.; McLoughlin, P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the use of online focus groups as a method for conducting qualitative research in geography. Researchers have increasingly utilised online focus groups involving live, synchronous chat room interactions. However, to date there has been little insight and a lack of discussion as to the applicability of online focus groups in geography and the wider social sciences. Reflecting on a study of young people’s housing opportunities and financial welfare in the UK, this paper con...

  3. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  4. A Study on Environmental Research Trends Using Text-Mining Method - Focus on Spatial information and ICT -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. J.; Oh, K. Y.; Joung-ho, L.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there are many research about analysing the interaction between entities by text-mining analysis in various fields. In this paper, we aimed to quantitatively analyse research-trends in the area of environmental research relating either spatial information or ICT (Information and Communications Technology) by Text-mining analysis. To do this, we applied low-dimensional embedding method, clustering analysis, and association rule to find meaningful associative patterns of key words frequently appeared in the articles. As the authors suppose that KCI (Korea Citation Index) articles reflect academic demands, total 1228 KCI articles that have been published from 1996 to 2015 were reviewed and analysed by Text-mining method. First, we derived KCI articles from NDSL(National Discovery for Science Leaders) site. And then we pre-processed their key-words elected from abstract and then classified those in separable sectors. We investigated the appearance rates and association rule of key-words for articles in the two fields: spatial-information and ICT. In order to detect historic trends, analysis was conducted separately for the four periods: 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. These analysis were conducted with the usage of R-software. As a result, we conformed that environmental research relating spatial information mainly focused upon such fields as `GIS(35%)', `Remote-Sensing(25%)', `environmental theme map(15.7%)'. Next, `ICT technology(23.6%)', `ICT service(5.4%)', `mobile(24%)', `big data(10%)', `AI(7%)' are primarily emerging from environmental research relating ICT. Thus, from the analysis results, this paper asserts that research trends and academic progresses are well-structured to review recent spatial information and ICT technology and the outcomes of the analysis can be an adequate guidelines to establish environment policies and strategies. KEY WORDS: Big data, Test-mining, Environmental research, Spatial-information, ICT Acknowledgements: The

  5. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  6. Geospatial cryptography: enabling researchers to access private, spatially referenced, human subjects data for cancer control and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Essex, Aleksander; Curtis, Andrew; Kohler, Betsy; Sherman, Recinda; Emam, Khaled El; Shi, Chen; Kaufmann, Andy; Beale, Linda; Cusick, Thomas; Goldberg, Daniel; Goovaerts, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    As the volume, accuracy and precision of digital geographic information have increased, concerns regarding individual privacy and confidentiality have come to the forefront. Not only do these challenge a basic tenet underlying the advancement of science by posing substantial obstacles to the sharing of data to validate research results, but they are obstacles to conducting certain research projects in the first place. Geospatial cryptography involves the specification, design, implementation and application of cryptographic techniques to address privacy, confidentiality and security concerns for geographically referenced data. This article defines geospatial cryptography and demonstrates its application in cancer control and surveillance. Four use cases are considered: (1) national-level de-duplication among state or province-based cancer registries; (2) sharing of confidential data across cancer registries to support case aggregation across administrative geographies; (3) secure data linkage; and (4) cancer cluster investigation and surveillance. A secure multi-party system for geospatial cryptography is developed. Solutions under geospatial cryptography are presented and computation time is calculated. As services provided by cancer registries to the research community, de-duplication, case aggregation across administrative geographies and secure data linkage are often time-consuming and in some instances precluded by confidentiality and security concerns. Geospatial cryptography provides secure solutions that hold significant promise for addressing these concerns and for accelerating the pace of research with human subjects data residing in our nation's cancer registries. Pursuit of the research directions posed herein conceivably would lead to a geospatially encrypted geographic information system (GEGIS) designed specifically to promote the sharing and spatial analysis of confidential data. Geospatial cryptography holds substantial promise for accelerating the

  7. Subjective Experiences of the Benefits and Key Elements of a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention Focused on Community Work Outcomes in Persons With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Strasburger, Amy M; Salyers, Michelle P; Rattray, Nicholas A; Lysaker, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    New research suggests that group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may help improve employment outcomes in persons with mental illness, yet the effects and potential key elements facilitating change in such interventions are unclear. Using a mixed methods approach, this study examined the perspectives of persons with mental illness after participating in a pilot study of the "CBT for Work Success" intervention. Findings demonstrate that participants valued the intervention and perceived that it assisted them in achieving work goals. Therapeutic effects included improved self-efficacy, work motivation, enhanced sense of self as workers, and increased beliefs that work success is attainable. CBT for Work Success elements perceived to be important in facilitating work goals included cognitive restructuring, behavioral coping strategies, problem solving work barriers, meaningful reflection on oneself as a worker, and important factors associated with the group process. The authors discuss the implications of these findings and future research directions.

  8. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    skin or the disease pathology. This work provides a complete overview of the different available in vitro psoriasis models and suggests improvements for future models. Moreover, a focus was given to psoriatic skin equivalent models, as they offer several advantages over the other models, including commercial availability and validity. The potential and reported applicability of these models in psoriasis pre-clinical research is extensively discussed. As such, this work offers a guide to researchers in their choice of pre-clinical psoriasis model depending on their type of research question.

  9. Terapia focada em esquemas: conceituação e pesquisas Therapy focused on schemes: conceptualization and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton José Cazassa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O presente estudo buscou mapear as pesquisas realizadas acerca da Terapia Focada em Esquemas e sobre o Questionário de Esquemas de Young. OBJETIVOS: Os principais objetivos desta revisão de literatura foram apresentar trabalhos conduzidos na abordagem, avaliar o Questionário de Esquemas de Young e identificar os centros de pesquisa mais envolvidos na produção científica neste modelo. MÉTODOS: A metodologia utilizada envolveu a revisão bibliográfica de artigos publicados em bases de dados no período de 1998 a 2007. Os descritores utilizados foram "Young Schema Questionnaire", "YSQ", "Schema Questionnaire", "Questionário de Esquemas" e "Terapia Focada em Esquemas". Nove artigos foram selecionados por terem estabelecido o foco na abordagem dos esquemas. RESULTADOS: Foi possível observar que os centros de pesquisas acerca dessa temática encontram-se espalhados em quatro dos cinco continentes - América, Europa, Ásia e Oceania. As propriedades psicométricas foram significantes quanto à consistência interna da escala e no que tange ao poder de discriminação, considerando-se as diferenças entre grupos clínicos e não-clínicos. CONCLUSÕES: De modo geral, os resultados relacionados ao Questionário de Esquemas de Young demonstraram ser este um importante instrumento disponível ao profissional da saúde mental para a utilização clínica ou no âmbito da pesquisa científica.BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to review the studies conducted on the Therapy Focused on Schemes and on the Young Schema Questionnaire. OBJECTIVES: To find out the recent studies, to evaluate the Young Schema Questionnaire and identify the research centers more involved in scientific production related to this model. METHODS: The articles published in databases during/from the period of 1998 to 2007 were reviewed. The keywords used were "Young Schema Questionnaire", "YSQ", "Schema Questionnaire", "Survey of Schemes" and "Focused on

  10. The use of focus groups to investigate sensitive topics: an example taken from research on adolescent girls' perceptions about sexual risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dora Lucia de

    2011-07-01

    The methodology of focus groups has been increasingly employed in the context of research in the social sciences, particularly in health-related inquiries. Considerations about the sensitive aspects of such research are not, however, very often seen in research reports or discussion on ways of conducting sensitive research. The scope of this paper is to share an experience of conducting focus group research on sensitive topics, such as AIDS, risk and sexual issues, highlighting some methodological issues. More specifically, it suggests ways of working with teenage girls in focus groups about sensitive topics. The advantages of the use of focus groups to explore views on HIV/AIDS and other sexual risks are also discussed. Socio-cultural approaches to risk and feminist thinking permeate the main arguments.

  11. The Fiction of Respect Individual Autonomy as a Kind Of Clínical Research Human Subject Explotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petersen Nascimento Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article promotes a discussion of western legal concept which sees individuals as subjects of rights, discussing the advisability of such a formulation in the context of clinical trials in humans, since the commonly borderline situation of vulnerability in which they are volunteers who submit to such procedures. For this purpose, it was used as a theoretical framework to work "Critical Introduction to Law" Michel Mialle, in which the author states in a forceful way that the construction of the legal institute of the "subject of law" and the imposition of unrestricted recognition of individual autonomy constitute a construction of the bourgeois state to facilitate the domination of vulnerable, so that this, although not legally obliged to practice certain behaviors, see forced by circumstances to act in line with the interests of that institution. It is argued, therefore, that autonomy to consent to participation in scientific trials must be assessed in each case, with special attention to circumstances which might vulnerabilizar voluntary research and mitigate their individual autonomy in the face of the experiments, under penalty to be subjecting the individual to harmful procedures to their lives and health for the benefit of capital society's interests.

  12. A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoquit, Muriah J; Tso, Peggy; Burchett, Helen E D; Dobrow, Mark J

    2011-01-27

    In research, diagrams are most commonly used in the analysis of data and visual presentation of results. However there has been a substantial growth in the use of diagrams in earlier stages of the research process to collect data. Despite this growth, guidance on this technique is often isolated within disciplines. A multidisciplinary systematic review was performed, which included 13 traditional healthcare and non-health-focused indexes, non-indexed searches and contacting experts in the field. English-language articles that used diagrams as a data collection tool and reflected on the process were included in the review, with no restriction on publication date. The search identified 2690 documents, of which 80 were included in the final analysis. The choice to use diagrams for data collection is often determined by requirements of the research topic, such as the need to understand research subjects' knowledge or cognitive structure, to overcome cultural and linguistic differences, or to understand highly complex subject matter. How diagrams were used for data collection varied by the degrees of instruction for, and freedom in, diagram creation, the number of diagrams created or edited and the use of diagrams in conjunction with other data collection methods. Depending on how data collection is structured, a variety of options for qualitative and quantitative analysis are available to the researcher. The review identified a number of benefits to using diagrams in data collection, including the ease with which the method can be adapted to complement other data collection methods and its ability to focus discussion. However it is clear that the benefits and challenges of diagramming depend on the nature of its application and the type of diagrams used. The results of this multidisciplinary systematic review examine the application of diagrams in data collection and the methods for analyzing the unique datasets elicited. Three recommendations are presented. Firstly

  13. A multidisciplinary systematic review of the use of diagrams as a means of collecting data from research subjects: application, benefits and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burchett Helen ED

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In research, diagrams are most commonly used in the analysis of data and visual presentation of results. However there has been a substantial growth in the use of diagrams in earlier stages of the research process to collect data. Despite this growth, guidance on this technique is often isolated within disciplines. Methods A multidisciplinary systematic review was performed, which included 13 traditional healthcare and non-health-focused indexes, non-indexed searches and contacting experts in the field. English-language articles that used diagrams as a data collection tool and reflected on the process were included in the review, with no restriction on publication date. Results The search identified 2690 documents, of which 80 were included in the final analysis. The choice to use diagrams for data collection is often determined by requirements of the research topic, such as the need to understand research subjects' knowledge or cognitive structure, to overcome cultural and linguistic differences, or to understand highly complex subject matter. How diagrams were used for data collection varied by the degrees of instruction for, and freedom in, diagram creation, the number of diagrams created or edited and the use of diagrams in conjunction with other data collection methods. Depending on how data collection is structured, a variety of options for qualitative and quantitative analysis are available to the researcher. The review identified a number of benefits to using diagrams in data collection, including the ease with which the method can be adapted to complement other data collection methods and its ability to focus discussion. However it is clear that the benefits and challenges of diagramming depend on the nature of its application and the type of diagrams used. Discussion/Conclusion The results of this multidisciplinary systematic review examine the application of diagrams in data collection and the methods for analyzing

  14. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-Involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Judith D; Smith, Laramie R

    2015-06-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date, relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use and risks associated with sexual activity in which power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other factors. As such, HIV risk for SIW resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political—in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk, and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemic approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW.

  15. Subjective Cognitive Decline in Older Adults: An Overview of Self-Report Measures Used Across 19 International Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Laura A.; Smart, Colette M.; Crane, Paul K.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Berman, Lorin M.; Boada, Mercè; Buckley, Rachel F.; Chételat, Gaël; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Jessen, Frank; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Richard B.; Luck, Tobias; Maruff, Paul; Mielke, Michelle M.; Molinuevo, José Luis; Naeem, Farnia; Perrotin, Audrey; Petersen, Ronald C.; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Rentz, Dorene M.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Rodriguez, Octavio; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Slavin, Melissa J.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Tandetnik, Caroline; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Sikkes, Sietske A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research increasingly suggests that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in older adults, in the absence of objective cognitive dysfunction or depression, may be a harbinger of non-normative cognitive decline and eventual progression to dementia. Little is known, however, about the key features of self-report measures currently used to assess SCD. The Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) Working Group is an international consortium established to develop a conceptual framework and research criteria for SCD (Jessen et al., 2014, Alzheimers Dement 10, 844–852). In the current study we systematically compared cognitive self-report items used by 19 SCD-I Working Group studies, representing 8 countries and 5 languages. We identified 34 self-report measures comprising 640 cognitive self-report items. There was little overlap among measures—approximately 75% of measures were used by only one study. Wide variation existed in response options and item content. Items pertaining to the memory domain predominated, accounting for about 60% of items surveyed, followed by executive function and attention, with 16% and 11% of the items, respectively. Items relating to memory for the names of people and the placement of common objects were represented on the greatest percentage of measures (56% each). Working group members reported that instrument selection decisions were often based on practical considerations beyond the study of SCD specifically, such as availability and brevity of measures. Results document the heterogeneity of approaches across studies to the emerging construct of SCD. We offer preliminary recommendations for instrument selection and future research directions including identifying items and measure formats associated with important clinical outcomes. PMID:26402085

  16. Original article Agentic and communal narcissism and subjective well-being: are narcissistic individuals unhappy? A research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Żemojtel-Piotrowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The communal/agentic model of narcissism is well accepted in the current research literature (Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken & Maio, 2012. This model could be particularly useful in examining the relation between narcissism and hedonistic and eudaimonic subjective well-being (SWB; Deci & Ryan, 2008. Participants and procedure In an effort to examine the relationship between narcissism and SWB, correlational analyses of survey responses obtained from students (n = 138 were conducted. Agentic narcissism was measured using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988 and communal narcissism by the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer et al., 2012. Subjective well-being measures included the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985, Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tegellen, 1988, and the Social Well-being Scale (SWBS; Keyes, 1998. Self-esteem was included in the study in order to examine the potential mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between narcissism and subjective well-being. Results Agentic narcissism was positively related to the affective component of SWB whereas communal narcissism was positively related to the cognitive component of SWB. Both forms of narcissism were positively related to social well-being. All relationships were mediated by the participant’s self-esteem level. Conclusions The results indicate that both agentic narcissism and communal narcissism are positively related to SWB. The results are discussed in the context of the agentic/communal model of narcissism (Gebauer et al., 2012 and hedonistic/eudaimonic well-being (Deci & Ryan, 2008.

  17. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  18. Clinical research, comparison of the subjective visual function in patients with epiphora and patients with second-eye cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafil-Hussain, Namir; Khooshebah, Ramona

    2005-03-01

    To assess the subjective visual disability of patients with epiphora and to compare the results with that of patients waiting for second eye cataract surgery. A prospective, randomised, questionnaire-based study. Forty-six patients with epiphora listed for dacryocystorhinostomy and 50 patients having second eye cataract extraction were enrolled. A questionnaire focusing on functional visual disability in daily life and based on VF-14 was completed for each participant. Eighty-six percent of patients with epiphora and 41% of second-eye cataracts had difficulty reading small print (P vs. 42%) (P watching television (63.1% vs. 19%) (P vs. 10%) (P reading signs (39.1% vs. 4%) (P < 0.05), respectively. There is widespread recognition of the effect of cataract on visual function. This has resulted in substantial government funding to improve access to cataract surgery. In comparison, epiphora is rarely considered as a significant cause of visual disability. This study suggests that patients with epiphora suffer the same if not more of a visual handicap than patients awaiting second eye cataract surgery.

  19. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  20. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdink, J.K.; Schipper, K.; Bouter, L.M.; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J.; Smulders, Y.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design: Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting: Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants: Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD,

  1. Focus on CSIR research in pollution waste: South African national spatial biodiversity assessment 2004 (Technical report volume 2: river component)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This report forms the river component of the National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment, which focuses on spatial conservation assessments for South Africa’s terrestrial, river, marine, estuarine and wetland ecosystems. The results presented form...

  2. A focus on the state of the art of food waste/losses issue and suggestions for future researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muriana, Cinzia

    2017-10-01

    Today, the role of the supply chain (SC) strategies in Food-Waste/Losses (F-W/L) generation is neglected, because F-W/L are generally considered an unavoidable consequence of accidental events. Therefore, only operating plans are today put into practice, which aim at reducing the impact of product losses along the SC. This involves that structured analyses and strategic SC approaches are not available for the prevention/minimization of F-W/L. The paper aims at changing the perspective, and promoting the hypothesis that generation of F-W/L mainly depends on the SC strategies put into practice that are usually optimized on the basis of the market demand. The paper considers the F-W/L an intrinsic characteristic of the SC, which must be put in relation with the market demand and the shelf life of products, for given boundary conditions (legal constraints, politic decisions, climatic and micro macro-economic factors). Thus, the paper aims at reviewing the state of the art of the F-W/L issue, and proposing new research topics in the field of the prevention and minimization of F-W/L, by focusing on: (i) the forecasting of F-W/L, the implementation of adaptive-holistic approaches that model the non-stationary and holistic behaviour of the phenomenon; (ii) the determination of analytical conditions that entail the generation of F-W/L, in relation to the implementation of specific SC strategies; (iii) the study of mathematical models for the assessment of the shelf life, and the evaluation of innovative technologies, which enable the shelf life monitoring; (iv) the study of new shelf life-dependent demand models based on the consumer-utility theory; (v) the redesign of the logistic SC management models, by proposing new SC coordination models, planning and replenishment strategies, and pricing models, for the prevention/minimization of the predictable component of F-W/L; (vi) the design of new risk assessment plans for the management of the accidental component of F

  3. Subjectivities in Research in Science Education presented at the National Symposium of Physics Education of the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Choiti Yamazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in a public university in the country, which aimed to identify the presence elements ordinarily related to subjective phenomena, in the works published in National Symposium of Physics Education, an event that provides meeting between teachers, researchers and students from around the country. The elements to which we have referred are found in contemporary didactic and pedagogical proposals, because it is identified that purely cognitive or even cultural rights are not sufficient to understand the phenomena that happen in the classroom, or more broadly, in education as a whole. The analysis contemplated the publications of the past 3 symposia, and the results infer a small increase of citations of these elements. However, this growth must be questioned because the quotes are made in isolation, not being taken to support the analysis of the authors. In addition, this research also shows that the presence of these elements is very small compared with the total number of papers published in the events.

  4. BASE (Broadening Access to Science Education): A Research and Mentoring Focused Summer STEM Camp Serving Underrepresented High School Girls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shelley A Phelan; Shannon M Harding; Amanda S Harper-Leatherman

    2017-01-01

    .... The camp, which is free to students, includes three components. The first is the week-long Research Immersion Experience, which engages students in faculty-mentored science research projects assisted by current undergraduate STEM majors...

  5. Beyond a Dichotomous View of the Concepts of ‘Sex’ and ‘Gender’ Focus Group Discussions among Gender Researchers at a Medical Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Alex; Anncristine Fjellman Wiklund; Berit Lundman; Monica Christianson; Anne Hammarström

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are both of vital importance in medicine and health sciences. However, the meaning of these concepts has seldom been discussed in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to explore what the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' meant for gender researchers based in a medical faculty. Methods: Sixteen researchers took part in focus group discussions. The analysis was performed in several steps. The participating researchers read the text and ...

  6. A Teaching Strategy with a Focus on Argumentation to Improve Undergraduate Students' Ability to Read Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lacum, Edwin B.; Ossevoort, Miriam A.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate a teaching strategy designed to teach first-year undergraduate life sciences students at a research university how to learn to read authentic research articles. Our approach--based on the work done in the field of genre analysis and argumentation theory--means that we teach students to read research articles by…

  7. Subject description of non-fiction literature for adults: expert-theoretical basis for the realisation of the »Hidden Treasure« research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogorelec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Library users searching through non-fiction library material by subject in online OPACs, expect to be able to search fiction by subject as well. The research project Skriti zaklad (Hidden Treasure was launched in 2002 and was aimed at improving the current subject description of non-juvenile literary works in Slovenian libraries. An overview of the current practice of fiction subject description in Slovenian libraries revealed that Universal Decimal Classification class numbers are usually assigned, while subject headings or abstracts are scarce. The article presents a model designed for subject description of fiction, with special emphasis on subject headings, for the Bežigrad High School Library and the Bežigrad Public Library (both in Ljubljana.

  8. A Quantitative Synthesis of Methodology in the Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject Research for Students with Disabilities: 1985-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggin, Daniel M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Johnson, Austin H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the methods used to conduct meta-analyses of single-subject research involving students with and at-risk for disabilities. Specifically, the procedures used for preparing, aggregating, analyzing, and evaluating single-subject data across 68 primary syntheses were examined. In addition to these…

  9. Threshold Concepts as a Focus for Metalearning Activity: Application of a Research-Developed Mechanism in Undergraduate Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jan H. F.; Knight, David B.; Callaghan, David P.; Baldock, Tom E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of metalearning capacity in the learning of a "threshold concept"--capacity of transformative significance relative to metalearning in the general response context of a discipline or subject. The development of metalearning capacity is framed within a protocol that invites students to self-construct…

  10. Suicide in a clinical and a general population, with focus on comorbidity. Studies from the Lund Suicide Research Center and the Lundby Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstrand, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify possible suicide risk factors in a clinical sample and suicide risk in a general population, with primary focus on mental disorders, signs, symptoms and comorbidity. Methods: In the first two studies, subjects who had been admitted to a specialised psychiatric ward after a suicide attempt were investigated. Fifteen suicide completers were compared to matched survivors in terms of comorbidity and symptom ratings at index, as well as subsequent psychiatric morbidity, psyc...

  11. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  12. Student teaching and research laboratory focusing on brain-computer interface paradigms--A creative environment for computer science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Tomasz M

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an applied concept of a brain-computer interface (BCI) student research laboratory (BCI-LAB) at the Life Science Center of TARA, University of Tsukuba, Japan. Several successful case studies of the student projects are reviewed together with the BCI Research Award 2014 winner case. The BCI-LAB design and project-based teaching philosophy is also explained. Future teaching and research directions summarize the review.

  13. Gaps between research and public health priorities in low income countries: evidence from a systematic literature review focused on Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyet, Sophie; Touch, Socheat; Ir, Por; SamAn, Sovannchhorvin; Fassier, Thomas; Frutos, Roger; Tarantola, Arnaud; Barennes, Hubert

    2015-03-11

    Evidence-based public health requires that research provides policymakers with reliable and accessible information reflecting the disease threats. We described the scientific production of research in Cambodia and assessed to what extent it provides appropriate insights and implications for practice to guide health policymakers and managers and knowledge relevant for translation. We conducted a systematic review of scientific articles published on biomedical research in Cambodia. Regression analysis assessed the trends over time and factors associated with actionable messages in the articles' abstracts. From 2000 to 2012, 628 articles were published in 237 journals with a significant increase over time (from 0.6/million population to 5.9/million population, slope coefficient 7.6, 95% CI 6.5-8.7, p Cambodia. Factors associated with an actionable message (n = 73, 26.6%) were maternal health (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.55-6.13, p = 0.001), the first author's institution being Cambodian (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.06-2.98, p = 0.02) and a free access to full article (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.08-8.70, p = 0.03). Of all articles, 87% (n = 546) were accessible in full text from Cambodia. Scientific publications do not fully match with health priorities. Gaps remain regarding NCD, implementation studies, and health system research. A health research agenda would help align research with health priorities. We recommend 1) that the health authorities create an online repository of research findings with abstracts in the local language; 2) that academics emphasize the importance of research in their university teaching; and 3) that the researcher teams involve local researchers and that they systematically provide a translation of their abstracts upon submission to a journal. We conclude that building the bridge between research and public health requires a willful, comprehensive strategy rather than relying solely only publications.

  14. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain - a prospective single-subject research design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibsgård, Thomas J; Røise, Olav; Stuge, Britt

    2014-03-15

    The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage.

  15. Pelvic joint fusion in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain – a prospective single-subject research design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The fusion of the pelvic joints in patients with severe pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a controversial and insufficiently studied procedure. The aims of this study were to evaluate physical function and pain after sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion. Methods A single-subject research design study with repeated measurements was conducted; pre-operatively and at 3, 6 and 12 months post-operatively. The outcome measures considered were the Oswestry disability index (ODI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and SF-36. Eight patients with severe PGP received open-accessed unilateral anterior SIJ fusion and fusion of the pubic symphysis. Results Seven patients reported positive results from the surgery. At 1 year post-operation, significant (p < 0.001) reductions in ODI (54 to 37) and VAS (82 to 57) were reported. The physical functioning, bodily pain, and social functioning scores in the SF-36 were also improved. Conclusion Positive and significant changes in disability and pain at 1 year after SIJ fusion were observed. Despite these positive results, open accessed anterior fusion of the SIJ was associated with adverse events and complications such as infection and nerve damage. PMID:24629145

  16. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  17. The Role and the Evaluation of Ohio's Elementary Principals: Does It Focus on Leadership Effectiveness? A Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Linda

    A survey of all Ohio school districts sought to determine whether school boards expect their elementary principals to do what research says principals should do and whether they evaluate elementary principals on the basis of effective school leadership criteria. The research also tested the districts' compliance with Ohio's House Bill 769,…

  18. Opening up Learning Theory to Social Theory in Research on Sport and Physical Education through a Focus on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research on pedagogy in physical education and sport has increasingly been informed by contemporary learning theory with the socio-cultural perspective being prominent. Over a similar period research on the social dimensions of physical education and youth sport has drawn on a range of social theory yet there has been little systematic…

  19. An Output Perspective on the Teaching-Research Nexus: An Analysis Focusing on the United States Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Hugo; Dautel, Vincent; Veloso, Francisco M.

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study demonstrates that teaching and research can be leveraged synergistically and contribute to research outputs. In particular, it is critical to consider the nature of the learning environment associated with the teaching effort. First, by distinguishing between graduate and undergraduate education, the authors conclude that…

  20. An Experiential Research-Focused Approach: Implementation in a Nonlaboratory-Based Graduate-Level Analytical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Chee-Seng

    2007-01-01

    A project is described which incorporates nonlaboratory research skills in a graduate level course on analytical chemistry. This project will help students to grasp the basic principles and concepts of modern analytical techniques and also help them develop relevant research skills in analytical chemistry.

  1. Without 'Focus'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Sevi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that a notion of 'focus', more or less as conceived of in Jackendoff (1972, must be incorporated into our theory of grammar, as a means of accounting for certain observed correlations between prosodic facts and semantic/pragmatic facts. In this paper, we put forth the somewhat radical idea that the time has come to give up this customary view, and eliminate 'focus' from our theory of grammar. We argue that such a move is both economical and fruitful.Research over the years has revealed that the correlations between prosody, 'focus', and the alleged semantic/pragmatic effects of focus are much less clear and systematic than we may have initially hoped. First we argue that this state of affairs detracts significantly from the utility of our notion of 'focus', to the point of calling into question the very motivation for including it in the grammar. Then we look at some of the central data, and show how they might be analyzed without recourse to a notion of 'focus'. We concentrate on (i the effect of pitch accent placement on discourse congruence, and (ii the choice of 'associate' for the so-called 'focus sensitive' adverb only. We argue that our focus-free approach to the data improves empirical coverage, and begins to reveal patterns that have previously been obscured by preconceptions about 'focus'.ReferencesBeaver, D. & Clark, B. 2008. Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell.Beaver, D., Clark, B., Flemming, E., Jaeger, T. F. & Wolters, M. 2007. ‘When semantics meets phonetics: Acoustical studies of second occurrence focus’. Language 83.2: 245–76.http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lan.2007.0053Beckman, M. & Hirschberg, J. 1994. ‘The ToBI Annotation Conventions’. Ms.,http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~julia/files/conv.pdf.Bolinger, D. 1972. ‘Accent is predictable (if you are a mind-reader’. Language 48.3: 633–44.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/412039Büring, D. 2006. ‘Focus projection and default

  2. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations. PMID:27013930

  3. Research on aspheric focusing lens processing and testing technology in the high-energy laser test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Fu, Xiu-hua; Jia, Zong-he; Wang, Zhe; Dong, Huan

    2014-08-01

    In the high-energy laser test system, surface profile and finish of the optical element are put forward higher request. Taking a focusing aspherical zerodur lens with a diameter of 100mm as example, using CNC and classical machining method of combining surface profile and surface quality of the lens were investigated. Taking profilometer and high power microscope measurement results as a guide, by testing and simulation analysis, process parameters were improved constantly in the process of manufacturing. Mid and high frequency error were trimmed and improved so that the surface form gradually converged to the required accuracy. The experimental results show that the final accuracy of the surface is less than 0.5μm and the surface finish is □, which fulfils the accuracy requirement of aspherical focusing lens in optical system.

  4. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN MULTI-SITE, MULTI-ETHNIC RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH: A STUDY OF WOMEN ACROSS THE NATION (SWAN) EXAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus. PMID:19769020

  5. Use of focus groups in multi-site, multi-ethnic research projects for women's health: a Study of Women Across the Nation (swan) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R; Mouton, Charles E; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G

    2009-01-01

    To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multisite, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Community women from each ethnic group of color. A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus.

  6. Focus on People and the Science Will Follow: Motivating Forces for Professional Movement in Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K J; Longstaff, H; Scott, C T; Illes, J

    2015-08-01

    The migration of researchers across geographic borders, or "brain drain" as it is commonly called, remains an important issue for governments around the world as loss or gain of highly qualified personnel in research can have substantial social, economic and political consequences. In the present study we seek to examine the forces that drive international professional migration of stem cell (SC) researchers, for which variation of SC policy in different jurisdictions has previously been implicated as a driving force. Structured interviews were carried out with a purposive sample of SC researchers in the professoriate who had made international moves after postdoctoral work between the years 2001-2014, or were actively anticipating a future move. Participants were asked to rank motivators of international movement on a 5-point Likert scale and prompted to elaborate on their answers. The results suggest that career considerations, availability of research funding, and personal considerations are of high importance to the participants when considering an international move, while the permissiveness or restrictiveness SC research policy is of comparably lower importance. Participants also expressed that international movements are beneficial to scientific careers overall. The findings have important implications for policy and strategies to attract and retain members of the SC research community.

  7. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Huihui Liu; Xiaohong Zhang; Rui Chang; Weining Wang

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The paper aims to explore the status of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being and to investigate the relationship among the three elements. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 224 nurses from five teaching hospitals in Tianjin, China, was conducted. Self-esteem scale, job satisfaction scale, and subjective well-being scale were used to explore the status of ICU nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being....

  8. Role of Focus-on-Form Instruction, Corrective Feedback and Uptake in Second Language Classrooms: Some Insights from Recent Second Language Acquisition Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afitska, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on focus-on-form instruction, corrective feedback and uptake have been carried out in the field of second language acquisition (SLA) research over the last two decades. These studies have investigated the above-mentioned concepts from different perspectives, in a number of different contexts and in a number of…

  9. Electromagnetic fields: activities in the European Commission with a focus on research projects and the Scientific Committee of Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Donata; Schreck, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The article summarizes the main activities of the European Commission concerning electromagnetic fields. It explains also the regulatory context, with a special focus on past and current research projects funded by the European Union and the role of the SCENIHR in assessing risks related to EMF. Main conclusions of the SCENIHR opinion adopted in 2015 on EMF are reported.

  10. A research regarding the relationship among intensive care nurses' self-esteem, job satisfaction and subjective well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of subjective well-being and self-esteem with ICU nurses are at a low level, and job satisfaction is at the median level. Associations among self-esteem, job satisfaction, and subjective well-being in ICUs have been confirmed. Self-esteem and job satisfaction positively correlated with nurse subjective well-being. The higher the self-esteem and job satisfaction levels are, the stronger the subjective well-being is. The working pressure in ICUs cannot be alleviated temporarily; hence, to promote a high subjective well-being, managers and ICU nurses increase their self-esteem and job satisfaction through taking strategies that strengthen psychological construction.

  11. Introduction to deep sequencing and its application to drug addiction research with a focus on rare variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaolin; Yang, Zhongli; Ma, Jennie Z; Payne, Thomas J; Li, Ming D

    2014-02-01

    Through linkage analysis, candidate gene approach, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), many genetic susceptibility factors for substance dependence have been discovered such as the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2) for alcohol dependence (AD) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit variants on chromosomes 8 and 15 for nicotine dependence (ND). However, these confirmed genetic factors contribute only a small portion of the heritability responsible for each addiction. Among many potential factors, rare variants in those identified and unidentified susceptibility genes are supposed to contribute greatly to the missing heritability. Several studies focusing on rare variants have been conducted by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technologies, which revealed that some rare variants of nAChR subunits are associated with ND in both genetic and functional studies. However, these studies investigated variants for only a small number of genes and need to be expanded to broad regions/genes in a larger population. This review presents an update on recently developed methods for rare-variant identification and association analysis and on studies focused on rare-variant discovery and function related to addictions.

  12. The contribution of mixed methods research to the field of childhood trauma: a narrative review focused on data integration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.; Slagt, M.; Wesel, F. van

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or “yield”). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  13. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review focused on Data Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeije, H.R.; Slagt, M.I.; van Wesel, F.

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving

  14. A Survey of Educational Research in the Second Decade of South Africa's Democracy: A Focus on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Grange, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I survey educational research conducted in South Africa based on articles published in the "South African Journal of Education" ("SAJHE") over the past five years. The themes that feature prominently in "SAJHE" over the past five years are: "Africanisation and indigenous knowledge,"…

  15. The Educational Attainment of Chicago Public Schools Students: A Focus on Four-Year College Degrees. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kaleen; Nagaoka, Jenny; Michelman, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    A four-year college degree increases a student's employment prospects and earning potential. Given this importance, it is not surprising that 75 percent of Chicago Public Schools (CPS) high school students aspire to obtain at least a four-year college degree. Yet, prior research showed that few achieved this goal: a 2006 University of Chicago…

  16. Left Brain/Right Brain: Research and Learning. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppele, Ruth

    This 27-item bibliography represents the variety of articles added to the ERIC database from 1983 through 1988 on left-brain/right-brain research, theory, and application as it relates to classroom incorporation. Included are conflicting opinions as to the usefulness of left-brain/right-brain studies and their application in the learning…

  17. An Initial Model for Generative Design Research: Bringing Together Generative Focus Group (GFG) and Experience Reflection Modelling (ERM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirlioglu, Yekta; Ogur, Dilruba; Dogan, Cagla; Turhan, Senem

    2016-01-01

    Understanding people's experiences and the context of use of a product at the earliest stages of the design process has in the last decade become an important aspect of both the design profession and design education. Generative design research helps designers understand user experiences, while also throwing light on their current needs,…

  18. Qualitative to Quantitative and Spectrum to Report: An Instrument-Focused Research Methods Course for First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alyssa C.; Boucher, Michelle A.; Pulliam, Curtis R.

    2015-01-01

    Our Introduction to Research Methods course is a first-year majors course built around the idea of helping students learn to work like chemists, write like chemists, and think like chemists. We have developed this course as a hybrid hands-on/ lecture experience built around instrumentation use and report preparation. We take the product from one…

  19. A New Focus for Institutional Researchers: Developing and Using a Student Decision Support System. AIR 1998 Annual Forum Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jacqueline; Dalrymple, Margaret; Wang, Mindy

    Institutional researchers play a key role in an environment where data warehouses are used to store and retrieve vast amounts of data. Along with the benefits of increased access for more users, improved reporting capabilities, and less reliance on centralized information, come questions of appropriate data usage, data access and security,…

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Distributed Leadership from 2002 to 2013: Theory Development, Empirical Evidence and Future Research Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Risku, Mika; Collin, Kaija

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a meta-analysis of research conducted on distributed leadership from 2002 to 2013. It continues the review of distributed leadership commissioned by the English National College for School Leadership (NCSL) ("Distributed Leadership: A Desk Study," Bennett et al., 2003), which identified two gaps in the research…