WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject read stepfamilies

  1. Collection Development: Stepfamily Ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Douglas C.

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on resources for building successful stepfamilies and parenting children in stepfamily scenarios. While remarriage after divorce is the basis of most stepfamilies, divorced parenting differs from stepfamily parenting and is covered only peripherally in this article. Worthy stepparenting titles emphasize the singularity of…

  2. Studying Stepfamilies: Four Eras of Family Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn

    2017-07-23

    Historically, there have always been stepfamilies, but until the early 1970s, they remained largely unnoticed by social scientists. Research interest in stepfamilies followed shortly after divorce became the primary precursor to stepfamily formation. Because stepfamilies are structurally diverse and much more complex than nuclear families, they have created considerable challenges for both researchers and clinicians. This article examines four eras of stepfamily scholarship, tracing the development of research questions, study designs and methods, and conceptual frameworks from the mid-1970s to the present and drawing implications for the current state of the field. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  3. Stepfamilies in Denmark and France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toulemon, Laurent; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2006-01-01

    In both Denmark and France, the past decades have shown profound changes in the patterns of fertility as well as in family formation and family dissolution, with no related decline in overall fertility. Using very large data sets (380,000 respondents in the French survey, 1.3 million women...... in Danish Register data), we built synthetic indexes to show the frequency of stepfamilies in both countries. It is more frequent in Denmark than in France. We then analyse fertility of stepfamilies, compared to couples without any child born before the union, with controlling for age, duration of union...

  4. Pathways to stepfamily formation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing proportions of couples are making childbearing decisions in stepfamilies but there has been no general comparative picture across European countries on stepfamily formation. The present paper aims to fill this gap and provides a comparison of European countries using macro-level indicators that describe union formation and dissolution and childbearing. We use the individual-level data files (standard recode files of Fertility and Family Surveys from 19 European countries. Our results highlight the different pathways to a stepfamily in Europe, and show that in most European countries a considerable proportion of women form a stepfamily in childbearing ages, which needs to be considered in studies of fertility.

  5. Stepfamily Communication Strengths: Understanding the Ties That Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golish, Tamara D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the communication strategies that differentiate "strong" stepfamilies from stepfamilies having more difficulty, inductively deriving a composite of stepfamily "communication strengths." Finds that in general, strong stepfamilies reported using everyday talk, more openness, spending time together as a family, communicating clear rules and…

  6. Stepfamilies Doing Family: A Meta-Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyser, Charlotte; Buysse, Ann; Loeys, Tom

    2017-04-27

    The present review examines how stepfamily members without a shared history co-construct a shared family identity and what family processes are relevant in this stepfamily formation. Three databases (Web of Science, PsycInfo, and ProQuest) were systematically searched, resulting in 20 included qualitative studies. The meta-ethnography approach of Noblit and Hare allowed synthesizing these qualitative studies and constructing a comprehensive framework of stepfamilies doing family. Three interdependent family tasks were identified: (a) honoring the past, (b) marking the present, and (c) investing in the future. Stepfamily members' experiences of these family tasks are strongly affected by the dominant societal perspectives and characterized by an underlying dialectical tension between wanting to be like a first-time family and feeling the differences in their family structure at the same time. These findings clearly demonstrate the family work that all stepfamily members undertake and provide a broader context for interpreting stepfamilies' co-construction of a new family identity. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  7. Impact of stepfamilies on teenagers’ motivation and needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іван Вікторович Пустовалов

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of empirical research the author analyzes the effects of stepfamilies on teenagers’ needs and motivation. Much attention is paid to the problems faced by stepfamilies. The majority of stepfamily teenagers have been found to have a strong need for respect of the adults rather than of their peers

  8. Parenting style and practices in stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassoni C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Cassoni,1 Regina HL Caldana21Graduate School in Psychology, 2Department of Psychology and Education, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP BrazilAbstract: There are several studies on the best way to raise a child, ie, what would be the consequences of our actions for our children. We tend to think of how to educate children in a traditional family, but society has undergone many changes and, hence, family structures have undergone changes too. Today, we find a large number of stepfamilies facing the same issues concerning how to educate a child. Stepfamily configuration often entails more than just the addition of a new parent figure. The objective of this study was to shed some light on how these stepfamilies deal with issues of parenting style and practices. We reviewed the Brazilian and international literature concerning parenting styles and practices in stepfamilies. The papers identified were organized and submitted to analysis. We identified very few papers addressing parenting styles and practices, pointing to an important but unaddressed social change as reflected in new family structures. There is a need for longitudinal studies aimed at understanding not only a particular moment in time, but also moments within a context, ie, an analysis with a holistic approach without preconceived ideas.Keywords: parenting styles, parenting practices, stepfamilies

  9. Portrayals of Stepfamilies in Film: Using Media Images in Remarriage Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Kim; Angst, Erin

    2005-01-01

    Media portrayals of stepfamilies influence societal views of stepfamilies and individuals' expectations for remarriage and stepfamily life. This study examines portrayals of stepfamilies in films released in 1990 through 2003. Using content analysis to understand how stepfamilies are portrayed and to identify film clips appropriate for use in…

  10. Children's Perceptions of Marriage, Divorce, and Stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Elizabeth

    The typical approach to studying children's ideas about marriage and divorce is to ask children what they think about their parents' divorce and from their answers to calculate "divorce adjustment." This study used a different approach and asked about children's perceptions of marriage, divorce, and stepfamilies. It also studied if there are…

  11. Marital satisfaction and divorce in couples in stepfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLongis, Anita; Zwicker, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We review research and theory examining stress and coping in stepfamilies as predictors of marital quality and divorce. Although the divorce rate in first-marriages has stabilized after years of increase in North America, the divorce rate of remarriages continues to increase. We argue that depression and marital distress are both mechanisms through which stepfamily stress impacts marital stability, with parenting stressors particularly potent determinants of divorce. We draw upon our own research predicting divorce across 20 years in 112 married couples in stepfamilies, as well as from the larger literature on stepfamilies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Marital Quality for Men and Women in Stepfamilies: Examining the Role of Economic Pressure, Common Stressors, and Stepfamily-Specific Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David G.; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Although economic pressure and family stress models have been examined with samples of men and women in first marriages, previous models have neglected to focus on men and women in stepfamilies and to examine stress sources unique to stepfamilies. This study examines the effect of economic pressure on both common stressors and stepfamily-specific…

  13. Stepfamilies: The Intersection of Culture, Context, and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, James

    1999-01-01

    Discusses five areas concerning Heatherington et al.'s study: nature and nurture issues; deviance versus normative behavior in stepfamilies; context and meaning in different types of families; intersecting developmental trajectories; and gender differences. (JPB)

  14. Normal movement reading in Asperger subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avikainen, S; Kulomäki, T; Hari, R

    1999-11-26

    Patients with autism and Asperger syndrome (AS) are impaired in mindreading and imitation skills. One possibility would be that their 'mirror neuron' system, which matches action execution and observation, does not function properly. To test this hypothesis we compared action-viewing related motor cortex functions in an AS group (one autistic and four AS subjects) and eight control subjects. In both groups viewing hand actions modified the neuromagnetic approximately 20 Hz oscillatory activity in the primary motor cortex to the same extent. Thus impaired mindreading and imitation skills found in AS and autism do not seem to result from dysfunction of the motor cortex part of the action execution/observation system.

  15. Stepfamily Relationship Quality and Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Todd M; Lippold, Melissa A; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Fosco, Gregory M

    2017-03-07

    The stepfamily literature is replete with between-group analyses by which youth residing in stepfamilies are compared to youth in other family structures across indicators of adjustment and well-being. Few longitudinal studies examine variation in stepfamily functioning to identify factors that promote the positive adjustment of stepchildren over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 191 stepchildren (56% female, mean age = 11.3 years), the current study examines the association between the relationship quality of three central stepfamily dyads (stepparent-child, parent-child, and stepcouple) and children's internalizing and externalizing problems concurrently and over time. Results from path analyses indicate that higher levels of parent-child affective quality are associated with lower levels of children's concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1. Higher levels of stepparent-child affective quality are associated with decreases in children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 2 (6 months beyond baseline), even after controlling for children's internalizing and externalizing problems at Wave 1 and other covariates. The stepcouple relationship was not directly linked to youth outcomes. Our findings provide implications for future research and practice. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  16. Lip-reading abilities in a subject with congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathour, J; Decat, M; Vander Linden, F; Deggouj, N

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an individual with congenital prosopagnosia or "face blindness", a disorder where the ability to recognize faces is impaired. We studied the lip-reading ability and audiovisual perception of this subject using a DVD with four conditions (audiovisual congruent, auditory, visual, and audiovisual incongruent) and compared results with a normal patient cohort. The patient had no correct responses in the visual lip-reading task; whereas, he improved in the audiovisual congruent task. In the audiovisual incongruent task, the patient provided one response; thus, he was able to lip-read. (He was able to use lip-reading/to use labial informations) This patient perceived only global dynamic facial movements, not the fine ones. He had a sufficient complementary use of lip-reading in audiovisual tasks, but not visual ones. These data are consistent with abnormal development of the pathways used for visual speech perception and associated with second-order face processing disorders and normal development of the audiovisual network for speech perception.

  17. The changing character of stepfamilies: implications of cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpass, L L; Raley, R K; Sweet, J A

    1995-08-01

    Divorce, nonmarital childbearing, and cohabitation are reshaping family experience in the United States. Because of these changes, our traditional definitions of families decreasingly capture of the social units of interest. We have noted how a significant proportion of officially defined single-parent families actually are two-parent unmarried families. The present paper expands on this perspective with respect to stepfamilies. We must broaden our definition of stepfamilies to include cohabitations involving a child of only one partner, and must recognize the large role of nonmarital childbearing in the creation of stepfamilies. We find that cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing have been important aspects of stepfamily experience for at least two decades, and that this is increasingly so. To define stepfamilies only in terms of marriage clearly underestimates both the level and the trend in stepfamily experience: when cohabitation is taken into account, about two-fifths of all women and 30% of all children are likely to spend some time in a stepfamily.

  18. Clinical Guidelines for Working With Stepfamilies: What Family, Couple, Individual, and Child Therapists Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papernow, Patricia

    2017-10-22

    This article draws on four decades of research and clinical practice to delineate guidelines for evidence-informed, clinically sound work with stepfamilies for couple, family, individual adult, and child therapists. Few clinicians receive adequate training in working with the intense and often complex dynamics created by stepfamily structure and history. This is despite the fact that stepfamilies are a fundamentally different family form that occurs world-wide. As a result many clinicians rely on their training in first-time family models. This is not only often unhelpful, but all too often inadvertently destructive. The article integrates a large body of increasingly sophisticated research about stepfamilies with the author's four decades of clinical practice with stepfamily relationships. It describes the ways in which stepfamilies are different from first-time families. It delineates the dynamics of five major challenges stepfamily structure creates: (1) Insider/outsider positions are intense and they are fixed. (2) Children struggle with losses, loyalty binds, and change. (3) Issues of parenting, stepparenting, and discipline often divide the couple. (4) Stepcouples must build a new family culture while navigating previously established family cultures. (5) Ex-spouses (other parents outside the household) are part of the family. Some available data are shared on the impact of cultural and legal differences on these challenges. A three-level model of clinical intervention is presented: Psychoeducational, Interpersonal, and Intrapsychic/Intergenerational Family-of-Origin. The article describes some "easy wrong turns" for well-meaning therapists and lists some general clinical guidelines for working with stepfamily relationships. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  19. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter......-individual scatter was pronounced and unpredictable from the hypertensive organ damages. It is argued, that home readings should be used to greater extent in the evaluation of patients with hypertension....

  20. Monocular and binocular reading performance in subjects with normal binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Ygge, Jan; Seimyr, Gustaf Öqvist

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that problems with binocular vision can cause issues for reading; less known is to what extent binocular vision improves reading performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of binocularity by directly comparing monocular and binocular reading in subjects with typical reading skills and normal binocular vision. A secondary purpose was to assess any asymmetry in monocular performance and its association with the sighting dominant eye. In a balanced repeated measures experiment, 18 subjects read paragraphs of text under monocular and binocular conditions. All subjects went through an optometric examination before inclusion. Reading speed and eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. The mean difference in reading speed (2.1 per cent) between monocular (dominant and non-dominant eye averaged) and binocular reading speed was not significant. A significant difference in reading speed was found between binocular and the non-dominant eye, as determined by the far sighting test (p = 0.03). Monocular reading showed significantly increased (8.9 per cent) fixation duration (p binocular vision, there is no marked enhancement in reading performance by binocular vision when reading paragraphs of text. Furthermore, the monocular reading performance appears to be close to equal and any small differences in performance appear not to be strongly associated with ocular dominance. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. An Evaluation of the Remarriage and Stepfamily Self-Help Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marilyn; Nickleberry, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critique in-print, post-1990 copyrighted stepfamily self-help books in order to provide guidance to helping professionals who work with these complex families. Of the 63 books reviewed, trained coders were able to strongly recommend 13 books for being well organized, for relying on clinical or empirical sources of…

  2. Reading in schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Eryl O; Proudlock, Frank A; Martin, Kate; Reveley, Michael A; Al-Uzri, Mohammed; Gottlob, Irene

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated eye movement abnormalities during smooth pursuit and antisaccadic tasks in schizophrenia. However, eye movements have not been investigated during reading. The purpose of this study was to determine whether schizophrenic subjects and their nonsymptomatic first-degree relatives show eye movement abnormalities during reading. Reading rate, number of saccades per line, amplitudes of saccades, percentage regressions (reverse saccades), and fixation durations were measured using an eye tracker (EyeLink, SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) in 38 schizophrenic volunteers, 14 nonaffected first-degree relatives, and 57 control volunteers matched for age and National Adult Reading Test scores. Parameters were examined when volunteers read full pages of text and text was limited to progressively smaller viewing areas around the point of fixation using a gaze-contingent window. Schizophrenic volunteers showed significantly slower reading rates (P = .004), increase in total number of saccades (P ≤ .001), and a decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .025) while reading. Relatives showed a significant increase in total number of saccades (P = .013) and decrease in saccadic amplitude (P = .020). Limitation of parafoveal information by reducing the amount of visible characters did not change the reading rate of schizophrenics but controls showed a significant decrease in reading rate with reduced parafoveal information (P reading of schizophrenic volunteers and their first-degree relatives suggest that visual integration of foveal and parafoveal information may be reduced in schizophrenia. Reading abnormalities in relatives suggest a genetic influence in reading ability in schizophrenia and rule out confounding effects of medication.

  3. Characteristics of U.S. Air Force Members with Stepfamily and Divorce Conditions in Substance Abuse Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Carl

    2002-01-01

    This study was an attempt to describe the characteristics of U.S. Air Force (USAF) members with stepfamily and divorce conditions who had received services from USAF substance abuse treatment programs...

  4. The Influence of Psychophysiological Variables on Aged Subjects' Functional Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Terry

    A study investigated the effects of selected psychophysiological factors known to affect cognitive functioning on the reading achievement of older adults. The subjects, 34 noninstitutionalized adults ranging in age from 50 to 88 years, completed measures of (1) self-reported mental and physical health, (2) nonverbal intelligence, (3) reading…

  5. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  6. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  7. Constellations of dyadic relationship quality in stepfamilies: A factor mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Todd M

    2017-12-01

    Stepfamilies are an increasingly common family form, marked by distinct challenges, opportunities, and complex networks of dyadic relationships that can transcend single households. There exists a dearth of typological analyses by which constellations of dyadic processes in stepfamilies are holistically analyzed. Factor mixture modeling is used to identify population heterogeneity with respect to features of mother-child, stepfather-child, nonresident father-child, and stepcouple relationships using a representative sample of 1,182 adolescents in mother-stepfather families with living nonresident fathers from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Results favor a 4-class factor-mixture solution with class-specific factor covariance matrices. Class 1 (n = 302, 25.5%), the residence-centered pattern, was marked by high-quality residential relationships. Class 2 (n = 307, 26%), the inclusive pattern, was marked by high-quality relationships across all four dyads, with an especially involved nonresident father-child relationship. Class 3 (n = 350, 29.6%), the unhappy couple pattern, was marked by very low stepcouple relationship quality. Class 4 (n = 223, 18.9%), the parent-child disconnection pattern, was marked by distant relationships between youth and all three parental figures. The residence-centered and inclusive patterns encompassed some positive correlations between dyadic relationships whereas the unhappy couple and parent-child disconnection patterns encompassed some negative correlations between dyadic relationships. The patterns present with differences across sociodemographic and substantive covariates and highlight important opportunities for the development of new and innovative interventions, particularly to meet the needs of stepfamilies that reflect the parent-child disconnection pattern. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Oral reading fluency analysis in patients with Alzheimer disease and asymptomatic control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, F; Meilán, J J G; García-Sevilla, J; Carro, J; Arana, J M

    2013-01-01

    Many studies highlight that an impaired ability to communicate is one of the key clinical features of Alzheimer disease (AD). To study temporal organisation of speech in an oral reading task in patients with AD and in matched healthy controls using a semi-automatic method, and evaluate that method's ability to discriminate between the 2 groups. A test with an oral reading task was administered to 70 subjects, comprising 35 AD patients and 35 controls. Before speech samples were recorded, participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. There were no differences between groups with regard to age, sex, or educational level. All of the study variables showed impairment in the AD group. According to the results, AD patients' oral reading was marked by reduced speech and articulation rates, low effectiveness of phonation time, and increases in the number and proportion of pauses. Signal processing algorithms applied to reading fluency recordings were shown to be capable of differentiating between AD patients and controls with an accuracy of 80% (specificity 74.2%, sensitivity 77.1%) based on speech rate. Analysis of oral reading fluency may be useful as a tool for the objective study and quantification of speech deficits in AD. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. The interpupillary distance in adult Caucasian subjects, with reference to 'readymade' reading spectacle centration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Jonathan S

    2012-07-01

    The magnitude of the far interpupillary distance (FIPD) has recognized significance within and beyond clinical optometry. Quantitative information regarding the lesser-reported near parameter (NIPD) would similarly be of interest, and could be of relevance with regard to the visual comfort obtained with 'readymade' reading spectacles. Mensuration statistics relating to the FIPD and NIPD are presented, as collated from the spectacle dispensing records of n = 1354 healthy Caucasian presbyopic subjects. The FIPD data were partitioned across 4 age bands (by decade, 41-80 years of age): the NIPD data were distributed across seven nominal reading powers (in 0.50 D steps, +1.00 to +4.00 D). The results of these analyses are considered here, along with their potential application. Consistent gender (male > female) and classification (far > near) differences in IPD (both of approximately 3 mm) were confirmed throughout these data. The magnitude of the adult FIPD is in accord with previously published results; this dimension is now supplemented by NIPD values, whose relationship with total near power is also described. This new anthropometric survey indicates that inter- and intra-gender interocular facial measurement stability is a characteristic of presbyopic subjects. It is suggested that across the anticipated range of age and total reading power requirement of Caucasian (White Northern European) wearers of 'readymade' reading spectacles, adoption of a standard optical centration distance of 61 mm would be universally appropriate. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  10. Inter-subject variability in the use of two different neuronal networks for reading aloud familiar words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, M L; Lee, H L; Schofield, T; Ellis, C L; Price, C J

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive models of reading predict that high frequency regular words can be read in more than one way. We investigated this hypothesis using functional MRI and covariance analysis in 43 healthy skilled readers. Our results dissociated two sets of regions that were differentially engaged across subjects who were reading the same familiar words. Some subjects showed more activation in left inferior frontal and anterior occipito-temporal regions while other subjects showed more activation in right inferior parietal and left posterior occipito-temporal regions. To explore the behavioural correlates of these systems, we measured the difference between reading speed for irregularly spelled words relative to pseudowords outside the scanner in fifteen of our subjects and correlated this measure with fMRI activation for reading familiar words. The faster the lexical reading the greater the activation in left posterior occipito-temporal and right inferior parietal regions. Conversely, the slower the lexical reading the greater the activation in left anterior occipito-temporal and left ventral inferior frontal regions. Thus, the double dissociation in irregular and pseudoword reading behaviour predicted the double dissociation in neuronal activation for reading familiar words. We discuss the implications of these results which may be important for understanding how reading is learnt in childhood or re-learnt following brain damage in adulthood.

  11. Grandparenting and adolescent adjustment in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet; Tan, Jo-Pei; Buchanan, Ann; Flouri, Eirini; Griggs, Julia

    2009-02-01

    There is limited research on the links between grandparenting and adolescents' well-being, especially from the perspective of the adolescents. The study examined whether grandparent involvement varied in two-parent biological, lone-parent, and step-families and whether this had a different contribution to the emotional and behavioral adjustment of adolescents across different family structures. The study is based on a sample of 1,515 secondary school students (ages 11-16 years) from England and Wales who completed a structured questionnaire. Findings of hierarchical regression analyses showed that among the whole sample, greater grandparent involvement was associated with fewer emotional problems (p adjustment difficulties among adolescents from lone-parent and step-families than those from two-parent biological families. A possible implication is that the positive role of grandparent involvement in lone-parent and step- families should be more emphasized in family psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. DISGNOSIS BABEL AND SCHOOL INCLUSION OF SUBJECTS WITH AUTISM AND CHILD PSYCHOSIS: ACTS OF A READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Vasques

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This text addresses the schooling of children and adolescents with serious developmental impairment or with atypical structuring, such as autism or psychosis. That field is vast and complex, the perspective adopted builds on Freud-lacanian psychoanalysis, philosophical-hermeneutics, special education and inclusive processes. Specifically, a reflection is posed on the place the diagnosis has in the construction of (impossibilities within school based on the analysis of academic and scientific production on the issue for the past 28 years. The proposition is that diagnosis in central in the establishment of educational pathways for such subjects. Diagnosis is often identified as an act of unveiling and/or decoding. From another perspective, it is defended that the relationship diagnosis-schooling implies the construction of a reading, the invention of possibilities. As it is not possible to determine the veracity of diverse theories, a schooling process includes constitutive unknowing. As there is no path pre-established guaranteed and anticipated bythe diagnosis, teachers and school are responsible for their choices aiming their students school experience. Thus, the basis of their action is ethics, not a method or technique. As a metaphor of the interpretative work. I present the image of a library that is constructed, offers, inscribes and subscribes to the meeting between text and reader. Placing the library as a privileged space of such argumentation implies in taking language and reading as the center of discussions. It is a displacement of the focus of attention of the subject with autism or psychosis to the teacher, the other, who reads, interprets and builds schooling (inpossibilities. Key words: Autism; Child psychosis; Diagnosis; School inclusion.

  13. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Kretzschmar

    Full Text Available In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  14. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In the rapidly changing circumstances of our increasingly digital world, reading is also becoming an increasingly digital experience: electronic books (e-books) are now outselling print books in the United States and the United Kingdom. Nevertheless, many readers still view e-books as less readable than print books. The present study thus used combined EEG and eyetracking measures in order to test whether reading from digital media requires higher cognitive effort than reading conventional books. Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded. The results of a debriefing questionnaire replicated previous findings in that participants overwhelmingly chose the paper page over the two electronic devices as their preferred reading medium. Online measures, by contrast, showed shorter mean fixation durations and lower EEG theta band voltage density--known to covary with memory encoding and retrieval--for the older adults when reading from a tablet computer in comparison to the other two devices. Young adults showed comparable fixation durations and theta activity for all three devices. Comprehension accuracy did not differ across the three media for either group. We argue that these results can be explained in terms of the better text discriminability (higher contrast) produced by the backlit display of the tablet computer. Contrast sensitivity decreases with age and degraded contrast conditions lead to longer reading times, thus supporting the conclusion that older readers may benefit particularly from the enhanced contrast of the tablet. Our findings thus indicate that people's subjective evaluation of digital reading media must be dissociated from the cognitive and neural effort expended in online information processing while reading from such devices.

  15. Different alternative splicing patterns are subject to opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Trees-Juen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing (AS has been regarded capable of altering selection pressure on protein subsequences. Particularly, the frequency of reading frame preservation (FRFP, as a measure of selection pressure, has been reported to be higher in alternatively spliced exons (ASEs than in constitutively spliced exons (CSEs. However, recently it has been reported that different ASE types – simple and complex ASEs – may be subject to opposite selection forces. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate the evolutionary effects of such splicing patterns on frame preservation. Results Here we show that simple and complex ASEs, respectively, have higher and lower FRFPs than CSEs. Since complex ASEs may alter the ends of their flanking exons, the selection pressure on frame preservation is likely relaxed in this ASE type. Furthermore, conservation of the ASE/CSE splicing pattern increases the FRFPs of simple ASEs but decreases those of complex ASEs. Contrary to the well-recognized concept of strong selection pressure on conserved ASEs for protein reading frame preservation, our results show that conserved complex ASEs are relaxed from such pressure and the frame-disrupting effect caused by the insertion of complex ASEs can be offset by compensatory changes in their flanking exons. Conclusion In this study, we find that simple and complex ASEs undergo opposite selection pressure for protein reading frame preservation, with CSEs in-between. Simple ASEs have much higher FRFPs than complex ones. We further find that the FRFPs of complex ASEs coupled with flanking exons are close to those of simple ASEs, indicating that neighboring exons of an ASE may evolve in a coordinated way to avoid protein dysfunction. Therefore, we suggest that evolutionary analyses of AS should take into consideration the effects of different splicing patterns and the joint effects of multiple AS events.

  16. Reading virtual slide using web viewers: results of subjective experience with three different solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Marcial García; Gallardo, Antonio J; González, Lucía; Peces, Carlos; Murillo, Cristina; González, Jesús; Sacristán, Jose

    2008-07-15

    Virtual slides are viewed using interactive software that enables the user to simulate the behaviour of a conventional optical microscope, like adjusting magnifications and navigating to any portion of the image. Nowadays, information about the performance and features of web-based solutions for reading slides in real environments is still scarce. The objective of this study is analyzing the subjective experience of pathologists with virtual slides, comparing the time needed to read slides using different web viewers and different network connections. Eight slides were randomly selected (4 biopsies and 2 cytologies) from Hospital General de Ciudad Real (HGCR) archives. Three different virtual slide web-viewing solutions were analyzed: Aperio web server, Olympus NetImage Server, and Aurora mScope. Five pathologists studied to time needed to access images of each virtual slide, selecting a panoramic view, 10 low magnification fields, and 20 high magnification fields. Aperio viewer is very efficient in overview images. Aurora viewer is especially efficient in lower magnifications (10x). For larger magnifications (20x and 40x) no significant differences were found between different vendors. Olympus was found to be the most user-friendly interface. When comparing Internet with intranet connections, despite being slower, users also felt comfortable using virtual slides through Internet connection. Available web solutions for virtual slides have different advantages, mainly in functionalities and optimization for different magnifications. Pathologists should select the solutions adapted to their needs.

  17. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  18. Prognostic value of reading-to-reading blood pressure variability over 24 hours in 8938 subjects from 11 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In previous studies, of which several were underpowered, the relation between cardiovascular outcome and blood pressure (BP) variability was inconsistent. We followed health outcomes in 8938 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 46.8% women) randomly recruited from 11 populations. At baseline, we asses...

  19. Subjectivity and Ideological Interpellation: An Althusserian Reading of Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktiar Sadjadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study seeks to critically investigate Bozorg Alavi’s celebrated Persian novel, Čašmhāyaš (Her Eyes, in terms of Louis Althusser’s concepts of ideology, interpellation and, most significantly, the subject/Subject model. Althusser developed the notion of ‘interpellation,’ that is the procedure through which individuals become subjects by what he called Ideological State Apparatuses. Accordingly, there exist ‘subjects’ and ‘the Subject’ at work precisely in the way ‘ideologies’ and ‘Ideology’ are present in the process of subjectivization. The subject is the individual who turns into being interpellated whereas the Subject is required by ideology. Bozorg Alavi’s Her Eyes, considered as chef-d’oeuvre in the realm of modern Persian realist fiction, portrays a protagonist who is wholeheartedly attached to his ideological Cause, a character who dedicated his whole life to socialist ideals. Alavi’s masterful depiction of the protagonist, Master Makan, and other major characters including Farangis in particular, demonstrates the way individuals are both consciously and unconsciously recruited by ideology, a process through which the subjects attempt to impersonate the Subject. Structurally, the ideological devotion in the protagonist, here to the communist Tudeh Party, entangles the subjects with a closed domain in a destructive manner that leads to their downfall.

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Subjective impressions do not mirror online reading effort: concurrent EEG-eyetracking evidence from the reading of books and digital media

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretzschmar, Franziska; Pleimling, Dominique; Hosemann, Jana; Füssel, Stephan; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    .... Young and elderly adults read short texts on three different reading devices: a paper page, an e-reader and a tablet computer and answered comprehension questions about them while their eye movements and EEG were recorded...

  2. Good/Bad Girls Read Together: Pre-Adolescent Girls' Co-Authorship of Feminine Subject Positions during a Shared Reading Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Patricia E.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses reading with pre-teens Francine Pascal's "Sweet Valley Twins: Best Friends," one of a series of pre-romance novels featuring identical twin sisters. Interviews six girls using the Symbolic Representation Interview (SRI) about the good girl/bad girl dichotomy in novels and other media. Provides comments by Tom Romano and Diana Mitchell.…

  3. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  4. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects

    OpenAIRE

    SEROVA TAMARA S.; PIPCHENKO ELENA L.

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  5. Subjectively homogeneous noise over written text as a tool to investigate the perceptual mechanisms involved in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Frédéric J A M; Gosselin, Frédéric; Arguin, Martin

    2013-09-24

    In an effort to understand the factors influencing text legibility in natural reading, we adapted the visual spread method (Poirier, Gosselin, & Arguin, 2008) to natural text. Stimuli were sentences conforming to MNREAD standards (Legge, Ross, Luebker, & LaMay 1989) mixed with dynamic probabilistic noise-i.e., each pixel in the image is associated with a probability that its polarity is inverted on a given refresh cycle of the display screen. Noise level varied continuously over the image as initially determined by Gaussian-filtered noise. Participants adjusted noise levels in the text using the mouse until the text appeared homogenously noisy. We assume that participants increased (or decreased) noise at locations where stimulus features were easy (or difficult) to encode and thus that local noise settings correlate with legibility. Data from 11 participants and 30 sentences revealed interesting effects, demonstrating the validity of the method for assessing the impact of various factors on noise resistance in natural text. For example, participants increased noise over (a) spaces and adjacent letters, (b) the second half of words, (c) words with more orthographic neighbors but fewer phonological neighbors, (d) less useful word types, (e) less complex letters, and (f) diagnostic letters (a novel metric). Our observations also offer significant insights on constraints acting upon letter identification as well as on higher-level processes that are involved in reading.

  6. Braille Reading Is Less Efficient Than Visual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Leon E.; And Others

    The reading performances of fifteen blind readers and fifteen sighted readers were compared by evaluating the reading performances of each reader reading at instructional level from Lippincott's "Basic Reading Series" and from Form A of the "Gray Oral Reading Test." Nine matched pairs of subjects read at grade one first reader level and six pairs…

  7. Teachers Sourcebook for Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The best way for students to learn to read and to come to love reading is--surprise, surprise--by reading in quantity. Unfortunately, many of today's students read far too little. This lack of time spent reading is particularly unfortunate, as reading constitutes a bedrock skill, essential in all subject areas. Thus, we teachers need to devote…

  8. [The biopolitical production "impaired" subjects within the scope of "Action T4" - a re-reading of "I accuse"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The history of the Nazi "euthanasia programme" named "Aktion T4" has been examined from a biopolitical perspective for some time. However, these studies have not focused on the analytics of biopolitical practices of subjectivization as an essential element of the Foucaultian concept. The use of such a theoretical approach can be used in combination with new and substantial empirical research results. The Heidelberg DFG research programme evaluated the "T4" medical records statistically in order to conclusively determine which features had significant importance for selection by the "T4" experts. The inability to work or having an incurable mental illness were the criteria by which psychiatrists and "T4" experts subjectivized patients as "lives not worth living". Considering these new results and a biopolitical approach as starting point, it is time to reconsider the Nazi "euthanasia" propaganda movie "Ich klage an" ("I Accuse", 1941). When scholars began to study the production process of the movie in the 1980s, they looked at the narrative and the movie characters from an instrumental perspective. In other words, they examined how the "T4" protagonists and filmmakers sought to create a film which affected the viewers' opinion in a specific way intentionally influenced by them. According to that line of thought, the character Hanna was neglected because she was considered to be the morally inoffensive disguise of the intended propaganda massage. However, two works from the 1990s which were gender history-oriented finally focused on Hanna and the way the film narrative turns her into a subject "not worth living". Based on these considerations, this article states its thesis. The criteria of the film to subjectivize Hanna share many basic characteristics with those of the subjectivization process of the "T4" victims. To prove this statement, the analytics of the movie are combined with the results of the DFG project. Through the combination of both types of sources

  9. The Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart: design and empirical testing of sentence optotypes in subjects of varying educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Jørgensen, Astrid-Helene Ravn; Radner, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    To develop 28 short texts to be used as sentence optotypes in a Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart for the measurement of reading acuity and speed. Forty-six short texts of comparable lexical and grammatical difficulty were constructed. The short texts were tested together with two longer reference texts in 100 persons with visual acuity 6/6, of which 50 were university students (age: 24.7 ± 3.1 years, 36% males) and 50 were blue-collar workers (37.2 ± 13.4 years, 54% males). Study parameters were mean reading speed and error rate per participant, and mean reading time, variance and number of errors per short text. The students read the short texts faster than the blue-collar workers (184 ± 21.4 words per minute (wpm) versus 163 ± 26.3 wpm, p errors was eight. Twenty-eight short texts were selected for sentence optotypes with mean reading times between 4.6 s and 5.2 s, a mean standard deviation of 1.2 s or less and a number of errors of 17 per 100 persons or less. Reading time uniformity in the Danish version of the Radner Reading Chart was comparable to that of the original German version. Education had an influence on reading performance that may warrant stratification for this parameter when reading tests are used in clinical trials. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    "Teaching Reading" uncovers the interactive processes that happen when people learn to read and translates them into a comprehensive easy-to-follow guide on how to teach reading. Richard Day's revelations on the nature of reading, reading strategies, reading fluency, reading comprehension, and reading objectives make fascinating…

  11. Reading problems in chronic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, W G; Love, R J

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-five aphasic subjects who were 1 year or longer post onset of brain injury were given a battery of reading tests which was composed of recognition and oral reading tests for letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs, and comprehension tests for sentences and paragraphs. Results indicated a residual reading disorder or alexia in all subjects, with comprehension tests producing the highest error rate, oral reading tests second, and then recognition tests. Reading ability was found to be related to overall language skill, level of education, and oral reading ability. Results are discussed in light of current theories of reading and future research needs.

  12. Reading Ability and Reading Engagement in Older Adults With Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Angeline M.; van Landingham, Suzanne W.; Massof, Robert W.; Rubin, Gary S.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We evaluated the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on reading ability and reading engagement in 10 reading activities. Methods. A total of 63 glaucoma patients and 59 glaucoma suspect controls self-rated their level of reading difficulty for 10 reading items, and responses were analyzed using Rasch analysis to determine reading ability. Reading engagement was assessed by asking subjects to report the number of days per week they engaged in each reading activity. Reading restriction was determined as a decrement in engagement. Results. Glaucoma subjects more often described greater reading difficulty than controls for all tasks except puzzles (P reading tasks involved puzzles, books, and finances, while the least difficult reading tasks involved notes, bills, and mail. In multivariable weighted least squares regression models of Rasch-estimated person measures of reading ability, less reading ability was found for glaucoma patients compared to controls (β = −1.60 logits, P reading ability was associated with more severe visual field (VF) loss (β = −0.68 logits per 5-dB decrement in better-eye VF mean deviation [MD], P reading on 18% fewer days (P = 0.003) and newspaper reading on 10% fewer days (P = 0.008). No statistically significant reading restriction was observed for other reading activities (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Glaucoma patients have less reading ability and engage less in a variety of different reading activities, particularly those requiring sustained reading. Future work should evaluate the mechanisms underlying reading disability in glaucoma to determine how patients can maintain reading ability and engagement. PMID:25052992

  13. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati AKYOL; Ahmet ÇAKIROĞLU; Hayriye Gül KURUYER

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-starting levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from fifth grade. In order to collect data for the study, word recognition test, reading texts, Ekwall and Shanker reading inventory and reading compreh...

  14. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  15. How Knowledge Powers Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemov, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Recent research shows that reading comprehension relies heavily on prior knowledge. Far more than generic "reading skills" like drawing inferences, making predictions, and knowing the function of subheads, how well students learn from a nonfiction text depends on their background knowledge of the text's subject matter. And in a cyclical…

  16. Reading Faster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  17. READING THEORIES AND READING COMPREHENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Novary Ngabut

    2015-01-01

    In this article several reading theories in their relations to reading comprehension teachers and lecturers of English need to know are reviewed. At the theory level, three other Models of Reading, namely Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive are previously discussed to the Schema Theory. In reviewing the reading comprehension, the history of reading instruction, types and purposes of reading, and cognitive reading skills are discussed. Finally, it reviews six variables involved in the compreh...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT READING COMPREHENSION IN THE SUBJECT ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES / CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Feliciana Mayo Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension is one of the general abilities of English language in the teaching-learning process. This skill constitutes a cultural and a work device, and it is the basis that helps to acquire of a great amount of knowledge. This methodological suggestion facilitates the development of reading comprehension due to that it is a system of exercises which are organized in a hierarchical way that leads the students to better decode the message expressed in a text. Reading comprehension ability makes easier to decode a message not only in English language but in Spanish language as well. LA COMPRENSIÓN LECTORA EN LA ASIGNATURA INGLÉS CON FINES GENERALES AUTORAS: DIRECCIÓN PARA CORRESPONDENCIA: Departamento de Idiomas. Universidad de Las Tunas, Cuba. E-mail graciela@ult.edu.cu Fecha de recepción: 21\t-\t08\t-\t2013 Fecha de aceptación:\t30\t-\t11\t-\t2013 RESUMEN La comprensión lectora es una de las habilidades generales en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje del idioma inglés, esta constituye un instrumento de trabajo y de cultura y es la base que facilita el aprendizaje de un gran cúmulo de conocimientos. La presente alternativa metodológica facilita el desarrollo de la habilidad de comprensión lectora pues parte de un sistema de ejercicios jerárquicamente organizados, lo que conllevan al estudiante a una decodificación más acertada del mensaje expresado en los textos. El desarrollo de esta habilidad les permite la decodificación de información tanto en la lengua inglesa como en la lengua materna.

  19. The Effects of the Allain Reading System on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Althea Saizan

    Five hundred second-grade pupils participated in a study of the effect of the Allain Color Pack reading system on reading achievement. Subjects were divided into equal treatment and control groups; each group was stratified according to low, average, and high reading ability determined on the basis of pretests of vocabulary and comprehension. The…

  20. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  1. Device for improving quantification of reading acuity and reading speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexl, Alois K; Schlögel, Horst; Wolfbauer, Michael; Grabner, Günther

    2010-09-01

    To present a new device, the Salzburg Reading Desk (SRD), for the standardized testing of reading acuity and reading speed at a subjectively convenient reading distance (best distance). First, in a systematic experimental setup, testing for validity and reliability was performed at 450 simulated reading distances (90 different test situations, each repeated 5 times) between 16 and 70 cm. The distance read-outs by the SRD software were correlated to the distances measured with a meter ruler. Second, reading distance and reading speed of 27 naturally emmetropic and presbyopic patients were evaluated using the log-scaled Radner Reading Charts implemented in the SRD. In the experimental setup, an overall mean difference of the SRD distance read-out-compared to a standard distance measurement with a meter ruler-of 0.08±0.13 cm was observed. In the presbyopic patients, overall mean reading distance was 49.74±4.43 cm. Patients were able to read with their own subjectively convenient reading distance. A constant mean reading speed of sentences with bigger typeface (between 152.4±22.6 words/minute [wpm] and 157.3±15.8 wpm) was found, but reading speed gradually diminished over time when reading sentences with smaller typeface. The SRD seems to be a valid and reliable device for testing reading acuity at the best reading distance in an experimental setup as well as in clinical use in presbyopic patients. The SRD may be used whenever a detailed comparison of different methods for correcting presbyopia is required. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Motivational reading on education, meaningful reading realisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Qafa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study I will present some ideas on today’s educational practice for motivation, the realization of the meaningful reading. There is a special place for the methodical ranking of the reading process, starting in school. Main requests of this reading, consist of the deep meaning of the subject, exploration of the idea, and other elements of the subject, implementation of the technique’s rules of the expressive reading, such as breathing, voice, diction, intonation, spelling, stoppages, logical emphasizes, emotional expressions, temper, timber, gesticulations, and mimic. There is also highlighted the fact that the used method comes from the pupils’ results and depends on the capability and level of the teacher, from the programming’s scale, the tools that are put into disposition, the age and the level of the pupils, and from the environment that the teacher creates during courses. At the end there are some practical guidelines for the realization of the expressive reading in the literature subject.

  3. Scientific Versus Humanistic Approaches to Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.

    The scientific approach with humans is usually subject to many human and environmental variables that are difficult to control. Reading behavior and reading disability are two of the most researched topics in education and psychology, yet reading research continues to abound with contradictions. Standardized tests, speed reading, and computer…

  4. A Study on the Development of Reading Skills of the Students Having Difficulty in Reading: Enrichment Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Hayati; Çakiroglu, Ahmet; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve the reading skills of the students having difficulty in reading through an enrichment reading program. The current study was conducted by means of one-subject research technique and between-subjects multiple-baseline levels model belonging to this technique. The study was carried out with three participants from…

  5. Developing Reading Ability in the Content Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Subject-area teachers are not expected to be reading experts, but they can help students overcome reading difficulties. Students often fail to meet the subject-matter demands due to lack of purpose in reading content, unfamiliarity with technical vocabulary, and the heavy concept load and idea density in the material. Teachers can use reading…

  6. Fluency and reading comprehension in students with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Tânia Augusto; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira de; Kida, Adriana de Souza Batista; Avila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the performance of students with reading difficulties in decoding and reading comprehension tasks as well as to investigate the possible correlations between them. Sixty students (29 girls) from 3rd to 5th grades of public Elementary Schools were evaluated. Thirty students (Research Group - RG), ten from each grade, were nominated by their teachers as presenting evidences of learning disabilities. The other thirty students were indicated as good readers, and were matched by gender, age and grade to the RG, composing the Comparison Group (CG). All subjects were assessed regarding the parameters of reading fluency (rate and accuracy in words, pseudowords and text reading) and reading comprehension (reading level, number and type of ideas identified, and correct responses on multiple choice questions). The RG presented significantly lower scores than the CG in fluency and reading comprehension. Different patterns of positive and negative correlations, from weak to excellent, among the decoding and comprehension parameters were found in both groups. In the RG, low values of reading rate and accuracy were observed, which were correlated to low scores in comprehension and improvement in decoding, but not in comprehension, with grade increase. In CG, correlation was found between different fluency parameters, but none of them was correlated to the reading comprehension variables. Students with reading and writing difficulties show lower values of reading fluency and comprehension than good readers. Fluency and comprehension are correlated in the group with difficulties, showing that deficits in decoding influence reading comprehension, which does not improve with age increase.

  7. Comparison of reading speed with 3 different log-scaled reading charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buari, Noor Halilah; Chen, Ai-Hong; Musa, Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart. Fifty subjects with normal sight were randomly recruited through randomized sampling in this study (mean age=22.98±1.65 years). Subjects were asked to read three different near charts aloud and as quickly as possible at random sequence. The charts were the UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart, respectively. The time taken to read each chart was recorded and any errors while reading were noted. Reading performance was quantified in terms of reading speed as words per minute (wpm). The mean reading speed for UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart, MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart was 200±30wpm, 196±28wpm and 194±31wpm, respectively. Comparison of reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and MNread Acuity Chart showed no significant difference (t=-0.73, p=0.72). The same happened with the reading speed between UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart (t=-0.97, p=0.55). Bland and Altman plot showed good agreement between reading speed of UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart with MNread Acuity Chart with the Colenbrander Reading Chart. UiTM-Mrw Reading Chart in Malay language is highly comparable with standardized charts and can be used for evaluating reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching Reading in High School: Improving Reading in Content Areas. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Robert

    Designed for prospective and practicing secondary school teachers, this volume examines several aspects of reading in the content areas: the general reading problem in high schools, the development of programs for reading in specific subject areas, the psychology of reading instruction in the content areas, the improvement of diagnostic teaching,…

  9. The Relationship between Phonological Features in Oral Reading and Reading Comprehension of Black West Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundre, Donna; Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated the relationship between phonological features in the oral reading of black West Indians and their reading comprehension. Subjects were 54 college students at the College of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas. Each subject was recorded reading two passages and completed two cloze tests. The tapes then were analyzed for nine…

  10. Bilingual Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garganta, Soledad; Ramirez, Inez

    This report discusses the importance of bilingual reading instruction for limited English speaking ability (LESA) students, and careful testing of their language dominance and reading levels. Bilingual students, and English- and Spanish-dominant students from the Fabens Independent School District, Grades K-13, were tested for the data reported…

  11. Why should I read? - A cross-cultural investigation into adolescents' reading socialisation and reading attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeder, Peter; Stokmans, Mia

    2013-06-01

    While reading behaviour of adolescents is a frequent object of research, most studies in this field are restricted to a single country. This study investigates reading as a leisure-time activity across social groups from three regions differing in reading tradition as well as in the facilities available for reading. The authors analyse the reading behaviour of a total of 2,173 adolescents in the Netherlands, in Beijing (China), and in Cape Town (South Africa). Taking Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour as a starting point, the authors adjusted it to model the three most important determinants of reading behaviour, namely (1) reading attitude; (2) subjective norms (implicit and explicit social pressure to read); and (3) perceived behavioural control, which includes reading proficiency and appropriateness of the available books (book supply). While they found the adjusted model to fit the Dutch and Beijing situation quite well, it appeared to be inappropriate for the Cape Town situation. Despite considerable cultural and situational differences between the Netherlands and Beijing, the results show a similar pattern for these two environments. The most important determinants turn out to be: the hedonic reading attitude, the implicit norm of family and friends, the attractiveness of the available choice of books, and the perceived reading proficiency.

  12. From Expressive Reading to Rapid Reading: The Rise in Reading Rate During the Efficiency Movement (1910-1925)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Reading rate, a component of reading not closely attended to by educators and researchers prior to the 20th century, quickly became the subject of considerable research shortly after the turn of the century. This article uses historical content analysis to examine primary source documents from that period (1910-1925) to explore why reading rate…

  13. Does Computer Screen Color Affect Reading Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Carolyn S.; Schmitt, Dorren R.

    A study investigated differences in reading rate and comprehension scores of 8th grade students on a cloze reading exercise involving the reading of a cloze passage from 10 different modes of text presentation (8 different computer screen formats and 2 different paper formats). Subjects, 300 students in computer literacy classes from 7 schools in…

  14. Does E-Reading Enhance Reading Fluency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahima S.; Taqi, Hanan A.; Dashti, Abdulmohsin A.; Sadeq, Taiba M.

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is reading as much as possible, for one's own pleasure, at a difficulty level at which one can read smoothly and quickly. In the domain of reading, this paper investigates the effect of extensive reading from e-books, through utilizing a number of downloadable reading application programs on the students' e-devices, as opposed to…

  15. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  16. A babel diagnóstica e a escolarização de sujeitos com autismo e psicose infantil: atos de uma leitura / Disgnosis babel and school inclusion of subjects with autism and child psychosis: acts of a reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla K. Vasques

    2009-01-01

    and complex, the perspective adopted builds on Freud-lacanian psychoanalysis, philosophical-hermeneutics, special education and inclusive processes. Specifically, a reflection is posed on the place the diagnosis has in the construction of (impossibilitieswithin school based on the analysis of academic and scientific production on the issue for the past 28 years. The proposition is that diagnosis in central in the establishment of educationalpathways for such subjects. Diagnosis is often identified as an act of unveiling and/or decoding. From another perspective, it is defended that the relationship diagnosis-schoolingimplies the construction of a reading, the invention of possibilities. As it is not possible to determine the veracity of diverse theories, a schooling process includes constitutive unknowing. As there is no path pre-established guaranteed and anticipated by the diagnosis, teachers and school are responsible for their choices aiming their students school experience. Thus, the basis of their action is ethics, not a method or technique. As a metaphor of the interpretative work. I present the image of a library that is constructed, offers, inscribes and subscribes to the meeting between text and reader. Placing the library as a privileged space of such argumentation implies in taking language and reading as the center of discussions. It is a displacement of the focus of attention of the subject with autism or psychosis to the teacher, the other, who reads, interprets and builds schooling(inpossibilities.

  17. Reading Disorders:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Emma

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between eating disorders and reading behaviors, arguing that there is a meaningful difference in a minority of readers' approach to and understanding of anorexia life-writing, and of literary texts more broadly. To illuminate this distinction, this article begins by considering the reported deleterious influence of Marya Hornbacher’s anorexia memoir, Wasted, elaborating the ways Hornbacher offers a positive presentation of anorexia nervosa that may, intentionally or not, induce certain readers to “try it” themselves. This is followed by an exploration of how Hornbacher’s own reading praxis is implicated in a discursive feedback loop around anorexia narratives. It concludes with a discussion of disordered reading attitudes in relation to the emergence of the “pro-anorexia” phenomenon. PMID:28569728

  18. READING COMPREHENSION. NOTION OF READING AND USE OF MACRORREGLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Montes-Salas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the NMS has been relevant to investigate the notion of reading and how reading comprehension skills are developed as they are the basis of learning. According to Frida Diaz Barriga and Hernandez (2002 critical and reflective understanding of the composition of texts written are nodal activities in the construction of meanings. We now know that the skills of reading and typesetting apprentices develop in subjects strategically and self-regulated, thanks to this research. Promote the development of communication skills contributes to the foundation of the curriculum consists of educating for students to acquire skills that allow them to face problems collaboratively and competently.

  19. Reading Rembrandt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    Reading Rembrandt: Beyond the Word-Image Opposition explores the potential for an interdisciplinary methodology between visual art and literature. In a series of close analyses of works by "Rembrandt" - works as we see them today, through all the ways of seeing and commenting that precede - and

  20. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses...

  1. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  2. The Uses of Reading and Study Skills: Individualized Inservice Packet Number IX. Teaching Teen Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Nancy A.; Lloyd, Margaret V.

    Consisting of nine individualized inservice packets, the Teaching Teen Reading Series describes reading procedures applicable to instruction in all subjects in the elementary, middle, and secondary school. This ninth packet is designed to enable the teacher to help students read for information and pleasure and includes sections discussing ways to…

  3. Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy of Incarcerated Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lise Oen; Varberg, Jeanette; Manger, Terje; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the first to examine the Reading and Writing Self-Efficacy Scale among incarcerated adults. The aim was to examine whether performance of reading and spelling tests (Reading Speed, Nonsense Words and Spelling) explained individual differences in the participants' efficacy beliefs in reading and writing. Six hundred subjects rated…

  4. Using Performance Methods to Enhance Students' Reading Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Valadez, Corinne; Gandara, Cori

    2016-01-01

    The quasi-experimental study examined the effects of pairing Rock and Read with Readers Theater and only Rock and Read on second grade students' reading fluency scores. The 51 subjects were pre- and post-tested on five different reading fluency measures. A series of 3 × 2 repeated measures ANOVAs revealed statistically significant interaction…

  5. The Effects of Narrow Reading of Authentic Texts on Interest and Reading Ability in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Sook; Ahn, Kyoung-Ok; Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Narrow reading means reading in only one genre, one subject matter, or the work of one author. The case for narrow reading was first presented over twenty years ago (Krashen, 1981). Narrow reading, it was argued, has the advantage of providing the developing reader with a familiar context, that is, familiar background knowledge that helps make…

  6. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-01-01

    A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation....

  7. Percepção de conflito em uma família recasada constituída por um filho com paralisia cerebral Perception of conflict in a stepfamily with a child with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Rosa Moraes de Freitas

    2012-03-01

    authority. The objective of this article was to describe the structure and dynamics of a stepfamily having a child with cerebral palsy, based on the members' representations of conflict situations. In this case study focused on a family, made up of three members: mother, son and stepfather. A semi-structured interview and the Family System Test (FAST were applied. The FAST scores showed closeness in the mother-child dyad and distance in the stepfather-stepson dyad, with the hierarchy focused on the mother figure. As to the flexibility of boundaries, the couple's perception indicated rigid boundaries, both for the family and for parental systems, while the child's perception of the family system revealed diffused boundaries. Therefore, some factors highlighted in the literature and evident in this family such as differences in the couple's life cycle, short period of marriage, emotional baggage between mother and son, added to demands of child care, resources and biopsychological provisions, constituted a rigid standard with low flexibility, which made it difficult to include the stepfather in the group, resulting in less commitment to co-parenting in the care and education of the stepchild.

  8. Reading for Pleasure: A Reading Resource Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battles, Jane; Tambuscio, Colleen

    1991-01-01

    A reading resource room was developed for 59 deaf and hard-of-hearing secondary-level students, to improve vocabulary and reading skills and encourage reading for pleasure. Books of interest to teenagers with limited reading levels were located from several publishing companies and were arranged in a space with shelves and comfortable seating.…

  9. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  10. Slow Reading: Reading along "Lectio" Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, K. Jo-Ann; Badley, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The medieval monastic movement preserved and developed reading practices--lectio--from ancient Greek pedagogy as a slow, mindful approach to reading for formation. This ancient way of reading, now better known as lectio divina, challenges the fast, pragmatic reading so characteristic of our time. We propose that the present moment may be ripe for…

  11. Pleasure Reading and Reading Rate Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglar, David; Hunt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of (a) the amount of pleasure reading completed, (b) the type of texts read (i.e., simplified or unsimplified books), and (c) the level of simplified texts read by 14 Japanese university students who made the largest reading rate gains over one academic year. The findings indicated that the participants who made…

  12. Research on family reading: an international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Train, B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents a summary of international research in the field of family reading, a subject which refers both to the development of the literacy skills of family members, and to their shared process of reading. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – It begins by defining the key terms in family reading, then introduces the research methods employed in research in this area. \\ud \\ud Findings – Research specifically focusing on parents is presented, with particular reference to y...

  13. Teaching Literature and Reading Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2011-01-01

     Insight into learning conceptions and interpretation strategies This article deals with the relations between different approaches to literature teaching and the resulting reading performance among Danish students in upper secondary school (16-19 year olds; the Danish Gymnasium). It looks into how...... the reading of literature is respectively supported and hindered in literature lessons in upper secondary school. The aim is to investigate the relation between the teacher's conception of learning and knowledge within the subject combined with the student's conception of learning and of reading...... and interpreting literary texts in the subject of Danish literature in order to create a broader insight to teachers and students into the underlying factors in a classroom with regard to knowledge and conceptions of learning (Marton, Dall'Alba et al. 1993; Boulton-Lewis, Smith et al. 2001). Furthermore the  aim...

  14. Reading with a simulated 60-channel implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ePerez Fornos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available First generation retinal prostheses containing 50-60 electrodes are currently in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the theoretical upper limit (best possible reading performance attainable with a state-of-the-art 60-channel retinal implant and to find the optimum viewing conditions for the task. Four normal volunteers performed full-page text reading tasks with a low resolution, 60-pixel viewing window that was stabilized in the central visual field. Two parameters were systematically varied: (1 spatial resolution (image magnification and (2 the orientation of the rectangular viewing window. Performance was measured in terms of reading accuracy (% of correctly read words and reading rates (words/min. Maximum reading performances were reached at spatial resolutions between 3.6 and 6 pixels/char. Performance declined outside this range for all subjects. In optimum viewing conditions (4.5 pixels/char, subjects achieved almost perfect reading accuracy and mean reading rates of 26 words/min for the vertical viewing window and of 34 words/min for the horizontal viewing window. These results suggest that, theoretically, some reading abilities can be restored with actual state-of-the-art retinal implant prototypes if image magnification is within an optimum range. Future retinal implants providing higher pixel resolutions, thus allowing for a wider visual span might allow faster reading rates.

  15. Childbirth in East and West German Stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies fertility rates in partnerships with and without children from previous partners in East and West Germany. Data from the German "Fertility and Family Survey" is used to estimate piecewise-linear hazard rate models for having another child. It turns out that a proportional-hazard model would give incorrect results because childbirth follows different time patterns for couples who have already a shared child and couples who do not. Therefore, a model with specific clocks for various experiences of parenthood is specified. Based on these model estimations the probability for having another child within a certain time is calculated. In West Germany the estimated likelihood of having another child within six years varies little by child composition. In contrast, East-German couples with no shared child have a higher likelihood than couples with a shared child to have a child within six years.

  16. Parenting style and practices in stepfamilies

    OpenAIRE

    Cassoni, Cynthia; Caldana,Regina Helena Lima

    2012-01-01

    Cynthia Cassoni,1 Regina HL Caldana21Graduate School in Psychology, 2Department of Psychology and Education, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP BrazilAbstract: There are several studies on the best way to raise a child, ie, what would be the consequences of our actions for our children. We tend to think of how to educate children in a traditional family, but society has undergone...

  17. Prestige Factors Influencing Evaluative Level Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda L.

    Prestige-suggestion, the effect that the prestige or reputation of a source has on a receiver, is the subject of this paper. Three research studies which have been done recently by researchers in reading are reported. These studies asked the following questions: If consumers evaluate products by means of reading store advertisements, will they be…

  18. Effect of Piracetam on Dyslexic's Reading Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsher, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty-six dyslexic boys (aged eight to 13) were administered Piracetam or placebo in a double-blind, parallel experiment. Although, overall, there were no significant group effects, the within-subject design revealed improvements in reading speed and accuracy in Piracetam Ss. Dyslexics with higher reading ages improved significantly compared to…

  19. The Feeling Dimension in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The feeling dimension of students cannot be ignored in teaching and learning situations. Feelings are there and must not be ignored. Reading stresses word recognition, comprehension of subject matter at diverse levels of complexity, and application of what has been learned. A major ingredient so frequently left out is student appreciation of the…

  20. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Dysli

    Full Text Available Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls.Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus.Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades.Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  1. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Methods Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Results Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Conclusions Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment. PMID:27391149

  2. Nystagmus Does Not Limit Reading Ability in Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Abegg, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with albinism usually suffer from nystagmus and reduced visual acuity, which may impair reading performance. The contribution of nystagmus to decreased reading ability is not known. Low vision and nystagmus may have an additive effect. We aimed to address this question by motion compensation of the nystagmus in affected subjects and by simulating nystagmus in healthy controls. Reading speed and eye movements were assessed in 9 subjects with nystagmus associated with albinism and in 12 healthy controls. We compared the reading ability with steady word presentation and with words presented on a gaze contingent display where words move in parallel to the nystagmus and thus correct for the nystagmus. As the control, healthy subjects were asked to read words and texts in steady reading conditions as well as text passages that moved in a pattern similar to nystagmus. Correcting nystagmus with a gaze contingent display neither improved nor reduced the reading speed for single words. Subjects with nystagmus and healthy participants achieved comparable reading speed when reading steady texts. However, movement of text in healthy controls caused a significantly reduced reading speed and more regressive saccades. Our results argue against nystagmus as the rate limiting factor for reading speed when words were presented in high enough magnification and support the notion that other sensory visual impairments associated with albinism (for example reduced visual acuity) might be the primary causes for reading impairment.

  3. Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastoo Babashamsi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabulary knowledge which affect reading comprehension process.

  4. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  5. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  6. Enhancing academic reading skills through extensive reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study applied a reading comprehension pre-test and post-test design, as well as three-minute reading speed preand post-tests. Using SPSS statistical analysis, three paired-samples t-tests were administered and the progress from the reading speed pre-test to the post-test was found to be significant. Study results ...

  7. Developing Students' Reading Ability through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    A good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes. Based on the results of previous research, theory and practice on L2 Extensive Reading, this paper analyses current situation for teaching and learning reading in our Chinese universities and proposes practical applications of extensive…

  8. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  9. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  10. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  11. Subvocal speech, reading rate, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, A R

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of subvocal speech and reading rate to comprehension of 25 children, ranging from 8 to 15 years of age, was investigated by means of electromyographic (EMG) recordings taken while the subjects silently read two meaningful passages. The first was orthographically regular, and the second was composed of approximately sixty percent homophones, Labial muscle action recordings, latencies, and comprehension measures were obtained. Variables derived from these measures were used to predict reading age. Profiles derived from the EMGs provided information about how each reader processed the information from the reading passages. The empirical results of the study provide strong support for the valuable role of subvocal speech in the extraction of information and the importance of readers demonstrating the ability to use flexibility of the reading process when reading for meaning.

  12. Pleasure Reading by College Students: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Charlene; And Others

    A study examined how much time college students spend reading for pleasure, when they do the most pleasure reading, and whether or not parental encouragement plays a role in pleasure reading habits. Subjects, 219 female and 113 male college seniors at a small public liberal arts university, completed three questionnaires as part of the…

  13. Reading Skills and Development for Effective use of Library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimable value of reading calls for the need to master the skills by the individual. A competent reader is obviously a competent learner. Since reading is the tool for all subjects in all content fields, it is pertinent to master the skills at all developmental stages of a child. This paper presented the analysis of reading skills ...

  14. Reading Journal as A Way to Improve Students’ Comprehension toward A Textbook Reading Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menik Winiharti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read a text related to the subject they learned in a certain session. Then they were assigned to write a journal that records the things they had read. When this task was finished, the lecturer ran a quiz containing related questions to check whether they really understood the content of the text. Afterwards, students were to fill in a questionnaire regarding their opinion on the impact of the reading journal toward their reading comprehension. The findings indicate that more than half of the participants appear to understand the material well, and the task plays a certain role in improving students’ understanding. The most crucial thing is that most students think they get benefit by writing the reading journal.

  15. Reading charts in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, W

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of logarithmic reading charts has sparked interest in standardized reading performance analyses. Such reading charts have been developed according to the standards of the International Council of Ophthalmology. The print size progression in these calibrated charts is in accordance with the mathematical background of EN ISO 8596. These reading charts are: the Bailey-Lovie Word Reading Chart, the Colenbrander English Continuous Text Near Vision Cards, the Oculus Reading Probe II, the MNREAD Charts, the SKread Charts, and the RADNER Reading Charts. The test items used for these reading charts differ among the charts and are standardized to various extents. The Bailey-Lovie Charts, MNREAD Charts, SKread Charts, and RADNER Charts are also meant to measure reading speed and allow determination of further reading parameters such as reading acuity, reading speed based on reading acuity, critical print size, reading score, and logMAR/logRAD ratio. Such calibrated reading charts have already provided valuable insights into the reading performance of patients in many research studies. They are available in many languages and thus facilitate international communication about near visual performance. In the present review article, the backgrounds of these modern reading charts are presented, and their different levels of test-item standardization are discussed. Clinical research studies are mentioned, and a discussion about the immoderately high number of reading acuity notations is included. Using the logReading Acuity Determination ([logRAD] = reading acuity equivalent of logMAR) measure for research purposes would give reading acuity its own identity as a standardized reading parameter in ophthalmology.

  16. Using Speed Reading and Extensive Reading Activities to Improve Students’ Reading Fluency

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Wardani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study examines the implementation of Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities to improve students’ reading fluency of students. Using a Classroom Action Research, Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities was applied in 2 cycles with 2 x 45 minutes per week. Speed Reading and Extensive Reading activities were taught using three phase techniques: Pre-Reading, Whilst-Reading, and Post-Reading. Speed Reading was implemented through some techniques including scanning, sk...

  17. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  18. Improving Student's Reading Comprehension Through Question-answer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Mayasari, Asti; Pudjobroto, Handoko; Wahyuni, Dewi Sri

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss whether Question-Answer Relationships can improve the students' reading comprehension. The objectives of the prior research are: 1) Improving student's reading comprehension and to know the extent of the improvement of student's reading comprehension through Question Answer Relationships. 2) Describingthe situation when Question-Answer Relationships is applied in reading class. The research was a classroom action carried out in SMP Negeri 8 Surakarta. The subject o...

  19. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  20. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, preading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  2. Ways students read texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandersee, James H.

    College students responding to the Preferred Method of Study (PMOS) questionnaire explained how they approach reading a new textbook chapter for comprehension. Results indicated that a significant positive correlation exists between the number of passes a student makes at new textbook material and his/her college grade-point average. Women showed a significant preference for adopting a single method of study. Less than half of the students queried construct organizational tools such as outlines or diagrams as they study a textbook. Students said they would alter their textbook strategies in response to the type of test they expected significantly more often than they would for the type of subject matter being studied. Only 6% of the students said they make a conscious effort to link the new concepts in the text to prior knowledge. There was no discernable relationship between the study strategies undergraduate college students employ and their college grade level (freshman through senior).

  3. Associations of reading posture, gaze angle and reading distance with myopia and myopic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärssinen, Olavi; Kauppinen, Markku

    2016-12-01

    To study the associations of habitual reading posture, gaze angle in reading and reading distance with myopia and changes in myopia among myopic children. A total of 240 myopic schoolchildren (mean age 10.9 years), with no previous spectacles, were recruited during 1983-1984 to a randomized 3-year clinical trial of bifocal treatment of myopia. Three annual examinations with subjective cycloplegic refraction were conducted for 237-238 subjects. A further examination was conducted at the mean age of 23.2 years for 178 subjects. Habitual reading posture was elicited by questionnaire at study outset. Reading distance was measured with a Clement Clark accommodometer and gaze angle with an angle scale at baseline and all three annual follow-ups. Height was measured by a school nurse. The connections between the variables were studied with the standard statistical methods. Higher myopia was connected with shorter reading distance among girls at follow-ups 2 and 3, but not at the other examinations. The correlation of spherical equivalent with height was non-significant at each follow-up. Myopic progression across the whole follow-up was highest among those who read sitting down at baseline (-3.58 ± 1.75 D) and lowest among those who read face up lying down (-2.35 ± 1.53 D) (p = 0.021). Reading with eyes at a more downward angle was slightly connected with greater myopic progression (r = -0.166, p = 0.028). Reading in a sitting posture at myopia onset predicted the greatest myopic progression to adulthood and reading face up on one's back the lowest. Reading with eyes on turned more downwards was slightly connected with greater myopic progression. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

  5. Analysis of Blink Rate Variability during reading and memory testing

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, Temesgen; Paprocki, Rafal; Lenskiy, Artem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigated how statistical properties of the blink rate variability changes during two mental tasks: reading a passage and memory testing. To construct time series of inter-blink intervals (blink rate variability) we detected exact blink time in EEG recordings using our blink detection algorithm. We found that among 13 subjects, all subjects blinked less during reading session. Moreover, standard deviation of the blink rate variability is higher during reading. Thus, we con...

  6. Compulsory Book Reading at School and within Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with attitudes of secondary school pupils towards compulsory book reading at school, being the integral part of the subject Croat language and literature teaching subject, and its possible impact on their book (not-)reading in their leisure time. It is based on the research carried out through five-point Likert-type scale in…

  7. An Assessment of the Speed Reading Ability of Sandwich Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and usefulness of rapid reading. It also reports a study in which the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria Sandwich students formed the subjects. Their pre-training reading speed and comprehension scores were determined through a pre-test, after which they were subjected to ...

  8. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  10. Predicting the reading skill of Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tatsuya; Hanafusa, Kaoru; Morooka, Teruko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    To clarify cognitive processes underlining the development of reading in children speaking Japanese as their first language, we examined relationships between performances of cognitive tasks in the preschool period and later reading abilities. Ninety-one normally developing preschoolers (41 girls and 50 boys; 5years 4months to 6years 4months, mean 5years 10months) participated as subjects. We conducted seven cognitive tasks including phonological awareness tasks, naming tasks, and working memory tasks in the preschool period. In terms of reading tasks, the hiragana naming task was administered in the preschool period; the reading times, which is a composite score of the monomoraic syllable reading task, the word and the non-word reading tasks, and the single sentence reading task, was evaluated in first and second grade; and the kanji reading task (naming task) was tested in second grade. Raven's colored progressive matrices and picture vocabulary test revised were also conducted in first grade. Correlation analyses between task scores and stepwise multiple regression analyses were implemented. Tasks tapping phonological awareness, lexical access, and verbal working memory showed significant correlations with reading tasks. In the multiple regression analyses the performances in the verbal working memory task played a key role in predicting character naming task scores (the hiragana naming task and the kanji reading task) while the digit naming task was an important predictor of reading times. Unexpectedly, the role of phonological (mora) awareness was modest among children speaking Japanese. Cognitive functions including phonological awareness, digit naming, and verbal working memory (especially the latter two) were involved in the development of reading skills of children speaking Japanese. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scotoma Visibility and Reading Rate with Bilateral Central Scotomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Joshua D; Stevenson, Scott B; Bedell, Harold E

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, we tested whether perceptually delineating the scotoma location and border with a gaze contingent polygon overlay improves reading speed and reading eye movements in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Eight patients with age-related macular degeneration and bilateral central scotomas read aloud MNRead style sentences with their preferred eye. Eye movement signals from an EyeLink II eyetracker were used to create a gaze contingent display in which a polygon overlay delineating the area of the patient's scotoma was superimposed on the text during 18 of the 42 trials. Blocks of six trials with the superimposed polygon were alternated with blocks of six trials without the polygon. Reading speed and reading eye movements were assessed before and after the subjects practiced reading with the polygon overlay. All of the subjects but one showed an increase in reading speed. A paired-samples t-test for the group as a whole revealed a statistically significant increase in reading speed of 0.075 ± 0.060 (SD) log wpm after reading with the superimposed polygon. Individual subjects demonstrated significant changes in reading eye movements, with the greatest number of subjects demonstrating a shift in the average vertical fixation locus. Across subjects, there was no significant difference between the initial and final reading eye movements in terms of saccades per second, average fixation duration, average amplitude of saccades, or proportion of non-horizontal saccades. The improvement in reading speed (0.075 log wpm or 19%) over the short experimental session for the majority of subjects indicates that making the scotoma location more visible is potentially beneficial for improving reading speed in patients with bilateral central scotomas. Additional research to examine the efficacy of more extended training with this paradigm is warranted.

  12. CAPITAL, SUBJECT, AND CITY. READINGS OF THE CITY AND THE HUMANISTIC CRISIS: THE MEDELLIN CASE. CAPITAL, SUJETO Y CIUDAD. LECTURAS DE LA CIUDAD Y LA CRISIS HUMANISTA. EL CASO MEDELLÍN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Insuasty Rodriguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This current text presents a result of analysis of the resulting information of the First Urban Counter-Hegemonic Forum, held in the city of Medellin, as a culmination of a series of city discussions carried out during the year 2013. It deals with an input that was thought in four sections, where downtown is the relationship among city, capitalism, war, and subjects in the city of Medellin. Likewise, it emphasizes the presence of the war more explicitly and it exposes how the capitalism that enters in a forceful way, undergoes transformations linked to the model of the city marketing, the city of the services, and the strong presence of a globalizing discourse, that also has effects on the urban screen and the social classes, subjects, and / or popular sectors. The text ends up trying to characterize the subjects, that in the previous dynamics, produce as being alienated, exploited, or oppressed, but also as resistance and/or emancipation in order to close with approaches - challenges, corresponding to the social research. RESUMEN: El presente texto presenta un resultado del análisis de la información resultante del I Foro Contra-Hegemónico Urbano, realizado en la ciudad de Medellín, culmen de una serie de conversatorios de ciudad realizados durante el año 2013, se trata de un insumo que se pensó en cuatro apartes donde el centro es la relación entre ciudad, capitalismo, guerra y sujetos en la ciudad de Medellín, así mismo, se enfatiza en la presencia de la guerra de manera más explícita y se expone cómo el capitalismo que ingresa de manera contundente, sufre trasformaciones ligadas al modelo de las city marketing, la ciudad de los servicios y la fuerte presencia de un discurso globalizador, que también tiene efectos en la retícula urbana y las clases sociales, sujetos y/o sectores populares. Finaliza el texto intentando una caracterización de los sujetos que las dinámicas anteriores producen como alienados, explotados u

  13. Whole Language-Based English Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Erlina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This Research and Development (R&D aims at developing English reading materials for undergraduate EFL students of Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, Indonesia. Research data were obtained through questionnaires, tests, and documents. The results of the research show that the existing materials are not relevant to the students’ need, so there is a need for developing new materials based on whole language principles. In general, the new developed materials are considered reliable by the experts, students, and lecturers. The materials are also effective in improving students’ reading achievement. The final product of the materials consists of a course book entitled Whole Language Reading (WLR and a teacher’s manual. WLR provides rich input of reading strategies, variety of topics, concepts, texts, activities, tasks, and evaluations. Using this book makes reading more holistic and meaningful as it provides integration across language skills and subject areas.

  14. Oral Reading Intonation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlin, Andrea

    A study investigated whether fluency in oral reading, as indicated by proper intonation, could be used as a measure of college students' reading comprehension. The study was designed to look at the three features of intonation--pitch, stress, and juncture--separately and in combination to determine whether any one or a combination of all the…

  15. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome…

  16. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  17. 34 CFR 300.10 - Core academic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.10 Core academic subjects. Core academic subjects means English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics and government...

  18. Children's Reading Ability in Early Primary Schooling: Challenges for a Kenyan Rural Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    School outcomes and good performance in different subjects depends on children's ability to read. Thus teaching children on how to read during early grades is critical in promoting learning to read. More advanced skills acquired in later grades depend on early grade learning, so children who do not acquire these reading skills in their early…

  19. Analysis of physiological impact while reading stereoscopic radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Yasuko Y.; Tajima, Takashi; Kuwabara, Takao; Hasegawa, Akira; Natsui, Nobutaka; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Hatada, Toyohiko

    2011-03-01

    A stereoscopic viewing technology is expected to improve diagnostic performance in terms of reading efficiency by adding one more dimension to the conventional 2D images. Although a stereoscopic technology has been applied to many different field including TV, movies and medical applications, physiological fatigue through reading stereoscopic radiographs has been concerned although no established physiological fatigue data have been provided. In this study, we measured the α-amylase concentration in saliva, heart rates and normalized tissue hemoglobin index (nTHI) in blood of frontal area to estimate physiological fatigue through reading both stereoscopic radiographs and the conventional 2D radiographs. In addition, subjective assessments were also performed. As a result, the pupil contraction occurred just after the reading of the stereoscopic images, but the subjective assessments regarding visual fatigue were nearly identical for the reading the conventional 2D and stereoscopic radiographs. The α-amylase concentration and the nTHI continued to decline while examinees read both 2D and stereoscopic images, which reflected the result of subjective assessment that almost half of the examinees reported to feel sleepy after reading. The subjective assessments regarding brain fatigue showed that there were little differences between 2D and stereoscopic reading. In summary, this study shows that the physiological fatigue caused by stereoscopic reading is equivalent to the conventional 2D reading including ocular fatigue and burden imposed on brain.

  20. Various Models for Reading Comprehension Process

    OpenAIRE

    Parastoo Babashamsi; Saeideh Bolandifar; Nahid Shakib

    2013-01-01

    In recent years reading can be viewed as a process, as a form of thinking, as a true experience, and as a tool subject. As a process, reading includes visual discrimination, independent recognition of word, rhythmic progression along a line of print, precision in the return sweep of the eyes, and adjustment of rate. In the same line, the present paper aims at considering the various models of reading process. Moreover, the paper will take a look at various factors such as schema and vocabular...

  1. Description and Validation of a Test to Evaluate Sustained Silent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Swenor, Bonnielin K.; Jefferys, Joan L.; Rubin, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Methods. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test–retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Results. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10–87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Conclusions. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading. PMID:23258146

  2. Description and validation of a test to evaluate sustained silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Swenor, Bonnielin K; Jefferys, Joan L; Rubin, Gary S

    2013-01-23

    To construct and validate a test of sustained silent reading. Standardized 7300 and 7600 word passages were written to evaluate sustained silent reading. Two hundred forty subjects validated whether comprehension questions could discriminate subjects who did and did not read the passage. To evaluate test-retest properties, 49 subjects silently read the standardized passages on separate days. Sixty glaucoma suspect controls and 64 glaucoma subjects had their out loud reading evaluated with the MNRead card and an International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) passage, and their silent reading measured using the 7300 word passage. Sustained silent reading parameters included reading speed and reading speed slope over time. Comprehension questions distinguished individuals who had and had not read passage materials. Bland-Altman analyses of intersession sustained reading speed and reading speed slope demonstrated 95% coefficients of repeatability of 57 words per minute (wpm) and 2.76 wpm/minute. Sustained silent reading speed was less correlated with MNRead (r = 0.59) or IReST passage (r = 0.68) reading speeds than the correlation of these two measures of out loud reading speed with each other (r = 0.72). Sustained silent reading speed was more likely to differ from IReST reading speed by more than 50% in rapid silent readers (odds ratio [OR] = 29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10-87), and comparisons of sustained and out loud reading speeds demonstrated proportional error in Bland-Altman analyses. Tests of out loud reading do not accurately reflect silent reading speed in individuals with normal vision or glaucoma. The described test offers a standardized way to evaluate the impact of eye disease and/or visual rehabilitation on sustained silent reading.

  3. [A scientific reading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D

    1999-09-01

    To provide high quality services, nursing professionals must be prepared to update their knowledge constantly. To achieve this, various methods are available such as courses, conferences and research projects. All of these methods share one essential intellectual activity, scientific reading. Scientific reading is a complex and demanding activity that requires more than basic reading skills. Many nurses find it boring and arduous, probably because it gives them no pleasure, but especially because they lack a method. In this article, the author proposes a scientific reading method consisting of three stages: an overview approach to the text, a superficial reading, and an in-depth reading of the text. This method is simple, easy to use, and entirely appropriate for scientific reading. The author hopes that this method will give more nurses the desire to read and use scientific literature in the practice of their profession.

  4. Reading sentences in Serbian: Effects of alphabet and reading mode in self-paced reading task

    OpenAIRE

    Vejnović Dušan; Jovanović Tamara

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of alphabet (Cyrillic vs. Latin) and reading mode (silent reading vs. reading aloud) on sentence reading speed in Serbian. Entire-sentence and single-word reading times were obtained from the moving window paradigm in the self-paced sentence reading task. Sentences printed in Latin took less time for reading than sentences printed in Cyrillic and silent reading was more rapid than reading aloud. Single-word processing results followed the pattern observe...

  5. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  6. Reading to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Phillip; Wardrip, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers expect high school students to know how to read, understand, and learn from texts at the core of the curriculum. But though students learn to read in grade school, many do not know how to "read to learn" science. And science teachers are often too busy teaching science to actively help students increase their science reading…

  7. Time for Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, William R.

    1989-01-01

    Reading for pleasure and enlightenment is a critical, and endangered, element in a well-informed citizenry. As a basis for intellectual growth, reading is threatened by media misuse and lack of encouragement of recreational reading. Solutions include emphasis on integrated skills, improved time allocation, and cooperation among parents, teachers,…

  8. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  9. Reading for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Peter

    Designed to give parents an overview of reading and some suggestions on how they can help their children, this guide has been used in parent classes and workshops throughout Illinois since 1976. The nine sections of the guide cover the following areas: a general definition of reading, some causes of reading difficulty, various techniques used in…

  10. Perceptual Issues in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    Perception has become an important term in recent literature on reading problems and their solutions. However, the relationship between perception and reading has not been clarified. Tests of visual perception often focus on skills such as copying geometric designs which have little or nothing to do with reading skills or readiness. Researchers…

  11. ELLs' Perceptions of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rachael M.

    2017-01-01

    This research investigated reading support and book preferences of fourth grade English language learners (ELLs) who were struggling readers. This qualitative research focused on three case studies. Interviews were conducted to explore ELLs' perceptions on reading motivation, reading programs, and types of support they received. Descriptions of…

  12. Reading as a Whole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Constance

    Underlying virtually all of the basal reading series available in the United States today is the assumption that learning to read is a skill-by-skill and word-by-word process. This part-to-whole approach to teaching reading is based on principles of behavioral psychology and "scientific management" developed a half century ago and treats…

  13. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  14. Coordinating Supplemental Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Although supplemental reading services are meant to improve reading achievement of struggling readers and students with reading disabilities, without concerted effort to ensure communication and coordination with in-school instruction, they may fall short of their desired mark. To promote learning, it is critical that any services provided outside…

  15. Free Voluntary Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Çetin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless to say, the contribution of reading skill to first and second language acquisition is enormous. From one‟s speaking and writing we can more or less conclude how much s/he has read. We can list the characteristics of good readers as follows: rich vocabulary knowledge advanced reading comprehension, accurate grammar usage, broad general knowledge, correct spelling and punctuation, writing ability, and so on. If reading is so powerful, why cannot we promote reading books in our society, particularly among young people? The fact that we are imposed to read books which we think are necessary or compulsory rather than the ones which we would like to read voluntarily, is the main reason why many of us are not able to develop a life-time reading habit. Since compulsory books, such as teacher-selected books are outside one‟s interest; they are destined to be forgotten sometime, or they suffer form shallow reading, or they are mostly returned to their place on the shelf after browsing the initial pages. However, if people of all ages, especially children would read self-selected books they enjoy, they would be surprised to notice the great change inside them. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to revitalize free voluntary reading by referring to Krashen‟s well-known hypotheses. Also, it aims to revive the reader‟s belief in free voluntary reading with theoretical and practical examples

  16. Reading in Bilingual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, Nancy

    In a bilingual education program, reading should be introduced in the child's stronger language. Reading in the second language should be delayed until the child has become fully literate in the first language. Ideally that point should be determined for each child individually. The relative emphasis given to reading in each language is based on…

  17. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  18. Using Dialogic Reading to Enhance Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an early reading intervention on preschool-age dual language learners' (DLL) early literacy skills. Instruction in phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge was embedded in interactive reading strategies, also known as dialogic reading. A single subject multiple baseline across subjects design was applied to…

  19. The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) Model in the ELL and LD Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Yi

    2010-01-01

    The Content-based Reading Approaches (COBRA) framework, constructed by Heerman (2002), was made up of the instructional goals designed for reading-learning integrations in subject matter classrooms. ELL and LD students often fail to have sufficient reading skills to succeed within their different academic subjects, consequently it is important for…

  20. Reading Performances between Novices and Experts in Different Media Multitasking Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Robertson, Tip; Lee, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study investigated connections between subject expertise and multitasking ability among college students. One hundred thirty college students participated in the study. Participants were assessed on their subject expertise and reading tasks under three conditions: (a) reading only (silence condition), (b) reading with a video…

  1. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  2. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural equation model was constructed to estimate the unique relations between reading strategies and reading comprehension, while controlling for reading...

  3. Child-centered reading intervention: See, talk, dictate, read, write!

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammet BAŞTUĞ; Gonca DEMİRTAŞ

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in reading. A reading intervention was designed that targeted multiple areas of reading and aimed to improve reading skills through the use of multiple s...

  4. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor

  5. Reading Logs: Integrating Extensive Reading with Writing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutaya, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Extensive reading motivates learners to read a large number of texts on a wide range of topics because the students themselves select the reading material based upon its relevance to their interests, knowledge, and experience. Students read texts that match their language level, and they choose the time and place to read. Extensive reading "is…

  6. The Impact of Teaching Phonemic Awareness by Means of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement of Students with Reading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sharifi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phonemic awareness is one of the most important predictors of reading skills that has been taught by different procedures. One of the procedures is implementation of direct instruction in instruction of phonemic awareness. Current study is one of the unique studies in Iran that investigate impact of direct instruction in phonemic awareness on reading achievement of students with reading disorder.Case: Three male second grade elementary students with reading disorder in a regular school in district six of the office of education in Tehran were selected. Multiple-baseline across subjects was selected as a research design. The following tests were used as diagnostic criteria: reading and dyslexia test and Wechsler intelligence scale for children-revised. Moreover, a reading inventory consisting of 100 words was developed by researchers to assess the reading ability of the subjects. Data were collected in three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. During the intervention phase, the intervention strategies were used while during baseline and follow-up, data were collected without any intervention. Comparing three phases of the study, we may conclude that intervention package consisting of direct instruction of phonological awareness was an effective strategy in reading achievement of all three students. In addition, follow-up data indicated that the effects of the intervention procedures were stable across time.Conclusion: Direct instruction of phonological awareness was effective in reading achievement of students with reading disorder in elementary school and increasing their abilities in reading.

  7. Reading fluency in monolingual and bilingual primary school children: cognitive mechanisms and remediation of difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Laura Mary

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is reading fluency. Reading fluency is a critical component of skilled reading, and has been the subject of much investigation in recent years. Despite this surge in interest, we are still challenged to explain a number of pertinent issues related to reading fluency which are in need of further research. The current study adopted a traditional, broad definition of reading fluency, which includes speed, accuracy, and prosody as its facets. The construct was operational...

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  9. Do Absence and Mobility (Transience Affect Reading Literacy Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Rintaningrum

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading literacy has been regarded as an important subject taught at the primary school level as it is the foundation for learning across all subject. Australia, as a developed country, has placed great emphasis on the importance of reading literacy in primary schools by establishing various educational policies and undertaking various programs, both for teachers and students, to improve the teaching of reading literacy in school. However, different students have different levels of skill in acquiring reading comprehension. The findings of some studies suggest that there are a number of reasons why some children perform better in reading literacy than others do. Absence and mobility are two factors that are considered to have effect on reading achievement. Both Australia, America and International studies have shown that there is negative relationship between absence, mobility and school achievement.

  10. Examining the impact of feedback and repeated readings on oral reading fluency: let's not forget prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoin, Scott P; Morena, Laura S; Binder, Katherine S; Foster, Tori E

    2013-12-01

    Although extensive research supports repeated readings (RR) as an intervention for improving reading fluency, it largely ignores reading prosody, which is a key component of reading fluency. The current study extends the RR literature by examining the impact of RR on prosody and whether the content of directions and feedback might impact what components of fluency are improved. Elementary students (N = 76) were randomly assigned to either a rate- or prosody-focused RR intervention. The study differs from existing RR research in that (a) students were average as opposed to struggling students, (b) prosody was evaluated, and (c) measures of prosody were objective as opposed to subjective. Results support previous research suggesting that RR improves fluency but indicate that the nature of the instruction and performance feedback provided to students influences the components of reading fluency (i.e., rate or prosody) that are improved. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Training for developing reading comprehension and reading for learning

    OpenAIRE

    Pribac, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Understanding a readed text is the aim of reading at school. A reader reads to understand the meaning of a readed text and possibly use acquired informations in new sizuations. Student books and other written material is commonly used at schools. Reading comprehension difficulties lead toward loweer grades and consequently, to learning insuccess. Among students whit reading comprehension difficulties are some whit lacks in specific learning areas, such as difficulties at reading and writt...

  12. The cultural evolution of mind reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia M; Frith, Chris D

    2014-06-20

    It is not just a manner of speaking: "Mind reading," or working out what others are thinking and feeling, is markedly similar to print reading. Both of these distinctly human skills recover meaning from signs, depend on dedicated cortical areas, are subject to genetically heritable disorders, show cultural variation around a universal core, and regulate how people behave. But when it comes to development, the evidence is conflicting. Some studies show that, like learning to read print, learning to read minds is a long, hard process that depends on tuition. Others indicate that even very young, nonliterate infants are already capable of mind reading. Here, we propose a resolution to this conflict. We suggest that infants are equipped with neurocognitive mechanisms that yield accurate expectations about behavior ("automatic" or "implicit" mind reading), whereas "explicit" mind reading, like literacy, is a culturally inherited skill; it is passed from one generation to the next by verbal instruction. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Writing and reading in a multicultural classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Gitte Holten

    2007-01-01

    linguistic minority. The few students with a Danish origin all come from backgrounds with a limited tradition for reading fiction. Another aim of the study was to investigate a possible relation between the students? conception of learning and of reading and interpreting literary texts in the subject...... of Danish literature in order to give teachers broader insight into the underlying factors in a multicultural classroom with regard to writing and reading on the one hand and conceptions of learning on the other.......The study investigates how interpretive reading skills and literary understanding may be enhanced through initial narrative writing tasks. In the class in question the majority of students are children of migrant workers in Denmark. The class in question belongs to what is called an ethnic...

  14. Standardized assessment of reading performance: the New International Reading Speed Texts IReST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Dietz, Klaus

    2012-08-13

    There is a need for standardized texts to assess reading performance, for multiple equivalent texts for repeated measurements, and for texts equated across languages for multi-language studies. Paragraphs are preferable to single sentences for accurate speed measurement. We developed such texts previously in 6 languages. The aim of our current study was to develop texts in more languages for a wide range of countries and users, and to assess the reading speeds of normally-sighted readers. Ten texts were designed for 17 languages each by a linguist who matched content, length, difficulty, and linguistic complexity. The texts then were used to assess reading speeds of 436 normally-sighted native speakers (age 18-35 years, 25 per language, 36 in Japanese), presented at a distance of 40 cm and size 1 M, that is 10-point Times New Roman font. Reading time (aloud) was measured by stopwatch. For all 17 languages, average mean reading speed was 1.42 ± 0.13 texts/min (±SD), 184 ± 29 words/min, 370 ± 80 syllables/min, and 863 ± 234 characters/min. For 14 languages, mean reading time was 68 ms/character (95% confidence interval [CI] 65-71 ms). Our analysis focussed on words per minute. The variability of reading speed within subjects accounts only for an average of 11.5%, between subjects for 88.5%. The low within-subject variability shows the equivalence of the texts. The IReST (second edition) can now be provided in 17 languages allowing standardized assessment of reading speed, as well as comparability of results before and after interventions, and is a useful tool for multi-language studies (for further information see www.amd-read.net).

  15. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  16. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  17. Universal Visual Features Might Be Necessary for Fluent Reading. A Longitudinal Study of Visual Reading in Braille and Cyrillic Alphabets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Radziun, Dominika; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Sowa, Joanna E; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Szwed, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that efficient reading is possible because all reading scripts have been matched, through cultural evolution, to the natural capabilities of the visual cortex. This matching has resulted in all scripts being made of line-junctions, such as T, X, or L. Our aim was to test a critical prediction of this hypothesis: visual reading in an atypical script that is devoid of line-junctions (such as the Braille alphabet read visually) should be much less efficient than reading in a "normal" script (e.g., Cyrillic). Using a lexical decision task, we examined Visual Braille reading speed and efficiency in sighted Braille teachers. As a control, we tested learners of a natural visual script, Cyrillic. Both groups participated in a two semester course of either visual Braille or Russian while their reading speed and accuracy was tested at regular intervals. The results show that visual Braille reading is slow, prone to errors and highly serial, even in Braille readers with years of prior reading experience. Although subjects showed some improvements in their visual Braille reading accuracy and speed following the course, the effect of word length on reading speed (typically observed in beginning readers) was remained very sizeable through all testing sessions. These results are in stark contrast to Cyrillic, a natural script, where only 3 months of learning were sufficient to achieve relative proficiency. Taken together, these results suggest that visual features such as line junctions and their combinations might be necessary for efficient reading.

  18. Academics are Reading More Electronic Journal Articles in More Subjects, Using Varying Strategies to Find and Manage Them. A Review of: Ollé, C., & Borrego, Á. (2010. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarlyinformation behavior. Library & Information Science Research, 32(3, 221-228.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Carter

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To assess how the increase in number of electronic journals available to academic scholars has changed their information-seeking or consulting behaviour, with respect to 1 the amount and diversity of sources they read; 2 strategies they use to keep up-to-date in their fields; 3 use of personalized information services; 4 determining the value and relevance of articles; and 5 personal management of scientific information. This study is a follow-up to an earlier quantitative study (Borrego, Anglada, Barrios, & Comellas, 2007 in the same setting.Design – Qualitative, using an open-ended questionnaire, followed by personal interviews of a small group of the respondents.Setting – Universities that are members of the Consortium of Academic Libraries of Catalonia (CBUC, which is made up of the eight public Catalan universities and the National Library of Catalonia, Spain.Subjects – One hundred thirty-seven scholars from the member universities of diverse ages and disciplines. Eleven of these academics were selected for personal interviews.Methods – The authors used a two-staged approach to gather comments from researchers on their use of electronic journals. First, an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire (with some pre-testing donewas sent by e-mail to some 490 academics who had provided e-mail addresses in the quantitative study; 137 were returned and analyzed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 11 scholars who had given the most detailed answers in the questionnaire. Their ages ranged from 28 to 67; each was from a different discipline, and from six of the universities.Informed consent sheets (describing the study and guaranteeing anonymity were given to the 11 interviewees. Personal interviews were conducted in the subjects’ offices by one of the authors, and lasted between 45-60 minutes. In the interview stage, the authors wanted to examine: use and assessment of the library, access to electronic information

  19. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  20. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  1. Developmental Relations Between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G,.; Droop, M.; Verhoeven, L.; de Jong, P.F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  2. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  3. Reading, writing and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete

    2008-01-01

    Aim This paper offers a discussion of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review. Background Although increasingly popular, systematic review has engendered a critique of the claims made for it as a more objective method for summing up research findings than other kinds of reviews. Discussion An alternative understanding of systematic review is as a highly subjective, albeit disciplined, engagement between resisting readers and resistant texts. Reviewers of research exemplify the resisting reader when they exclude reports on grounds of relevance, quality, or methodological difference. Research reports exemplify resistant texts as they do not simply yield their findings, but rather must be made docile to review. These acts of resistance make systematic review possible, but challenge claims of its greater capacity to control bias. Conclusion An understanding of the reading and writing practices that define systematic review still holds truth and objectivity as regulative ideals, but is aware of the reading and writing practices that both enable and challenge those ideals. PMID:18721156

  4. VOCABULARY CONSTRAINT ON READING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucu Sutarsyah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify and describe the vocabulary in reading materials and to seek if the texts are useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. Some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the texts are dominated by low frequency words which compose 16.97% of the words in the texts. In terms of high frequency words occurring in the texts, function words dominate the texts. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts being used have very limited number of words from GSL (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only comprises 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words constitute account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also impede the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  5. Lip reading using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbande, Dhananjay; Mishra, Akassh A.; Patil, Sanjivani; Nirgudkar, Sneha; Patel, Prashant

    2011-10-01

    Computerized lip reading, or speech reading, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a speaking person to written text. It has several applications like teaching deaf and dumb to speak and communicate effectively with the other people, its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. We convert the video of the subject speaking vowels into images and then images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, and poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. Contour tracking methods and Template matching are used for the extraction of lips from the face. K Nearest Neighbor algorithm is then used to classify the 'speaking' images and the 'silent' images. The sequence of images is then transformed into segments of utterances. Feature vector is calculated on each frame for all the segments and is stored in the database with properly labeled class. Character recognition is performed using modified KNN algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. This paper reports the recognition of vowels using KNN algorithms

  6. Using Arabic in Testing Reading Comprehension in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Jihad; Diab, Turki

    A study examined the role of the native language (Arabic) in assessing the reading comprehension of learners of English as a second language. Subjects were 60 secondary school students in two comparable classes in Jordan. After receiving instruction for one month using reading material in the prescribed textbook, students were administered a…

  7. Leisure reading among the undergraduates of Adekunle Ajasin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that all the research subjects read mostly pornographic and sexual materials during their leisure hours. Results also showed that gender and students' faculty of study were significantly related to the materials the students read for leisure. Besides, there was no significant relationship between the students' ...

  8. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study, which was qualitative, used questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, students' artefacts, and teachers' schemes and records of work to explore the subjects' reading skills. The findings indicate that Khoe learners lack comprehension strategies, have difficulties understanding implicit reading ...

  9. Developing a Model of Teaching Reading Comprehension for EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamra, Arifuddin; Syatriana, Eny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at designing a model of teaching reading comprehension based on the objectives of teaching reading at the senior high school and the teachers' understanding of the school curriculum and to describe the implementation of the model. The subject consisted of 24 teachers, 167 students of five SMAs (senior high schools) in South…

  10. A Continuous Learning and Developmental Reading Program. Elementary Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Sue; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Reading. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide is organized according to grade levels. Materials for K-6 have been organized under four broad color-coded topics: Kindergarten, Word Attack Skills, Comprehension, and Research Reading Levels. Each topic for each grade level is divided into…

  11. Promoting the Reading Culture Towards Human Capital and Global Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olasehinde, M. O.; Akanmode, O. A.; Alaiyemola, A. T.; Babatunde, O. T.

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that a country cannot be fully developed without large-scale investment in her educational scheme since the breakthrough of a country is directly proportional to her educational level. Since the acquisition of effective reading skills has a positive effect on all school subjects, then reading is sine-qua-non for human capital…

  12. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Primary school teachers that teach English language /mother tongue were not equipped with the knowledge and skills to teach initial reading in these languages. ▫ Reading is not taught as a subject in the primary education system, particularly the state public schools. ▫ Teachers in the lower basic level lack knowledge of ...

  13. Reading Comprehension, Extended Processing and Attention Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkes-Julkowski, Miriam; Stolzenberg, Jonathan

    This study investigated the role of executive function in children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) by comparing differences resulting when diagnostic measures of reading comprehension consisting of either short or long passages were used. Subjects (all in grades 1-12) were grouped as having an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and not taking…

  14. Phonic Analysis Training and Beginning Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Jerome

    The purposes of the study were to determine whether phonic analysis training could be used to prepare children to be successful on the Auditory Analysis Test (AAT) of phonic skills and to then relate phonic knowledge to reading performance. Subjects were 40 first graders in suburban Pittsburgh who had attended kindergarten together. A group of 16…

  15. Reading for national development: Catching them young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also discussed the impact of illiteracy and inefficient use of reading skills in an era of world's advanced technology. Some agencies that ... The reader therefore should be helped by making books of different subjects available at home, in the school and in public libraries with well trained librarians. The publishers should ...

  16. How Are Researching and Reading Interwieved during Retrieval from Hierarchically Structured Documents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Lalmas, M.; Frøkjær, Erik

    2001-01-01

    in the structure. Based on an experiment where 83 subjects solved 20 tasks each, we find that the subjects spend at least one third of their time reading, irrespective of whether the system they use offers browsing and/or querying. The subjects prefer reading the text in chunks that span multiple levels...

  17. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  18. Reading, Writing, and Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Vicki A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how secondary-school content-area teachers can improve student comprehension of text material by incorporating reading and writing strategies into their classroom instruction. Illustrates relationships among reading, writing, and understanding. Suggests framework for staff-development program. (Contains 14 references.) (PKP)

  19. Superheroes and Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ron; Buckner, Joyce

    1980-01-01

    To combat summer learning loss among remedial readers, teachers and consultants in the Omaha, Nebraska, Title I program designed a series of comic-book reading units and mailed them to students' homes. Parents were pleased with the project and it appeared that less reading skill had been lost by September. (SJL)

  20. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  1. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  2. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  3. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Shopping Healthy Drinks for Kids Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time Print A A A What's in this article? ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  4. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  5. Novel Reading Maturity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Carol

    Designed to assess the maturity level of the novels which students read, the Novel Reading Maturity Scale (NRMS) is based on the notion that fiction of high quality is characterized by a number of themes or topics. The list of 22 topics in NRMS came from a survey of several guides on books for teenagers. To explore the reliability of the scale,…

  6. Read across the City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Carl A., II; Satterlee, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a cooperative project between several year-round elementary schools in Indianapolis (Indiana) to promote reading, based on the National Education Association's campaign using Dr. Seuss books. Discusses planning with library media specialists, activities that included writing about reading, volunteers and funding, and evaluation. (LRW)

  7. Television and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    While the influence of television on reading has only been minimally researched, it is obvious that the more television watching children do, the less time is spent on reading. Over 10 years, the cumulative effects of television viewing can be devastating. Watching television is a passive, receptive activity. Children also watch MTV, rent movies,…

  8. Effective Beginning Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Argues that the National Reading Panel is too narrow in its presentation of scientifically valid reading research. Presents a sample of practices that enjoy support but were ignored by the panel and qualitative research that was out of bounds because of the methodological guidelines of the panel. Concludes that most of the cutting edge of the…

  9. READING--A THINKING PROCESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAUFFER, RUSSELL G.

    IN ORDER TO TEACH READING AS A THINKING PROCESS, TEACHERS SHOULD BELIEVE THAT CHILDREN CAN THINK AND CAN BE TAUGHT TO READ CRITICALLY, EVEN AT A VERY YOUNG AGE. THREE ASPECTS OF THE READING-THINKING PROCESS INCLUDE DECLARATION OF PURPOSES, REASONING, AND JUDGMENT. THE NATURE OF THE PURPOSES DETERMINES WHAT IS TO BE READ AND HOW IT IS TO BE READ.…

  10. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  11. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  12. To Read or Not to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    primary purpose of raising the literacy of Navy recruits who have difficulty absorbing military training because of a readingl dis- ability. TIhe desired...intelligent decisions, and read with a high jegree of understanding. Navy school curricula are designed to teach the skil !. needed to operate, maintain

  13. TEACHING READING USING MAGAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way of teaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and many others. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process of communication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Magazine can be other alternative as reading material in the classroom. Magazine as reading material has appeal for the students. To make the students get information from magazine, the teacher can ask the students to observe table of content and giving the students training to use it. Like, what is done on text book. Distinguishing informative reading material with fictive reading, important to know students in reading magazine. Like analyzing advertisements to detect propaganda.

  14. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL{sub size}) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL{sub contrast} model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  15. Size as a determinant of reading speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, I.; Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-03-01

    The speed of reading unrelated words as a function of luminance, size, and contrast, was measured with an eye movement monitor for fifteen young adults. Subjects read up to 5,000 words in a test session, with the exact number depending upon their acuity. The size of the smallest legible print at a given luminance and contrast for these subjects was found to fit well to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data above about 1 minute of arc. At lower sizes inclusion of a resolution size term provided an excellent fit. Reading speed was fit to a number of visual performance models. It was found that for most subjects that a ratio of the print size to an estimate of the threshold print size (a VL[sub size]) gave the best fits to the data. The threshold size was computed with a fit to the Blackwell-Taylor detection threshold data, modified to include a resolution size term as above. For the sole remaining subject a slightly better fit was obtained with a VL[sub contrast] model, where again the thresholds were modified by a limiting size term. The implication of these results for visual performance modeling is discussed. The reading speed for all subjects varied rapidly with size near the acuity limit, but became almost independent of visibility parameters as long as size is two times the acuity limit. These results show that size is a powerful determinant of reading speed, and suggest that minification of about 1/2 power could be used as a field test for adequate visibility.

  16. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  17. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Nilsson Benfatto

    Full Text Available Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9-10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties.

  18. Screening for Dyslexia Using Eye Tracking during Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson Benfatto, Mattias; Öqvist Seimyr, Gustaf; Ygge, Jan; Pansell, Tony; Rydberg, Agneta; Jacobson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental reading disability estimated to affect 5-10% of the population. While there is yet no full understanding of the cause of dyslexia, or agreement on its precise definition, it is certain that many individuals suffer persistent problems in learning to read for no apparent reason. Although it is generally agreed that early intervention is the best form of support for children with dyslexia, there is still a lack of efficient and objective means to help identify those at risk during the early years of school. Here we show that it is possible to identify 9-10 year old individuals at risk of persistent reading difficulties by using eye tracking during reading to probe the processes that underlie reading ability. In contrast to current screening methods, which rely on oral or written tests, eye tracking does not depend on the subject to produce some overt verbal response and thus provides a natural means to objectively assess the reading process as it unfolds in real-time. Our study is based on a sample of 97 high-risk subjects with early identified word decoding difficulties and a control group of 88 low-risk subjects. These subjects were selected from a larger population of 2165 school children attending second grade. Using predictive modeling and statistical resampling techniques, we develop classification models from eye tracking records less than one minute in duration and show that the models are able to differentiate high-risk subjects from low-risk subjects with high accuracy. Although dyslexia is fundamentally a language-based learning disability, our results suggest that eye movements in reading can be highly predictive of individual reading ability and that eye tracking can be an efficient means to identify children at risk of long-term reading difficulties.

  19. Microsaccades during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norick R Bowers

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1 a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2 an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  20. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  1. Microsaccades during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Norick R; Poletti, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that microsaccades contribute to high acuity vision. However, little is known about whether microsaccades also play a role in daily activities, such as reading, that do not involve stimuli at the limit of spatial resolution. While the functions of larger saccades in reading have been extensively examined, microsaccades are commonly regarded as oculomotor noise in this context. We used high-resolution eyetracking and precise gaze localization to investigate fine oculomotor behavior during reading. Our findings show that microsaccade characteristics differ from those measured during sustained fixation: microsaccades are larger in size and primarily leftwards during reading, i.e. they move the line of sight backward on the text. Analysis of how microsaccades shift gaze relative to the text suggests that these movements serve two important functions: (1) a corrective function, by moving the gaze regressively within longer words when the preceding saccade lands too far toward the end of these words, and (2) an exploratory function, by shifting the gaze on adjacent words to gain additional information before the execution of the next saccade. Thus, microsaccades may benefit reading by enhancing the visibility of nearby words. This study highlights the importance of examining fine oculomotor behavior in reading, and calls for further research to investigate the possible roles of microsaccades in reading difficulties.

  2. Reading between eye saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Caroline; Fiset, Daniel; Arguin, Martin; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Bub, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-07-30

    Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  3. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Attention and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commodari, Elena; Guarnera, Maria

    2005-04-01

    Attention plays a critical role in information processing. Its adequate functioning is required for correct development of complex cognitive abilities and regular scholastic progress. Children with attention deficits often have difficulties in reading, writing, and arithmetic. The present study investigated interactions among reading skills, overall scholastic performance as rated by teachers, and components of attention: visual reaction time, simple immediate span of attention, and selectivity. The sample was 98 students in the first and second years of public junior high school (age range 11-14 years, M = 12.6, SD = 1.2), i.e., with expected already well-established reading. Reading was evaluated using Comprehension, Accuracy, and Speed tests. Overall scholastic performance was obtained by means of teachers' ratings. Simple Reaction Time, Digit Span, and Color-Word Interference, included in a multitask computerized test, assessed attention. Analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the reading skills are strongly predictive of the Scholastic Assessment rated by the teachers. High scholastic ratings were correlated with Reading Speed and Accuracy rather than Reading Comprehension. Poor readers showed worse performances on the Digit Span test which measures simple immediate span of attention. Good and poor readers obtained a similar score on the Color-Word Interference task. This observation seems to contrast with the more common interpretation of this effect, suggesting that reading is an automatic process and, therefore, the semantic dimension overcomes the controlled perceptual one. According to other studies, an alternative explanation is suggested. In conclusion, present results confirm the hypothesis of a strong link among reading speed and accuracy, scholastic assessment as rated by teachers, simple immediate span of attention, and visual reaction time.

  5. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  6. Does silent reading involve articulation? Evidence from tongue twisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, L R; Haber, R N

    1982-01-01

    To demonstrate an interfering effect of subvocal articulation on otherwise silent reading, college-student subjects were asked to repeatedly read, either silently or aloud, both tongue-twister sentences and control sentences matched for syntactic complexity, syllable count, and sentential stress pattern. A technique was developed to measure the amount of time needed for each repetition of a sentence whether done silently or aloud. A significant difference in reading time for tongue twisters as compared to their matched controls was found for both silent as well as out-loud reading. A variety of different kinds of articulatory errors occurred in the oral repetitions, and the number of such errors was highly correlated with oral reading time. While errors could not be measured in silent reading, this correlation suggested that comparable articulatory disturbances accounted for the slower time to silently repeat tongue twisters.

  7. Effect of Home Video on the Reading Habit of Literate Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    mastery of all school subjects, and a sure road to formal learning. There is no doubt that reading opens up every frontier of knowledge, and exposes ... of what is read. Krashen (2004) views reading as the only way, through which we become good readers, develop a good writing style, acquire more vocabulary, build.

  8. Content-Based Recreational Book Reading and Taiwanese Adolescents' Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yen; Chang, Hsing-Yu; Yang, Shih Ruey

    2017-01-01

    The linkage between reading for pleasure and language ability has been well established, but the relationship between content-based recreational reading and academic achievement in various subject areas has rarely been explored. To investigate whether reading literature, social studies, and science trade books for pleasure is related to students'…

  9. Reading Disability: A Human Approach to Learning. Third Edition, Revised & Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell, Florence G.; Natchez, Gladys

    This book organizes the subject of reading disability under the following headings: basic considerations, diagnosis, and treatment. Chapters under the basic-considerations heading explore the causes and neurological and psychological bases of reading disability and psychotherapeutic principles in remedial reading instruction. Two chapters…

  10. 43 CFR 2.5 - Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does DOI maintain an index of its reading... a FOIA Request § 2.5 Does DOI maintain an index of its reading room materials? Each bureau will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current subject-matter index of its reading...

  11. Learning to Read in Spanish: Contributions of Phonological Awareness, Orthographic Coding, and Rapid Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Amanda; Christo, Catherine; Shriberg, David

    2013-01-01

    During the past 2 decades, many respective reading processes have been delineated, and much is now known about reading acquisition in children. Most of this research has been completed using English-dominant subjects. As such, the literature focuses on an opaque orthography and aspects of learning to read in this context. In this study, predictors…

  12. Reading: Ave Atque Vale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Although basic literacy will continue to be necessary for survival, mass communications and information technology are bringing about an inevitable and lamentable decline in reading for pleasure and in the love of literature for its own sake. (TE)

  13. What Are Reading Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorders may have other learning disabilities, too, including problems with writing or numbers . Visit learning disabilities for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain- ...

  14. Idioms and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter

    1974-01-01

    Presents the results of a study designed to determine whether idioms cause difficulty for students in the reading and understanding of prose, concluding that methods of teaching idioms should be explored. (RB)

  15. Reading Victorian Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dunstan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This introduction reflects on reading sculpture in Victorian culture, and in Victorian studies. How did the Victorians read sculpture? How should we read it today? What might a sculpture connote in different contexts: the home, the street, the gallery, the colony? How broadly should we define what we describe as ‘Victorian sculpture’, in light of nineteenth-century industrial and technological innovation? For the Victorians, as for modern readers of Victorian sculpture, legibility remains a prime preoccupation when addressing these questions. This introduction suggests that Victorian sculpture’s resistance to reading renders it fertile ground for revisiting and reinterpreting individual works, their creators, textual responses to them, and the greater significance of their cumulative cultural imprint.

  16. Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...

  17. Editorial: Summer Reading 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Photo by Flickr user Moyan_Brenn (CC BY 2.0 Editors from In The Library With The Lead Pipe are taking a break from our regular schedule to share our summer reading favs. Tell us what you’ve been reading these last few months in the comments! Hugh It is, of course, winter where I live. This makes […

  18. Child-Centered Reading Intervention: See, Talk, Dictate, Read, Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Muhammet; Demirtas, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Poor reading achievement of children in elementary schools has been one of the major concerns in education. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a child-centered reading intervention in eliminating the reading problems of a student with poor reading achievement. The research was conducted with a student having difficulty in…

  19. Exploring Students' Reading Profiles to Guide a Reading Intervention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye, Naomi A. N. Y.

    2017-01-01

    There have been a number of studies on reading interventions to improve students' reading proficiency, yet the majority of these interventions are undertaken with the assumption that students' reading challenges are obvious and generic in nature. The interventions do not take into consideration the diversity in students' reading backgrounds and…

  20. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  1. Reconsidering Children's Readings: Insights into the Reading Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Poonam; Feathers, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the complex reading processes of two primary grade struggling readers. It provides a more complete picture of the readers' use of all parts of a text, verbal and visual, to construct meaning during reading. The oral reading data show that students used various linguistic strategies to read words, and the eye-tracking data…

  2. STUDENTS’ READING PRACTICES AND ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiza Johari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The challenges of reading are indeed apparent in most teaching and learning processes in ESL classrooms. As a result, this study is conducted to resolve the issues of students who seem to find reading to be unbearable. Many of them have limited ability to read well and hence, possess insufficient reading habits to become competent readers, particularly out-of-school context. Besides, poor home literacy environments also contribute to their shortcomings in reading. The main objectives of this study are to identify the students’ reasons for reading as well as to find out their home reading environments (reading backgrounds and habits; reading attitudes and motivation; reading exposure and supports. To identify these, questionnaires were distributed to 120 secondary school students (Form 4: 16 years old from one of the urban schools in Sarawak, Malaysia. The findings indicate that the students read to gain information and knowledge though many chose reading as a hobby as their last choice in explaining their motives of reading. Besides, they preferred non-academic reading materials, mainly lighter forms reading materials such as comics, story books and magazines. Though the students acknowledged the importance of reading in their daily lives, their average reading habits, attitude, motivation, exposure and support within the home domain had suggested otherwise. They mainly read for instrumental purposes while reading for pleasure seemed not to be given priority. Besides, the respondents acknowledge that their parents and themselves did not read much at home. As an implication, it is vital for students to improve their reading perceptions, abilities and practices to achieve personal, societal and national progress. On a final note, parents’ early and continuous efforts to be involved in their children’s literacy events in an out-of-school context are believed to be vital to inculcate positive reading environments, habits and culture

  3. Binocular advantages in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, Stephanie; Blythe, Hazel I; Liversedge, Simon P

    2014-03-03

    Reading, an essential skill for successful function in today's society, is a complex psychological process involving vision, memory, and language comprehension. Variability in fixation durations during reading reflects the ease of text comprehension, and increased word frequency results in reduced fixation times. Critically, readers not only process the fixated foveal word but also preprocess the parafoveal word to its right, thereby facilitating subsequent foveal processing. Typically, text is presented binocularly, and the oculomotor control system precisely coordinates the two frontally positioned eyes online. Binocular, compared to monocular, visual processing typically leads to superior performance, termed the "binocular advantage"; few studies have investigated the binocular advantage in reading. We used saccade-contingent display change methodology to demonstrate the benefit of binocular relative to monocular text presentation for both parafoveal and foveal lexical processing during reading. Our results demonstrate that denial of a unified visual signal derived from binocular inputs provides a cost to the efficiency of reading, particularly in relation to high-frequency words. Our findings fit neatly with current computational models of eye movement control during reading, wherein successful word identification is a primary determinant of saccade initiation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eye movements and poor reading: does the Developmental Eye Movement test measure cause or effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medland, Coraley; Walter, Helen; Woodhouse, J Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The literature concerning subjects who have reading difficulties has repeatedly noted their abnormal eye movements. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test was developed on the assumption that poor eye movement control is a major cause of reading difficulties. The hypothesis tested by this study was that practice in fluent reading trains the eye movements that result in a good DEM score, whilst poor readers will exhibit low DEM scores due to insufficient training. English readers (43 children, 20 adults), and Arabic readers (six children, five adults) were recruited. The DEM test was administered twice, performed once reading the horizontal section in the habitual reading direction and secondly in the opposite direction, thus enabling the subjects' eye movements to be compared when reading in their habitual direction and when reading in a direction which is relatively unpracticed. Paired t-tests showed that the difference in eye movements (quantified via the DEM test ratio) between the two opposing reading directions was significant in English reading adults, English reading children and Arabic reading children, but not significant in the Arabic adults, who were equally practised in reading in the two directions. The results support the hypothesis that abnormal eye movements are more likely to be an effect and not the cause of reading difficulties. The DEM test should not be used to diagnose eye movement difficulties in a patient with poor reading ability. © 2010 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics © 2010 The College of Optometrists.

  5. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION THROUGH IINTERACTIVE READ-ALOUD TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Santoso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study, entitled Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension through Interactive Read-Aloud, attempts to unlock problems found in teaching and reading comprehension through interactive read-aloud in a Senior High School of Sport (SMAN Olah Raga Lampung, in Metro. The findings revealed that students’ reading comprehension improved through interactive read-aloud. The improvement can be seen from the increase of test results, meaning construction, and motivation. The process of reading activities showed that the teacher’s gesture and body language, 20 questions, explain and guess activities were proven to help the students construct meaning from the given texts. In addition, interactive read-aloud is effective to boost students’ motivation to comprehend the texts.   Key words: Reading comprehension, interactive read-aloud.

  6. Understanding Reading and Reading Difficulties Through Naming Speed Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Z. Al Dahhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although reading is an important and generative skill, it remains controversial how reading skills and reading difficulties develop. Currently, the fields of neuroscience, cognition, and education each have complex models to describe reading and elucidate where in the reading process deficits occur. We suggest that integrating the neural, cognitive, and educational accounts of reading offers the promise of transformative change in understanding reading development and reading difficulties. As a starting point for bridging the gaps among these fields, we used naming speed tasks as the basis for this review because they provide a “microcosm” of the processes involved during reading. We use naming speed tasks to investigate how incorporating cognitive psychology with neuroimaging techniques, under the guidance of educational theories, can further the understanding of learning and instruction, and may lead to the identification of the neural signatures of reading difficulties that might be hidden from view earlier in development.

  7. A reading enrichment program for gifted adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Morales Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive research examines the performance on reading comprehension of four gifted adolescents participating in a reading enrichment program. This performance is related to the variables associated to the gifted performance following the model developed by Mönks: motivation, creativity, high ability, school, peers and family. Results showed that school does not satisfy the cognitive needs of these students and it does not offer the required social support either. The family provides the main social support. The motivation, creativity, the high level of language and concentration of the participants facilitate learning. The reading program is described by the participants as motivating due to the subject-matters and methodology; furthermore, due to the opportunity to deal with peers who have a similar cognitive level.

  8. Reading minds: mentalization, irony and literary engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgut, Elisa

    2010-08-01

    The concept of 'mentalization' has recently provided a fertile resource for thinking about various issues in psychoanalysis, including attachment, children's play, personality disorders and the work of interpretation within the analytic setting. Mentalization also provides fruitful ways of thinking about how we read. This paper will suggest that book reading is akin to mind reading: engaging with certain literary texts is akin to understanding the minds of others from the subjective perspective required by mentalization. This way of thinking about literature provides a useful way of understanding its value. The paper will focus specifically on the uses of irony and free indirect speech in Jane Austen's novel Persuasion. Austen's use of literary techniques provides a way of understanding the inner lives of her characters via the ironic voice of the implied author, and requires the reader to engage in the kinds of understanding and insight required for mentalization. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. A Literacy Exercise: An Extracurricular Reading Program as an Intervention to Enrich Student Reading Habits in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Nasser

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates an extracurricular reading activity in Qatari schools. The paper presents a two-month extracurricular reading program designed for fourth grade students. The methodology used triangulation of the data to analyze, in detail, the students’ primary perceptions towards reading, teacher self-efficacy, teacher instructional behavior and home literacy measures. The program was implemented in four randomly selected schools. The reading program was announced to each school, and students in the four schools were asked whether they wished to enroll contingent upon receiving parental consent. There were 248 students in the treatment group (students enrolled in the English and Arabic reading program, and 176 students were recruited for the control group (not enrolled in the reading program. The main design was a randomized subjects pretest-posttest control group design and analytical  split-plot analysis of variance (ANOVA design. The findings of this study suggested that students in the reading program demonstrated greater interest in reading than those who did not enroll in the reading program, even when factoring out the effects of parents and home environments. The extracurricular program was significant to the extent that it has improved students’ reading habits. An increase in breadth and depth of such programs shall increase language literacy and numeracy in schools and can improve the school culture towards a more student-teacher interactions and engaging activities.

  10. Reading Attitudes as a Predictor of Latino Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although literacy skills have been associated with critical academic, social, and economic outcomes, most adolescents in the United States lack basic proficiency in reading comprehension. Experts in the field of adolescent literacy have identified affective components of reading (e.g., reading attitudes) as a critical topic in need of further research. Prior research has found a significant correlation between affective components of reading and reading comprehension, even after controlling...

  11. Reading in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Naomi S.

    2017-01-01

    The many advantages of reading digitally also bring with them implications for how we learn differently when we read differently. The author suggests that new contemporary technologies are changing the very notion of what it means to read. Even millennials acknowledge that their attention is more focused when they read print rather than online.…

  12. The Many Fibers of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    How can library media specialists encourage kids to read outside the curriculum and maintain this reading beyond elementary school? What does it take to get children involved in recreational reading and turn their focus to books? At Sycamore Elementary School in Avon, Indiana, library media specialists have organized reading programs which have…

  13. Reading and the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Advocates of high standards and expectations usually believe that gaps in reading achievement can be eliminated with good teaching, but slow readers need a specially designed reading curriculum. The teacher first needs to use an informal reading inventory to determine the student's reading level. Functioning generally on a higher level than…

  14. Analyzing Student Difficulties in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    According to this paper, a good reading teacher is able to analyze problems faced by students in reading and remediate that which is necessary. The paper stresses that the reading teacher needs to be a good observer of student reading habits to notice where to intervene to improve the skills and attitudes of the reader. It discusses diagnosis and…

  15. Effective interventions for reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M C; Lecluyse, K; Rock-Faucheux, A

    1992-06-01

    A simple, readily accessible, and inexpensive intervention which produces immediate improvements in the reading comprehension abilities of reading-disabled children has been found. The intervention consists of colored overlays, or overlays which reduce the contrast of printed materials. This intervention produces reading comprehension gains in approximately 80 percent of the reading-disabled children tested.

  16. In Defense of Reading Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropman, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Many students fail to read the assigned material before class. A failure to read is detrimental to both student learning and course engagement. This paper considers the often-neglected teaching technique of giving frequent quizzes on the reading. Drawing on the author's experiences assigning reading quizzes, together with student opinions…

  17. What Is a Reading Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labov, William; Baker, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Early efforts to apply knowledge of dialect differences to reading stressed the importance of the distinction between differences in pronunciation and mistakes in reading. This study develops a method of estimating the probability that a given oral reading that deviates from the text is a true reading error by observing the semantic impact of the…

  18. When Do Children Read Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ours, Jan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the reading of fiction books by 15 year olds in 18 OECD countries. It appears that girls read fiction books more often than boys, whereas boys read comic books more often than girls. Parental education, family structure, and the number of books and televisions at home influence the intensity with which children read fiction…

  19. Reading visual Braille with a retinal prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zaccarin Lauritzen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual Braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 x 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the Braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual Braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 x 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera to create visual percepts of individual Braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual Braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  20. Can vergence training improve reading in dyslexics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Marika Wahlberg; Davidson, Christina; Ljungblad, Mari; Tjärnberg, Marguerite; Brautaset, Rune; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Dyslexia affects 5%-8% of the population of the Western world. While reading, different eye movements are required. Compared to other persons, dyslexics have more and longer fixations, shorter saccade amplitude, a higher percentage of regression, and more fixation disparity when reading. In non-reading situations, dyslexics do not have more binocular problems than others. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized orthoptic vergence training could improve reading ability for dyslexic children. The study was conducted at Ängkärrskolan, Solna, an elementary school exclusively for dyslexic children. Twelve subjects, aged 13-14 years, were trained with RetCorr, a computerized vergence training program. Reading speed was assessed before and after treatment. The results were compared with an age-matched control group. The dyslexic subjects conducted on average 11.75 sessions (±2.53 SD) of orthoptic training over a 5-week period. On average, the number of words read per minute before training were 87.83 (±16.80 SD) and after training 95.58 words (±18.08 SD). The difference was statistically significant (p=0.0066). In the control group, the change was from 85.00 (±19.68 SD) words to 89.37 words (±19.71 SD) over the same time period. This difference was not significant (p=0.1235). Most scientists agree that dyslexia is mainly a phonological impairment. Nevertheless, the results show that vergence treatment might help dyslexics. Larger studies are required to provide guidance in this area.

  1. Reading visual braille with a retinal prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, Thomas Z; Harris, Jordan; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sahel, Jose A; Dorn, Jessy D; McClure, Kelly; Greenberg, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 × 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 × 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera) to create visual percepts of individual braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC) paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time) in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

  2. The Speed Reading Is in Disrepute: Advantages of Slow Reading for the Information Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, Milena I.

    2017-01-01

    The study is dedicated to the impact of the speed and the acceleration on the preservation of the information equilibrium and the ability for critical thinking in the active person. The methods about the fast reading training are subjected to a critical analysis. On the grounds of the theory for the information equilibrium and the philosophy of…

  3. Association between reading speed, cycloplegic refractive error, and oculomotor function in reading disabled children versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaid, Patrick; Simpson, Trefford

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one in ten students aged 6 to 16 in Ontario (Canada) school boards have an individual education plan (IEP) in place due to various learning disabilities, many of which are specific to reading difficulties. The relationship between reading (specifically objectively determined reading speed and eye movement data), refractive error, and binocular vision related clinical measurements remain elusive. One hundred patients were examined in this study (50 IEP and 50 controls, age range 6 to 16 years). IEP patients were referred by three local school boards, with controls being recruited from the routine clinic population (non-IEP patients in the same age group). A comprehensive eye examination was performed on all subjects, in addition to a full binocular vision work-up and cycloplegic refraction. In addition to the cycloplegic refractive error, the following binocular vision related data was also acquired: vergence facility, vergence amplitudes, accommodative facility, accommodative amplitudes, near point of convergence, stereopsis, and a standardized symptom scoring scale. Both the IEP and control groups were also examined using the Visagraph III system, which permits recording of the following reading parameters objectively: (i) reading speed, both raw values and values compared to grade normative data, and (ii) the number of eye movements made per 100 words read. Comprehension was assessed via a questionnaire administered at the end of the reading task, with each subject requiring 80% or greater comprehension. The IEP group had significantly greater hyperopia compared to the control group on cycloplegic examination. Vergence facility was significantly correlated to (i) reading speed, (ii) number of eye movements made when reading, and (iii) a standardized symptom scoring system. Vergence facility was also significantly reduced in the IEP group versus controls. Significant differences in several other binocular vision related scores were also found. This

  4. Re-reading after mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varao-Sousa, Trish L; Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Results from 2 studies reveal that after mind wandering, participants re-read nearly half the time. This re-reading occurs whether mind wandering is self-caught or probe-caught, and it typically involves retracing a line or 2 of text. Based on subjective reports, it appears that individuals re-read when they feel that clarification of the text is needed, suggesting that a key concept of the text is missed during a mind wandering episode. Future work aimed at understanding how individuals refocus their attention following mind wandering in different settings should provide additional insights into the fluctuation of attentional focus and the immediate impact of a mind wandering episode. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  6. The psychophysiology of reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe A; Di Pietro, Sara F; Casarotto, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Early identification of dyslexia would be fundamental to prevent the negative consequences of delayed treatment in the social, psychological and occupational domains. Movement-related potentials of dyslexic children are characterized by inadequate ability to program movements and reduced capacity to evaluate their performance and to correct their errors. Reading-related potentials recorded during different reading conditions elicit a series of positive and negative components with specific functional meaning and with a characteristic spatial-temporal pattern. These reading-related potentials, when analyzed with sLORETA, show significantly different patterns of activation when comparing self-paced reading aloud to passive viewing of single letters. Comparison of fMRI and sLORETA during both tasks showed that the cortical region with the widest inter-modality similarities is the middle-superior temporal lobe during self-paced reading aloud. Neuropsychological studies have shown the existence of clinical subtypes of dyslexia; these studies have been confirmed by the results of ICA applied to the EEG. Dyslexia can be defined as a disorder of programming and integrating ideokinetic elements, associated with a deficiency in the fast processing and integration of sensory information, with reduced efficiency of error systems analysis. Each of these phenomena occurs at different levels of the central nervous system and at different times. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Reading Development in European Portuguese: Relationships between Oral Reading Fluency, Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sandra; Querido, Luís; Verhaeghe, Arlette; Marques, Catarina; Araújo, Luísa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated direct and indirect effects between oral reading fluency, vocabulary and reading comprehension across reading development in European Portuguese. Participants were 329 children attending basic education, from grade 1 to grade 6. The results of path analyses showed that text reading fluency is much more dependent on the…

  8. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA and Guided Reading (GR on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. The instruction lasted for ten weeks. This study utilized a pretest posttest control group in quantitative quasi- experimental design. The same reading comprehension test was administered as pre-test and post-test. The results were twofold: First, the instruction of learning strategies could foster reading comprehension skill. Second, while the explicit instruction of both strategies could improve the students' reading comprehension skill, Directed Reading Thinking Activity had a more significant positive effect than Guided Reading.

  9. The Effect of an Enrichment Reading Program on the Cognitive Processes and Neural Structures of Children Having Reading Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Gül KURUYER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current study is to explain the effect of an enrichment reading program on the cognitive processes and neural structures of children experiencing reading difficulties. The current study was carried out in line with a single-subject research method and the between-subjects multiple probe design belonging to this method. This research focuses on a group of eight students with reading difficulties. Within the context of the study, memory capacities, attention spans, reading-related activation and white matter pathways of the students were determined before and after the application of the enrichment reading program. This determination process was carried out in two stages. Neuro-imaging was performed in the first stage and in the second stage the students’ cognitive processes and neural structures were investigated in terms of focusing attention and memory capacities by using the following tools: Stroop Test TBAG Form, Auditory Verbal Digit Span Test-Form B, Cancellation Test and Number Order Learning Test. The results obtained show that the enrichment reading program resulted in an improvement in the reading profiles of the students having reading difficulties in terms of their cognitive processes and neural structures.

  10. Reading through Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Gayathri Raman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play and audio-visual texts (Shawshank Redemption, and Life is Beautiful, A Few Good Men and Lion King drawn from popular culture in the classroom as an effective teaching medium. Students were gradually introduced to films based on novels with extracts from the original texts (Schindler’s List, Beautiful Mind for extended reading and writing practice. We found that students began to pay more attention to aspects such as pronunciation, intonational variations, discourse markers and vocabulary items (phrasal verbs, synonyms, homophones, and puns. Keywords: Reading, films, popular culture, ESL classroom, language skills

  11. [Reading research articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Graaf, Yolanda; Zaat, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Keeping up with the latest developments is not easy, but neither is reading articles on research. There are too many medical journals that contain information that is irrelevant to clinical practice. From this mass of articles you have to decide which are important for your own clinical practice and which are not. Most articles naturally fall into the latter category as spectacular findings with important consequences for medical practice do not occur every week. The most important thing in a research article is the research question. If you begin with this, then you can put aside much scientific literature. The methodology section is essential; reading this can save you a lot of time. In this article we take you step-by-step through the process of reading research articles. The articles in our Methodology series can be used as background information. These articles have been combined in a tablet app, which is available via www.ntvg.nl/methodologie.

  12. Therapeutic effects of reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín HIDALGO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reading is an act that requires isolation and loneliness, which allows rewriting the narratives through the identification between the reader and the character, the involvement in the fact narrated and singular recreation by every single reader. The act of reading allows stepping aside from reality. The reading as well as the writing perform the therapeutic effect of helping to understand the illness and to know experiences of others patients that can be useful for the accompaniment, overcoming and/or making decisions. There is not a concrete literary that could be universally recommend to every patient, but all the genre can be useful to some patient. However, poetry, novel and autobiographies are frequently referred as the manuscripts that provide help and consolation.

  13. Word-reading and word-spelling styles of french beginners : Do all children learn to read and to spell in the same way?

    OpenAIRE

    Eme, Elsa; Golder, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the styles of word reading and word spelling used by beginning readers in the French language. The aim of the study was to find out whether “sub-lexical” and “lexical” styles of reliance, which has been observed in children learning to read and spell in English, exists in French, a language with a more transparent orthography. A sample of 159 subjects were assessed on their reading and spelling of regular words, irregular words and nonwords. Cluster analyses on reading/s...

  14. The Explicit Instruction of Reading Strategies: Directed Reading Thinking Activity vs. Guided Reading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani; Mojtaba Mohammadi

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the efficiencies and deficiencies of reading strategies is one of the noticeable issues in the related theory and research in reading comprehension instruction. This study was to examine the impact of Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) and Guided Reading (GR) on reading comprehension. Sixty three Iranian students of grade one in Shahed high school in the city of Bojnourd took part in the study. They were assigned in three groups, one control and two experimental groups. T...

  15. A Case for Improved Reading Instruction for Academic English Reading Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ole Hellekjær

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the academic reading proficiency in English of 217 senior level Norwegian upper secondary school students who upon graduation are considered qualified for higher education. Testing with an International English Language Testing System (IELTS Academic Reading Module revealed that two thirds of the 178 respondents with ordinary EFL courses did not achieve the equivalent of the IELTS Band 6 score minimum that is usually required for admission to British and Australian universities. In comparison, two thirds of a sample of 39 respondents with a single, sheltered Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL subject achieved a Band 6 score or better. Closer analysis indicates that the poor test scores can be attributed to weaknesses in current English as a Foreign Language (EFL instruction where reading is neglected, where students do not learn to adjust how they read to reading purpose, and where they do not learn how to handle unfamiliar words to avoid disrupting the reading process. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve EFL instruction, in Norway and elsewhere.

  16. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Jacobs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER. First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests ways that teachers and students can find ER materials. Fourth, guidance is provided to students for when they select what to read from among the ER materials available to them. Finally, advice is given on integrating ER with course textbooks.

  17. Repeated readings using audiotaped material enhances oral reading in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, R; Humphreys, R

    1989-02-01

    The method of repeated readings using audiotaped material was implemented in the present study by having poor readers aged 9-13 years listen to and read audiotaped stories until the passages could be read fluently without the tape. A same-age control group with similar reading difficulties was given an alternative reading program that was similar to that received by the experimental group (with respect to creative writing, spelling, phonics, and vocabulary development), but which differed in terms of passage reading exercises (controls read from basal readers, whereas the experimental group did repeated readings of audiotaped material). Only students in the repeated readings of audiotaped material group showed a significant effect of treatment on oral reading, whereas controls showed significantly larger gains in word attack skills. There were no between-group differences in silent reading, a close comprehension test, or isolated word recognition. The pattern of findings suggested that repeated readings of audiotaped material enhances oral reading ability of students with reading difficulties, but the effects of treatment do not generalize to a wide range of reading measures.

  18. The Effect of Teaching Reading Comprehension Skills on Translation Quality of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of teaching reading comprehension skills on translation quality of EFL. In other words, this study sought to see if teaching reading comprehension skills had statically any significant impact translation quality of Iranian EFL learners and if yes, which reading comprehension skill was the most predictive of translation quality of  Iranian EFL learners. In order to put this study into practice, these steps were taken. First, in order to assign subjects homogeneity, an OPT (oxford placement test was given to BA students of   English Literature at Beheshti University. Then, a pre- test on translation and a pre-test on reading comprehension were given to the subjects.  In the next step, a treatment, on reading comprehension skills only, was given to the subjects. After that a test based on the treatment was given to the subjects. In the final step, two other post-tests, on reading comprehension and translation were given to the subjects to determine if teaching reading comprehension skills had any impact on translation quality of EFL subjects.  As the data represents the translation quality of EFL students although increased after they were given some treatments on their reading comprehension; the correlation between reading comprehension skills and the translation quality was not significant (0.585.

  19. Donor attention to reading materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, S F; Osmond, L; Choquet, K; Yi, Q-L; Goldman, M

    2015-11-01

    Mandatory predonation reading materials inform donors about risk factors for transmissible disease, possible complications of donation and changes to the donation process. We aimed to assess the attention to predonation reading materials and factors which may affect attention. A national survey in 2008 of 18,108 blood donors asked about self-assessed attention to reading the materials. In face-to-face interviews, 441 donors completed additional questions about reading the materials and a literacy test. Qualitative interviews of 27 donors assessed their approach to reading. In the national survey, most of the first-time donors said they read all or most of the materials (90.9% first-time vs. 57.6% repeat donors, P reading them carefully (P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read, most knew that donors are informed of positive transmissible disease test results (97.1%, 95.5, 98.0 P > 0.05), but fewer recalled seeing the definition of sex (77.2%, 56.9, 24.2 P read materials carefully, skimmed or did not read were compared (P > 0.05). Qualitative interviews showed that donors are reluctant to read any more than necessary and decide based on perceived importance or relevance. Attention to predonation reading materials tends to be better among first-time donors. The effectiveness is limited by low motivation to read, especially for repeat donors, as well as poor literacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. IURead: a new computer-based reading test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renfeng; Bradley, Arthur

    2015-09-01

    To develop a computer-based single sentence reading test especially designed for clinical research enabling multiple repeat trials without reusing the same sentences. We initially developed 422 sentences, with an average of 60 characters and 12 words. Presentation controls were improved by employing computer-based testing and the oral reading was recorded by visual inspection of digital audio recordings. Variability in reading speed of normally sighted adults between sentences, between charts, between subjects, between formats, and between display devices was quantified. The impact of display size and pixel resolution on test geometry was assessed, and the impact of reduced retinal image quality and retinal illuminance were compared for reading and standard letter acuities. Eleven visually normal subjects (age: 18-60 years) participated in this study. Stopwatch timing of sentences reliably underestimated reading times by about 0.3 s, and exhibited coefficients of repeatability 17 times larger than those estimated from visual inspection of digital recordings. A slight relaxing of the lexical content constraints had no effect on reading speed; neither did sentence format (single vs three lines) or display size or distance. Within subject standard deviations of reading speed for different sentences were small (between 6% and 9% of the mean speed) requiring only small samples sizes to achieve typical statistical reliability and power when comparing conditions within individual subjects. The greater variability associated with stopwatch timing necessitates larger sample sizes. As defocus and light level were varied, reading acuity and standard letter acuity were highly correlated (r(2)  = 0.99), and reading acuity was slightly better. A computer-based IURead reading test provides a useful reading speed and reading acuity tool for clinical research involving multiple conditions and repeat testing of individual subjects. Ready to use IURead files for use with a

  1. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  2. [Reading as a protective factor against cognitive decline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Miguel Esteve; Gil, Angel Collado

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether reading is a protective factor against cognitive decline in the population aged over 65 years. We performed an unmatched case-control study in the Fuente de San Luis Health Center in Valencia, Spain. A total of 153 subjects aged more than 65 years old were studied, corresponding to 51 cases and 102 controls. Cognitive impairment was measured by the version of the Mini-Mental State Examination adapted and validated to Spanish. Reading habits were assessed with the scale of the Federación de Gremios y Editores de España. Logistic regression showed a significant association with the habit of frequent reading for more than 5 years, complete primary school education, and age lower than 75 years Reading is a protective factor against cognitive impairment. This protection is greater in frequent readers with a history of reading of over 5 years. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Reading the Tourist Guidebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkelsen, Anette; Sørensen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    of information sought, amount of information read and level of involvement displayed, indicating a three-pronged typology of guidebook readers. The guidebook reader typology thus constructed may be regarded as a first step in understanding the effect of guidebooks on tourists’ behaviour and their experience...

  4. Reading about Real Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  5. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    . Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  6. Teaching Reading Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Tom; Dymock, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Would you like your students to be excited when they read a new word and keen to work out its meaning straight away? This book will turn them into word detectives, ready to tackle any new word they come across. And when writing, would you like them to make sentences that have interesting and descriptive words like "shamble," "ravenous" or…

  7. Teaching Reading through Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a teaching method called reading through writing (RtW), based on the use of computers rather than handwriting. The pupils use the computers in pairs and decide themselves what they will write about. The use of this method is studied via a questionnaire to 22 teachers and via seven Master's and two Bachelor's theses,…

  8. Readings in risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gough, Michael; Glickman, Theodore S

    1990-01-01

    ... from Resources for the Future are distributed worldwide by The Johns Hopkins University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Readings in risk I Theodore S. Glickman and Michael Gough, editors. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-915707-55-1 (alk. paper) 1. Technology-Risk assessment. 2. Health risk assessment....

  9. Painless reading comprehension

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, EdD, Darolyn "Lyn"

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension gets easier as students learn what kind of reader they are, discover how to keep facts in their head, and much more. Bonus Online Component: includes additional games, including Beat the Clock, a line match game, and a word scramble.

  10. Scaffolding Reading Comprehension Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ashraf Atta Mohamed Safein

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigates whether English language teachers use scaffolding strategies for developing their students' reading comprehension skills or just for assessing their comprehension. It also tries to demonstrate whether teachers are aware of these strategies or they use them as a matter of habit. A questionnaire as well as structured…

  11. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1991

    1991-01-01

    To help replenish educators' supply of ideas, "Kappan" editors suggest several books for summer reading, including many noncurrent titles not specifically on education such as Peter Novick's "That Noble Dream," Joy Kogawa's "Obasan," Zora Neale Hurston's "Their Eyes Were Watching God," Kate Chopin's "The Awakening," Willa Cather's "My Antonia,"…

  12. Reading Community: Writing Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Katherine K.

    Reading the speeches each year of the program chair of the Conference on College Composition and Communication gives the reader a concrete notion of how the field has been perceived and constructed by these leaders in composition. The more recent articles also construct a surprisingly unified and stable identity for the field which is premised on…

  13. Assessment Problems in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGinitie, Walter H., Ed.

    The papers in this volume deal with a range of assessment problems in reading. The first paper, by Karlin, introduces the general problem of using assessment procedures to guide teaching. The next six papers deal with various aspects of this general problem. Otto discusses the distinction between norm-referenced, standardized achievement tests and…

  14. Waterford Early Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Waterford Early Reading Program (WERP), which is designed to shift teaching and learning away from remediation and failure to prevention, early achievement, and sustained growth for every student. WERP includes three levels of instruction: emergent, beginning, and fluent readers. It targets pre-K through…

  15. Reading: Interactions with Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-23

    served the patron, he got a big tip . (4b). After the bartender served the patron, he left a big tip . They found that reading times for the matrix...the filler available at the gap site. (5). The journalists interviewed the skier that the waitress from the village accused of the crime. In the

  16. Reading through Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Madhavi Gayathri; Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    This paper captures the design of a comprehensive curriculum incorporating the four skills based exclusively on the use of parallel audio-visual and written texts. We discuss the use of authentic materials to teach English to Indian undergraduates aged 18 to 20 years. Specifically, we talk about the use of parallel reading (screen-play) and…

  17. Selecting Extensive Reading Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers guidance to teachers and students in selecting materials for extensive reading (ER). First, the article explains characteristics of ER and reviews some of the potential gains for students who do ER. Second, the article considers criteria for teachers to bear in mind when selecting ER materials. Third, the article then suggests…

  18. Model Reading Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Nancy; Dworkin, Yehoash

    The 1978 Summer Reading Institute, which served 58 Washington, D.C., elementary school children, is described in this paper. Major characteristics of the program model are first identified, along with elements that were added to the model in the preplanning stage. Numerous aspects of the program are then described, including the make-up of the…

  19. Intervention for Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Kamhi, Alan G.

    1987-01-01

    The article provides specific suggestions of how speech language pathologists can use their language expertise in intervention with reading-disabled students. Strategies appropriate for use in individual therapy are discussed and the importance of collaboration with classroom teachers and learning disabilities specialists is stressed. (Author/DB)

  20. [A single blood pressure reading during check-up for hypertension leads to a change in management more often than multiple readings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbersen, R; Smits, P; Lenders, J W; Thien, T

    1994-01-29

    To define the number of blood pressure readings necessary during a patient's visit to serve as a correct reference for patient management. Observational study. Outpatient clinic in the Netherlands. In a period of 30 months blood pressure was measured in 250-300 patients with hypertension during 1008 patients' visits. All readings were done by the same physician in the same room with the same system, after the patients had been submitted to at least 10 minutes of supine rest. Three readings were taken simultaneously with a mercury sphygmomanometer and (via a Y-connector) with a semiautomatic oscillometric method. Blood pressure readings of 932 visits were available for further analysis. Both methods gave similar results for the mean of each reading and for the combination of 2 or 3 readings. Based on the first diastolic reading alone instead of the mean of 3 readings, 25% of the patients would have been subjected to different patient management. On the basis of the first two readings II% would have been treated differently. No definite recommendation can be made for the ideal number of blood pressure readings per visit, but with only 1 or 2 readings, 11-25% of the subjects would have been submitted to different management.

  1. The Use of Extensive Reading in Teaching Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdila, Raihani

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates benefits of using extensive reading in teaching reading and as well as students' attitudes toward it. A case study design as a part of qualitative research was employed in this study. The data were collected through classroom observation, questionnaire and interview. The participants of this study were a class of second graders in one of the public junior high schools in Bandung. The findings reveal that extensive reading was beneficial in teaching reading. There are fi...

  2. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  3. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text readi...

  4. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  5. Pseudo-Synesthesia through Reading Books with Colored Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2012-01-01

    Background Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter ‘a’ always appears as light blue). In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. Methodology/Principal Findings Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words) was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14) = 5.85, p = .030). Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13) = 0.51, p = .05). The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14) = 2.79, p = .014) and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term ‘synesthetic’ training program. PMID

  6. Pseudo-synesthesia through reading books with colored letters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Colizoli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Synesthesia is a phenomenon where a stimulus produces consistent extraordinary subjective experiences. A relatively common type of synesthesia involves perception of color when viewing letters (e.g. the letter 'a' always appears as light blue. In this study, we examine whether traits typically regarded as markers of synesthesia can be acquired by simply reading in color. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Non-synesthetes were given specially prepared colored books to read. A modified Stroop task was administered before and after reading. A perceptual crowding task was administered after reading. Reading one book (>49,000 words was sufficient to induce effects regarded as behavioral markers for synesthesia. The results of the Stroop tasks indicate that it is possible to learn letter-color associations through reading in color (F(1, 14 = 5.85, p = .030. Furthermore, Stroop effects correlated with subjective reports about experiencing letters in color (r(13 = 0.51, p = .05. The frequency of viewing letters is related to the level of association as seen by the difference in the Stroop effect size between upper- and lower-case letters (t(14 = 2.79, p = .014 and in a subgroup of participants whose Stroop effects increased as they continued to read in color. Readers did not show significant performance advantages on the crowding task compared to controls. Acknowledging the many differences between trainees and synesthetes, results suggest that it may be possible to acquire a subset of synesthetic behavioral traits in adulthood through training. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of acquiring letter-color associations through reading in color. Reading in color appears to be a promising avenue in which we may explore the differences and similarities between synesthetes and non-synesthetes. Additionally, reading in color is a plausible method for a long-term 'synesthetic' training program.

  7. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Dolman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This research examines the Reading Buddies program at the Grande Prairie Public Library, which took place in July and August of 2011 and 2012. The Reading Buddies program pairs lower elementary students with teen volunteers for reading practice over the summer. The aim of the study was to discover how much impact the program would have on participating children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS and the Graded Word Recognition Lists from the Bader Reading and Language Inventory (6th ed., 2008.Participants were also asked for their grade and sex, and the program coordinator kept track of attendance. Results – There were 37 Reading Buddies participants who completed both the pre- and post-tests for the study. On average, the program had a small positive effect on participants’ reading levels and a small negative effect on their attitudes towards reading. There was a larger range of changes to the ERAS scores than to the reading test scores, but most participants’ scores did not change dramatically on either measure.Conclusions – Although findings are limited by the small size of the data-set, results indicate that many of the Reading Buddies participants maintained their reading level over the summer and had a similar attitude towards reading at the end of the program. On average, reading levels increased slightly and attitudes towards reading were slightly more negative. Many factors could not be taken into account during the study (e.g., the amount of reading done at home. A study with a control group that did not participate in the program could help to assess whether the program helped to combat summer learning loss.

  8. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  9. Reading for Real: Our Year with Reading Buddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    When Patricia Ross' high school students at the Phoenix Day School for the Deaf buddied up with elementary school students to improve their reading skills, amazing things happened. As they read to them, Ross' students, who were part of the 2012-2013 Integrated Language Arts and Social Studies program, increased their reading scores and forged…

  10. How do children read words? A focus on reading processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Being able to read is very important in our literate society. Many studies, therefore, have examined children’s reading skills to improve our understanding of reading development. In general, there have been two types of studies. On the one hand, there is a line of research that focuses on the

  11. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  12. The Importance of Metacognitive Reading Strategy Awareness in Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Abdullah, Muhammad Kamarul Kabilan

    2013-01-01

    Metacognitive reading strategy awareness plays a significant role in reading comprehension and educational process. In spite of its importance, metacognitive strategy has long been the ignored skill in English language teaching, research, learning, and assessment. This lack of good metacognitive reading strategy skill is exacerbated by the central…

  13. Clarifying Differences between Reading Skills and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter; Pearson, P. David; Paris, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    The terms "reading skill" and "reading strategy" are central to how we conceptualize and teach reading. Despite their importance and widespread use, the terms are not consistently used or understood. This article examines the current and historical uses of the terms, defines them, and describes their differences, similarities, and relationships.…

  14. The Relationship between Reading Comprehension Strategies and Reading Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmizi, Fatma Susar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between levels of reading comprehension strategy use, reading attitudes, and the amount of reading per year among elementary school students. The study was conducted with 1316 students (649 girls and 667 boys) attending the fourth and fifth grades of 15 elementary schools in Denizli, Turkey.…

  15. Fluency Interventions for Developmental Readers: Repeated Readings and Wide Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Omer

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent findings that show fluency deficits in developmental readers, the field of developmental reading remains remiss in fluency instruction. This article provides a summary intended to increase college reading teachers' understanding of reading fluency and fluency instruction. In addition, included are the step-by-step procedures of…

  16. Early reading intervention by means of a multicomponent reading game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Leeuw, L.C. de; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a

  17. Pleasure Reading Cures Readicide and Facilitates Academic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, J. Mary; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Pleasure reading is an absolute choice to eradicate readicide, a systematic killing of the love for reading. This paper encompasses the different forms and consequences of readicide which will have negative impact not only on comprehension but also on the prior knowledge of a reader. Reading to score well on tests impedes the desire for reading…

  18. Reading by Design: Two Case Studies of Digital Reading Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Burke, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The digital reading practices of two middle school students in US and Canadian contexts are examined. Using a multimodal discourse framework, the authors contemplate what digital reading practice is and distinctive practices of reading texts online compared with printed, school-based literacy practices. By focusing on two different genres of…

  19. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, read paragraphs of text. Monocular reading comparisons were made between the amblyopic eye and the nondominant eye of control subjects and the nonamblyopic eye and the dominant eye of the control subjects. Binocular reading between the amblyopic and control subjects was also compared. RESULTS. Mean reading speed, number of progressive and regressive saccades per line, saccadic amplitude (of progressive saccades), and fixation duration were estimated. Inter- and intrasubject statistical comparisons were made. Reading speed was significantly slower in amblyopes than in control subjects during monocular reading with amblyopic (13.094 characters/s vs. 22.188 characters/s; P reading was significantly slower with the amblyopic eye than with the nonamblyopic eye in binocular viewing (P saccades and longer fixation durations, but not with changes in saccadic amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS. In strabismic amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression.

  20. The Matters in Teaching Reading Comprehension to EFL Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliana Natsir; Anisati Anisati

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the efforts that were being made by certified English teachers in teaching reading since reading is considered as one of the determiners of academic success. Descriptive qualitative research was used in this study; the subjects were two English teachers in Banda Aceh and the instrument was an interview guide. The interview questions were adapted from Fletcher, et al. (2012) that focused on curriculum, teacher preparation, teaching methodology, teachin...

  1. Effects of Motivation, Subject Activity, and Readability on the Retention of Prose Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Warren; Schumacher, Gary M.

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates read a prose passage and were tested on its contents. Difficulty, permission to underline key phrases, and financial motivation were varied. Non-highly motivated subjects performed better on the easy version; underlining aided highly motivated subjects and those reading the difficult version. (Author/RD)

  2. Effects of Schematic Factors on the EFL Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wido H. Toendan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper report an experimental study on the effects of EFL reading proficiency (PROF, text structure (TEXT, and prefactory Framework (PREF on the EFL reading comprehension (COMP of expository texts. The subjects of the study were the intermediate and advanced readers of the English Department students of STKIP Unika Widya Mandala Surabaya. Results of the study significantly reveal the independent effects of EFL PROF, TEXT, and PREF on the COMP of expository texts. Based on the findings of the study, some suggestions intended for the reading instructors, developers of the written instructional materials, and area of further research are offered

  3. Integrating Cultural Pluralism through Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2003-01-01

    Provides practical suggestions for teachers to integrate cultural pluralism in three reading strategies: (1) reading workshops; (2) writing workshops; (3) language experience approaches that make a valuable contribution to students of all cultural backgrounds. (Author/VWL)

  4. Selected Readings in Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Thomas R.; Robinson, Sandra K.

    1973-01-01

    Describes different sources of readings for understanding issues and concepts of genetic engineering. Broad categories of reading materials are: concerns about genetic engineering; its background; procedures; and social, ethical and legal issues. References are listed. (PS)

  5. Effect of depression on actual and perceived effects of reading rehabilitation for people with central vision loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grant, Patricia; Seiple, William; Szlyk, Janet P

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between depression and quantitative measures of visual function, we recruited 18 subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration who were enrolled in a reading...

  6. Reading speed does not benefit from increased line spacing in AMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L; Jarvis, Samuel H; Woo, Stanley Y; Hanson, Kara; Jose, Randall T

    2008-09-01

    Crowding, the adverse spatial interaction due to the proximity of adjacent targets, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in peripheral vision. Previously, we showed that increased line spacing, which presumably reduces crowding between adjacent lines of text, improved reading speed in the normal periphery (Chung, Optom Vis Sci 2004;81:525-35). The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not individuals with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) would benefit from increased line spacing for reading. Experiment 1: Eight subjects with AMD read aloud 100-word passages rendered at five line spacings: the standard single spacing, 1.5x, 2x, 3x, and 4x the standard spacing. Print sizes were 1x and 2x of the critical print size. Reading time and number of reading errors for each passage were measured to compute the reading speed. Experiment 2: Four subjects with AMD read aloud sequences of six 4-letter words, presented on a computer monitor using the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Target words were presented singly, or flanked above and below by two other words that changed in synchrony with the target word, at various vertical word separations. Print size was 2x the critical print size. Reading speed was calculated based on the RSVP exposure duration that yielded 80% of the words read correctly. Averaged across subjects, reading speeds for passages were virtually constant for the range of line spacings tested. For sequences of unrelated words, reading speeds were also virtually constant for the range of vertical word separations tested, except at the smallest (standard) separation at which reading speed was lower. Contrary to the previous finding that reading speed improved in normal peripheral vision, increased line spacing in passages, or increased vertical separation between words in RSVP, did not lead to improved reading speed in people with AMD.

  7. Does systematic reading instruction impede prediction of reading a shallow orthography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALFRED SCHABMANN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of reading instructions have been the subject of controversy. This study examined the influence of systematic phonics vs. non-systematic phonics methods of instruction on the prediction of reading. 443 kindergarten children were tested on phonological awareness, naming speed and visual word matching using the Bielefelder Screening (BISC. Children were retested in grades one and four. Results showed that although the prognostic validity of kindergarten measures was generally low, it was considerably higher for grade one children in classes with non-systematic phonics instruction. Children who received systematic phonics instruction scored significantly higher on measures of phonological decoding as compared to their peers who received less systematic instruction. Implications for the prediction of reading and early screenings are discussed.

  8. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  9. So Much to Read, So Little Time: How Do We Read, and Can Speed Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Keith; Schotter, Elizabeth R; Masson, Michael E J; Potter, Mary C; Treiman, Rebecca

    2016-05-01

    The prospect of speed reading--reading at an increased speed without any loss of comprehension--has undeniable appeal. Speed reading has been an intriguing concept for decades, at least since Evelyn Wood introduced her Reading Dynamics training program in 1959. It has recently increased in popularity, with speed-reading apps and technologies being introduced for smartphones and digital devices. The current article reviews what the scientific community knows about the reading process--a great deal--and discusses the implications of the research findings for potential students of speed-reading training programs or purchasers of speed-reading apps. The research shows that there is a trade-off between speed and accuracy. It is unlikely that readers will be able to double or triple their reading speeds (e.g., from around 250 to 500-750 words per minute) while still being able to understand the text as well as if they read at normal speed. If a thorough understanding of the text is not the reader's goal, then speed reading or skimming the text will allow the reader to get through it faster with moderate comprehension. The way to maintain high comprehension and get through text faster is to practice reading and to become a more skilled language user (e.g., through increased vocabulary). This is because language skill is at the heart of reading speed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  11. Teaching Content Is Teaching Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, E. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Every two years the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), "the Nation's Report Card," reports the nation's average reading and math scores in grades 4 and 8. Despite the strong focus on reading under the 2001 No Child Left Behind law, the recent 2009 reading scores were not statistically different from those of 2007, which…

  12. Teaching Reading: Research into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalister, John

    2014-01-01

    In pre-service and in-service language teacher education, and in curriculum-related projects in second and foreign language settings, a recurrent issue is the failure to relate the teaching of reading to reading as a meaning-making activity. In this paper, I will consider what current research on second language (L2) reading has actually succeeded…

  13. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other…

  14. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  15. Reading Aloud in EFL Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailani, Taiseer Zaid

    1998-01-01

    Highlights the functions of reading aloud and gives reasons for its practice in the foreign-language classroom. Suggests a dual approach for practicing both reading aloud and silent reading. Although specific focus is on English-language teaching in the Arab world, findings are relevant to foreign-language teaching in other countries as well.…

  16. THE PQRST STRATEGY, READING COMPREHENSION, AND LEARNING STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Hidayatu Miqowati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims at investigating the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in students’ reading comprehension, the effectiveness of the PQRST strategy in reading comprehension of students with different learning styles, and the interaction between the PQRST strategy and the students’ learning styles. This study employed a 2x2 factorial design. The subjects were the second semester students of Public Administration Department, Faculty of Political and Social Science, University of Bondowoso. Two classes were randomly selected as the samples of this study. The experimental class was taught by using the PQRST strategy and the non-experimental class by translation and reading aloud. The data were analysed by utilizing non parametric testing: Mann–Whitney U and Kruskall-Wallis. The findings showed that the PQRST strategy statistically impacted students’ reading comprehension compared to the one taught using the translation and reading aloud. But, it was revealed that there was no difference in the reading comprehension of students with different learning styles taught under the PQRST strategy and translation and reading aloud, and there was no interaction between teaching strategies and students’ learning styles.   Keywords: PQRST, learning styles, reading comprehension

  17. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  18. Reading Speed as a Constraint of Accuracy of Self-Perception of Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heekyung; Linderholm, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesised that college students take reading speed into consideration when evaluating their own reading skill, even if reading speed does not reliably predict actual reading skill. To test this hypothesis, we measured self-perception of reading skill, self-perception of reading speed, actual reading skill and actual reading speed to…

  19. Reading, writing, rebelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubinsky, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    What is reading? What is writing? What connects the two? These questions have been the fertile ground for many literary and philosophical theories, from New Criticism to Deconstruction. This essay does not pretend answering to these two questions, but rather to question the question themselves...... and try to shed a different light of this essential problematic. Choosing not to consider literature as a stable concept, but rather as an ontologically impermanent one, I try to reflect upon the terms that condition our approach of works and of the creation of these works. In a large perspective......, the notions of “reading” and “writing” are examined through the prism of their incarnations as “works”, and the consequences of this identity have on our critical discourse. In order to read critically, one must thus recognize this immanent instability of our notions and definitions, and begin from...

  20. Reading on LCD vs e-Ink displays: effects on fatigue and visual strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Bochud, Yves; Bergamin, Per; Wurtz, Pascal

    2012-09-01

    Most recently light and mobile reading devices with high display resolutions have become popular and they may open new possibilities for reading applications in education, business and the private sector. The ability to adapt font size may also open new reading opportunities for people with impaired or low vision. Based on their display technology two major groups of reading devices can be distinguished. One type, predominantly found in dedicated e-book readers, uses electronic paper also known as e-Ink. Other devices, mostly multifunction tablet-PCs, are equipped with backlit LCD displays. While it has long been accepted that reading on electronic displays is slow and associated with visual fatigue, this new generation is explicitly promoted for reading. Since research has shown that, compared to reading on electronic displays, reading on paper is faster and requires fewer fixations per line, one would expect differential effects when comparing reading behaviour on e-Ink and LCD. In the present study we therefore compared experimentally how these two display types are suited for reading over an extended period of time. Participants read for several hours on either e-Ink or LCD, and different measures of reading behaviour and visual strain were regularly recorded. These dependent measures included subjective (visual) fatigue, a letter search task, reading speed, oculomotor behaviour and the pupillary light reflex. Results suggested that reading on the two display types is very similar in terms of both subjective and objective measures. It is not the technology itself, but rather the image quality that seems crucial for reading. Compared to the visual display units used in the previous few decades, these more recent electronic displays allow for good and comfortable reading, even for extended periods of time. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  1. Optimizing speed reading practice for reading fluency: How many Speed Reading exercises should you do per class?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuisting, Bjorn; Dalton, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Speed Reading has been demonstrated to be an important element in an L2 Reading course for improving reading fluency. However research has not been published on how many sessions of Speed Reading should be done in each class. Is one Speed Reading session enough, or do two per class produce dramatically better gains in reading speed? Does any differential gain remain after controlling for the quantity of Speed Reading text? Examining reading speed gains from two equivalent class samples, the f...

  2. Evaluation of reading speed and contrast sensitivity in dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, William H; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Jing-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Visual disturbance is a common symptom reported by patients with dry eye disease (DED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate visual performance, including reading speed and contrast sensitivity, in control and DED subjects. Fifty-two DED patients (mild, n = 17; moderate, n = 22; severe, n = 13; based on corneal staining and the Ocular Surface Disease Index ≥ 20) and 20 control subjects (Ocular Surface Disease Index reading speed was determined using the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test. Analysis of covariance was conducted to compare clinical characteristics among subject groups while adjusting for age, sex, and study site. Partial correlation coefficients from linear regression were used to measure the linear relationship between contrast sensitivity and reading speed with DED parameters. The log of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuities and contrast sensitivity were not significantly different across subject groups. The DED patients (134.9 ± 4.95 words per minute) exhibited slower reading speeds than the control subjects (158.3 ± 8.40 words per minute, p = 0.046). As DED severity increased, the reading speed decreased (141.0 ± 7.96 words per minute, 136.8 ± 7.15 words per minute, and 127.0 ± 9.63 words per minute in mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively). Reading rate was found to correlate weakly with corneal staining based on a partial correlation coefficient (-0.345, p reading rate was lower in DED subjects than that in control subjects. As the DED severity increased, the reading rate decreased. This finding is consistent with patient-reported symptoms and provides direct evidence for the impact of DED on reading performance. These findings suggest that reading speed may be used to monitor treatment benefit in DED.

  3. Robots who read grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Macklin-Cordes, Jayden L.; Blackbourne, Nathaniel L.; Bott, Thomas J.; Cook, Jacqueline; Mark Ellison, T.; Hollis, Jordan; Kirlew, Edith E.; Richards, Genevieve C.; Zhao, Sanle; Round, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Robots who read grammarsJayden L. Macklin-Cordes, Nathaniel L. Blackbourne, Thomas J. Bott, Jacqueline Cook, T. Mark Ellison, Jordan Hollis, Edith E. Kirlew, Genevieve C. Richards, Sanle Zhao, Erich R. RoundPoster presented at CoEDL Fest 2017, Alexandra Park Conference Centre, Alexandra Headlands, QLD, Australia. Hosted by the University of Queensland. 6 February 2017.AbstractLinguistic typology has yet to undergo a computational revolution like that seen in other scientific endeavours. Never...

  4. Reading Heidegger after Derrida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Strawser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to broach the complex difference between Martin Heidegger and Jacques Derrida, It focuses on the fundamental assumptions involved in the reading of Heidegger's Being and Time and Derrida's early "noted" attention to this text. Is Heidegger's early work essentially tainted by "the metaphysics of presence," as Derrida wishes to suggest? After sketching Derrida's interpretation, the author attempts to show how readers of Being and Time need not succumb to Derrida's criticism.

  5. ReadDB Provides Efficient Storage for Mapped Short Reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifford David K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled sequencing based measurements of cellular function, with an individual measurement potentially consisting of more than 108 reads. While tools are available for aligning sets of reads to genomes and interpreting the results, fewer tools have been developed to address the storage and retrieval requirements of large collections of aligned datasets. We present ReadDB, a network accessible column store database system for aligned high-throughput read datasets. Results ReadDB stores collections of aligned read positions and provides a client interface to support visualization and analysis. ReadDB is implemented as a network server that responds to queries on genomic intervals in an experiment with either the set of contained reads or a histogram based interval summary. Tests on datasets ranging from 105 to 108 reads demonstrate that ReadDB performance is generally within a factor of two of local-storage based methods and often three to five times better than other network-based methods. Conclusions ReadDB is a high-performance foundation for ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis. The client-server model provides convenient access to compute cluster nodes or desktop visualization software without requiring a shared network filesystem or large amounts of local storage. The client code provides a simple interface for fast data access to visualization or analysis. ReadDB provides a new way to store genome-aligned reads for use in applications where read sequence and alignment mismatches are not needed.

  6. ReadDB provides efficient storage for mapped short reads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, P Alexander; Gifford, David K

    2011-07-07

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing has enabled sequencing based measurements of cellular function, with an individual measurement potentially consisting of more than 108 reads. While tools are available for aligning sets of reads to genomes and interpreting the results, fewer tools have been developed to address the storage and retrieval requirements of large collections of aligned datasets. We present ReadDB, a network accessible column store database system for aligned high-throughput read datasets. ReadDB stores collections of aligned read positions and provides a client interface to support visualization and analysis. ReadDB is implemented as a network server that responds to queries on genomic intervals in an experiment with either the set of contained reads or a histogram based interval summary. Tests on datasets ranging from 105 to 108 reads demonstrate that ReadDB performance is generally within a factor of two of local-storage based methods and often three to five times better than other network-based methods. ReadDB is a high-performance foundation for ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analysis. The client-server model provides convenient access to compute cluster nodes or desktop visualization software without requiring a shared network filesystem or large amounts of local storage. The client code provides a simple interface for fast data access to visualization or analysis. ReadDB provides a new way to store genome-aligned reads for use in applications where read sequence and alignment mismatches are not needed.

  7. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading. Davies, Florence (1995. Introducing Reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Gomes Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi. Arising at a time of unprecedented growth of interest in fostering critical thinking, Introducing Reading offers a clear introduction and thorough account of contemporary developments in the field of reading. While overtly focusing on the special demands of social and human aspects of the reading practice, the issues raised have crucial resonance in the sphere of critical reading. Explicitly addressed to teachers of mother tongue and foreign language contexts, the book claims to elaborate on aspects of reading which have received meager attention to date: individual readers engaged in different real-world reading tasks, the social contexts where such readers engage and interact with texts, and the nature and variety of texts, here regarded as “participants” in the interaction between reader and writer. To this extent, the book successfully reaches the ambitious aim of “socializing and humanizing reading and the teaching of reading” (p. xi.

  8. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  9. Effect of reading on blood flow changes in the posterior cerebral artery in early blind and sighted people--A transcranial Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viski, Sandor; Orgovan, David; Szabo, Katalin; Rosengarten, Bernhard; Csiba, Laszlo; Olah, Laszlo

    2016-04-15

    Neuroimaging studies proved that Braille reading resulted in visual cortex activation in blind people, however, very few data are available about the measure of flow increase in these subjects. Therefore, we investigated the flow response in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) of eleven early blind and ten sighted subjects induced by reading Braille and print, respectively. Two experimental protocols were used in both groups: PCA flow velocity during reading was compared to the resting phase and "NLC" phase (volunteers "read" non-lexical characters; e.g. .,-.:,-.:...,). The use of these experimental protocols allowed to investigate separately the effect of "light stimulus+print reading" versus "print reading alone" in sighted, and "hand/finger movement+Braille reading" versus "Braille reading alone" in blind subjects. The flow response in the PCA evoked by "Braille reading alone" in blind (10.5±4.5%) and "print reading alone" in sighted subjects (8.1±3.5%) was similar. The flow increase induced by "hand/finger movement+Braille reading" and by "Braille reading alone" did not differ in blind people, however, "light stimulus+print reading" in sighted subjects caused higher PCA flow increase (25.9±6.9%) than "print reading alone" (8.1±3.5%). The similar PCA flow response induced by Braille and print reading alone suggested a similar degree of occipital cortex activation in blind and sighted subjects. In sighted people, the 3-times higher flow velocity increase induced by "light stimulus+print reading" compared with "print reading alone" indicated that 2/3 of PCA flow increase during reading was due to the light stimulus and only 1/3 of flow response was caused by reading alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative Contributions of Caregivers' Level of Education, Role Definition and Average Household Income to Caregiver Involvement in Children's Emergent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambiri, Gladwell N.; Ndani, Mary N.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have consistently reported low reading achievement levels among primary school children in Kenya. Reading is a very critical component of children's development. Many aspects of learning at school revolve around this skill. Being the media via which other subjects are taught and learnt, reading is very significant and could…

  11. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  12. The Relationship between Reading Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Reading Strategy Use and Reading Comprehension Level of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mahdieh; Zaferanieh, Elaheh

    2012-01-01

    This co-relational study explored the relationship between reading self-efficacy beliefs, reading strategies use and reading comprehension level of Iranian EFL learners. In this study, Michigan reading comprehension test, a self-reported Reading Strategy Use Questionnaire, and a Reading Self-efficacy Questionnaire were administered to eighty…

  13. Program Evaluation of the Direct Instruction Reading Interventions: Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Nita M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this program evaluation was to evaluate the Direct Instruction programs, Reading Mastery and Corrective Reading, from SRA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, which were being used as a school-wide reading intervention. These programs were implemented at a small elementary school in the Piedmont area of North Carolina beginning in the…

  14. Miraculous Readings: Using Fantasy Novels about Reading to Reflect on Reading the Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the vivid images of reading presented in several popular fantasy novels, including "The Spiderwick Chronicles," "The Great Good Thing," and "The Neverending Story." It suggests that these images can be used to help children, youth, and adults reflect on the nature of reading and the potential power of reading sacred texts.…

  15. Reading Fluency and Students with Reading Disabilities: How Fast Is Fast Enough to Promote Reading Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rollanda E.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of improving reading rate and fluency is to positively impact reading comprehension; however, it is unclear how fast students with learning disabilities (LD) need to read to reap this benefit. The purpose of this research was to identify the point of diminishing return for students who were dysfluent readers. Participants included 337…

  16. Word Reading Efficiency, Text Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension among Chinese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangying; Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sabatini, John

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among word reading efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension for adult English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Data from 185 adult Chinese EFL learners preparing to take the Test-of-English-as-a-Foreign-Language[TM] (TOEFL[R]) were analyzed in this study. The participants completed a…

  17. Book Clubs in Developmental Reading: Building Reading Comprehension, Fostering Reading Enjoyment, and Engaging Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The use of book clubs in college developmental reading classes is an effective way to encourage reluctant readers to build and strengthen reading skills, foster reading enjoyment, and engage students. In addition, book clubs build a sense of community within the classroom as the students converse and share their interpretations of the reading…

  18. Reading to Learn or Learning to Read? Engaging College Students in Course Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Mary Margaret; Frese, Kristen M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite instructors' belief that class readings are integral to the learning process, only 20-30% of undergraduate students complete required readings. Failure to complete course reading has been associated with declines in exam and research performance. This article first offers a brief review of the literature on why students do not complete…

  19. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  20. Eye movement control during single-word reading in dyslexics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeben, Manfred; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne; Reinhard, Jens; Dürrwächter, Ute; Adler, Martin; Klosinski, Gunther

    2004-05-14

    We investigated whether dyslexics make instantaneous automatic adjustments of reading saccades depending on word length. We used a single-word reading paradigm on 10 dyslexic and 12 normally reading children aged 11-15 years. Eye movements were recorded by scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) while subjects read single words of different length aloud. All subjects passed standardized prescreening tests, which included a reading test, to exclude those with discernible deficits of eyesight, oculomotor skill, or intellectual development. We measured number, direction, frequency, and amplitude of saccades, as well as the durations of inter-saccadic intervals, as functions of word length. The results show that word length influences the number and amplitude of reading saccades in both subject groups, but this relationship showed quantitatively significant group-specific differences: Both groups showed a gradual increase of the saccade amplitudes in either direction dependent on word length, but the gain of this function was significantly lower in the dyslexics. The durations of holding phases between saccades were significantly longer in the dyslexics, and accordingly, we found a lower rate of occurrence of saccades per unit time in the dyslexics. Forward saccade amplitudes showed no correlation with the duration of the preceding or following holding phases in either group. The data show that the mechanisms enabling dyslexics to make instantaneous adjustments of reading saccades depending on word length are present but quantitatively impaired. This supports the view that these adjustments may help dyslexics to increase reading speed, but that they cannot utilize them to the same extent as normal readers.

  1. The Benefits of Graded Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Albay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doing large amounts of extensive reading at suitable levels of understanding is a productive tool to increase reading rate, vocabulary, motivation, attitude and general language proficiency. The amount of vocabulary and grammar learners has determines their language proficiency. Extensive reading enables learners to attain competencies in language skills. Graded readers are essential materials for doing extensive reading. They are particularly designed to enable learners practice reading skills and provide an opportunity to reinforce known vocabulary. Through multiple exposures learners become familiar with grammatical structures and vocabulary. Moreover, learners experience how they function in texts and they are motivated to use the vocabulary and structures they have learnt in their communication. Graded readers motivate learners, help them gain reading fluency, enhance their vocabulary and grammar knowledge development. This article defines extensive reading, emphasizes its contributions to language proficiency development and finally stresses out the role of grader readers in language learning.

  2. Eye movement analysis of reading from computer displays, eReaders and printed books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambarbieri, Daniela; Carniglia, Elena

    2012-09-01

    To compare eye movements during silent reading of three eBooks and a printed book. The three different eReading tools were a desktop PC, iPad tablet and Kindle eReader. Video-oculographic technology was used for recording eye movements. In the case of reading from the computer display the recordings were made by a video camera placed below the computer screen, whereas for reading from the iPad tablet, eReader and printed book the recording system was worn by the subject and had two cameras: one for recording the movement of the eyes and the other for recording the scene in front of the subject. Data analysis provided quantitative information in terms of number of fixations, their duration, and the direction of the movement, the latter to distinguish between fixations and regressions. Mean fixation duration was different only in reading from the computer display, and was similar for the Tablet, eReader and printed book. The percentage of regressions with respect to the total amount of fixations was comparable for eReading tools and the printed book. The analysis of eye movements during reading an eBook from different eReading tools suggests that subjects' reading behaviour is similar to reading from a printed book. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  3. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in

  4. The Nature of Children's Motivations for Reading, and Their Relations to Reading Frequency and Reading Performance. Reading Research Report No. 63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; And Others

    A study assessed dimensions of children's reading motivations by giving them a revised version of the Motivations for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ). The MRQ is designed to assess 11 possible dimensions of reading motivations, including reading efficacy, several intrinsic and several extrinsic reading motivations, social aspects of reading, and the…

  5. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  6. On the Practice Teaching of English Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    The main task of practice teaching of English Reading is to train students' independent reading ability and good reading habits. Extra-curricular reading of English literature and English newspapers and magazines plays an active role in improving English reading ability. The principle of selecting reading materials, the scope of selection and the…

  7. Why Reading Fluency Should Be Hot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores problems that have surfaced in the teaching of reading fluency and how teachers and reading coaches can resolve those problems. Specific issues addressed include reading fluency being defined as reading fast and instruction that is focused on having students read fast, reading fluency viewed as solely and oral reading…

  8. Assessing the relationship between Vocabulary Level Test (VLT and reading comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpino Susanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been considered crucial about how vocabulary knowledge in relation with reading comprehension. This research was conducted to explore the link of Indonesian students Vocabulary Level Test (VLT performance and their reading textbook on reading subject. Through this pilot research, it can describe the implications profile in English teaching process especially in reading. Furthermore it can give more information in how to measure the reading textbook reference for reading subject or other similar subject that involve reading activities. There were 30 undergraduate students in Universitas Putera Batam that participated in the VLT. Their English textbook (Mosaic 1 was profiled to measure the lexical vocabulary level. The results indicated that only 1% of the participants had mastered the 2000-word level which means the vocabulary textbook-level is still far from students vocabulary knowledge. From the level of comparison theoretically they would have difficulties to comprehend the reading textbook, and some additional activities would be recommended, before, during and after the reading subject.

  9. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient’s occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere “reading-without-LvOT” pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient’s case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. PMID:23017598

  10. Korean Version Self-testing Application for Reading Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhiu, Soolienah; Kim, Moses; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Hye Jin; Lim, Tae Hyung

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a reading chart application for the iPad tablet in the Korean language and investigates the reading speed in a normal-sighted population according to age group. Sixty-three Korean sentences were selected from textbooks for second grade elementary school students. A commonly used typeface in everyday printed material, "BatangChe," was used. Letter size was presented in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) 0.0 to 1.0 at 0.1 logMAR steps at a reading distance of 40 cm. A third generation retina display iPad was used to present the chart, and the sentences were presented randomly for each size of letter. The subjects repeated the test silently (reading only) and out loud (reading and speaking) to prevent them from skipping reading words. Pilot testing followed in 65 normal vision adults under 60 years of age. The mean reading only speed for logMAR 0.5 optotype (point 10) was 121.1 ± 47.2 words per minute (wpm) for people in their 20s (n=21), 116.5 ± 38.3 in their 30s (n=27), 93.8 ± 12.6 in their 40s (n=9), and 56.5 ± 42.7 (n=8) in their 50s. There was a significant correlation between age and reading and speaking speed (r=-0.48, preading only speed for logMAR 0.5 optotype (point 10) was 202.3 ± 88.4 wpm and the mean reading and speaking speed was 129.7 ± 25.9 wpm, with significantly different (preading chart application could present a new standard when checking reading speed according to age groups.

  11. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Neufeld, Nicholas H; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M; Humphreys, Glyn W; Price, Cathy J

    2012-12-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient's occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere "reading-without-LvOT" pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient's case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the Average of Five Readings with Averages from Fewer Readings for Automated Oscillometric Blood Pressure Measurement in an Outpatient Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Ayoade

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives The optimal number of consecutive measurements for obtaining an average blood pressure (BP) reading in clinical practice is yet undefined by research. This study aimed to compare readings obtained from an average of 5 with averages of 2, 3, and 4, sequential measurements. Subjects and Methods Using an automated oscillometric device (BpTRU), BP measurement was conducted on 410 consenting adults attending a general outpatients clinic. Comparison of an average of 5 readings with averages of 2, 3, and 4 readings involved evaluation of correlations, Bland-Altman analysis, comparison of means and distribution of readings, and determination of the proportion of differences between compared readings which were clinically non-significant. Results 397 (96.8%) sets of complete BP readings were suitable for analysis. Clinically non-significant differences (≤5 mm Hg) were found between at least 79.3% (n=315) and 96.5% (n=383) of compared systolic and diastolic readings, respectively. Bland-Altman's analysis revealed that the 95% limits of agreement for the differences between compared readings were approximately 2-4, 3-7, and 4-11 mm Hg for 2, 3 and 4 readings' systolic comparisons while those for diastolic comparisons were 2-3, 3-5, and 4-7 mm Hg, respectively. Statistically non-significant differences were observed in all comparisons of the distributions of readings that were classified as <140 mm Hg or ≥140 mm Hg and <90 mm Hg or ≥90 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic readings, respectively. Strong positive correlations were found between 5 average readings and each of 2, 3, and 4 average readings, respectively. Conclusion An average of 5 readings may be excessive for routine BP measurement using this device at outpatient clinics. PMID:23755079

  13. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reading Lawyer Films

    OpenAIRE

    Elkins, James

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of film studies in the United States, there has been a growing interest in legal academic circles in lawyer, legal, and courtroom films. In Professor Elkins’s essay, we find a claim that Hollywood lawyer films have pedagogical value.With the emerging interest in lawyer and legal films, there is virtually nothing written about what or how films are to be taught, and what their value might be. Professor Elkins provides the basic axioms for a humanistic approach to reading lawyer...

  15. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Bola

    Full Text Available Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  16. Braille in the Sighted: Teaching Tactile Reading to Sighted Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bola, Łukasz; Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Hańczur, Paweł; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Blind people are known to have superior perceptual abilities in their remaining senses. Several studies suggest that these enhancements are dependent on the specific experience of blind individuals, who use those remaining senses more than sighted subjects. In line with this view, sighted subjects, when trained, are able to significantly progress in relatively simple tactile tasks. However, the case of complex tactile tasks is less obvious, as some studies suggest that visual deprivation itself could confer large advantages in learning them. It remains unclear to what extent those complex skills, such as braille reading, can be learnt by sighted subjects. Here we enrolled twenty-nine sighted adults, mostly braille teachers and educators, in a 9-month braille reading course. At the beginning of the course, all subjects were naive in tactile braille reading. After the course, almost all were able to read whole braille words at a mean speed of 6 words-per-minute. Subjects with low tactile acuity did not differ significantly in braille reading speed from the rest of the group, indicating that low tactile acuity is not a limiting factor for learning braille, at least at this early stage of learning. Our study shows that most sighted adults can learn whole-word braille reading, given the right method and a considerable amount of motivation. The adult sensorimotor system can thus adapt, to some level, to very complex tactile tasks without visual deprivation. The pace of learning in our group was comparable to congenitally and early blind children learning braille in primary school, which suggests that the blind's mastery of complex tactile tasks can, to a large extent, be explained by experience-dependent mechanisms.

  17. Literature in Common: Reading for Pleasure in School Reading Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cremin, Teresa; Swann, Joan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers the reading experiences of voluntary reading groups in schools, their collaborative interpretation of children’s/young adult literature, and their construction of reader identities. We focus on a study of secondary school reading groups in different parts of the UK as they took part in a scheme to ‘shadow’ the judging of two prestigious children’s book awards: the Carnegie Medal and the Kate Greenaway Medal. The groups spent part of the summer term reading and discussin...

  18. Shared orthographic neuronal representations for spelling and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Jeremy J; Jiang, Xiong; Eden, Guinevere F

    2017-02-15

    A central question in the study of the neural basis of written language is whether reading and spelling utilize shared orthographic representations. While recent studies employing fMRI to test this question report that the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC) are active during both spelling and reading in the same subjects (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), the spatial resolution of fMRI limits the interpretation of these findings. Specifically, it is unknown if the neurons which encode orthography for reading are also involved in spelling of the same words. Here we address this question by employing an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging-adaptation (fMRI-A) paradigm designed to examine shared orthographic representations across spelling and reading. First, we identified areas that independently showed adaptation to reading, and adaptation to spelling. Then we identified spatial convergence for these two separate maps via a conjunction analysis. Consistent with previous studies (Purcell et al., 2011a; Rapp and Lipka, 2011), this analysis revealed the left dorsal IFG, vOTC and supplementary motor area. To further validate these observations, we then interrogated these regions using an across-task adaptation technique, and found adaptation across reading and spelling in the left dorsal IFG (BA 44/9). Our final analysis focused specifically on the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) in the vOTC, whose variability in location among subjects requires the use of subject-specific identification mechanisms (Glezer and Riesenhuber, 2013). Using a functional localizer for reading, we defined the VWFA in each subject, and found adaptation effects for both within the spelling and reading conditions, respectively, as well as across spelling and reading. Because none of these effects were observed during a phonological/semantic control condition, we conclude that the left dorsal IFG and VWFA are involved in accessing

  19. Teaching lip-reading: the efficacy of lessons on video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, B; Plant, G; Gregory, M

    1989-08-01

    Studies of the efficacy of filmed and videotaped materials for lip-reading self instruction have provided encouraging results. The recent increase in private ownership of VCRs allows widespread home use of video lessons for improving lip-reading skills. Such an approach is particularly, useful for hearing-impaired adults who have no access to lip-reading classes. To fill this need in Australia a 3-hour video cassette of nine lip-reading lessons was produced. The video lessons were tested over a period of 5 weeks. The study showed a significant improvement in the lip-reading skill of students who studied the video cassette compared to a control group who did not. The extent of improvement did not differ for students who studied the video in a class, at home, or as supplementary teaching material. While the age and sex of the subjects did not influence improvement of lip-reading skills, the study showed greater improvement for the relatively poorer lip-readers. More detailed testing of one group of students showed generalization of lip-reading skills to unfamiliar speakers and materials.

  20. Maximizing Reading Narrative Text Ability by Probing Prompting Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwied Pratiwi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to know whether Probing Prompting Learning Technique can be used to get the maximum effect of students’ reading narrative ability in teaching and learning process. This research was applied collaborative action reEsearch, this research was done in two cycle. The subject of this research was 23 students at tenth grade of SMA Kartikatama Metro. The result of the research showed that the Probing Prompting Learning Technique is useful and effective to help students get maximum effect of their reading. Based on the results of the questionnaire obtained an average percentage of 95%, it indicated that application of Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching l reading was appropriately applied. In short that students’ responses toward Probing Prompting Learning Technique in teaching reading was positive. In conclusion, Probing Prompting Learning Technique can get maximum effect of students’ reading ability. In relation to the result of the reserach, some suggestion are offered to english teacher, that  the use of Probing Prompting learning Technique in teaching reading will get the maximum effect of students’ reading abilty.

  1. Oculomotor inhibition of return in normal and mindless reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, John M; Luke, Steven G

    2012-12-01

    Oculomotor inhibition of return (O-IOR) is an increase in saccade latency prior to an eye movement to a recently fixated location, as compared with other locations. To investigate O-IOR in reading, subjects participated in two conditions while their eye movements were recorded: normal reading and mindless reading with words replaced by geometric shapes. We investigated the manifestation of O-IOR in reading and whether it is related to extracting meaning from the text or is an oculomotor phenomenon. The results indicated that fixation durations prior to a saccade returning to the immediately preceding fixated word were longer than those to other words, consistent with O-IOR. Furthermore, fixation durations were longest prior to a saccade that returned the eyes to the specific character position in the word that had previously been fixated and dropped off as the distance between the previously fixated character and landing position increased. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that O-IOR is relatively precise in its application during reading and drops off as a gradient. Both of these results were found for text reading and for mindless reading, suggesting that they are consequences of oculomotor control, and not of language processing. Finally, although these temporal IOR effects were robust, no spatial consequences of IOR were observed: Previously fixated words and characters were as likely to be refixated as new words and characters.

  2. The Role of Speech Prosody and Text Reading Prosody in Children's Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody--which is independent from reading skills--in addition to text reading prosody, to reading comprehension could…

  3. Using Anticipatory Reading Guides to Improve Elementary Students’ Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Ortlieb

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of an elementary school teacher is equipping students with comprehension strategies that transfer to all content areas. With stable levels of reading achievement over the last two decades in the United States, it is necessary that further research be conducted on methods of increasing students’ comprehension proficiencies. This experimental research study explores the use of an anticipatory reading guide with third grade struggling readers across multiple subject areas. Findings indicate that the experimental treatment group outperformed the control group by a statistically significant rate on both reading and content area measures, indicating that when struggling readers practice and use strategies to explicitly think what will be asked of them after reading the passage they perform at higher levels.

  4. Increased Stroop interference with better second-language reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Wouter; Noppe, Nele; Wagemans, Johan; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2011-03-01

    Skilled readers demonstrate remarkable efficiency in processing written words, unlike beginning readers for whom reading occurs more serially and places higher demands on visual attention. In the present study, we used the Stroop paradigm to investigate the relationship between reading skill and automaticity, in individuals learning a second language with a different orthographic system. Prior studies using this paradigm have presented a mixed picture, finding a positive, a negative, or no relationship between the size of Stroop interference and reading skills. Our results show that Stroop interference in the second language was positively related to reading skill (when controlled for interference in the first language). Furthermore, interference was positively related to objective but not subjective indices of the amount of exposure to the second language. We suggest that the lack of consistency in the results of earlier studies may be due, at least in part, to these studies looking at Stroop interference in isolation, rather than comparing interference between languages.

  5. Psychometric Features of a Scale for Characterizing Motivation for Academic Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Muñoz Valenzuela; Schonemann Ferreira Torres; Pamela Sánchez Quintul; Sylvia Santander Pérez; Marcela Pérez Rodríguez; Jorge Valenzuela Carreño

    2012-01-01

    The competencies associated with academic reading, especially the motivational aspects, are essential to undergraduate students’ academic success. Motivation is an emerging issue that has given rise to many studies, yet motivation for academic reading remains a subject rarely addressed or studied. To effectively support the learning process, a diagnostic that is capable of providing precise, valid and reliable information on the motivational aspects of reading in an academic context is...

  6. Critical reading: how familiarity and distance affect reader — text interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Sônia Maria de Oliveira

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation is aimed at the teaching of critical reading in English to foreign language students. Accordingly it analyses familiarity or distance as well as interest in topics in the light of reader-text interaction. Previous research based on the product of reading has revealed that in first language excess or lack of familiarity with the contents of texts has a negative influence in their evaluation thus hindering critical reading. Our experiment which presents subject informants (for...

  7. Impact of low vision care on reading performance in children with multiple disabilities and visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Ramani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of evidence in literature to show low vision care enhances the reading performance in children with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment (MDVI. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of Low Vision Care intervention on the reading performance of children with MDVI. Materials and Methods: Three subjects who were diagnosed to have cerebral palsy and visual impairment, studying in a special school were recruited for the study. All of them underwent detailed eye examination and low vision care evaluation at a tertiary eye care hospital. A single subject multiple baseline (study design was adopted and the study period was 16 weeks. The reading performance (reading speed, reading accuracy, reading fluency was evaluated during the baseline phase and the intervention phase. The median of all the reading parameters for each week was noted. The trend of the reading performance was graphically represented in both the phases. Results: Reading speed increased by 37 Word per minute, 37 Letters per minute and 5 letters per minute for the subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively after the intervention. Reading accuracy was 84%, 91% and 86.4% at the end of the baseline period and 98.7%, 98.4% and 99% at the end of 16 weeks for subject 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Average reading fluency score was 8.3, 7.1 and 5.5 in the baseline period and 10.2, 10.2 and 8.7 in the intervention period. Conclusion: This study shows evidence of noticeable improvement in reading performance of children with MDVI using a novel study design.

  8. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Carreteiro, Rui; Justo, João; Figueira, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5% of the variance of children’s language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent–child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the ef...

  9. Pictures, Images and Deep Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Janice

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the support provided by multimodal children’s literature in the development of literacy. The focus is on reading in a second language and the negotiation of understanding due to information gaps in the narrative, and on reading pleasure due to sensory anchoring through pictures. The development of deep reading is differentiated from the acquisition of functional literacy skills. Further, the differentiation between the medium-embeddedness of pictures and the perceptual-tr...

  10. The relative effects of reading interventions on reading and understanding from science text for high school students with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kathleen Louise

    High school teachers require their students to gain information independently from text; however, up to 40% of high school students are unable to do so. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the need for teaching reading at the secondary level. Twenty tenth-graders with learning disabilities participated in this study. The independent variable was the type of reading intervention: text reading, vocabulary learning, a combination or text reading and vocabulary learning, and no intervention. The dependent variables were reading fluency, vocabulary knowledge, and science knowledge. Student participants were assigned to conditions in a counter-balanced order using a within-subject design, and passages were coupled with intervention so that each passage appeared equally across interventions. Instructional reading passages were taken from a standard biology text, and treatment was conducted on these passages only. Two weeks following treatment, measures on generalization passages were taken. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results from this study could have implications in furthering the body of research for teaching reading to adolescents.

  11. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  12. A Case for Slow Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Ostercamp

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay makes a case for the value of slow or deep reading.  Inspired by the Slow Food movement it seeks to apply their principles to reading.  It begins by exploring the meaning of information and how like food, information has come to be regarded as a commodity.  Drawing upon the philosophy of Albert Borgmann, it counters the prevalent commodity view of information by offering an alternative paradigm that connects careful reading to human flourishing.  It argues that by connecting information to pleasure and community, slow reading advocates can have comparable success to that enjoyed by the slow food movement.

  13. Technological Transformations of Reading Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anne-Mette Bech

    The increasing use of social media along with the rapidly developing digitization of the book has led to a range of new circumstances for writing, publishing and reading books, resulting in transformations in reading culture and practices. The social aspect of reading is emphasized when readers...... relations in the network of writers, publishers, readers, and reviewers. Similarly, the increasing use of electronic reading devices plays a key role in the acceleration of a culture in which the audience engages with cultural works in new ways. The print book has an “easy materiality” (Marshall, 2010, p...

  14. Didactic Strategies to Improve Reading and Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elide del Rosario Castellanos Santiago

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the present article is that it tries to reflect on generating theoretical orientations on didactic strategies to improve the literacy in the students of the school Mercedes Diaz of the parish Sabana de Mendoza, municipality Sucre, Trujillo state. Methodologically, the research was documentary, descriptive, supported by the postulates of Lev Vygotsky (1993, Piaget (1978 and Emilia Ferreiro (2000, Ortiz, (2008 Flower and Hayes (2009. The obtained results evidenced the effective participation by the teachers and the commitment acquired through the management and application of didactic strategies of reading and writing that can favor the learning of the subject that learns.

  15. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  16. Functional impairment of reading in patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M; Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Swenor, Bonnielin S; Utine, Canan A; Rubin, Gary S; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the impact of dry eye on reading performance. Out-loud and silent reading in patients with clinically significant dry eye (n=41) and controls (n=50) was evaluated using standardised texts. Dry eye measures included tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test and corneal epithelial staining. Symptoms were assessed by the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). The dry eye group had a greater proportion of women as compared with the control group but did not differ in age, race, education level or visual acuity (p≥0.05 for all). Out-loud reading speed averaged 148 words per minute (wpm) in dry eye subjects and 163 wpm in controls (p=0.006). Prolonged silent reading speed averaged 199 wpm in dry eye subjects versus 226 wpm in controls (p=0.03). In multivariable regression models, out-loud and sustained silent reading speeds were 10 wpm (95% CI -20 to -1 wpm, p=0.039) and 14% (95% CI -25% to -2%, p=0.032) slower, respectively, in dry eye subjects as compared with controls. Greater corneal staining was associated with slower out-loud (-2 wpm/1 unit increase in staining score, 95% CI =-3 to -0.3 wpm) and silent (-2%, 95% CI -4 to -0.6 wpm) reading speeds (preading speed (preading speeds, providing direct evidence regarding the functional impact of dry eye. Reading speed represents a measurable clinical finding that correlates directly with dry eye severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity)—how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency and reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word reading fluency and reading comprehension. We examined (1) developmentally changing relations among word reading fluency, listening comprehension, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension; (2) the relation of reading comprehension to text reading fluency; (3) unique emergent literacy predictors (i.e., phonological awareness, orthographic awareness, morphological awareness, letter name knowledge, vocabulary) of text reading fluency vs. word reading fluency; and (4) unique language and cognitive predictors (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, theory of mind) of text reading fluency vs. reading comprehension. These questions were addressed using longitudinal data (two timepoints; Mean age = 5;24 & 6;08) from Korean-speaking children (N = 143). Results showed that listening comprehension was related to text reading fluency at time 2, but not at time 1. At both times text reading fluency was related to reading comprehension, and reading comprehension was related to text reading fluency over and above word reading fluency and listening comprehension. Orthographic awareness was related to text reading fluency over and above other emergent literacy skills and word reading fluency. Vocabulary and grammatical knowledge were independently related to text reading fluency and reading comprehension whereas theory of mind was related to reading comprehension, but not text reading fluency. These results reveal developmental nature of relations and mechanism of text reading fluency in reading development. PMID:26435550

  18. Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.S.; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for average readers than for skilled readers; and (4) listening comprehension predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers. PMID:21747658

  19. Rewards for Reading: Their Effects on Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Hwa; Wu, Jen-Rung

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, many Taiwanese elementary schools have implemented extensive reading activities in their respective campuses. In order to motivate pupils to read, teachers and parents would offer pupils contingent rewards. As we know, the use of rewards in educational settings as a way to improve motivation is a controversial issue. Previous…

  20. Compensatory Reading among ESL Learners: A Reading Strategy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed; Petras, Yusof Ede; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Eng, Lin Siew

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain an insight to the relationship of two different concepts about reading comprehension, namely, the linear model of comprehension and the interactive compensatory theory. Drawing on both the above concepts, a heuristic was constructed about three different reading strategies determined by the specific ways the literal,…

  1. Enhancing "Reading Mastery" Programs Using Explicit "Reading to Learn" Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy E.; McGlocklin, Linda M.; Miller, Darcey E.; Martella, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Vocabulary and text comprehension strategies are acknowledged as critical components of any comprehensive reading program. This article highlights the scientifically-based research on effective reading instruction related to vocabulary and comprehension development. Specifically, the article provides explicit formats integrating these important…

  2. Reading Cooperatively or Independently? Study on ELL Student Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siping; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of cooperative reading teaching activities and independent reading activities for English language learner (ELL) students at 4th grade level. Based on simple linear regression and correlational analyses of data collected from two large data bases, PIRLS and NAEP, the study found that cooperative reading…

  3. Reading the Web: Internet Guided Reading with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, David

    2015-01-01

    Online reading requires traditional and new comprehension skills and strategies, and these skills and strategies will have to be taught and supported, especially for young beginning readers. But how do elementary teachers go about doing this? Much of the research regarding teaching and supporting online reading comprehension has focused on older…

  4. Teachers' Attitudes toward Reading and Their Students' Reading Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Leland A.; Sloan, Charles A.

    It is difficult to single out a primary factor leading to the establishment of one's attitude toward reading, but environment, particularly the home, probably provides the greatest influence. Because teachers influence students, they have the potential for influencing students' attitudes toward reading. Whether teachers are seen as readers or…

  5. Which Reading Lesson Instruction Characteristics Matter for Early Reading Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendum, Steven J.; Li, Yongmei; Hall, Leigh A.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Creamer, Kimberly H.; Head-Reeves, Darlene M.; Hollingsworth, Heidi L.

    2009-01-01

    Five reading lesson instruction characteristics were examined in relation to first and second graders' end-of-year instructional reading level: (a) teacher's preferred interaction style (indicated by extent of teacher telling and coaching); (b) teacher's preferred grouping (indicated by extent of whole class and small group instruction); (c)…

  6. A Cognitive View of Reading Comprehension: Implications for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendeou, Panayiota; Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne; Karlsson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    Our aim in the present paper is to discuss a "cognitive view" of reading comprehension, with particular attention to research findings that have the potential to improve our understanding of difficulties in reading comprehension. We provide an overview of how specific sources of difficulties in inference making, executive functions, and…

  7. Reading Difficulties in Blind, Braille-Reading Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppins, Natasha; Barlow-Brown, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    An account is given of a new research project that is concerned with examining the problems encountered by some young blind children as they learn to read braille. The research to be conducted will look at various developmental and learning theories that are used to explain the reading difficulties of sighted readers, with a view to ascertaining…

  8. Promoting reading and good reading culture through the use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is the findings from existing literature on the mechanics of using book talks and story books to inculcate reading and the steps to develop good reading culture in children. This work is an ongoing action research work in selected private and public schools in Lagos Mainland. It has so far been established that the ...

  9. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  10. A cognitive perspective on Singaporean primary school pupils' use of reading strategies in learning to read in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Gu, Peter Yongqi; Hu, Guangwei

    2008-06-01

    This study is conducted in Singapore, where learning to read in English is regarded as essential because it is offered as a First Language (L1) subject in the curriculum and is stipulated as the medium of instruction in the education system, and the mother tongues are offered as Second Language (L2) subjects, although the majority still learn English as an L2. The paper reports on the reading strategies used by Singaporean primary school pupils from a cognitive perspective, which is part of a larger study that aims to investigate these pupils' language learning strategies. The participants were 18 pupils from three neighbourhood primary schools, in grades Primary 4, 5 and 6. The data were collected from high- and low-proficiency pupils at each of the three grades in each school, who read two texts at each level. Grounded in an information-processing theory and based on successful experiences of scholars using think-aloud for data collection, we asked the pupils to read and report what they were thinking about while reading. The think-aloud protocols were recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed. The results suggest that participants' flexible and appropriate use of reading strategies varies according to language proficiency and grade level, with the high-proficiency group outperforming its lower-proficiency counterpart and the high-graders outnumbering the lower-graders in terms of the number of strategies that they used. These differences were also exemplified with qualitative findings from case studies. The use of reading strategies differs according to proficiency levels, and the quality of pupils' strategy-use patterns has more significant implications for understanding efficient reading among primary school pupils.

  11. Language context modulates reading route: an electrical neuroimaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Andrea Buetler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis (Katz&Feldman, 1983 posits that different reading routes are engaged depending on the type of grapheme/phoneme correspondence of the language being read. Shallow orthographies with consistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor encoding via non-lexical pathways, where each grapheme is sequentially mapped to its corresponding phoneme. In contrast, deep orthographies with inconsistent grapheme/phoneme correspondences favor lexical pathways, where phonemes are retrieved from specialized memory structures. This hypothesis, however, lacks compelling empirical support. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of orthographic depth on reading route selection using a within-subject design.Method: We presented the same pseudowords (PWs to highly proficient bilinguals and manipulated the orthographic depth of PW reading by embedding them among two separated German or French language contexts, implicating respectively shallow or deep orthography. High density electroencephalography was recorded during the task.Results: The topography of the ERPs to identical PWs differed 300-360ms post-stimulus onset when the PWs were read in different orthographic depth context, indicating distinct brain networks engaged in reading during this time window. The brain sources underlying these topographic effects were located within left inferior frontal (German>French, parietal (French>German and cingular areas (German>French.Conclusion: Reading in a shallow context favors non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of frontal phonological areas in the shallow versus the deep orthographic context. In contrast, reading PW in a deep orthographic context recruits less routine non-lexical pathways, reflected in a stronger engagement of visuo-attentional parietal areas in the deep versus shallow orthographic context. These collective results support a modulation of reading route selection by

  12. Freedom for mangas: youth, reading, and information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacira Gil Bernardes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2016v13n3p81 The present paper is an attempt to reflect and discuss the meaning and significance that youngsters from an outskirt district attribute to information and reading. 8 semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adults between 18 and 24 years of age who took part on a social project called Casa das Juventudes (House of the Youth in the Guajuviras suburb in Canoas, Brazil. Casa das Juventudes is a part of the ‘Territórios da Paz’ (Land of Peace project and is a development and learning center as well as a leisure space. It houses PROTEJO, a social project that focus on youngsters who are subject to violence and other forms of social vulnerability. Our outcomes indicate that reading is part of their daily activities since the results of the interviews demonstrate that they express interest not only in literature but also in obtaining information both in and outside Casa das Juventudes. However, access to information is hindered for various reasons such as the absence of public libraries and cultural spaces suitable to their social reality. Access to information seems to be impeded not by lack of interest in reading but because of the inadequacy of books and by the high price of material acquisition.

  13. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  14. Verbal protocols of reading the nature of constructively responsive reading

    CERN Document Server

    Pressley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Researchers from a variety of disciplines have collected verbal protocols of reading as a window on conscious reading processes. Because such work has occurred in different disciplines, many who have conducted verbal protocol analyses have been unaware of the research of others. This volume brings together the existing literature from the various fields in which verbal protocols of reading have been generated. In so doing, the authors provide an organized catalog of all conscious verbal processes reported in studies to date -- the most complete analysis of conscious reading now available in the literature. When the results of all of the studies are considered, there is clear support for a number of models of reading comprehension including reader response theories, schema perspectives, executive processing models, and bottom-up approaches such as the one proposed by van Dijk and Kintsch. The summary of results also demonstrates that none of the existing models goes far enough. Thus, a new framework -- constru...

  15. The Impact of Word Walls on Improving the English Reading Fluency of Saudi Kindergarten's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif; AlSaleem, Basma Issa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Word Walls on improving the English reading fluency of Saudi kindergarten's children. The present study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English reading fluency test due to…

  16. Determining the Effectiveness of Audio-Recording Method in the Treatment of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Cuneyt

    2017-01-01

    The current study has been conducted to improve the reading disability of the subject "F" who is a 3rd grade primary school student. The study consists of detection, diagnosis and treatment stages and is an "action research" in line with qualitative research design. The Informal Reading Inventory was used to determine the…

  17. The Effect of College Students' Self-Generated Computerized Mind Mapping on Their Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Sabah Salman

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the potential effect of college students' self-generated computerized mind maps on their reading comprehension. It also investigated the subjects' attitudes toward generating computerized mind maps for reading comprehension. The study was conducted in response to the inability of the foundation-level students, who were learning…

  18. The Effect of a Specialized Dyslexia Font, Opendyslexic, on Reading Rate and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wery, Jessica J.; Diliberto, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    A single-subject alternating treatment design was used to investigate the extent to which a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, impacted reading rate or accuracy compared to two commonly used fonts when used with elementary students identified as having dyslexia. OpenDyslexic was compared to Arial and Times New Roman in three reading tasks:…

  19. The Impact of Training Metacognitive Strategies on Reading Comprehension among ESL Learner's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the impact of training metacognitive strategies in reading comprehension and has been conducted among students from University Putra Malaysia. Forty eight subjects majoring in English including both males and females participated in the study. They have been chosen from first level of reading and divided into two…

  20. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  1. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments…

  2. Students' Perceptions of Using a Novel as Main Material in the EFL Reading Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chih-hsin

    2012-01-01

    The study looked into the possibility of using a novel as main material in a college EFL reading course. It focused on evaluating the effectiveness of novel-teaching based on students' subjective perceptions. For this purpose, two classes of non-English majors read and received instruction on an unabridged novel for one semester. A pair of…

  3. Poststructuralist Readings of the Pedagogical Encounter. Eruptions, Volume 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, James

    This book uses leading poststructuralist thinkers to expose the mechanisms that U.S. public schools employ to form subjectivity. Political issues that inform pedagogy such as cultural pluralism, the Deweyan legacy, and feminist classroom strategies are read applying constructs taken from philosophers such as Barthes, Derrida, Foucault, and…

  4. Navy Professional Reading Program: Results of the 2007 Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uriell, Zannette A; Johnson, J. S

    2008-01-01

    .... The program includes 60 books across 6 subject areas and 5 career states. Toward the end of the first year of implementation, a survey was conducted to look at reading habits of Navy personnel as well as opinions of the NPRP...

  5. Inference Strategies in Reading Comprehension. Technical Report No. 410.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Linda M.

    A study investigated the inference strategies used by sixth grade students reading narratives, and the results were compared with the inference strategies identified as those used by skilled adult readers. Subjects, 80 sixth grade students from two Canadian urban centers were divided into two groups: 40 high-proficiency readers and 40…

  6. Spectacles May Improve Reading Speed in Children with Hyperopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, L.J.; Krijnen, J.S.M.; Nefkens-Molster, A.E.; Wensing, K.; Gutker, E.; Knol, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of (hyperopic or myopic) spectacle correction in reading speed of 9- to 10-year-old children. Methods: Subjects were recruited at their schools. Initial selection was based on reduced distance acuity and/or a positive blur test. Final

  7. Schooling Bodies to Read and Write: A Technosomatic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2016-01-01

    In this article Joris Vlieghe defends the view that technologies of reading and writing are more than merely instruments that support education, arguing that these technologies themselves decide what education is all about and that they form subjectivity in substantial ways. Expanding on insights taken from media theory, Vlieghe uses the work of…

  8. Improving text comprehension strategies in reading and listening settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, S; Aarnoutse, CAJ; van den Bos, KP

    Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade

  9. Reading Vernier Calipers. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstine, James; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Reading Vernier Calipers program developed by EMC Publishing Company. (The program--not contained in this document--uses high resolution graphics to illustrate the micrometer and describe its components, functions, and practical applications.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (technical…

  10. The Psychological Effect of Pet-Ownership on Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamtil, Rosemary

    A study examined the possible influence that pets may have on children's reading achievement. Subjects, 61 students from three third-grade classes in an urban school, completed a questionnaire about pet ownership. Responses were compiled and score values established to recognize the length of time the child had owned the pet and how much…

  11. Strategies for Improving Reading Skills among ELL College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.; Berger, Adam M.; Allen, Brigita M.; Plummer, Chad V.; Rosenberg, Worka

    2010-01-01

    In order to successfully complete any college-level courses, English Language Learner (ELL) students must be able to read and comprehend a large volume of academic information. However, many instructors are completely overwhelmed in teaching their respective subject areas and are academically unprepared to teach ELL students appropriate reading…

  12. Suburban queer: reading Grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstrom, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how nontraditional representations of gender can complicate received social norms, and it examines, in particular, how pre-adolescent suburban youth reconfigure social codes within popular film in order to identify positive queer aesthetics. While several studies have documented the function of classic and mainstream film in the tradition of queer reading, there has been comparatively less analysis devoted to the ways that filmic representations themselves might contribute to theoretical debates regarding sexual identity. As a case in point, this essay analyzes the 1978 musical Grease in order to suggest ways that critics might navigate between strict social constructionist and essentialist theories of sexual identity in order to identify avenues for queer identification within non-queer contexts.

  13. Readings in Formal Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ‘Formal epistemology’ is a term coined in the late 1990s for a new constellation of interests in philosophy,the roots of which are found in earlier works of epistemologists, philosophers of science, and logicians. It addresses a growing agenda of problems concerning knowledge, belief, certainty......, rationality, deliberation, decision, strategy, action and agent interaction – and it does so using methods from logic, probability, computability, decision, and game theory. This volume presents 42 classic texts in formal epistemology, and strengthens the ties between research into this area of philosophy...... and its neighbouring intellectual disciplines. The editors provide introductions to five basic subsections: Bayesian Epistemology, Belief Change, Decision Theory, Interactive Epistemology and Logics of Knowledge and Belief. The volume also includes a thorough index and suggestions for further reading...

  14. Phonological coding during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  15. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  16. Extensive Reading Coursebooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renandya, Willy A.; Hu, Guangwei; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a principle-based evaluation of eight dedicated extensive reading coursebooks published in mainland China and used in many universities across the country. The aim is to determine the extent to which these coursebooks reflect a core set of nine second language acquisition and extensive reading principles. Our analysis shows…

  17. Genetic transmission of reading ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagerman, Suzanne C.; Van Bergen, Elsje; Dolan, Conor; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Koenis, Marinka M.G.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2017-01-01

    Reading is the processing of written language. Family resemblance for reading (dis)ability might be due to transmission of a genetic liability or due to family environment, including cultural transmission from parents to offspring. Familial-risk studies exploring neurobehavioral precursors for

  18. Empathy, Reading, and Gender Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.

    2017-01-01

    For this study, empathy was defined as not only understanding and sharing another's mental state, but also responding from a perspective more closely resembling the observed rather than the observer. Based on evidence suggesting relationships between reading and empathy, between empathy and gender, and between reading and gender, the current study…

  19. Reading Prosody in Spanish Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Álvarez-Cañizo, Marta; Martínez, Cristina; García, Noemí; Cuetos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Reading becomes expressive when word and text reading are quick, accurate and automatic. Recent studies have reported that skilled readers use greater pitch changes and fewer irrelevant pauses than poor readers. Given that developmental dyslexics have difficulty acquiring and automating the alphabetic code and developing orthographic…

  20. Iconic Prosody in Story Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Marcus; Clark, Nathaniel; Falck, Marlene Johansson

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that people iconically modulate their prosody corresponding with the meaning of their utterance (e.g., Shintel et al., 2006). This article reports findings from a story reading task that expands the investigation of iconic prosody to abstract meanings in addition to concrete ones. Participants read stories that…

  1. Elementary Students' Definitions of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Kathleen M.

    1979-01-01

    Good and poor readers from grades 1-6 were asked to define what they meant by reading. Older children and above average readers were more likely to view reading as a meaning identification process as opposed to a general activity or word identification process. (MKM)

  2. "Classics" in Reading: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, V.

    A survey of Canadian and United States reading education faculty was conducted to find out if there was a consensus as to the "classic" works in the field of reading research. The questionnaire included a brief definition of "classic study" and invited respondents to list works under five general headings: (1)…

  3. Reading: Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Much debate centers on motivating student in reading achievement. Should students feel motivated from within (intrinsic motivation), or is it better to have extrinsic motivation whereby external stimuli are used to help learners achieve optimally in reading? This paper aims to analyze the two points of view about motivating students in reading…

  4. READ – developing literacy together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard

    2015-01-01

    -home literacy-intervention throughout a school year. The children in the intervention group (1500 children in year 2 and 3) received reading materials and their parents were informed about how to talk about texts, language and knowledge with their children through specially developed tools such as “reading...

  5. Reading in the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading social studies content presents situations in which selected pupils have not been as successful in learning as they might have been. Fast learners may find the content exceptionally easy to read, thus learning does not become the challenge it should be. Slow learners may find the content too difficult to comprehend. There are a variety of…

  6. Schemata as a Reading Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Zaliha

    Reading is a multileveled, interactive, and hypothesis-generating process in which readers construct a meaningful representation of text by using their knowledge of the world and of language. If reading involves grasping the significance of an input depending on the reader's mental cognitive-perceptual situation, then there is a form of background…

  7. When Is Writing Also Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Students who demonstrate perennial difficulties with researched writing typically have poor reading skills. Those who do not improve significantly as readers and writers in first year composition, if they do not drop out, often struggle throughout college. Even when students are given explicit and enhanced instruction in reading and adjustments…

  8. The Family Literacy Reading Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Ann; Shoufler, Ann

    This report describes a summer project using children's literature as a teaching tool in the literacy section of the Family Literacy Reading Project. The idea for the project arose in response to a need for other resources for the English-as-a-Second-Language program and to students' desire to read to their children and grandchildren as one…

  9. The Future of Reading Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzun, Jacques

    1978-01-01

    Discusses three obstacles to reading: the overproduction and cheap production of books, the extensive use of computer technology which hampers the development of reading habits, and the general decline of good writing and of the teaching of good writing skills. (JMF)

  10. Training of Component Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Christina A. M.

    1986-01-01

    Eight reading-disabled boys with subskill deficits in either oral reading, associative skills, or sequential skills received skill specific computer-assisted instruction emphasizing accuracy and speed of response for two and a half months. Comparison with controls indicated marked improvement which generalized to achievement measures of word…

  11. How my brain stopped reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Due to a medical condition I temporarily lost the ability to read and write. As an academic researcher specialised in understanding the reading process, I can benefit from this terrible experience by explaining – on a scientific level – what happened to me, and hence draw the lines to existing...... research and my former analyses....

  12. READING THE PSALMS HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HISTORICALLY. ANTIOCHENE. EXEGESIS AND A HISTORICAL. READING Of PSALM 46. ABSTRACT. The Antiochene exegetes, most notably Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia read the ..... tation is often informed by the heading. In 2001 .... that it was given to them for meditation and performance. As Hill ...

  13. Read Naturally. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Read Naturally" is a supplemental reading program designed to improve reading fluency, accuracy, and comprehension of elementary and middle school students using a combination of books, audio CDs, and computer software. The program combines three main strategies: modeling of story reading, repeated reading of text for developing oral…

  14. Accelerated Reader and Young People's Reading: Findings from the National Literacy Trust's 2012 Annual Literacy Survey on Reading Enjoyment, Reading Behaviour outside Class and Reading Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated Reader (AR) is a powerful tool that motivates students of all ages and abilities to read for pleasure. A wealth of data is routinely collected about children's reading skills to monitor and help manage their independent reading. However, no information is collected on the "softer" reading outcomes, such as reading enjoyment…

  15. The Effects of Reading Fluency on Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugel, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to examine the effects reading fluency has on reading comprehension. The analysis was done through a synthesis of recent literature on the topic. Research shows improvement in reading fluency does improve reading comprehension and suggests reading development similarities for all readers. This consistency in…

  16. Teaching Reading and the At Risk Pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    At risk students need to experience a reading curriculum which offers success in learning to read; appropriate sequence of reading activities; feedback regarding what has been accomplished in reading; rewards for doing well when comparing past with present achievement records; intrinsic motivation in wanting to read; help and guidance to achieve…

  17. Reading Interest in a Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putro, Nur Hidayanto Pancoro Setyo; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    The era of "digital literacy" raises the question of whether the meaning of reading interest may have changed. This study examined psycho-behavioral dimensions of reading interest as these relate to different reading modes and different purposes of reading. Findings show that reading interest is best represented by its subcomponents of…

  18. Give Them a Reason to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Reading in America has long been influenced by the stimulus-response theory. Today's students are reading less and less, and many are illiterate. A small Illinois elementary school is providing its students with reasons to read. The reading program stresses that reading is its own reward. Literacy clubs allow children opportunities to share,…

  19. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  20. Extensive Reading and the Effect of Shadowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Ueda, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extensive reading (ER) and shadowing on performance on reading comprehension tests. This study addressed the following research questions: (a) Can extensive reading improve students' reading comprehension? and (b) can shadowing enhance the effects of extensive reading? The participants in the…

  1. Developmental, Component-Based Model of Reading Fluency: An Investigation of Predictors of Word-Reading Fluency, Text-Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal was to expand our understanding of text-reading fluency (efficiency or automaticity): how its relation to other constructs (e.g., word-reading fluency, reading comprehension) changes over time and how it is different from word-reading fluency and reading comprehension. The study examined (a) developmentally changing relations…

  2. Getting Students Hooked on the Reading Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    We know that students who enjoy reading are likely to choose to read more often than students who do not enjoy reading. We also know that the more students read the better readers they become. The bottom line is that reading proficiency has been linked to a better and more productive academic, social, and civic life. We really don't need to be…

  3. Digital Reading: A Question of Prelectio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Noel

    2013-01-01

    Digital reading as superficial reading is examined by demonstrating that technologies act as placeholders for different types of memory, artificial memory and true memory. This chapter argues that the affordances of digital technologies enable certain types of reading activity, digital reading, but hinders others, such as deep reading. In…

  4. Diary Insights of an EFL Reading Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopera Medina Sergio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that classroom diaries are subjective. This article explores the diary insights of a foreign language reading teacher. The inquiry was based on the following research question: What do the diary insights really evidence about the teaching practices of a foreign language reading teacher? As a research method, a case study was implemented. Five instruments were used to collect data: diary of the teacher, observations, questionnaires, tests, and focus groups. Given that motivation, interaction, reading improvement, and the application of reading strategies were supported by the research instruments, it would seem that a diary can be objective.A menudo se argumenta que los diarios de clase son subjetivos. En este artículo se exploran las apreciaciones que un profesor de lectura en inglés como lengua extranjera registra en su diario. La indagación se basó en la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Qué apoya realmente las anotaciones de diario acerca de las prácticas de enseñanza de un profesor de lectura en lengua extranjera? Como método de estudio se implementó el estudio de caso. Se utilizaron cinco instrumentos para recolectar la información: diario del profesor, observaciones de clase, cuestionarios, exámenes y grupos focales. Dado que estos instrumentos de investigación incidieron en la motivación, la interacción, la mejoría en lectura y en la aplicación de las estrategias de lecturas, se podría concluir que un diario puede ser objetivo.

  5. E-readers and the effects on students' reading motivation, attitude and comprehension during guided reading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Deanna; Szabo, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental mixed methods study examined the use of e-readers during guided reading instruction and its impact on 5th grade students' reading motivation, attitude toward reading, and reading comprehension...

  6. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.

  7. COLLABORATIVE STRATEGIC READING IMPLEMENTATION TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Olivia Riani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative action research is aimed to find out whether or not the implementation of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR improves students' reading comprehension and also to identify students' attitude towards the implementation of CSR. CSR is reading strategy that employs four strategies namely Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist and Wrap Up during students’ cooperative learning. A class of eleventh grade students of a public senior high school in Majalengka, West Java, Indonesia is participated as the participant of the study. The required data were collected through the use of questionnaire, observation checklist, and reading test. The data from the questionnaire indicated that 82% students had positive attitude toward the implementation of CSR. They feel that CSR improves their motivation in learning English and CSR brings more fun to the process of learning. Moreover, it was found from observation data that the students were actively participated during CSR implementation and they were motivated when comprehending a text by means CSR strategy. Finally, the study proved that CSR improved students’ reading comprehension. Students’ mean score of reading test in the beginning of the study was 67, meanwhile, after applying CSR as reading strategy, their mean scores improved to 88.

  8. Reading Journal as a Way to Improve Students' Comprehension Toward a Textbook Reading Material

    OpenAIRE

    Winiharti, Menik; Herawati, Agnes; Rahayu, Esti

    2014-01-01

    Reading journal is one way to record students' independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students' level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students' reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read...

  9. READING JOURNAL AS A WAY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ COMPREHENSION TOWARD A TEXTBOOK READING MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Menik Winiharti; Agnes Herawati; Esti Rahayu

    2014-01-01

    Reading journal is one way to record students’ independent learning based on text they read. This study was conducted to find out the students’ level of reading comprehension through some notes written in the reading journal, the extent to which the activity of writing reading journals improved students’ reading comprehension, whether the students got benefit from reading journal. There were 104 respondents coming from four different departments in Bina Nusantara University were asked to read...

  10. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  11. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  12. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  13. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  14. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  15. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  16. The role of speech prosody and text reading prosody in children's reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Text reading prosody has been associated with reading comprehension. However, text reading prosody is a reading-dependent measure that relies heavily on decoding skills. Investigation of the contribution of speech prosody - which is independent from reading skills - in addition to text reading

  17. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  18. Words Correct per Minute: The Variance in Standardized Reading Scores Accounted for by Reading Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jacqueline L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Floyd, Randy G.; Hale, Andrea D.; Neddenriep, Christine; Kirk, Emily P.

    2011-01-01

    The measure words correct per minute (WC/M) incorporates a measure of accurate aloud word reading and a measure of reading speed. The current article describes two studies designed to parse the variance in global reading scores accounted for by reading speed. In Study I, reading speed accounted for more than 40% of the reading composite score…

  19. Idea Sharing: The Use of Read-Share-Act to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charumanee, Nisakorn

    2014-01-01

    Nisakorn Charumanee believes that a reading teacher has an active role in cultivating reading culture or reading habit and in activating students to "want" to read. One way to do this is to integrate extensive reading into the classroom (Day and Bamford, 1998; Bamford and Day, 2004) where extensive reading can be enhanced if the teacher…

  20. A Principal's Guide to Reading Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowhower, Sarah L.

    1989-01-01

    To enlarge principals' professional vocabulary, this article defines general reading terms and terms pertaining to reading approaches and instructional reading strategies. Includes 20 references and an extensive "further information" bibliography classified according to 18 specialized topics. (MLH)

  1. Why read Fairbairn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2010-02-01

    The author offers a close reading of portions of Fairbairn's work in which he not only explicates and clarifies Fairbairn's thinking, but generates ideas of his own by developing concepts that he believes to be implicit in, or logical extensions of, Fairbairn's work. Among the unstated or underdeveloped aspects of Fairbairn's contribution that the author discusses are (1) the idea that the formation of the internal object world is always, in part, a response to trauma (actual failure on the part of the mother to convey to her infant a sense that she loves him and accepts his love); (2) the notion that the infant's unceasing efforts to transform the internalized relationship with the unloving mother into a loving relationship--thus reversing the effect on his mother of his (imagined) 'toxic love'--is the single most important motivation sustaining the structure of the internal object world; and (3) the idea that attacks on oneself for the way one loves, while self-destructive, contain a glimmer of insight into one's own self-hatred and shame regarding one's endless, futile attempts to change oneself (or the rejecting object) into a different person. The author, using his own clinical work, illustrates the way he makes use of his understanding of the 'emotional life' of internal objects to facilitate the patient's emotional growth.

  2. Read Code Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Erich; Barrett, James W.; Price, Colin

    1998-01-01

    As controlled clinical vocabularies assume an increasing role in modern clinical information systems, so the issue of their quality demands greater attention. In order to meet the resulting stringent criteria for completeness and correctness, a quality assurance system comprising a database of more than 500 rules is being developed and applied to the Read Thesaurus. The authors discuss the requirement to apply quality assurance processes to their dynamic editing database in order to ensure the quality of exported products. Sources of errors include human, hardware, and software factors as well as new rules and transactions. The overall quality strategy includes prevention, detection, and correction of errors. The quality assurance process encompasses simple data specification, internal consistency, inspection procedures and, eventually, field testing. The quality assurance system is driven by a small number of tables and UNIX scripts, with “business rules” declared explicitly as Structured Query Language (SQL) statements. Concurrent authorship, client-server technology, and an initial failure to implement robust transaction control have all provided valuable lessons. The feedback loop for error management needs to be short. PMID:9670131

  3. Hermeneutic reading of classic texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Camilla A-L; Lindström, Unni Å

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the understandinfg of the hermeneutic reading of classic texts. The aim is to show how the choice of a specific scientific tradition in conjunction with a methodological approach creates the foundation that clarifies the actual realization of the reading. This hermeneutic reading of classic texts is inspired by Gadamer's notion that it is the researcher's own research tradition and a clearly formulated theoretical fundamental order that shape the researcher's attitude towards texts and create the starting point that guides all reading, uncovering and interpretation. The researcher's ethical position originates in a will to openness towards what is different in the text and which constantly sets the researcher's preunderstanding and research tradition in movement. It is the researcher's attitude towards the text that allows the text to address, touch and arouse wonder. Through a flexible, lingering and repeated reading of classic texts, what is different emerges with a timeless value. The reading of classic texts is an act that may rediscover and create understanding for essential dimensions and of human beings' reality on a deeper level. The hermeneutic reading of classic texts thus brings to light constantly new possibilities of uncovering for a new envisioning and interpretation for a new understanding of the essential concepts and phenomena within caring science. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  4. Spatial Reading System for Individuals with Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Elglaly, Yasmine Nader Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    In this research we introduce a novel reading system that enables Individuals with Blindnessor Severe Visual Impairment (IBSVI) to have equivalent spatial reading experience to theirsighted counterparts, in terms of being able to engage in different reading strategies e.g.scanning, skimming, and active reading. IBSVI are enabled to read in a self-paced mannerwith spatial access to the original layout of any electronic text document. This systemrenders text on iPad-type devices, and reads alou...

  5. Text comprehension dependence on reading experience

    OpenAIRE

    Tilmantaitė, Kamilė

    2016-01-01

    In bachelor thesis „Text comprehension dependence on reading experience“ – is researching, how students text comprehension is dependent on reading experience. In theoretical part discussed the reading conception and reading methods are discussed as well as the text comprehension, models and reading capacity. The practical part contains of pupils of eighth and tenth classes text comprehension test analysis, questionnaire about reading experience analysis and how they both interdependent. In th...

  6. Asperger's Syndrome, Subjectivity and the Senses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badone, Ellen; Nicholas, David; Roberts, Wendy; Kien, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Situated at the intersection of anthropological work on illness narratives and research on the anthropology of autism, this paper is a close reading of an autobiographical narrative recounted by Peter, a young man diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome, a type of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Responding to Solomon's (2010a:252) call for phenomenologically grounded accounts of "the subjective, sensory, and perceptual experiences of autism … based on personal narratives and practices of being and self-awareness," this paper calls into question key assumptions in the clinical and popular literature about ASD relating to theory of mind, empathy, capacity for metaphorical thinking, and ASD as a life-long condition.

  7. Spectacles may improve reading speed in children with hyperopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Laurentius J; Krijnen, Jacqueline S M; Nefkens-Molster, A Eline; Wensing, Kim; Gutker, Els; Knol, Dirk L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of (hyperopic or myopic) spectacle correction in reading speed of 9- to 10-year-old children. Subjects were recruited at their schools. Initial selection was based on reduced distance acuity and/or a positive blur test. Final inclusion depended on cycloplegic refraction. Forty-three myopes were prescribed glasses. Sixty-five hyperopes were randomized to three groups: (1) no glasses, (2) +0.5DS for both eyes, and (3) full correction. Before and 4 to 6 months after prescription of glasses, reading speed was tested: One-Minute Test (reading speed of genuine words) and the Klepel (reading speed of nonwords). Data for this second reading test were obtained in 34 myopes and 48 hyperopes. At baseline, myopes had about 11% higher One-Minute scores (p = 0.005) and about 9% higher Klepel scores (p = 0.066) than hyperopes. At follow-up, the hyperopia-full correction group improved its One-Minute score by about 13% more than both the no-glasses group (p = 0.012) and +0.5DS group (p = 0.019). Spectacles did not, or only slightly, improve reading scores of myopes (One-Minute scores, p = 0.068; Klepel scores, p = 0.021). Correction of hyperopia may increase speed of reading (as reflected by the One-Minute score). The fact that reading speed of nonwords does not increase after correction suggests that hyperopia affects speed of recognition but not decoding per se.

  8. Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M. J.; Rouw, Romke

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure. PMID:24638033

  9. Cryptographic Aspects of Quantum Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetana Spedalieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Besides achieving secure communication between two spatially-separated parties,another important issue in modern cryptography is related to secure communication intime, i.e., the possibility to confidentially store information on a memory for later retrieval.Here we explore this possibility in the setting of quantum reading, which exploits quantumentanglement to efficiently read data from a memory whereas classical strategies (e.g., basedon coherent states or their mixtures cannot retrieve any information. From this point ofview, the technique of quantum reading can provide a new form of technological security fordata storage.

  10. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  11. Pediatric ophthalmology and childhood reading difficulties: Amblyopia and slow reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Eileen E; Kelly, Krista R

    2017-12-01

    Reading is a major life activity, as recognized by the US Congress in the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008, and the education code of most US states requires schools to evaluate reading and implement reading programs to addresses students' reading difficulties. Currently, such legislation is employed to identify accommodations needed for children with bilateral visual impairment and for children with dyslexia and/or related learning disabilities. Yet recent research has shown that children with the most common form of monocular visual impairment-amblyopia-read slowly. Slow reading can be detrimental to academic performance and learning, which in turn may affect self-esteem. Parents and educators can work together to implement accommodations (eg, extra time) to help amblyopic students succeed in their daily school tasks, and improve their performance on the timed, standardized tests that are critical for promotion and admission to magnet schools, TAG programs, high schools, and colleges. Children with other visual disorders that cause visual impairment in one eye (eg, glaucoma, cataract, trauma, etc) should also be considered for academic accommodations. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  13. Dialogic reading of a novel for children: effects on text comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Pfeiffer Flores

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown positive effects of dialogic reading of picture books (reading aloud interspersed with prompts and feedback for verbalizations by the listener on the vocabulary and verbal expression of small children. This study assessed the effect of dialogic reading on the comprehension of a children’s novel by three children aged 7-8 years, using a single-subject reversal design. In Condition A, the text was read without intervention. In Condition B, reading was interspersed with dialogic interventions based on narrative functions. Comprehension was superior in all measures in Condition B for the two participants who underwent the B-A-B design, however, not for the participant who underwent the A-B-A design. We discuss possible interactions of dialogic reading with characteristics of text genre and the need for systematic replications with more sessions and reversals of conditions.

  14. Relationship between slow visual processing and reading speed in people with macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Allen M Y; Legge, Gordon E; Lawrence, Mary G; Cheung, Sing-Hang; Ruff, Mary A

    2007-10-01

    People with macular degeneration (MD) often read slowly even with adequate magnification to compensate for acuity loss. Oculomotor deficits may affect reading in MD, but cannot fully explain the substantial reduction in reading speed. Central-field loss (CFL) is often a consequence of macular degeneration, necessitating the use of peripheral vision for reading. We hypothesized that slower temporal processing of visual patterns in peripheral vision is a factor contributing to slow reading performance in MD patients. Fifteen subjects with MD, including 12 with CFL, and five age-matched control subjects were recruited. Maximum reading speed and critical print size were measured with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Temporal processing speed was studied by measuring letter-recognition accuracy for strings of three randomly selected letters centered at fixation for a range of exposure times. Temporal threshold was defined as the exposure time yielding 80% recognition accuracy for the central letter. Temporal thresholds for the MD subjects ranged from 159 to 5881 ms, much longer than values for age-matched controls in central vision (13 ms, preading speed (preading speed is consistent with the hypothesis that slower visual processing of letter recognition is one of the factors limiting reading speed in MD subjects.

  15. Beneficial Effects of Spatial Remapping for Reading With Simulated Central Field Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshul; Mesik, Juraj; Engel, Stephen A; Smith, Rebecca; Schatza, Mark; Calabrèse, Aurélie; van Kuijk, Frederik J; Erdman, Arthur G; Legge, Gordon E

    2018-02-01

    People with central field loss (CFL) lose information in the scotomatous region. Remapping is a method to modify images to present the missing information outside the scotoma. This study tested the hypothesis that remapping improves reading performance for subjects with simulated CFL. Circular central scotomas, with diameters ranging from 4° to 16°, were simulated in normally sighted subjects using an eye tracker on either a head-mounted display (HMD) (experiments 1, 2) or a traditional monitor (experiment 3). In the three experiments, reading speed was measured for groups of 7, 11, and 13 subjects with and without remapping of text. Remapping increased reading speed in all three experiments. On the traditional monitor, it increased reading speed by 34% (8°), 38% (12°), and 35% (16°). In the two HMD experiments, remapping increased reading speed only for the largest scotoma size, possibly due to latency of updating of the simulated scotoma. Remapping significantly increased reading speed in simulated CFL subjects. Additional testing should examine the efficacy of remapping for reading and other visual tasks for patients with advanced CFL.

  16. Effects of wearing yellow spectacles on visual skills, reading speed, and visual symptoms in children with reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C

    2013-03-01

    Possible beneficial effects of yellow-tinted spectacle lenses on binocular vision, accommodation, oculomotor scanning, reading speed and visual symptoms were assessed in children with reading difficulties. A longitudinal prospective study was performed in 82 non-dyslexic children with reading difficulties in grades 3-6 (aged 9-11 years) from 11 elementary schools in Madrid (Spain). The children were randomly assigned to two groups: a treatment (n = 46) and a without-treatment group (n = 36). Children in the treatment group wore yellow spectacle lenses with best correction if necessary over 3 months (in school and at home). The tests were first undertaken without the yellow filter. With best spectacle correction in each subject, measurements were made of: distance and near horizontal heterophoria, distance and near horizontal fusional vergence ranges, the accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, near point of convergence (NPC), stereoacuity, negative relative accommodation (NRA) and positive relative accommodation (PRA), monocular accommodative amplitude (MAA), binocular accommodative facility (BAF), oculomotor scanning, and reading speed (words per minute). The Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) questionnaire was completed by all children. After the 3-month period, measurements were repeated with the yellow lenses (treatment group) or without the yellow lenses (without-treatment group) but with refractive correction if needed. Over the 3 months, the two groups showed similar mean changes in the variables used to assess binocular vision, accommodation, oculomotor scanning, and reading speed. However, mean relative changes in convergence insufficiency symptoms differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.01). No effects of wearing yellow spectacles emerged on binocular vision, accommodation, oculomotor scanning, and reading speed in children with reading difficulties. The yellow filter had no effect even in children with low MAA and BAF

  17. GENDER GENEALOGY OF READING AS CULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Kryvda

    2017-06-01

    (2013; A. Smahtinova (2015; B. Jack (2013; D. G. Scott (2015; R. A. Fullerton (2016. Conclusions. The practice of thoughtful reading connects the subject with culture; makes a man coeval to any historical era. Using the text; a person faces the cultural meanings without any institutional mediation; thus forming self-identity.

  18. READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    READING COMPREHENSION RFSEARCH AND LINGUISTIC PRAGMATICS: MAPPING OUT SOME UNRECOGNIZED INTERDISCIPLINARY. COMMON GROUND. 1. Introduction. Melinda Sinclair. Department of General Linguistics. University of SteUenbosch. 83. On the whole, research into the various aspects of natural ...

  19. CDRH FOIA Electronic Reading Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH FOIA electronic reading room contains frequently requested information via the Freedom of Information Act from the Center for Devices and Radiological Health.

  20. Nietzsche in Basel: Writing Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. Hillis

    1993-01-01

    Explores the tight relationship between reading and writing, and discusses the implications of this central relationship for departments of English. Discusses Friedrich Nietzsche's early writings on rhetoric as challenging Western metaphysical tradition and providing a new model of writing. (HB)