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Sample records for subject reactivity effects

  1. Subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, P R; Maisto, S A

    2000-11-01

    Attributions regarding alcohol treatment research protocols influencing clinical outcomes have persisted for more than 25 years. Although well-designed alcohol treatment outcome studies typically involve frequent, and often comprehensive, research assessment protocols, procedures are seldom in place to control or account for possible subject reactivity to the research protocol. This article presents a theoretical basis for a relationship between research protocols and treatment outcomes. The article reviews the relevant alcohol treatment outcome literature and presents a "weight of evidence" regarding subject reactivity effects and alcohol treatment outcome research assessment protocols. Also, the FRAMES (feedback, responsibility, advice, menu, empathy and self-efficacy) model was coupled with self-regulation theory to provide a theoretical explanation of how research assessment protocols might contribute to clinically relevant behavioral change. Researcher attributions, empirical investigations and theoretical considerations all provide evidence that is consistent with the existence of subject reactivity to research assessment protocols. Recommendations are made regarding interpretation of data collected as part of an alcohol treatment outcome study, control of potential subject reactivity confounding variables and directions for future research.

  2. Effect of intravenous magnesium sulphate on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in asthmatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J M; Britton, J

    1996-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study we have investigated the effect of intravenous magnesium on airway calibre and airway reactivity to histamine in 20 subjects with mild to moderate asthma. After baseline measurements of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), subjects received 100 ml normal saline with or without 2 g of magnesium sulphate by infusion over 20 min. Measurements of FEV1 were repeated at 5 min intervals throughout the infusion, and the provocative dose of histamine required to drop the FEV1 by 20% from baseline (PD20FEV1) was determined at 20 min. The area under the curve (AUC) in litre minutes for change from baseline in FEV1 between 0 and 20 min was significantly higher on the magnesium study day (mean difference in AUC (95% CI) 1.71 (0.02-3.4), P = 0.049). The increase in FEV1 from baseline with magnesium relative to saline was maximal at 20 min (mean difference (95% CI) 0.13 (0.02-0.23) l, P = 0.01). Log PD20FEV1 to histamine was not significantly different after magnesium and saline (mean difference in log PD20FEV1 (95% CI) 0.04 (-0.19 to 0.27), P = 0.7). We conclude that intravenous magnesium is a weak bronchodilator but does not alter airway reactivity at this dose in stable asthmatic subjects.

  3. Effects of Hyul-Bu-Chuke-Tang on Erythrocyte Deformability and Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Sang Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Hyul-bu-chuke-tang (HCEt is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that is used for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the acute effects of HCEt on erythrocyte deformability and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity (CVR in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods. We examined erythrocyte deformability in an HCEt group (n=14 and a control group (n=10. CVR was measured using hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the middle cerebral artery and transcranial Doppler (TCD in the HCEt group (n=11. A historical control group (n=10 of CVR measurements was also created from our previous study. All measurements were performed prior to and 1, 2, and 3 hours after HCEt administration. Results. HCEt significantly improved erythrocyte deformability 1 hour after administration compared to the control group (2.9±1.1% versus -0.6±1.0%, P=0.034. HCEt significantly improved the CVR 2 hours after administration compared to the historical control group (9.1±4.0% versus -8.1±4.1%, P=0.007. The mean blood pressure and pulse rate did not vary from baseline values in either group. Conclusions. We demonstrated that HCEt improved erythrocyte deformability and CVR. Our findings suggest that an improvement in erythrocyte deformability contributes to HCEt’s effect on cerebral microcirculation.

  4. The effect of L-arginine on microvascular reactivity in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension

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    Polona Zaletel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing number of studies support the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction due to reduced availability of nitric oxide plays a key role in initiation, development and progression of essential hypertension. The aim of our study was to determine whether the ingestion of L-arginine actually improves microvascular function in normotensive subjects with a family history of hypertension.Methods: 30 normotensive healthy men, aged 20–30 years, were divided into two groups according to the family history of hypertension. We measured ECG, heart rate, systolic and diastolic arterial pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance (Task Force Monitor and laser Doppler (LD flux in the microvessels of the skin on the forearm at rest, before and after the administration of 0.9 g L-arginine. The endothelium-dependent vasodilation was assessed by iontophoresis of acetylcholine and the endothelium-independent vasodilation by iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside.Results: After the ingestion of L-arginine the heart rate and the cardiac output statistically significantly decreased in both groups (paired t-test, p < 0.05. Arterial pressure did not change significantly. Stroke volume decreased and total peripheral resistance increased only in the group of subjects with a family history of hypertension (paired t-test, p < 0.05 The ingestion of L-arginine in predisposed normotensive subjects acutely improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilation (Dunnett’s test, p < 0.05, which is consistent with the assumption that endothelial dysfunction is already present in these subjects.Conclusions: In subjects with a family history of hypertension L-arginine improved endothelial function. This justifies L-arginine as a potential agent for the prevention and/or treatment of arterial hypertension.

  5. Is there an effect of folic acid supplementation on the coagulation factors and C-reactive protein concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors? 

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    Artur Mierzecki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Folic acid (FA may delay the formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Increased plasma levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF are observed in cardiovascular disease, which leads to higher risk of thrombosis. Fibrinogen (Fb is a well-documented risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of FA supplementation on the Fb, VWF and C-reactive protein (CRP plasma concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors.Material/Methods:The study enrolled 124 Caucasian individuals (60 M, 64 F with atherosclerosis risk factors – family history of premature ischaemic stroke, arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia, overweight and obesity, cigarette smoking and low physical activity. The participants were asked to take FA in the low dose of 0.4 mg/24 h for three months.Results:After FA supplementation a significant reduction of the VWF concentrations in females (76.6 vs 72.3�20p=0.028 and in males (75.5 vs 66.9�20p=0.001 was observed. Among women and men with dyslipidaemia concentrations of VWF decreased after FA supplementation (76.8�0vs 69.6�20p=0.003 and 76.7�0vs 67.8�20p=0.001 respectively. Among females and males with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 concentrations of VWF decreased only in men (77.6�0vs 66.5�20p=0.001. In female and male smokers supplementation of FA decreased VWF concentrations (82.5�0vs 74.4�20p=0.012 and 76.6�0vs 69.5�20p=0.036 respectively.Discussion:The results of our study suggest that there is an effect of FA supplementation on VWF concentrations in subjects with atherosclerosis risk factors. 

  6. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects

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    Sang-Ho Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect.

  7. Reactivity in pain-free subjects and a clinical pain population: evaluation of the Kohn Reactivity Scale-dutch Version.

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    Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Noordermeer, Siri D S; van Wijck, Albert J M; Snijders, Tom J; Geenen, Rinie

    2013-07-01

    Patients with pain are more reactive to various types of sensations, not limited to pain alone. A potential useful instrument to assess reactivity is the Kohn Reactivity Scale (KRS). This study examines the psychometric characteristics of the KRS-Dutch version and its ability to differentiate between subjects with and without pain. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of the Dutch translation of the KRS were assessed in 321 pain-free control subjects and different subgroups of this sample. Subsequently, reactivity scores were compared between the pain-free subjects and 291 pain patients who were referred to a pain clinic for treatment. Reliability analyses indicated good internal consistency (α ≥ 0.77) and high test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.95) of the KRS in the control subjects. Validity analyses yielded positive correlations of the KRS with related constructs like pain vigilance and awareness (r = 0.37), symptom severity (r = 0.29), and the personality characteristic neuroticism (r = 0.20). Pain patients had overall significantly higher KRS scores than the pain-free subjects indicating increased reactivity, particularly for the patients with medically unexplained pain. These findings indicate that the KRS is a useful instrument to screen for reactivity in pain patients, which may be of particular relevance for those suffering from medically unexplained pain. © 2012 The Authors Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  8. Respuesta hemodinámica al estrés mental y físico en sujetos normotensos hiperreactivos: Efectos del Betabloqueo Cardiovascular response to mental and physical stress in hyper-reactive normotensive subjects: Beta blockade effect

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    Julio Przybylski

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue estudiar la reactividad cardiovascular en personas sanas normotensas sin medicación, mediante la técnica, de Stroop de conflicto entre el color y la palabra (SCWCT, la respuesta anticipatoria de la presión arterial con el ejercicio (RA y la prueba ergométrica graduada (PEG. Se analizó el efecto de un betabloqueante beta1 selectivo: bisoprolol (B sobre la reactividad cardiovascular al estrés mental (EM y físico en personas hiperreactivas. Se estudiaron 42 personas, de los cuales fueron incluidas sólo 30 (21 mujeres y 9 varones que resultaron hiperreactivas, con una edad media de 42.5 años. Los mayores valores de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS y diastólica (PAD durante el EM fueron tomados como medida de reactividad, considerándose como respuesta hiperreactiva un aumento de 30 mm de Hg o mayor y/o 15 mm de Hg o mayor respectivamente. El efecto de una dosis diaria oral de 5 mg de B vs placebo (P fue estudiado en forma prospectiva, randomizada y doble ciego. Se analizaron los datos acerca de la reactividad en el SCWCT mediante el test exacto de Fisher. En los resultados, se observó una menor sensibilidad de RA y PEG vs SCWCT. Las 15 personas que recibieron P continuaron hiperreactivas en tanto que 6 de las 15 personas tratadas con B dejaron de ser reactivas (pThe aim of our study was to evaluate the cardiovascular reactivity in healthy normotensive subjects without medication, using mental and physical stress techniques: Stroop color word conflict test (SCWCT, anticipatory blood pressure response to exercise (ARE and stress testing (ST. We analized the effects of a selective beta 1 betablocker: bisoprolol (B on cardiovascular reactivity in our subjects (s. We studied 42 s, but only 30 (21 females and 9 males were included who were hyperreactives. The mean age was 42,5 years. The higher values of systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP during the mental stress (MS were taken as a measure of

  9. Effects of imposed monitoring and blunting strategies on emotional reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, Peter; Jong, de Peter; Merckelbach, Harald; van Zuuren, Florence J.

    1994-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of imposed monitoring and blunting coping strategies on emotional reactivity in 40 subjects who prepared themselves for upcoming neutral and aversive slides. Besides subjective indices, electrodermal measures and eye blink startle responses were used to

  10. Absence of diurnal variation of C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy human subjects

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    Meier-Ewert, H. K.; Ridker, P. M.; Rifai, N.; Price, N.; Dinges, D. F.; Mullington, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) in otherwise healthy subjects has been shown to predict future risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. CRP is synthesized by the liver in response to interleukin-6, the serum concentration of which is subject to diurnal variation. METHODS: To examine the existence of a time-of-day effect for baseline CRP values, we determined CRP concentrations in hourly blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (10 males, 3 females; age range, 21-35 years) during a baseline day in a controlled environment (8 h of nighttime sleep). RESULTS: Overall CRP concentrations were low, with only three subjects having CRP concentrations >2 mg/L. Comparison of raw data showed stability of CRP concentrations throughout the 24 h studied. When compared with cutoff values of CRP quintile derived from population-based studies, misclassification of greater than one quintile did not occur as a result of diurnal variation in any of the subjects studied. Nonparametric ANOVA comparing different time points showed no significant differences for both raw and z-transformed data. Analysis for rhythmic diurnal variation using a method fitting a cosine curve to the group data was negative. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that baseline CRP concentrations are not subject to time-of-day variation and thus help to explain why CRP concentrations are a better predictor of vascular risk than interleukin-6. Determination of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction may be performed without concern for diurnal variation.

  11. Self-distancing from trauma memories reduces physiological but not subjective emotional reactivity among Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

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    Wisco, Blair E; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M; Gorman, Kaitlyn R; Kulish, Andrea L; Pineles, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Self-distancing, or viewing oneself from a third-person perspective, reduces reactivity when analyzing one's feelings. Self-distancing may have important effects among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who have heightened emotional and physiological reactivity to trauma memories, but the effects of self-distancing in this group are unclear. We randomly assigned 48 Veterans diagnosed with PTSD to analyze their trauma-related feelings from an immersed (first-person) or distanced (third-person) perspective, and measured physiological and subjective emotional reactivity. Self-distancing during trauma analysis protected against increases in physiological reactivity, such that participants in the immersed condition showed a significant increase in heart rate and skin conductance responses not seen in the distanced condition. However, self-distancing had no effect on self-reported emotional reactivity. Our findings suggest that the effects of self-distancing on subjective emotions may not extend to trauma memories. However, self-distancing during trauma analysis did change physiological reactivity, suggesting at least a short-term benefit for individuals with PTSD.

  12. Prevalence of IgE reactivities in mold-allergic subjects to commercially available fungal enzymes.

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    Horner, W Elliott; Armstrong, Maricelis; El-Dahr, Jane; McCants, Marjorie; Reese, Gerald; Kobernick, Aaron K; Lehrer, Samuel B

    2008-01-01

    Fungi are important aeroallergens. However, fungal allergen sources of consistent quality for clinical testing are not readily available. Because some allergens have been identified as enzymes, we assessed the prevalence of IgE reactivity to commercially available fungal enzymes. The purpose of this study was to determine IgE antibody reactivity by radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) to commercially available fungal enzymes in mold-allergic individuals. Sera from 20 subjects with symptoms of respiratory allergies and skin test reactivity to 2 or more fungal allergens (4 conidial [imperfecti] fungi and/or 8 basidiomycetes) were selected. Controls were six atopic individuals with neither history of fungal allergy nor skin test reactivity to fungi. Seventeen commercial fungal enzymes were used as antigens to evaluate the subjects' IgE antibody reactivity by RAST. Sera from most fungus-allergic individuals showed substantial IgE antibody reactivity to enzymes; control sera showed little or no reactivity. The mean reactivity to all commercial enzymes of all subjects tested was RAST > or = 3% with only one exception. The most reactive fungal enzymes were invertase (bakers' yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae), cellulase (Trichoderma viride), and glucosidase (brewers yeast, S. cerevisiae) with mean binding of 14.6, 9.5, and 8.8%, respectively. Using RAST results with a combination of four enzymes from S. cerevisiae (brewers yeast glucosidase, bakers' yeast maltase, invertase, and invertase V), a sensitivity of 100% was shown for detecting mold-allergic patients. The studies suggest that fungal enzymes may be useful source materials for the identification of fungal allergens and may also provide readily available source materials to produce improved diagnostic and therapeutic reagents.

  13. Skin test reactivity of allergic subjects to basidiomycetes' crude extracts in a tropical environment.

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    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Nazario-Jiménez, Sylvette; López-Malpica, Fernando; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2011-11-01

    Fungal allergies can be detected by the skin prick test with extracts of the organisms, but not all fungi, including the basidiomycetes, are being examined. We determined the level of sensitization to basidiomycetes in allergic subjects and compared their reactivity to commercial extracts commonly used to detect allergies. Crude spore extracts of the basidiomycetes Ganoderma applanatum, Chlorophyllum molybdites, and Pleurotus ostreatus, which are known to release numerous spores, were examined along with commercial extracts on 33 subjects with asthma, allergic or non-allergic rhinitis. Overall, affected subjects showed the highest reactivity to mites (36%), followed by Ganoderma applanatum (30%), grass (27%) Chlorophyllum molybdites (12%) and Pleurotus ostreatus (12%). Allergic rhinitis patients were most reactive to mites (58%), grass (42%), Ganoderma applanatum (25%), Penicillium spp. (25%), and cat (17%). Those with asthma primarily responded to mites (44%), Ganoderma applanatum (44%), grass (33%), and Pleurotus ostreatus (22%). IgE levels correlated with positive basidiomycetes extracts. This finding, coupled with higher reactivity to basidiospores as compared to mitospores, and the similar sensitivities of patients to G. applanatum and mites, suggest that basidiomycetes are important allergen sources in the tropics.

  14. Solvent effects and chemical reactivity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tapia, Orlando; Bertrán, J

    1996-01-01

    ... original contributions from a selected group of distinguished researchers that are actively working in the theory and practical applications of solvent effects and chemical reactions. The importance...

  15. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Bronchial Reactivity

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    JL Wright

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a brief low level exposure to cigarette smoke in rats with known low (Sprague-Dawley and high (Fisher airway responsiveness, to test the hypothesis that airways reactivity influences the severity or duration of pulmonary function alterations after cigarette smoke exposure.

  16. Utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective distress in adults who stutter.

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    Brundage, Shelley B; Brinton, James M; Hancock, Adrienne B

    2016-12-01

    Virtual reality environments (VREs) allow for immersion in speaking environments that mimic real-life interactions while maintaining researcher control. VREs have been used successfully to engender arousal in other disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual reality environments to examine physiological reactivity and subjective ratings of distress in persons who stutter (PWS). Subjective and objective measures of arousal were collected from 10PWS during four-minute speeches to a virtual audience and to a virtual empty room. Stuttering frequency and physiological measures (skin conductance level and heart rate) did not differ across speaking conditions, but subjective ratings of distress were significantly higher in the virtual audience condition compared to the virtual empty room. VREs have utility in elevating subjective ratings of distress in PWS. VREs have the potential to be useful tools for practicing treatment targets in a safe, controlled, and systematic manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reactive hyperaemia in the calf of trained and untrained subjects: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

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    Kroese, A J

    1977-04-01

    Postischaemic reactive hyperaemia in the calf was investigated by strain gauge plethysmography in three pairs of trained and untrained groups of different ages. Maximal flow and repayment in the trained adults were greater than in corresponding untrained groups. This may be due to training effect on the arterioles and a relatively great muscle volume and vascular bed in athletes. The 58-year-old trained men revealed a postischaemic hyperaemic response of approximately the same magnitude as the 25-year-old athletes. Training in old age may result in less degeneration of vascular smooth muscle as well as striated muscle and may induced a relatively great cardiac stroke volume, factors which probably influence reactive hyperaemia in the calf. Hyperaemia in 13-year-old children of different conditions of training was approximwtely the same. It is concluded that the influence of training state on postischaemic calf flow may be considered when reactive hyperaemia is used as a test of the peripheral circulation.

  18. Brain reactivity differentiates subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies during both sleep and wakefulness.

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    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand, Olivier; Morlet, Dominique; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-05-01

    The neurophysiological correlates of dreaming remain unclear. According to the "arousal-retrieval" model, dream encoding depends on intrasleep wakefulness. Consistent with this model, subjects with high and low dream recall frequency (DRF) report differences in intrasleep awakenings. This suggests a possible neurophysiological trait difference between the 2 groups. To test this hypothesis, we compared the brain reactivity (evoked potentials) of subjects with high (HR, N = 18) and low (LR, N = 18) DRF during wakefulness and sleep. During data acquisition, the subjects were presented with sounds to be ignored (first names randomly presented among pure tones) while they were watching a silent movie or sleeping. Brain responses to first names dramatically differed between the 2 groups during both sleep and wakefulness. During wakefulness, the attention-orienting brain response (P3a) and a late parietal response were larger in HR than in LR. During sleep, we also observed between-group differences at the latency of the P3a during N2 and at later latencies during all sleep stages. Our results demonstrate differences in the brain reactivity of HR and LR during both sleep and wakefulness. These results suggest that the ability to recall dreaming is associated with a particular cerebral functional organization, regardless of the state of vigilance.

  19. Identification of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms

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    Marta Wiszniewska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs in diagnostics of occupational allergy remains unclarified and its clinical relevance is still questioned. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of positive response to CCDs in the subjects with suspected occupational allergy and the relationship between other diagnostic test results and final diagnosis. Material and methods The study group included 201 patients. They underwent clinical examination, skin prick test (SPT to common and occupational allergens, specific serum immunoglobulin (sIgE determinations, spirometry and specific inhalation challenge test. Moreover, sIgE to CCDs from bromelain was assessed in all subjects. Results Occupational respiratory allergy was recognized in 64.3% of CCD-positive and 52.4% of CCD-negative patients. Positive SPT results to common and occupational allergens were found in 64.3% and 35.7% of CCD-positive subjects, respectively. In all subjects with CCDs, the sIgE to grass pollens as well as to occupational allergens were detected. The total IgE level > 100 kU/l was significantly associated with the presence of sIgE to CCDs. Conclusions sIgE to CCDs were found in 7% of subjects suspected to suffer from occupational respiratory allergy. The presence of CCDs is not significantly associated with occupational respiratory allergy. It is also not more frequent in subjects reporting work-related respiratory symptoms in whom occupational allergy was not confirmed. The elevated total IgE level was related with CCD positivity. In patients with suspected occupational allergy, the presence of sIgE to CCDs in serum did not indicate the irrelevance of positive sIgE to occupational allergens.

  20. Alpha reactivity to first names differs in subjects with high and low dream recall frequency

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    Perrine Marie RUBY

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies in cognitive psychology showed that personality (openness to experience, thin boundaries, absorption, creativity, nocturnal awakenings, and attitude toward dreams are significantly related to dream recall frequency (DRF. These results suggest the possibility of neurophysiological trait differences between subjects with high and low DRF. To test this hypothesis we compared sleep characteristics and alpha reactivity to sounds in subjects with high and low DRF using polysomnographic recordings and electroencephalography (EEG. We acquired EEG from 21 channels in 36 healthy subjects while they were presented with a passive auditory oddball paradigm (frequent standard tones, rare deviant tones and very rare first names during wakefulness and sleep (intensity, 50 dB above the subject’s hearing level. Subjects were selected as High-recallers (HR, DRF = 4.4 ± 1.1 dream recalls per week and Low-recallers (LR, DRF = 0.25 ± 0.1 using a questionnaire and an interview on sleep and dream habits. Despite the disturbing setup, the subjects’ quality of sleep was generally preserved. First names induced a more sustained decrease in alpha activity in HR than in LR at Pz (1000-1200ms during wakefulness, but no group difference was found in REM sleep. The current dominant hypothesis proposes that alpha rhythms would be involved in the active inhibition of the brain regions not involved in the ongoing brain operation. According to this hypothesis, a more sustained alpha decrease in HR would reflect a longer release of inhibition, suggesting a deeper processing of complex sounds than in LR during wakefulness. A possibility to explain the absence of group difference during sleep is that increase in alpha power in HR may have resulted in awakenings. Our results support this hypothesis since HR experienced more intra sleep wakefulness than LR (30 ± 4 vs 14 ± 4 min. As a whole our results support the hypothesis of neurophysiological trait differences in

  1. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced changes in subjects suspected of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Carlsen, Christian Malchau

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a major role in the development of atherosclerosis. We wanted to investigate the effects of exercise on high-sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects who were suspected of having coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Blood samples were obtained before......, 5 minutes after, and 20 hours after an exercise test in 155 subjects who were suspected of CAD. Coronary anatomy was evaluated by computed tomography coronary angiography and/or coronary angiography. RESULTS: Median baseline hs-CRP was higher in subjects with ≥50% coronary artery lumen diameter...... stenosis (n=41), compared with non-CAD-subjects (n=114), 2.93 mg/L (interquartile range 1.03-5.06 mg/L) and 1.30 mg/L (interquartile range 0.76-2.74 mg/L), respectively, P=0.007. In multivariate analyses testing conventional risk factors, hs-CRP proved borderline significant, odds ratio =2.32, P=0...

  2. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum.

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    Dalgarno, Phil

    2007-06-01

    Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic plant native to Mexico, where the Mazatec Indians use it in divinatory rituals as a facilitator for contacting the spirits of the dead. A number of traditions surrounding the ritualistic use of Salvia are still observed. Generally the leaves are chewed for the visionary effects. Salvia has recently been embraced by Western drug cultures, where the traditional methods of ingestion are generally eschewed for the more immediately effective technique of smoking the dried leaves. This article discusses the history and indigenous cultural uses of Salvia before outlining its rediscovery in the 1960s and its subsequent introduction to the Western drug scenes (particularly Britain) since the mid 1990s. Qualitative data from 10 Salvia users were collected by means of email interviews. The participants were asked to provide as in-depth responses as possible. No time or space limit on answers was imposed. Their responses to each question are presented verbatim. The effects of Salvia appear to vary between users and seem sensitive to situational factors. Users who understand something of the ritualistic setting for traditional use would appear to have a fuller experience than those who do not.

  3. Gut microbiome response to short-term dietary interventions in reactive hypoglycemia subjects.

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    Quercia, Sara; Turroni, Silvia; Fiori, Jessica; Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Biagi, Elena; Castagnetti, Andrea; Consolandi, Clarissa; Severgnini, Marco; Pianesi, Mario; Fallucca, Francesco; Pozzilli, Paolo; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Reactive hypoglycemia is a metabolic disorder that provokes severe hypoglycemic episodes after meals. Over recent years, the gut microbiota has been recognized as potential target for the control of metabolic diseases, and the possibility to correct gut microbiota dysbioses through diet, favouring the recovery of metabolic homeostasis, has been considered. We investigate the impact of 2 short-term (3-day) nutritional interventions, based on the macrobiotic Ma-Pi 2 diet and a control Mediterranean diet, on the structure and functionality of the gut microbiota in 12 patients affected by reactive hypoglycemia. The gut microbiota composition was characterized by next-generation sequencing of the V3 to V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and the ecosystem functionality was addressed by measuring the faecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In order to measure the short-term physiological gut microbiota fluctuation, the microbiomes of 7 healthy people were characterized before and after 3 days of constant diet. While no convergence of the gut microbiota compositional profiles was observed, a significant increase in SCFA faecal levels was induced only in the Ma-Pi 2 diet group, suggesting the potential of this diet to support a short-term functional convergence of the gut microbiota, regardless of the individual compositional layout. The Ma-Pi 2 diet, with its high fibre load, was effective in increasing the production of SCFAs by the gut microbiota. Because these metabolites are known for their ability to counterbalance the metabolic deregulation in persons with glucose impairment disorders, their increased bioavailability could be of some relevance in reactive hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. C-reactive protein as a marker of progression of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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    Pleskovič, Aleš; Letonja, Marija Šantl; Vujkovac, Andreja Cokan; Nikolajević Starčević, Jovana; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Gaspar, Ludovit; Kruzliak, Peter; Petrovič, Danijel

    2017-05-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of inflammatory markers on the presence and progression of subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis in a 3.8-year follow-up period in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 595 subjects with T2DM were enrolled. Subclinical markers of carotid atherosclerosis (carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), plaque thickness, and plaques presence) were assessed with ultrasound at the time of recruitment and again after 3.8 years. Subjects with T2DM were divided into 2 groups according to the plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels (subjects with hs-CRP ≥ 2 mg/L and subjects with hs-CRP below 2 mg/L). Subjects with T2DM and hs-CRP levels ≥ 2 mg/L had higher CIMT in comparison with subjects with T2DM and hs-CRP levels below 2 mg/L, and higher incidence of plaques/unstable plaques in comparison with subjects with T2DM and hs-CRP levels below 2 mg/L. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found the association between the HDL cholesterol level and presence of plaques, whereas the inflammatory marker hs-CRP was not associated with subclinical markers of progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Multiple linear regression analysis found the association between the hs-CRP levels and either CIMT progression rate or a change in the number of sites with plaques in a 3.8-year follow-up. We demonstrated an association between the inflammatory marker hs-CRP and either CIMT or incidence of plaques/unstable plaques at the time of recruitment in Caucasians with T2DM. Moreover, we found the association between hs-CRP levels and either CIMT progression rate or a change in the number of sites with plaques in a 3.8-year follow-up in subjects with T2DM.

  5. Cardiac reactivity during the ascending phase of acute intravenous alcohol exposure and association with subjective perceptions of intoxication in social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize cardiac reactivity measures, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV), following acute intravenous (IV) alcohol administration and their association with subjective responses in social drinkers. Twenty-four subjects (11 females) received IV alcohol infusions to attain and clamp the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) at 50 mg% or placebo in separate sessions. Serial 5-minute cardiac recordings at baseline and during the infusion were analyzed to obtain frequency and time domain cardiac measures. Self-reported subjective perceptions were also obtained at the same time points. HR showed significant decreases from baseline, while the HRV measure pNN50 showed steady increases during the ascending phase of alcohol infusion. HR was inversely correlated with pNN50 across time and treatment. There was a significant association of HR with subjective feelings of high, intoxication, feeling drug effects, and liking drug effects across time during the ascending phase. Acute IV alcohol resulted in decreases in HR and increases in HRV consistent with autonomic parasympathetic activation. The association of these changes with subjective responses suggests that cardiac reactivity may serve as a physiological marker of subjective alcohol effects. This study broadens the understanding of acute cardiovascular effects of alcohol and clinically significant cardiac conditions such as arrhythmia and cardiomyopathy associated with chronic alcohol drinking. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Why to Treat Subjects as Fixed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S.; Estes, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Adelman, Marquis, Sabatos-DeVito, and Estes (2013) collected word naming latencies from 4 participants who read 2,820 words 50 times each. Their recommendation and practice was that R2 targets set for models should take into account subject idiosyncrasies as replicable patterns, equivalent to a subjects-as-fixed-effects assumption. In light of an…

  7. Clinical reactivity to ingestion challenge with mixed mold extract may be enhanced in subjects sensitized to molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Malka-Rais, Jonathan; Nsouli, Talal M; Bellanti, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Manifestations of mold allergy are classically associated with inhalation of mold spores leading to symptoms of asthma and other respiratory illnesses. It is largely unknown, however, whether ingestion of aeroallergenic molds, mold spores, or other fungi found in food can also elicit hypersensitivity reactions in mold-sensitive individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between exposure to molds by oral challenge and elicitation of symptoms in mold- versus nonmold-sensitive individuals. Thirty-four adult atopic subjects were randomized into mold-sensitive groups based on skin test reactivity by skin percutaneous testing (SPT) and/or intradermal (ID) testing to a mixed mold (MM) extract preparation. All subjects underwent a single-blinded, placebo-controlled food challenge to the MM preparation. A modified scoring system was used to grade the clinical severity of symptoms elicited by challenge. All subjects tolerated challenges to the maximal oral mold dose concentration. However, higher symptom scores after challenge were found in mold-sensitive subjects compared with nonmold-sensitive subjects (p = 0.01). When mold-sensitive subjects were compared based on SPT and/or ID reactivity, higher symptom scores and lower symptom-eliciting concentrations of mold were associated with the SPT reactive subgroup compared with the subgroup with ID reactivity alone. In summary, based on our challenge results and scoring model, mold-sensitive subjects compared with nonmold-sensitive subjects experienced cumulatively higher symptom scores after oral challenge to an MM extract preparation. Future studies are warranted to confirm whether ingestion of aeroallergenic molds in food may be another contributor to symptoms in mold-sensitive individuals.

  8. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is associated with the presence of coronary artery calcium in subjects with normal blood pressure but not in subjects with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Joo-Wook; Lee, Sung Ho; Byrne, Christopher D; Chung, Pil-Wook; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2014-02-01

    An association has been described between high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in some studies but not in others. This finding may be explained by a differential impact of inflammation according to the absence or presence of certain co-existing risk factors. Because hypertension may be an effect modifier of inflammation on CVD, our aim was to investigate the relationship between hs-CRP and pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure and hypertension. Data were analyzed from 14,584 Korean subjects. Subjects were stratified according to: a) 6030 (41.3%) patients with normal blood pressure (hypertension (120-139 mmHg and 80-89 mmHg) and c) 2924 (20.0%) patients with hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg). Prevalence and odds ratio for the association between increased hs-CRP (>2 mg/L) and presence of CAC (coronary artery calcium) were calculated. In both normal and pre-hypertensive groups, the prevalence of CAC >0 was higher in subjects with increased hs-CRP concentrations (>2 mg/L). Adjusting for age, sex, cerebrovascular accident, coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus, lifestyle, obesity, fasting glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, there was a significant association between higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) and CAC score in the normal group (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16; p = 0.010); a borderline significant association in the pre-hypertensive group (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.99-1.76; p = 0.054); and no association in the hypertensive group (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.33; p = 0.94). Higher hs-CRP levels (>2 mg/L) are associated with pre-clinical atherosclerosis in subjects with normal blood pressure but not hypertension. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determinants of cue-elicited craving and physiologic reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent subjects in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Bryan K; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Saladin, Michael; Price, Kimber L; Simpson, Annie N; DeSantis, Stacia M; Baker, Nathaniel L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-03-01

    Craving for methamphetamine is commonly reported by heavy users of the drug and may increase the risk of relapse in newly abstinent individuals. Exposure to methamphetamine-associated cues in the laboratory can elicit measureable craving and autonomic reactivity in some individuals with methamphetamine dependence. In this study, clinical and demographic correlates of methamphetamine craving and the optimal conditions for its measurement in the laboratory are explored. Subjective (craving) and physiologic (heart rate and skin conductance) reactivity to presentation of methamphetamine-associated photo, video, and paraphernalia cues were evaluated in 43 subjects with methamphetamine dependence. Association of cue reactivity with demographic and clinical characteristics including duration, frequency, amount, and recency of methamphetamine use were assessed. Craving was reported by fewer than half of subjects at baseline and by approximately 70% of subjects after methamphetamine cue exposure. Relative to baseline, subjective craving was increased by all three cue modalities to a similar extent. In general, physiological cue reactivity correlated poorly with cue-induced craving. Craving at baseline was strongly predictive of cue-induced craving. Differences in cue-induced craving were not associated with age, sex, education, employment, treatment status, or number of days using methamphetamine in the 60 days prior to study entry. In contrast, the degree of baseline craving was strongly associated with employment status and the number of days using methamphetamine in the past 60 days. Cue-induced craving for methamphetamine may be reliably measured in methamphetamine-dependent individuals in the laboratory. Further studies employing the cue reactivity paradigm in methamphetamine dependence are warranted.

  10. Effect Size Calculations and Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa L.; Smith, Benjamin W.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared visual analyses with five alternative methods for assessing the magnitude of effect with single subject designs. Each method was successful in detecting intervention effect. When rank ordered, each method was consistent in identifying the participants with the largest effect. We recommend the use of the standard mean difference…

  11. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  12. Comparison of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fetuin-A levels before and after treatment for subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgir, Oktay; Bilgir, Ferda; Topcuoglu, Tuba; Calan, Mehmet; Calan, Ozlem

    2014-03-01

    This study was designed to show the effect of propylthiouracil treatment on sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels on subjects with subclinical hyperthyroidism. After checking sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels of 35 patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism, each was given 50 mg tablets of propylthiouracil three times daily. After 3 months, sCD40L, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fetuin-A levels were then compared to the levels before treatment. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and sCD40L levels were normal in the subclinical hyperthyroidism patients compared to the healthy controls, fetuin-A levels were statistically significantly higher (*p = 0.022). After treatment, fetuin-A levels of subclinical hyperthyroidism patients decreased statistically significantly compared to the levels before treatment (**p = 0.026). sCD40L and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not have a statistically significant difference compared to the control group and post-propylthiouracil treatment. In subclinical hyperthyroidism patients, high fetuin-A levels before propylthiouracil treatment and decreases in these levels after treatment in cases with subclinical hyperthyroidism indicated the possibility of preventing long-term cardiac complications with propylthiouracil treatment.

  13. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  14. Modeling Reactive Wetting when Inertial Effects are Dominant

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Daniel; Warren, James A.; Boettinger, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experimental studies of molten metal droplets wetting high temperature reactive substrates have established that the majority of triple-line motion occurs when inertial effects are dominant. In light of these studies, this paper investigates wetting and spreading on reactive substrates when inertial effects are dominant using a thermodynamically derived, diffuse interface model of a binary, three-phase material. The liquid-vapor transition is modeled using a van der Waals diffuse inter...

  15. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    . High-sensitive CRP and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring were performed. The primary endpoint was the combined endpoint of death and myocardial infarction. RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 76 months. Seventy-seven subjects (11.4%) had SMI. The combined endpoint occurred in 26% of the subjects...

  16. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkulla Sashidhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91 p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31 p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for

  17. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  18. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  19. Subjective, Autonomic, and Endocrine Reactivity during Social Stress in Children with Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Martina; Seefeldt, Wiebke Lina; Heinrichs, Nina; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna; Schmitz, Julian; Wolf, Oliver Tobias; Blechert, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Reports of exaggerated anxiety and physiological hyperreactivity to social-evaluative situations are characteristic of childhood social phobia (SP). However, laboratory research on subjective, autonomic and endocrine functioning in childhood SP is scarce, inconsistent and limited by small sample sizes, limited breadth of measurements, and the use…

  20. C-reactive protein, heart rate variability and prognosis in community subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Increased C-reactive protein (CRP) and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) both indicate poor prognosis. An inverse association between HRV and CRP has been reported, suggesting an interaction between inflammatory and autonomic systems. However, the prognostic impact...... of this interaction has not been studied. We thus investigated the prognostic impact of CRP, HRV and their combinations. DESIGN: Population-based study. SUBJECTS: A total of 638 middle-aged and elderly subjects with no apparent heart disease from community. METHODS: All were studied by clinical and laboratory...... of four HRV measures were significantly associated with increased rate of death or myocardial infarction. In a Cox model with CRP >or=2.5 microg mL(-1), standard deviation for the mean value of the time between normal complexes...

  1. Hyperventilation, anxiety sensitivity, and the expectations for alcohol use: subjective and physiological reactivity to alcohol cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, M E; McKay, D

    2001-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between alcohol-related expectancies, body sensation fear and reactions to cues for alcohol following a hyperventilation task. Forty-two undergraduate students participated for course credit. Each student hyperventilated for 5 min, paced at a rate of 30 breaths per minute. Following hyperventilation, each student was exposed to containers with alcohol (beer and wine coolers), with subjective urge to consume and heart rate measures taken. Path analysis supported models associated with tension reduction and self-focused attention expectancies as significant contributors to increased urge to consume alcohol and lowered heart rate following hyperventilation. However, social-anxiety-related expectancies failed to demonstrate a relationship. These results suggest that additional work on the tension reduction model of alcohol use should examine physiological stressors in association with subject characteristics such as proneness to experience panic symptoms.

  2. An effective way of reactivation of first class appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First class appliance produces rapid distalization of the maxillary first and second molars, even when the second molars are completely erupted. The range of molar distalization is 4-8 mm. It has both buccal and palatal component. Here, we are going to present a technique to reactivate a broken first class appliance for effective distalization.

  3. Effects of lithium on oxidative stress parameters in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairova, Rushaniya; Pawar, Rohit; Salvadore, Giacomo; Juruena, Mario F; de Sousa, Rafael T; Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio G; Salvador, Mirian; Zarate, Carlos A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2012-03-01

    Increased neuronal oxidative stress (OxS) induces deleterious effects on signal transduction, structural plasticity and cellular resilience, mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation in membranes, proteins and genes. Major markers of OxS levels include the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase. Lithium has been shown to prevent and/or reverse DNA damage, free-radical formation and lipid peroxidation in diverse models. This study evaluates OxS parameters in healthy volunteers prior to and following lithium treatment. Healthy volunteers were treated with lithium in therapeutic doses for 2-4 weeks. Treatment with lithium in healthy volunteers selectively altered SOD levels in all subjects. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the SOD/CAT ratio was observed following lithium treatment, which was associated with decreased OxS by lowering hydrogen peroxide levels. This reduction in the SOD/CAT ratio may lead to lower OxS, indicated primarily by a decrease in the concentration of cell hydrogen peroxide. Overall, the present findings indicate a potential role for the antioxidant effects of lithium in healthy subjects, supporting its neuroprotective profile in bipolar disorder (BD) and, possibly, in neurodegenerative processes.

  4. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  5. Effect of reactive and non-reactive counterion micelles upon the alkaline degradation of indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah S. Al-Ayed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, kinetics of alkaline degradation of well known drug, indomethacin (2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl-5-methoxy-2-methylindol-3-yl]acetic acid, was studied in presence of excess [NaOH]. The rate of hydrolysis of substrate was independent of the [indomethacin] though it increased linearly with increasing the hydroxide ion concentration with a positive slope, suggesting the following rate law: kobs = k1[OH−]. Cationic surfactants having non-reactive ions (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB and cetyltrimethylammonium sulfate (CTA2SO4 first increased the rate constants at lower concentrations and then decreased it at higher concentrations while in case of the surfactant with reactive counterions (cetyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, CTAOH the rate increases sharply at lower concentrations of surfactant until it reaches to a plateau in contrast to the appearance of maxima in case of CTAB and (CTA2SO4. Anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, inhibited the reaction rate at all concentrations used in the study. Pseudophase ion-exchange model was used for analyzing the effect of cationic micelles while the inhibition by SDS micelles was fitted using the Menger–Portnoy model. The effect of salts (NaCl, NaBr and (CH34NBr was also seen on the hydrolysis of indomethacin and it was found that all salts inhibited the rate of reaction. The inhibition followed the trend NaCl < NaBr < (CH34NBr.

  6. Thermogenic effect of glucose in hypothyroid subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacz, Agnieszka; Grunt, Paulina; Steczkowska, Marta; Mikulski, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Jan; Górecka, Monika; Sanocka, Urszula; Ziemba, Andrzej Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG) was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A), and noradrenaline (NA) were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68 ± 3.90 versus 55.40 ± 7.32 kJ, resp., P < 0.0004). Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79 ± 23.65 versus 188.41 ± 15.84 mmol/L·min, P < 0.003 and 7563.27 ± 863.65 versus 4987.72 ± 583.88 mU/L·min, P < 0.03 resp.). Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax-0.69 ± 0.08 versus 0.30 ± 0.07 nmol/L, P < 0.0001, and NAmax-6.42 ± 0.86 versus 2.54 ± 0.30 nmol/L, P < 0.0002). It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  7. Thermogenic Effect of Glucose in Hypothyroid Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kozacz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of thyroid hormone, catecholamines, and insulin in modification of the thermogenic effect of glucose (TEG was examined in 34 healthy and 32 hypothyroid subjects. We calculated the energy expenditure at rest and during oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples for determinations of glucose, plasma insulin, adrenaline (A, and noradrenaline (NA were collected. It was found that TEG was lower in hypothyroid than in control group (19.68±3.90 versus 55.40±7.32 kJ, resp., P<0.0004. Mean values of glucose and insulin areas under the curve were higher in women with hypothyroidism than in control group (286.79±23.65 versus 188.41±15.84 mmol/L·min, P<0.003 and 7563.27±863.65 versus 4987.72±583.88 mU/L·min, P<0.03 resp.. Maximal levels of catecholamines after glucose ingestion were higher in hypothyroid patients than in control subjects (Amax—0.69±0.08 versus 0.30±0.07 nmol/L, P<0.0001, and NAmax—6.42±0.86 versus 2.54±0.30 nmol/L, P<0.0002. It can be concluded that in hypothyroidism TEG and glucose tolerance are decreased while the adrenergic response to glucose administration is enhanced. Presumably, these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action.

  8. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  9. No effect of odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep on declarative memory stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Jasmin Cordi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Memory reactivations in hippocampal brain areas are critically involved in memory consolidation processes during sleep. In particular, specific firing patterns of hippocampal place cells observed during learning are replayed during subsequent sleep and rest in rodents. In humans, experimentally inducing hippocampal memory reactivations during slow-wave sleep (but not during wakefulness benefits consolidation and immediately stabilizes declarative memories against future interference. Importantly, spontaneous hippocampal replay activity can also be observed during rapid-eye movement (REM sleep and some authors have suggested that replay during REM sleep is related to processes of memory consolidation. However, the functional role of reactivations during REM sleep for memory stability is still unclear. Here, we reactivated memories during REM sleep and examined its consequences for the stability of declarative memories. After three hours of early, slow-wave sleep (SWS rich sleep, 16 healthy young adults learned a 2-D object location task in the presence of a contextual odor. During subsequent REM sleep, participants were either re-exposed to the odor or to an odorless vehicle, in a counterbalanced within subject design. Reactivation was followed by an interference learning task to probe memory stability after awakening. We show that odor-induced memory reactivation during REM sleep does not stabilize memories against future interference. We propose that the beneficial effect of reactivation during sleep on memory stability might be critically linked to processes characterizing SWS including, e.g., slow oscillatory activity, sleep spindles or low cholinergic tone, which are required for a successful redistribution of memories from medial temporal lobe regions to neocortical long-term stores.

  10. Vascular Effects of Obestatin in Lean and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinzari, Francesca; Veneziani, Augusto; Mores, Nadia; Barini, Angela; Di Daniele, Nicola; Cardillo, Carmine; Tesauro, Manfredi

    2017-05-01

    Obese patients have impaired vasodilator reactivity and increased endothelin 1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstriction, two abnormalities contributing to vascular dysfunction. Obestatin, a product of the ghrelin gene, in addition to favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, has shown nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator properties in experimental models. Given these premises, we compared the effects of exogenous obestatin on forearm flow in lean and obese subjects and assessed its influence on ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obesity. In both lean and obese participants, infusion of escalating doses of obestatin resulted in a progressive increase in blood flow from baseline (both P obestatin in both groups (both P 0.05) during obestatin. Circulating obestatin levels were not different between lean and obese participants (P = 0.41). Our findings indicate that obestatin causes NO-dependent vasodilation in the human circulation. This effect is preserved in obesity, where it is accompanied by reduced ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. These latter observations make obestatin a promising target for vascular prevention in obesity and diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  11. Modeling food matrix effects on chemical reactivity: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo; Oliviero, Teresa; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2017-06-29

    The same chemical reaction may be different in terms of its position of the equilibrium (i.e., thermodynamics) and its kinetics when studied in different foods. The diversity in the chemical composition of food and in its structural organization at macro-, meso-, and microscopic levels, that is, the food matrix, is responsible for this difference. In this viewpoint paper, the multiple, and interconnected ways the food matrix can affect chemical reactivity are summarized. Moreover, mechanistic and empirical approaches to explain and predict the effect of food matrix on chemical reactivity are described. Mechanistic models aim to quantify the effect of food matrix based on a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical phenomena occurring in food. Their applicability is limited at the moment to very simple food systems. Empirical modeling based on machine learning combined with data-mining techniques may represent an alternative, useful option to predict the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactivity and to identify chemical and physical properties to be further tested. In such a way the mechanistic understanding of the effect of the food matrix on chemical reactions can be improved.

  12. Reactivity effects of fission product decay in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J.M.; Ahnert, C.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the work reported in this paper is to analyze the effects of fission product chains with radioactive decay on the reactivity in pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores, calculating their accumulation and absorption rates along fuel burnup at continuous operation and after shutdown periods extending from 1 day to a few months. The authors PWR version of the WIMS-D4 code is first used to obtain the individual number densities, absorption rates, and averaged cross sections for every nuclide of the fission product chains with significant decay rates, as a function of fuel burnup at continuous irradiation. Next, by an auxiliary ad hoc code, these data, have been processed together with the required one for fissile nuclides and boron, also taken from WIMS at each burnup step, to calculate the average or effective values relevant for the analysis and the decay and change in overall absorption after several shutdown times. (1) The reactivity effect of fission product decay changes significantly with the shutdown time. The maximum absorption increase by decay is reached in /approx/ 10 days' shutdown. (2) The dependence with fuel type, enrichment, and burnup is slight, but the change with previous power density is nearly linear, which might be significant after coast-down in previous cycles. (3) For long shutdown periods, the overall reactivity effect of decay in the three fission product chains considered is much less than if only the samarium peak due to /sup 149/Nd is considered.

  13. The effect of taste familiarity on intake and taste reactivity in infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cenzano, Elena; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2010-03-01

    With infant rats, unlike with adults, increased intake of a taste after mere exposure to this stimulus is not consistently found; this has sometimes been interpreted as a failure by the immature subject to recognize tastes as familiar. We studied the effect of preexposure to a tastant, measuring taste reactivity and intake in 14-day-old rats. Familiarity increased hedonic response to sucrose, but also increased aversive response to quinine and ethanol. With the sucrose-quinine compound, familiarity increased both the hedonic and the aversive reaction to the stimulus. In no case was a differential reactivity to water observed. Significant increased intake after familiarization was only found with quinine or the sucrose-quinine compound. Results indicate that in infant rats, and with the present parameters, taste familiarity enhances responsiveness to these stimuli, an effect not always accompanied by detectable changes in intake.

  14. Increased reactive oxygen metabolites is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular endothelial damage in middle-aged Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomonori Sugiura1, Yasuaki Dohi1, Hiroyuki Takase2, Sumiyo Yamashita1, Satoru Tanaka1, Genjiro Kimura11Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Enshu Hospital, Hamamatsu, JapanBackground: Vascular endothelium, a provider of nitric oxide, is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in healthy vascular systems. Increased oxidative stress promotes vascular inflammation and is a common pathway involved in endothelial damage. The present study sought to investigate the usefulness of derivative reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM as an oxidative stress marker for detecting endothelial damage in the clinical setting in subjects with early-stage atherosclerosis.Methods: Study 1 investigated the relationship between serum d-ROM levels and cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects (n = 1992, 49 ± 8 years who participated in our health checkup program. Study 2 analyzed the association between d-ROM levels and endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation and that between d-ROM levels and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels in middle-aged outpatients with mild-to-moderate cardiovascular risk (n = 43, 40 ± 5 years.Results: In study 1, the d-ROM level was independently correlated with age, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and brain natriuretic peptide in univariate and multivariate regression analysis. In study 2, the d-ROM level was correlated positively with the hs-CRP level and inversely with the flow-mediated dilation value. Patients in the highest tertile of d-ROM had significantly lower flow-mediated dilation values compared with patients in the other tertiles. Moreover, after subdivision of patients into four groups according to d-ROM and hs-CRP levels, patients with high levels of both d-ROM and hs-CRP showed

  15. Preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xing-Xing; Wang, Lin; Chen, Zhao-Wu; Chen, He; Xu, Xiu-Cai; Zhang, Ai-Mei; Song, Xiao-Rong; Luo, Qing-Li; Xu, Yuan-Hong; Fu, Yu; Wang, Hua; Du, Jian; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lu, Fang-Li; Wang, Yong; Shen, Ji-Long

    2013-08-01

    As one of food-borne parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis entails the risk of developing reactivation in immunocompromised patients. The synthetic dipeptide pidotimod is a potent immunostimulating agent that improves the immunodefenses in immunodepression. To investigate the efficacy of pidotimod as a preventive treatment, we used a murine model of reactivated toxoplasmosis with cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced immunosuppression. Pidotimod administration significantly restored the body weight and spleen organ index, increased survival time (from 70 to 90%), and decreased the parasitemia (from 80 to 35%) of CY-induced mice with reactivated toxoplasmosis. Cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cells subpopulation analyses by Cytometric Bead Array and flow cytometry demonstrated that pidotimod treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2) and Th1 cells (from 3.73 ± 0.39 to 5.88 ± 0.46%) after CY induction in infected mice. Additionally, histological findings and parasite DNA quantification revealed that mice administered with pidotimod had a remarkable reduction of parasite burden (two-log) and amelioration of histopathology in the brains. The in vitro studies showed that pidotimod significantly restored concanavalin A-induced splenocyte proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of splenocyte culture. It could be concluded that the administration of pidotimod in immunocompromised mice significantly increases the Th1-biased immune response, prolongs survival time, and ameliorates the load of parasites in the blood. This is the first report of the preventive effect of pidotimod on reactivated toxoplasmosis.

  16. The effect of varying task difficulty on subjective workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Y.-Y.; Wickens, C. D.; Hart, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of different difficulty distribution patterns on subjective workload, and the presence of a primacy/recency effect in subjective ratings are examined. Eight subjects performed the perceptual central processing required for response selection and manual target acquisition for response execution. The reaction time, movement time, and the percent of correct pattern matching and arithmetic equations are analyzed. The data reveal that subjective rating is unaffected by different task difficulty and no primacy/recency effects are observed in subjective ratings. It is concluded that subjective workload reflects the experience of an ongoing integration process.

  17. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  18. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  19. Red yeast rice improves lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and vascular remodeling parameters in moderately hypercholesterolemic Italian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Derosa, Giuseppe; Parini, Angelo; Maffioli, Pamela; D'Addato, Sergio; Reggi, Alessandra; Giovannini, Marina; Borghi, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    Despite a recent health claim by the European Agency on Food Safety, the effect of high doses of dietary monacolin supplements from red yeast rice on cholesterolemia has not been tested in Italian subjects. Our aim via a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was to test if a short-term treatment with 10 mg monacolins could improve lipid pattern, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and vascular remodeling biomarkers in a small cohort of Mediterranean subjects. Thus, 25 healthy, mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were enrolled, and after 4 weeks of a stabilization diet, subjects were randomized to the sequence placebo-washout-monacolins or monacolins-washout-placebo, with each period being 4 weeks long. At each study step, a complete lipid pattern, safety parameters, hs-CRP, and matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 levels were measured. When compared to the placebo group, monacolins-treated patients experienced a more favorable percent change in total cholesterol (-12.45%, 95% CI -16.19 to -8.71), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-21.99%, 95% CI -26.63 to -17.36), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-14.67%, 95% CI -19.22 to -10.11), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (-28.05%, 95% CI -35.18 to -20.93), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (-27.19%, 95% CI -36.21 to -18.15), and hs-CRP (-23.77%, 95% CI -30.54 to -17.01). No significant differences were observed in regards to triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and safety parameters. On the basis of our data, we demonstrate that a 10-mg monacolin nutraceutical appears to safely reduce cholesterolemia, hs-CRP, and markers of vascular remodeling in Italian subjects. These results have to be confirmed in larger patient samples and longer studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactivity effects of void formations in a solution critical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Steven G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-01-01

    SHEBA II (Solution High Energy Burst Assembly) was constructed in order to better understand the neutronics of solutions of fissile materials. In order to estimate the effect on criticality from the formation of bubbles, models were devised in MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon transport code) and THREEDANT (THREE dimensional, Diffusion-Accelerated, Neutral-Particle Transport). It was found that the formation of voids in all but the outside bottom edge of the assembly cylinder tend to act as a negative insertion of reactivity. Also, an experiment has been designed which will verify the results of the codes.

  1. Intake of n-3 fatty acids from fish does not lower serum concentrations of C-reactive protein in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, Anouk; Brouwer, I. A.; Schouten, E. G.; Kluft, C.; Katan, M. B.; Zock, Peter L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular risk. We hypothesised that n-3 fatty acids reduce underlying inflammatory processes and consequently CRP concentrations in healthy middle-aged subjects. Design:

  2. C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: Associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction : A potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yudkin, J.S.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Emeis, J.J.; Coppack, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    C-reactive protein, a hepatic acute phase protein largely regulated by circulating levels of interleukin-6, predicts coronary heart disease incidence in healthy subjects. We have shown that subcutaneous adipose tissue secretes interleukin-6 in vivo. In this study we have sought associations of

  3. Effect of cilostazol on platelet reactivity among patients with peripheral artery disease on clopidogrel therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Núñez-Medina, Hector; Scott, Stuart A; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Wiley, Jose M; Garcia, Mario J; Melin, Kyle; Nieves-Borrero, Karid; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Christina; Marshall, Lorraine; Duconge, Jorge

    2018-02-06

    Antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel is recommended to reduce cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, clopidogrel efficacy has not been adequately studied in this patient population. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effects of cilostazol therapy on platelet reactivity among PAD patients on clopidogrel. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study of 46 Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with PAD. The cohort was divided based on use of clopidogrel and cilostazol (n=24) or clopidogrel alone (n=22). Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples using the QIAamp DNA Blood Midi Kit, which was subjected to candidate variant genotyping (CYP2C19, ABCB1, PON1 and P2RY12) using TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. All analyses were performed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute). Among all enrolled patients, 18 (39%) had high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR). The mean platelet reactivity was 207±53 (range, 78-325) with higher P2Y12 reaction units in the non-cilostazol group, 224±45 vs. 191±55 on the cilostazol group (p=0.03). No significant differences were observed in the clinical or genetic variables between the two groups. A multiple regression analysis determined that history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.03), use of cilostazol (p=0.03) and hematocrit (p=0.02) were independent predictors of platelet reactivity. In Puerto Rican PAD patients on clopidogrel therapy, history of diabetes mellitus, use of cilostazol and hematocrit are independent predictors of platelet reactivity. Adjunctive cilostazol therapy may enhance clopidogrel efficacy among PAD patients with HTPR.

  4. Bactericidal effects of reactive thermal plasma synthesized titanium dioxide photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay, M [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P V; Sreekumar, K P [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Stengl, Vaclav [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Bondioli, Federica [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell' Ambiente, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905 - 41100 Modena (Italy); Selvarajan, V, E-mail: vselvrjn47@rediffmail.co

    2010-02-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium oxide powder has been synthesized by reactive plasma processing. The precursor powder of TiH{sub 2} was oxidized 'in-flight' in a thermal plasma reactor to effect complete conversion of TiH{sub 2} to nano-sized TiO{sub 2} powder. Characterization of the powder by various analytical tools indicated that the powder consisted of nano-sized titanium dioxide particles consisting predominantly of the anatase phase. Bactericidal action of illuminated TiO{sub 2} on pure culture of Escherichia coli was studied. The plasma synthesized TiO{sub 2}nano powder catalyst was found to be highly effective for the killing of Escherichia coli. The efficiency of photocatalytic disinfection, used to inactivate Escherischia coli as function of time is discussed.

  5. Skin prick test reactivity to lupin in comparison to peanut, pea, and soybean in atopic and non-atopic German subjects: A preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, Melanie; Fechner, Anita; Kaatz, Martin; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    The increasing use of lupin in food processing poses a problem of potential (cross-)allergic reactions. To evaluate the prevalence of sensitization to lupin in comparison to that of other legumes skin prick tests were performed with lupin, pea, peanut, and soybean in atopic (n = 81) and non-atopic (n = 102) German adults. Of these 183 subjects, 20 subjects had to be excluded due to invalid skin prick tests (reaction to histamine 2 mm). Thus, skin prick tests of 163 subjects were included in final analyses. Of 163 subjects, 18 had a positive reaction to at least one legume tested. Overall skin prick test reactivity was different among non-atopic and atopic subjects (P = 0.005). Altogether, six subjects (4%) were sensitized to lupin, 12 (7%) to pea, 5 (3%) to peanut, and 8 (5%) to soybean. Two (2%) of the 92 non-atopic subjects and 4 (6%) of the 71 atopic subjects had a positive skin prick test to lupin. Of the 6 subjects sensitized to lupin, 3 (50%) were also sensitized to pea, 3 (50%) to peanut, and 5 (83%) to soybean. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of lupin sensitization were comparable to or even lower than those of pea, peanut, and soybean. To date, lupin allergy is suspected to be relatively uncommon in the overall German population since lupin sensitization occurred in only 2% of non-atopic subjects. However, there is a clear risk of a lupin allergy in predisposed subjects, since the frequency of lupin sensitization was 6% in atopic subjects. In particular, subjects with existing sensitization or allergy to other legumes are at higher risk for a sensitization or allergy to lupin due to cross-reactivity.

  6. Peanut allergy is common among hazelnut-sensitized subjects but is not primarily the result of IgE cross-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masthoff, L J; van Hoffen, E; Mattsson, L; Lidholm, J; Andersson, K; Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L; Versteeg, S A; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C A; Knulst, A C; Pasmans, S G; van Ree, R

    2015-03-01

    Hazelnut and peanut are botanically unrelated foods, but patients are often sensitized and allergic to both, for reasons that are not well understood. To investigate molecular cosensitization and cross-reactivity to peanut in hazelnut-sensitized individuals, children (n = 81) and adults (n = 80) were retrospectively selected based on sensitization to hazelnut. IgE to hazelnut extract, Cor a 1, 8, 9 and 14, to peanut extract, Ara h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9, and to Bet v 1 was determined by ImmunoCAP. Allergy to hazelnut and peanut was established by DBPCFC and/or detailed clinical history. Patients were either tolerant or displayed subjective or objective symptoms to either food. IgE cross-reactivity between hazelnut and peanut storage proteins was assessed by reciprocal ImmunoCAP inhibition experiments. Of the 161 hazelnut-sensitized subjects, 109 (68%) were also sensitized to peanut, and 73 (45%) had clinical expression of allergy to peanut that was not associated with the presence or severity of hazelnut allergy. Instead, it was associated with IgE reactivity to peanut storage proteins, in particular Ara h 2. No cross-reactivity could be detected between Ara h 2 and Cor a 14, and 2 of 13 subjects displayed extensive cross-reactivity between 11S globulins; in plasma of both individuals, Ara h 3 almost completely inhibited IgE binding to Cor a 9. Peanut allergy is not primarily the result of IgE cross-reactivity to hazelnut storage proteins. IgE to Cor a 14 and Ara h 2 may serve as useful markers of primary sensitization to hazelnut and peanut, respectively. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Lipids and cardiovascular reactivity changes in hypertensive cigarette smokers: enalapril versus nifedipine treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzaro, P; Cicco, G; Manzari, M; Merlo, M; Pirrelli, A

    1994-02-01

    Cigarette smoking has many effects on the cardiovascular system, psyche, and serum lipids, which can create a vicious circle that is pejorative to the well-being of hypertensive patients, even if they are under pharmacologic treatment. To investigate the effect of two different antihypertensive agents, nifedipine and enalapril, on cardiovascular reactivity and lipoprotein patterns in cigarette smokers with hypertension, 92 essential hypertensive (175 +/- 11/103 +/- 8 mm Hg) subjects were studied, who had no sign of lipidosis, and subdivided into four groups in order of smoking habit and therapy. Over a 30-month follow-up period, the percentage changes in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were evaluated while the patients underwent a session of psychophysiologic tests to assess sympathetic reactivity. The response was calculated through the difference in cumulative percentage changes (DC%) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HR, muscular contraction (EMG), skin conductance (SCL), and peripheral temperature (TP). The office BP was reduced significantly in all groups. In the nonsmokers, enalapril reduced (p < 0.05) the SCL-, TP-, SBP-, and DBP-DC% reactivity, lowered (p < 0.05) TR, C-tot, and LDL, and increased (p < 0.05) the HDL. However, nifedipine magnified the sympathetic responses and the atherosclerotic lipoproteins and decreased (p < 0.05) the HDL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Reactive Oxygen Species: Physiological and Physiopathological Effects on Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhauser, Thiago Fernando; Francis-Oliveira, José; De Pasquale, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is counterbalanced by antioxidant defenses. When large amounts of ROS accumulate, antioxidant mechanisms become overwhelmed and oxidative cellular stress may occur. Therefore, ROS are typically characterized as toxic molecules, oxidizing membrane lipids, changing the conformation of proteins, damaging nucleic acids, and causing deficits in synaptic plasticity. High ROS concentrations are associated with a decline in cognitive functions, as observed in some neurodegenerative disorders and age-dependent decay of neuroplasticity. Nevertheless, controlled ROS production provides the optimal redox state for the activation of transductional pathways involved in synaptic changes. Since ROS may regulate neuronal activity and elicit negative effects at the same time, the distinction between beneficial and deleterious consequences is unclear. In this regard, this review assesses current research and describes the main sources of ROS in neurons, specifying their involvement in synaptic plasticity and distinguishing between physiological and pathological processes implicated. PMID:27625575

  9. The Effect of Environmental Change in Single-Subject Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    RD-RI725 779 THE EFFECT 0F ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT - i/i EXPERINENTS(U) DESNATICS INC STATE COLLEGE PA U AS K C BURNS ET AL. FEB 83 TR...238-9621 Applied Research in Statistics - Mathematics - Operations Research THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN SINGLE - SUBJECT EXPERIMENTS by Kevin...necessary to analyze repeated measurements taken on a single subject . In some situations, such an analysis may be carried out under the assumption that

  10. Renal effects of hyperinsulinaemia in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Skøtt, P; Bruun, N E

    1999-01-01

    aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 22 age- and sex-matched subjects whose parents were both normotensive. Diabetes or morbid obesity in any subject or parent excluded the family. The 24-h blood pressure was measured. The subjects received an isocaloric diet with a fixed.......04). Compared with the controls, the subjects predisposed to hypertension had a higher 24-h diastolic blood pressure [78 (70, 82) mmHg, compared with 73 (68, 77) mmHg], but a similar insulin sensitivity index ¿10(7)x[313 (225, 427)] compared with 10(7)x[354 (218, 435)] l(2).min(-1).pmol(-1).kg(-1)¿. Thus...... the sodium-retaining effect of insulin was more pronounced in subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension than in subjects with normotensive parents. This effect may contribute to the development of hypertension in subjects with a genetic predisposition to hypertension....

  11. Cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamic effects induced by nimodipine in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Daniela; Roatta, Silvestro; Micieli, Giuseppe; Bosone, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of nimodipine are still poorly understood even in the healthy condition; in particular, its effects on tissue oxygenation have never been investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in cerebral oxygenation and blood volume upon oral administration of nimodipine (90 mg) in the healthy condition. In eight subjects, changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume were determined simultaneously with changes in blood velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by using, respectively, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The subjects also underwent noninvasive assessment of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and end-tidal CO2. TCD and NIRS CO2 reactivity indices were al-so extracted. Nimodipine significantly reduced ABP (11±13%) and increased heart rate, as well as NIRS oxygenation(6.0±4.8%) and blood volume indices (9.4±10.1%), while V(MCA) was not significantly decreased (2.0±3.5%). Nimodipine slightly but significantly reduced the V(MCA) response to changes in pCO2 whereas the CO2 reactivity of NIRS parameters was improved. The observed changes in cerebral tissue oxygenation and blood volume indicate nimodipine-induced cerebrovascular dilation and increased perfusion, while the effect on V(MCA)possibly results from dilation of the insonated artery. The present results cast doubt on the putative nimodipine-induced impairment of CO2 reactivity.

  12. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  13. Bronchial reactivity and intracellular magnesium: a possible mechanism for the bronchodilating effects of magnesium in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, L J; Barbagallo, M; Di Lorenzo, G; Drago, A; Scola, S; Morici, G; Caruso, C

    1998-08-01

    1. Increased bronchial smooth muscle contractility with consequent bronchial hyperreactivity are characteristic physiopathological events of asthma. Since magnesium intervenes in calcium transport mechanisms and intracellular phosphorylation reactions, it constitutes an important determinant of the contraction/relaxation state of bronchial smooth muscle. In the present study we investigated the relationship between bronchial reactivity, assessed by methacholine-provocation test, and magnesium concentrations both at extracellular and intracellular levels measured by spectrophotometry. Twenty-two patients with mild-to-moderate asthma and 38 non-asthmatic subjects with allergic rhinitis (24 allergic to Parietaria pollen and 14 allergic to Grass pollen) were recruited to the study. Exclusion criteria included renal failure, hepatic diseases, heart failure and arterial hypertension. 2. The salient finding of our study is that there is a strong positive correlation between bronchial reactivity and the level of intracellular magnesium (r=0.72, Pmagnesium concentrations in the group of patients with asthma were significantly lower (1.8+/-0. 01 mmol/l; n=22) when compared with levels in rhinitis subjects allergic to Parietaria (1.9+/-0.01 mmol/l; n=24, Pmagnesium may be an important determinant of bronchial hyperreactivity, as supported by the significant positive correlation between these two parameters in allergic patients with known bronchial hyperresponsiveness. This finding, in addition to reports of the bronchodilating effects of magnesium administration in patients with asthma, confirms the proposed role of this ion in the pathogenesis and treatment of asthma.

  14. Dietary supplementation with fish gelatine modifies nutrient intake and leads to sex-dependent responses in TAG and C-reactive protein levels of insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard-Deland, Eliane; Lavigne, Charles; Marois, Julie; Bisson, Julie; Weisnagel, S John; Marette, André; Holub, Bruce; Chu, Eugene; Frohlich, Jiri; Hill, John S; Jacques, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that fish protein, as well as marine n-3 PUFA, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk profile. The objectives of this study were to investigate the combined effects of fish gelatine (FG) and n-3 PUFA supplementation on (1) energy intake and body weight, (2) lipid profile and (3) inflammatory and CVD markers in free-living insulin-resistant males and females. Subjects were asked to consume, in a crossover study design with two experimental periods of 8 weeks each, an n-3 PUFA supplement and n-3 PUFA supplement plus FG (n-3 PUFA + FG). n-3 PUFA + FG led to an increase in protein intake and a decrease in carbohydrate intake compared with n-3 PUFA (P < 0·02) in males and females. Sex-treatment interactions were observed for TAG (P = 0·03) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (P = 0·001) levels. In females, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 8 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 23 %, whereas in males, n-3 PUFA reduced plasma TAG by 25 % and n-3 PUFA + FG by 11 %. n-3 PUFA increased serum hsCRP by 13 % and n-3 PUFA + FG strongly reduced hsCRP by 40 % in males, whereas in females, n-3 PUFA reduced serum hsCRP by 6 % and n-3 PUFA + FG increased hsCRP by 20 %. In conclusion, supplementation with FG may enhance the lipid-lowering effect of marine n-3 PUFA in females and beneficially counteract the effect of n-3 PUFA on serum hsCRP in males. Further studies are needed to identify the sex-dependent mechanisms responsible for the divergent effects of FG on TAG and hsCRP levels in females and males, respectively.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment of permeable reactive barriers: effects of construction methods, reactive materials and groundwater constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Mark S H; Lo, Irene M C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of the construction methods, materials of reactive media and groundwater constituents on the environmental impacts of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The PRB is assumed to be installed at a simulated site contaminated by either Cr(VI) alone or Cr(VI) and As(V). Results show that the trench-based construction method can reduce the environmental impacts of the remediation remarkably compared to the caisson-based method due to less construction material consumption by the funnel. Compared to using the zerovalent iron (Fe(0)) and quartz sand mixture, the use of the Fe(0) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS) mixture can reduce the environmental impacts. In the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) in groundwater, the environmental impacts generated by the reactive media were significantly increased because of the higher usage of Fe(0). The environmental impacts are lower by using the Fe(0) and IOCS mixture in the groundwater with NOM, compared with using the Fe(0) and quartz sand mixture. Since IOCS can enhance the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) and As(V), the usage of the Fe(0) can be reduced, which in turn reduces the impacts induced by the reactive media.

  16. Pleiotropic Effects of Biguanides on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pecinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is widely prescribed as a first-choice antihyperglycemic drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and recent epidemiological studies showed its utility also in cancer therapy. Although it is in use since the 1970s, its molecular target, either for antihyperglycemic or antineoplastic action, remains elusive. However, the body of the research on metformin effect oscillates around mitochondrial metabolism, including the function of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS apparatus. In this study, we focused on direct inhibitory mechanism of biguanides (metformin and phenformin on OXPHOS complexes and its functional impact, using the model of isolated brown adipose tissue mitochondria. We demonstrate that biguanides nonspecifically target the activities of all respiratory chain dehydrogenases (mitochondrial NADH, succinate, and glycerophosphate dehydrogenases, but only at very high concentrations (10−2–10−1 M that highly exceed cellular concentrations observed during the treatment. In addition, these concentrations of biguanides also trigger burst of reactive oxygen species production which, in combination with pleiotropic OXPHOS inhibition, can be toxic for the organism. We conclude that the beneficial effect of biguanides should probably be associated with subtler mechanism, different from the generalized inhibition of the respiratory chain.

  17. Protective effect of flavonoids against reactive oxygen species production in sickle cell anemia patients treated with hydroxyurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Railson Henneberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of quercetin, rutin, hesperidin and myricetin against reactive oxygen species production with the oxidizing action of tert-butylhydroperoxide in erythrocytes from normal subjects and sickle cell anemia carriers treated with hydroxyurea. METHODS: Detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species was carried out using a liposoluble probe, 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA. A 10% erythrocyte suspension was incubated with flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, hesperidin or myricetin; 30, 50, and 100 µmol/L, and then incubated withtert-butylhydroperoxide (75 µmol/L. Untreated samples were used as controls. RESULTS: Red blood cell exposure to tert-butylhydroperoxide resulted in significant increases in the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species compared to basal levels. Reactive oxygen species production was significantly inhibited when red blood cells were pre-incubated with flavonoids, both in normal individuals and in patients with sickle cell anemia. Quercetin and rutin had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by myricetin and hesperidin. CONCLUSION: Flavonoids, in particular quercetin and rutin, showed better antioxidant effects against damage caused by excess reactive oxygen species characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Results obtained with patients under treatment with hydroxyurea suggest an additional protective effect when associated with the use of flavonoids.

  18. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  19. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eros Antonio de Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. Objective: To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5: G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16th day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg; G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg; G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg; G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg. After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Results: Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Conclusion: Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  20. Effect of Pitavastatin on Vascular Reactivity in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eros Antonio de, E-mail: erosaa@cardiol.br; Ozaki, Michiko Regina [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Pitavastatin is the newest statin available in Brazil and likely the one with fewer side effects. Thus, pitavastatin was evaluated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits in relation to its action on vascular reactivity. To assess the lowest dose of pitavastatin necessary to reduce plasma lipids, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation, as well as endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups (n = 5): G1 - standard chow diet; G2 - hypercholesterolemic diet for 30 days; G3 - hypercholesterolemic diet and after the 16{sup th} day, diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.1 mg); G4 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.25 mg); G5 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (0.5 mg); G6 - hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with pitavastatin (1.0 mg). After 30 days, total cholesterol, HDL, triglycerides, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured and LDL was calculated. In-depth anesthesia was performed with sodium thiopental and aortic segments were removed to study endothelial function, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation. The significance level for statistical tests was 5%. Total cholesterol and LDL were significantly elevated in relation to G1. HDL was significantly reduced in G4, G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Triglycerides, CK, AST, ALT, cholesterol and tissue lipid peroxidation showed no statistical difference between G2 and G3-G6. Significantly endothelial dysfunction reversion was observed in G5 and G6 when compared to G2. Pitavastatin starting at a 0.5 mg dose was effective in reverting endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  1. Investigation of the role of the C-PCM solvent effect in reactivity indices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This present work is focused on the analysis of a molecular system, under the influence of C-PCM induced solvent effect. The analysis is based on reactivity indices derived from DFT. The shift of frequency for diatomic molecules has been obtained. It has been identified as chemical force effect. The role of nuclear reactivity ...

  2. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the C-reactive protein level in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Bartels, Else M; Bliddal, Henning

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs.......To evaluate the effects of oral nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, with a prespecified focus on the different NSAIDs....

  3. Middle-Term Dietary Supplementation with Red Yeast Rice Plus Coenzyme Q10 Improves Lipid Pattern, Endothelial Reactivity and Arterial Stiffness in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Morbini, Martino; Rosticci, Martina; D''Addato, Sergio; Grandi, Elisa; Borghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether treatment with red yeast rice added with Coenzyme Q10 is associated with changes in endothelial function and arterial stiffness. This double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was carried out on 40 non-smoker moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects (ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT02492464). After 4 weeks of diet and physical activity, patients were allocated to treatment with placebo or with an active product containing 10 mg monacolins and 30 mg Coenzyme Q10, to be assumed for 6 months. Endothelial reactivity and arterial stiffness have been measured through the validated Vicorder® device. During monacolin treatment, patients experienced a more favorable percentage change in low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (after monacolin treatment: -26.3%; after placebo treatment: +3.4%, p < 0.05). Endothelial reactivity (pulse volume displacement after monacolin treatment: +6.0%; after placebo treatment: -0.3%, p < 0.05), and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV) after monacolin treatment: -4.7%; after placebo: +1.1%, p < 0.05) also significantly improved only after monacolin treatment. The long-term assumption of the tested dietary supplement is associated with an improvement in LDL-cholesterolemia, endothelial reactivity and PWV in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Renal effects of hyperinsulinaemia in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Skøtt, P; Bruun, N E

    1999-01-01

    content of sodium and potassium for 4 days before the study. An isoglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp with infusion of insulin (40 munits.min(-1).m(-2)) was performed. We measured the renal clearance of diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, sodium, potassium and lithium both under basal conditions.......04). Compared with the controls, the subjects predisposed to hypertension had a higher 24-h diastolic blood pressure [78 (70, 82) mmHg, compared with 73 (68, 77) mmHg], but a similar insulin sensitivity index ¿10(7)x[313 (225, 427)] compared with 10(7)x[354 (218, 435)] l(2).min(-1).pmol(-1).kg(-1)¿. Thus...... the sodium-retaining effect of insulin was more pronounced in subjects with a strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension than in subjects with normotensive parents. This effect may contribute to the development of hypertension in subjects with a genetic predisposition to hypertension....

  5. Subjective knowledge and fear appeal effectiveness: implications for message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Robin L; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Carpentier, Francesca Dillman

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the role of perceived health knowledge on the effectiveness of fear-based persuasive appeals. Undergraduates (N = 263) read a strong fear, weak fear, or efficacy-only message encouraging breast or testicular self-examination. As expected, results indicated that men high in subjective knowledge were less reactant and more persuaded by the efficacy-only message whereas those low in subjective knowledge did not evidence this pattern. Contrary to expectation, women high in subjective knowledge had comparable reactions to each of the 3 messages. Implications for fear appeal theory and message design are discussed.

  6. The moderating effect of physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity following single fat feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of consuming a high-fat meal on cardiovascular reactivity and the ability of exercise to act as a moderator between dietary fat consumption and cardiovascular reactivity. Forty healthy, college-age students were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: (1) low-fat meal, no exercise; (2) low-fat meal, postprandial exercise; (3) high-fat meal, no exercise; and (4) high-fat meal, postprandial exercise. To induce stress, all participants performed a public speaking task, while heart rate and blood pressure reactivity were measured. Multilevel analyses revealed that consuming a high-fat meal led to heightened mean arterial pressure reactivity. Acute high-intensity exercise resulted in attenuated heart rate and mean arterial pressure reactivity. The results of this study offer insight into how diet and exercise may influence cardiovascular reactivity, which is a key determinant of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    2001-09-01

    Within- and between-subject variability in the reinforcing and subjective effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) was studied across five sessions. Twelve volunteers with no history of drug dependence sampled 30% N(2)O and 100% oxygen for 10 min each, then chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. "Agent A"), oxygen (e.g. "Agent B"), or "drug-free air." Choice varied across subjects but was stable within subjects. Quantitative differences in subjective effects occurred within and across subjects. Some subjective effects were correlated with choice and/or differed between subjects who were consistent choosers of N(2)O versus those who were not. However, drug liking and euphoria, two face-valid measures of abuse liability, were unrelated to choice. Thus, the present study found individual differences (i.e. between-subject variability) in subjective and reinforcing effects of N(2)O and, in terms of within-subject variability, suggested that subjective effects fluctuate across sessions to a relatively greater extent than do reinforcing effects. The varying degrees of correlation between N(2)O choice and its subjective effects emphasize the need for obtaining multiple measures when characterizing abuse liability of this drug.

  8. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 response to specific allergens in sensitized subjects showing different clinical reactivity to Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, M T; Rodriguez-Perez, R; Caballero, M L; Garcia-Alonso, M; Antonicelli, L; Asero, R

    2017-03-01

    Background. Anisakis simplex hypersensitive subjects may be sensitized without clinical allergy, or experience acute symptoms or chronic urticaria induced by raw fish. We studied whether the 3 subgroups differ in IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to specific Anisakis simplex allergens. Methods. 28 Anisakis simplex-hypersensitive adults, 11 with acute symptoms, 9 with chronic urticaria, and 8 sensitized were studied. IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 to rAni s 1, 5, 9 and 10 were sought by ELISA. IgE and IgG4 to nAni s 4 were determined by WB. Results. IgE to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were found in 8, 3, 2, 5, and 9 sera, respectively. Nine sera did not react to any allergen. IgG1 to Ani s 1, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 5, 16, 14, and 4 sera, respectively. Four sera did not react to any of the 4 allergens. IgG4 to Ani s 1, 4, 5, 9, and 10 were detected in 10, 0, 2, 6 and 1 sera, respectively. Fifteen subjects did not react to any of the 5 allergens. On ELISA sensitized subjects showed lower IgE and IgG1 levels than patients. IgG4 levels were highest in the sensitized group. The prevalence of IgE, IgG1 or IgG4 reactivity to any of the studied allergens did not differ between the 3 subgroups. Conclusion. The clinical expression of Anisakis simplex sensitization does not seem to depend on IgE reactivity to a specific allergen of the parasite, nor on the presence of IgG antibodies possibly related with blocking activity.

  9. EFFECT OF POSITIONAL RELEASE TECHNIQUE IN SUBJECTS WITH SUBACUTE TRAPEZITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety Charles Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trapezius stretching combined with positional release technique (PRT have found effective in trapezitis, studies are limited to find which technique has shown effective over the other due to lack of control group. The purpose of the study is to find the effect of PRT on pain intensity, functional disability and range of motion in subjects with subacute trapezitis. Method: An experimental study design, selected subjects with subacute trapezitis was randomized into Study and Control group. Total 40 subjects, 20 subjects in each group; data was collected who completed the study. Control group received passive trapezius muscle stretching while Study group received positional release technique with passive trapezius muscle stretching for 8 sessions in 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Visual Analogue scale, Neck disability index and cervical Range of motion were measured. Results: There is statistically significant difference (p<0.05 showing improvement in means of VAS, NDI and Range of motion before and after intervention within the groups and there is statistically significant difference when the post-intervention means after 2 weeks of treatment were compared between Study and Control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Positional Release Technique with trapezius stretching found to be significantly more added effect than trapezius stretching alone in improving pain, functional disability and cervical movements for subjects with subacute trapezitis.

  10. Whitening effect of alpha-bisabolol in Asian women subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Jun, H; Jung, E; Ha, J; Park, D

    2010-08-01

    Although skin pigmentation, which results from the production and distribution of melanin in the epidermis, is the major physiological defence against solar irradiation, hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing problem caused by various inflammatory skin disorders, such as eczema, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis. We evaluated the effects of a preparation containing alpha-bisabolol on pigmented skin of a group of subjects. The effectiveness of the active compound, alpha-bisabolol, in a base-cream preparation for the treatment of pigmented skin was tested on 28 female subjects as follows: the cream was applied once a day to the back for 8 weeks. These same women also applied a vehicle control cream to the pigmented skin. The results were evaluated by clinical and biophysical test methods. After 8 weeks of treatment of the alpha-bisabolol-containing cream, there was significant lightening effect in the pigmented skin for the majority of the subjects who tested the cream.

  11. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, O.S.; Paulitsch, F.S.; Pereira, A.P.C.; Teixeira, A.O. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Silva, A.M.V. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Plentz, R.D.M. [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto do Coração, Unidade de Hipertensão, São Paulo, SP, Brasil, Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Signori, L.U. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Faculdade de Medicina, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Rio Grande, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Fisioterapia e Reabilitação, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz) on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10), low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9) and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10). TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist) at low (10 Hz/200 μs) and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs) with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent) was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01) using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz), while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz), a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01). The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and independent (sodium nitroprusside) responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  12. Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Franco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS is a type of therapy used primarily for analgesia, but also presents changes in the cardiovascular system responses; its effects are dependent upon application parameters. Alterations to the cardiovascular system suggest that TENS may modify venous vascular response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TENS at different frequencies (10 and 100 Hz on venous vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Twenty-nine healthy male volunteers were randomized into three groups: placebo (n=10, low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, n=9 and high-frequency TENS (100 Hz, n=10. TENS was applied for 30 min in the nervous plexus trajectory from the superior member (from cervical to dorsal region of the fist at low (10 Hz/200 μs and high frequency (100 Hz/200 μs with its intensity adjusted below the motor threshold and intensified every 5 min, intending to avoid accommodation. Venous vascular reactivity in response to phenylephrine, acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent and sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent was assessed by the dorsal hand vein technique. The phenylephrine effective dose to achieve 70% vasoconstriction was reduced 53% (P<0.01 using low-frequency TENS (10 Hz, while in high-frequency stimulation (100 Hz, a 47% increased dose was needed (P<0.01. The endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine and independent (sodium nitroprusside responses were not modified by TENS, which modifies venous responsiveness, and increases the low-frequency sensitivity of α1-adrenergic receptors and shows high-frequency opposite effects. These changes represent an important vascular effect caused by TENS with implications for hemodynamics, inflammation and analgesia.

  13. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkhard Schroth

    Full Text Available In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1 subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2 objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory effect, the smaller the objective (motor effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves.

  14. Effects of Prism Eyeglasses on Objective and Subjective Fixation Disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Volkhard; Joos, Roland; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In optometry of binocular vision, the question may arise whether prisms should be included in eyeglasses to compensate an oculomotor and/or sensory imbalance between the two eyes. The corresponding measures of objective and subjective fixation disparity may be reduced by the prisms, or the adaptability of the binocular vergence system may diminish effects of the prisms over time. This study investigates effects of wearing prisms constantly for about 5 weeks in daily life. Two groups of 12 participants received eyeglasses with prisms having either a base-in direction or a base-out direction with an amount up to 8 prism diopters. Prisms were prescribed based on clinical fixation disparity test plates at 6 m. Two dependent variables were used: (1) subjective fixation disparity was indicated by a perceived offset of dichoptic nonius lines that were superimposed on the fusion stimuli and (2) objective fixation disparity was measured with a video based eye tracker relative to monocular calibration. Stimuli were presented at 6 m and included either central or more peripheral fusion stimuli. Repeated measurements were made without the prisms and with the prisms after about 5 weeks of wearing these prisms. Objective and subjective fixation disparity were correlated, but the type of fusion stimulus and the direction of the required prism may play a role. The prisms did not reduce the fixation disparity to zero, but induced significant changes in fixation disparity with large effect sizes. Participants receiving base-out prisms showed hypothesized effects, which were concurrent in both types of fixation disparity. In participants receiving base-in prisms, the individual effects of subjective and objective effects were negatively correlated: the larger the subjective (sensory) effect, the smaller the objective (motor) effect. This response pattern was related to the vergence adaptability, i.e. the individual fusional vergence reserves. PMID:26431525

  15. Evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in subjects with aggressive and chronic periodontitis and comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Kanaparthy

    2012-01-01

    Results : Overall, the mean CRP levels were high in subjects with generalized aggressive and chronic periodontitis compared with controls. This was found to be statistically significant. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.012 was found in the CRP level between groups I and II and between groups II and III, and between groups I and III. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared with the controls.

  16. Subjective and objective effects of coffee consumption - caffeine or expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Zs; Szemerszky, R; Köteles, F

    2015-03-01

    Impact of 5 mg/kg caffeine, chance of receiving caffeine (stimulus expectancies), and expectations of effects of caffeine (response expectancies) on objective (heart rate (HR), systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), measures of heart rate variability (HRV), and reaction time (RT)) and subjective variables were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with a no-treatment group. Participants were 107 undergraduate university students (mean age 22.3 ± 3.96 years). Consumption of 5 mg/kg caffeine had an impact on participants' SBP, standard deviation of normal heartbeat intervals, HR (decrease), and subjective experience 40 minutes later even after controlling for respective baseline values, stimulus and response expectancies, and habitual caffeine consumption. No effects on DBP, high frequency component of HRV, the ratio of low- and high-frequency, and RT were found. Beyond actual caffeine intake, response expectancy score was also a determinant of subjective experience which refers to a placebo component in the total effect. Actual autonomic (SBP, HR) changes and somatosensory amplification tendency, however, had no significant impact on subjective experience. Placebo reaction plays a role in the subjective changes caused by caffeine consumption but it has no impact on objective variables. Conditional vs deceptive administration of caffeine (i.e. stimulus expectancies) had no impact on any assessed variable.

  17. Adolescents' Cortisol Reactivity and Subjective Distress in Response to Family Conflict: The Moderating Role of Internalizing Symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spies, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla; Susman, Elizabeth J; Gordis, Elana B

    2011-01-01

    ... in the youths' daily activities [1,6] . The present study examines adolescents' HPA activity surrounding the social stress of conflictual parent–child discussions. We also examine adolescents' internalizing symptoms and subjective distress as putative influences on HPA activity. Because internalizing disorders include experiences of socia...

  18. Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Yasmin; Enzler, Florian; Gasser, Peter; Grouzmann, Eric; Preller, Katrin H; Vollenweider, Franz X; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Müller, Felix; Borgwardt, Stefan; Liechti, Matthias E

    2015-10-15

    After no research in humans for >40 years, there is renewed interest in using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in clinical psychiatric research and practice. There are no modern studies on the subjective and autonomic effects of LSD, and its endocrine effects are unknown. In animals, LSD disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, and patients with schizophrenia exhibit similar impairments in PPI. However, no data are available on the effects of LSD on PPI in humans. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study, LSD (200 μg) and placebo were administered to 16 healthy subjects (8 women, 8 men). Outcome measures included psychometric scales; investigator ratings; PPI of the acoustic startle response; and autonomic, endocrine, and adverse effects. Administration of LSD to healthy subjects produced pronounced alterations in waking consciousness that lasted 12 hours. The predominant effects induced by LSD included visual hallucinations, audiovisual synesthesia, and positively experienced derealization and depersonalization phenomena. Subjective well-being, happiness, closeness to others, openness, and trust were increased by LSD. Compared with placebo, LSD decreased PPI. LSD significantly increased blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, pupil size, plasma cortisol, prolactin, oxytocin, and epinephrine. Adverse effects produced by LSD completely subsided within 72 hours. No severe acute adverse effects were observed. In addition to marked hallucinogenic effects, LSD exerts methylenedioxymethamphetamine-like empathogenic mood effects that may be useful in psychotherapy. LSD altered sensorimotor gating in a human model of psychosis, supporting the use of LSD in translational psychiatric research. In a controlled clinical setting, LSD can be used safely, but it produces significant sympathomimetic stimulation. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect Size for Single-Subject Design in Phonological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierut, Judith A.; Morrisette, Michele L.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document, validate, and corroborate effect size (ES) for single­-subject design in treatment of children with functional phonological disorders; to evaluate potential child-­specific contributing variables relative to ES; and to establish benchmarks for interpretation of ES for the population. Method: Data…

  20. Confidentiality and Professional Affiliation Effects on Subject Ratings of Interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David W.; And Others

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of different statements regarding confidentiality (absolute; limited; nondirective) on subject impressions of interviewers. In addition, the professional affiliation of the interviewer was manipulated (psychologist, minister/pastoral counselor, social worker) to assess potential influence of…

  1. Hepatotoxic effects of fenofibrate in spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing human C-reactive protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škop, V.; Trnovská, J.; Oliyarnyk, O.; Marková, I.; Malínská, H.; Kazdová, L.; Zídek, Václav; Landa, Vladimír; Mlejnek, Petr; Šimáková, Miroslava; Kůdela, M.; Pravenec, Michal; Šilhavý, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2016), s. 891-899 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14325 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : fenofibrate * rosuvastatin * C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat * inflammation * hepatotoxic Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  2. An in vitro model of reactive astrogliosis and its effect on neuronal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Panpan; Wang, Hang; Katagiri, Yasuhiro; Geller, Herbert M

    2012-01-01

    Astrogliosis, whereby astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) become reactive in response to tissue damage, is a prominent process leading to the formation of the glial scar that inhibits axon regeneration after CNS injury. Upon becoming reactive, astrocytes undergo various molecular and morphological changes including upregulating their expression of GFAP and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) as well as other molecules that are inhibitory to axon growth. We have developed an in vitro model of reactive astrogliosis as a result of treating cultured astrocytes with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which induces increased expression as well as secretion of CSPGs. These reactive astrocytes show inhibitory effects on neuron growth both in neuron-astrocyte coculture and in neurite guidance spot assay using astrocyte-conditioned medium. These reactive astrocytes provide a vehicle for testing substances that might overcome the glial scar and promote regeneration.

  3. Inertial effects on reactive particles advected by turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, R; Sagués, F; Sancho, J M

    2001-08-01

    We study the problem of the advection of passive particles with inertia in a two-dimensional, synthetic, and stationary turbulent flow. The asymptotic analytical result and numerical simulations show the importance of inertial bias in collecting the particles preferentially in certain regions of the flow, depending on their density relative to that of the flow. We also study how these aggregates are affected when a simple chemical reaction mechanism is introduced through a Eulerian scheme. We find that inertia can be responsible for maintaining a stationary concentration pattern even under nonfavorable reactive conditions or destroying it under favorable ones.

  4. Effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Abdul-latif; Nassar, Jihad; Dowli, Alexander; Al Zaghal, Zeid; Sabri, Alain

    2012-11-01

    To address the effect of fasting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease (LPRD). A total of 22 male subjects have been recruited for this study. Subjects with vocal fold pathologies, recent history of upper respiratory tract infection or laryngeal manipulation were excluded. Demographic data included age and history of smoking. All subjects were evaluated while fasting for at least 12 h and non-fasting. By non-fasting we mean that they ate and drank during the day at their discretion with no reservation. The abstention from water and or food intake during the non-fasting period extended from few minutes to 3 h. All subjects were evaluated at the same time during the day. The evaluation consisted of a laryngeal examination and the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was used to report on the reflux laryngeal findings. Subjects were considered to have LPRD if either the RSI or the RFS were positive (>9 RSI, >7 RFS). There was a non-significant increase in the total prevalence of LPRD while fasting compared to non-fasting (32 vs. 50 % while fasting, p value 0.361). In the RSI, the most common symptoms while non-fasting and fasting were throat clearing (64 vs. 68 %), postnasal drip (45 vs. 59 %) and globus sensation (36 vs. 50 %). The average score of all the three increased significantly while fasting. For the RFS the most common laryngeal findings in the non-fasting group versus the fasting group were erythema (77 vs. 68 %), thick endolaryngeal mucus (77 vs. 77 %) and posterior commissure hypertrophy (55 vs. 64 %). Fasting results in a nonsignificant increase in laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The increase can be hypothetically explained on the change in eating habits and the known alterations in gastric secretions during Ramadan. Fasting subjects must be alert to the effect of LPRD on their throat and voice in particular.

  5. Electronic cigarettes: abuse liability, topography and subjective effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah E; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the abuse liability, topography, subjective effects, craving and withdrawal suppression associated with e-cigarette use in order to identify information gaps and provide recommendations for future research. Methods Literature searches were conducted between October 2012 and January 2014 using five electronic databases. Studies were included in this review if they were peer-reviewed scientific journal articles evaluating clinical laboratory studies, national surveys or content analyses. Results A total of 15 peer-reviewed articles regarding behavioural use and effects of e-cigarettes published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this review. Abuse liability studies are limited in their generalisability. Topography (consumption behaviour) studies found that, compared with traditional cigarettes, e-cigarette average puff duration was significantly longer, and e-cigarette use required stronger suction. Data on e-cigarette subjective effects (such as anxiety, restlessness, concentration, alertness and satisfaction) and withdrawal suppression are limited and inconsistent. In general, study data should be interpreted with caution, given limitations associated with comparisons of novel and usual products, as well as the possible effects associated with subjects’ previous experience/inexperience with e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, very limited information is available on abuse liability, topography and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. Opportunities to examine extended e-cigarette use in a variety of settings with experienced e-cigarette users would help to more fully assess topography as well as behavioural and subjective outcomes. In addition, assessment of ‘real-world’ use, including amount and timing of use and responses to use, would clarify behavioural profiles and potential adverse health effects. PMID:24732159

  6. Cholinesterase reactivators: the fate and effects in the organism poisoned with organophosphates/nerve agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, J; Kuca, K; Jun, D; Bartosova, L; Fusek, J

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of action of organophosphates (OP)/nerve agents -- irreversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibition at the cholinergic synapses followed by metabolic dysbalance of the organism -- two therapeutic principles for antidotal treatment are derived. The main drugs are anticholinergics that antagonize the effects of accumulated acetylcholine at the cholinergic synapses and cholinesterase reactivators (oximes) reactivating inhibited AChE. Anticonvulsants such as diazepam are also used to treat convulsions. Though there are experimental data on a good therapeutic effects of reactivators, some attempts to underestimate the role of reactivators as effective antidotes against OP poisoning have been made. Some arguments on the necessity of their administration following OP poisoning are discussed. Their distribution patterns and some metabolic and pharmacological effects are described with the aim to resolve the question on their effective use, possible repeated administration in the treatment of OP poisoning, their peripheral and central effects including questions on their penetration through the blood brain barrier as well as a possibility to achieve their effective concentration for AChE reactivation in the brain. Reactivation of cholinesterases in the peripheral and central nervous system is described and it is underlined its importance for the survival or death of the organism poisoned with OP. Metabolization and some other effects of oximes (not connected with AChE reactivation) are discussed (e.g. forming of the phosphonylated oxime, parasympatholytic action, hepatotoxicity, behavioral changes etc.). An universality of oximes able to reactivate AChE inhibited by all OP is questioned and therefore, needs of development of new oximes is underlined.

  7. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    OpenAIRE

    A. Bhattacharyya; J. Schenk; G. Rantitsch; C. Thaler; H. Stocker

    2015-01-01

    The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI) and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Ra...

  8. Caffeine expectancies influence the subjective and behavioral effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Juliano, Laura M

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the independent and interactive effects of caffeine pharmacology and expected effects of caffeine on performance and subjective outcomes. Abstinent coffee drinkers (n = 60) consumed decaffeinated coffee with either 280 mg or 0 mg added caffeine. Caffeine dose was crossed with varying instructions that the coffee would either enhance or impair performance in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Performance, mood, caffeine withdrawal, and negative somatic effects were assessed. Relative to placebo, caffeine improved reaction time and accuracy on the rapid visual information processing task, a measure of vigilance. However, there was a significant dose by expectancy interaction that revealed that among participants given placebo coffee, "impair" instructions produced better performance than "enhance" instructions. Caffeine also improved psychomotor performance as indicated by a finger tapping task with no main effects of expectancy or interactions. Impair instructions produced greater reports of negative somatic effects than enhance instructions, but only when caffeine was administered. Manipulating the expected effects of caffeine altered the behavioral and subjective effects of caffeine. A significant dose by expectancy interaction revealed a somewhat paradoxical outcome in the placebo conditions whereby those told "impair" performed better than those told "enhance." This may reflect compensatory responding as has been observed in similar studies using alcohol (Fillmore et al. Psychopharmacology 115:383-388, 1994). Impair instructions led to greater negative somatic effects only when caffeine was administered supporting the active placebo hypothesis.

  9. Effective NH{sub 2}-grafting on attapulgite surfaces for adsorption of reactive dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Ailian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Shouyong; Zhao, Yijiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Key Lab for Chemistry of Low-Dimensional Materials of Jiangsu Province, No. 111 Changjiang West Road, Huaian 223300, Jiangsu Province (China); Lu, Xiaoping, E-mail: xplu@njut.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China); Han, Pingfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, No. 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} We prepared a new amine functionalized adsorbent derived from clay-based material. {yields} Attapulgite surface was modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. {yields} Some modification parameters affecting the adsorption potential were investigated. {yields} Enhance the attapulgite adsorptive capacity for reactive dyes from aqueous solutions. - Abstract: The amine moiety has an important function in many applications, including, adsorption, catalysis, electrochemistry, chromatography, and nanocomposite materials. We developed an effective adsorbent for aqueous reactive dye removal by modifying attapulgite with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified attapulgite were characterized by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption. We evaluated the impact of solvent, APTES concentration, water volume, reaction time, and temperature on the surface modification. NH{sub 2}-attapulgite was used to remove reactive dyes in aqueous solution and showed very high adsorption rates of 99.32%, 99.67%, and 96.42% for Reactive Red 3BS, Reactive Blue KE-R and Reactive Black GR, respectively. These powerful dye removal effects were attributed to strong electrostatic interactions between reactive dyes and the grafted NH{sub 2} groups.

  10. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing. PMID:28375205

  11. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, F; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; Harder, S; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S

    2017-04-04

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100 μg LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological peak effects of LSD. The plasma levels of LSD were determined immediately before and after the scan. The study (including the a priori-defined study end point) was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov before study start (NCT02308969). The administration of LSD reduced reactivity of the left amygdala and the right medial prefrontal cortex relative to placebo during the presentation of fearful faces (PLSD-induced amygdala response to fearful stimuli and the LSD-induced subjective drug effects (PLSD modulates the engagement of brain regions that mediate emotional processing.

  12. Smartphone Restriction and its Effect on Subjective Withdrawal Related Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Aarestad, Sarah Helene; Eide, Tine Almenning

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone overuse is associated with a number of negative consequences for the individual and the environment. In the right end of the distribution of smartphone usage, concepts such as smartphone addiction seem warranted. An area that so far lacks research concerns the effect of smartphone restriction generally and specifically on subjective withdrawal related scores across different degrees of smartphone usage. The present study examined withdrawal related scores on the Smartphone Withdraw...

  13. Effects of Inspiratory and Expiratory Muscle Training in Normal Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Makoto; Kurosawa, Hajime; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and expiratory muscle training (EMT) on ventilatory muscle strength, pulmonary function and responses during exercise testing. Young healthy women were randomly assigned to 3 groups: IMT (n=16); EMT (n=16); or untrained normal controls (NC, n=8). Subjects in the IMT and EMT groups trained for 15 minutes twice daily over 2 weeks at loads of 30% maximal inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength, respectively. V...

  14. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  15. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  16. No Effects of Successful Bidirectional SMR Feedback Training on Objective and Subjective Sleep in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsch, Olaf; Wilschut, Ellen S; Arns, Martijn; Bottenheft, Charelle; Valk, Pierre J L; Vermetten, Eric H G J M

    2017-10-31

    There is a growing interest in the application of psychophysiological signals in more applied settings. Unidirectional sensory motor rhythm-training (SMR) has demonstrated consistent effects on sleep. In this study the main aim was to analyze to what extent participants could gain voluntary control over sleep-related parameters and secondarily to assess possible influences of this training on sleep metrics. Bidirectional training of SMR as well as heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess the feasibility of training these parameters as possible brain computer interfaces (BCI) signals, and assess effects normally associated with unidirectional SMR training such as the influence on objective and subjective sleep parameters. Participants (n = 26) received between 11 and 21 training sessions during 7 weeks in which they received feedback on their personalized threshold for either SMR or HRV activity, for both up- and down regulation. During a pre- and post-test a sleep log was kept and participants used a wrist actigraph. Participants were asked to take an afternoon nap on the first day at the testing facility. During napping, sleep spindles were assessed as well as self-reported sleep measures of the nap. Although the training demonstrated successful learning to increase and decrease SMR and HRV activity, no effects were found of bidirectional training on sleep spindles, actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-reported sleep quality. As such it is concluded that bidirectional SMR and HRV training can be safely used as a BCI and participants were able to improve their control over physiological signals with bidirectional training, whereas the application of bidirectional SMR and HRV training did not lead to significant changes of sleep quality in this healthy population.

  17. The effects of task demand and decision latitude on cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, J; Weidner, G

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of task demand (absence or presence of time pressure) and decision latitude (choice or no choice over a task) on cardiovascular and affective responses to stressful tasks among 70 college students. Subjects also rated whether they felt under pressure and the extent to which they felt in control. Time pressure was related to elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) responses among men and increased negative affect for both sexes. Lack of choice over the task also resulted in increased negative affect in both sexes. The least stressful condition--having a choice in the absence of time pressure--resulted in reduced negative affect. In addition to the effects of manipulated decision latitude and demand, perceptions of being in control were associated with reduced SBP among women who had a choice. Perceived control also contributed to reduced negative affect among men. These results suggest that the postulated negative effects of high demand and low decision latitude (ie, job strain) on cardiovascular health may be mediated in part by increased cardiovascular reactivity and negative affect.

  18. What effect does VOC sampling time have on derived OH reactivity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sonderfeld

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art techniques allow for rapid measurements of total OH reactivity. Unknown sinks of OH and oxidation processes in the atmosphere have been attributed to what has been termed “missing” OH reactivity. Often overlooked are the differences in timescales over which the diverse measurement techniques operate. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs acting as sinks of OH are often measured by gas chromatography (GC methods which provide low-frequency measurements on a timescale of hours, while sampling times are generally only a few minutes. Here, the effect of the sampling time and thus the contribution of unmeasured VOC variability on OH reactivity is investigated. Measurements of VOC mixing ratios by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS conducted during two field campaigns (ClearfLo and PARADE in an urban and a semi-rural environment were used to calculate OH reactivity. VOCs were selected to represent variability for different compound classes. Data were averaged over different time intervals to simulate lower time resolutions and were then compared to the mean hourly OH reactivity. The results show deviations in the range of 1 to 25 %. The observed impact of VOC variability is found to be greater for the semi-rural site.The selected compounds were scaled by the contribution of their compound class to the total OH reactivity from VOCs based on concurrent gas chromatography measurements conducted during the ClearfLo campaign. Prior to being scaled, the variable signal of aromatic compounds results in larger deviations in OH reactivity for short sampling intervals compared to oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs. However, once scaled with their lower share during the ClearfLo campaign, this effect was reduced. No seasonal effect on the OH reactivity distribution across different VOCs was observed at the urban site.

  19. The Effects of Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status on Subjective Well-Being among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China: The Moderating Role of Subjective Social Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Silin; Hou, Jiawei; Sun, Ling; Dou, Donghui; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Hongchuan

    2017-01-01

    Although previous investigations have agreed that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants' socioeconomic status (SES) increases with their migration, the association between SES and subjective well-being is uncertain. To address this research gap, the present study proposed that the association between objective SES and subjective well-being is mediated by subjective SES. This model was tested with a sample of 432 Chinese rural-to-urban migrants. The results indicate a significant association between objective SES and subjective well-being and a partial mediating effect of subjective SES. Furthermore, subjective social mobility, which is one's expectation about the possibility to move upward in the social hierarchy, was found to moderate both the direct path from objective SES to subjective well-being and the indirect path from subjective SES to subjective well-being. These findings suggest that Chinese rural-to-urban migrants gained in subjective well-being not only because of direct financial achievement but also because of their perceptions and beliefs about their relative social status.

  20. Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Battelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid and is widely distributed among species. In addition to this housekeeping function, mammalian XOR is a physiological source of superoxide ion, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, which can function as second messengers in the activation of various pathways. This review intends to address the physiological and pathological roles of XOR-derived oxidant molecules. The cytocidal action of XOR products has been claimed in relation to tissue damage, in particular damage induced by hypoxia and ischemia. Attempts to exploit this activity to eliminate unwanted cells via the construction of conjugates have also been reported. Moreover, different aspects of XOR activity related to phlogosis, endothelial activation, leukocyte activation, and vascular tone regulation, have been taken into consideration. Finally, the positive and negative outcomes concerning cancer pathology have been analyzed because XOR products may induce mutagenesis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression, but they are also associated with apoptosis and cell differentiation. In conclusion, XOR activity generates free radicals and other oxidant reactive species that may result in either harmful or beneficial outcomes.

  1. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struzik, Artur; Juras, Grzegorz; Pietraszewski, Bogdan; Rokita, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI) for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs) and bounce drop jumps (BDJs). The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  2. Effect of drop jump technique on the reactive strength index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The basic drill of plyometric training aimed at improving lower limb power and jump height is a drop jump. This exercise can be performed using different techniques, which substantially affects jump variables. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the values of the reactive strength index (RSI for countermovement drop jumps (CDJs and bounce drop jumps (BDJs. The study was carried out in a group of 8 male youth basketball players. The tests were conducted using the AMTI BP600900 force plate to measure ground reaction forces and the Noraxon MyoMotion system to record kinematic data. Each player performed two CDJs and two BDJs from the height of 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm. The RSI was calculated as a ratio of jump height and contact time. Moreover, the RSI was determined for the amortization and take-off phases separately. Significant differences (p < 0.05 between RSI values for CDJs and BDJs were recorded for jumps from 30, 45 and 60 cm. Differences in RSI values for jumps from 15 cm were not significant. Furthermore, CDJ height values were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the values recorded for BDJs. Times of contact, amortization and take-off during BDJs were significantly shorter (p < 0.05 than the respective values obtained for CDJs. Therefore, the use of the RSI to monitor plyometric training should be based on the drop jump technique that is commonly performed by basketball players.

  3. Pleiotropic Effects of Biguanides on Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pecinová, Alena; Drahota, Zdeněk; Kovalčíková, Jana; Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Alán, Lukáš; Zima, Michal; Houštěk, Josef; Mráček, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 2017 (2017), č. článku 7038603. ISSN 1942-0900 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12726S; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : brown adipose tissue * mitochondria * respiratory chain oxidoreductases * mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase * superoxide production * biguanides * metformin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2016

  4. Healthy subjects with a family history of alcoholism show increased stimulative subjective effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderpalm Gordh, Anna H V; Söderpalm, Bo

    2011-08-01

    Research has shown that subjects with a family history positive (FHP) of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and that this group reacts differently to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These different levels of sensitivity may make FHP persons more likely to consume alcohol. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subjects FHP for type 1 alcoholism (according to Cloninger) are more sensitive than control subjects to the stimulative, properties of alcohol following a single moderate dose of alcohol. Fifty-one healthy men and women (22 FHP and 29 FHN) participated in 2 laboratory sessions, in which they consumed a beverage containing ethanol (0.6 g/kg in juice) or placebo (juice alone) in a randomized order. Primary dependent measures were self-report questionnaires of mood states. Subjects with family history of type 1 alcoholism showed increased stimulative responses and an elevated positive mood state after ethanol compared to controls. At this moderate dose, ethanol increased stimulative subjective responses in individuals who were "family history positive." This enhanced sensitivity could motivate to exaggerated drinking and thereby increase the risk for developing alcoholism. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. ["Debris" public policies and exclusion. Their effects on subjective constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugino, Aída

    2013-01-01

    The following paper formulates a critical and conceptual analysis based on a territorial experience. It is enshrined in the field of mental health, understood as the collection of practices and problems aiming at addressing subjectivity, that is, they are inseparable from social and health practices. Some of the causes and effects of exclusion in subjective constitution become problems when institutional, group, community and individual interventions -always of a singular nature- take place. The existing relationship between public policies and population appears in the very core of an intervention or consultation; we, as professionals, are a part of it. People living in conditions of poverty often feel alien to traditional healthcare settings and they end up excluding such facilities from their resources. We will work on childhood and adolescence, as they are constituent stages in history, and the ways in which such history develops in situations with social exclusion. Some of such ways are paco (cocaine paste), violence, conflict with the law or ignorance of it. These are singular ways, but they involve a common and recurring mark related to rejection, neglect and subjective de-structuring. This is what I will refer to as debris hereafter. Lastly, the reconstruction of a Social Other and an approach based on the bond will be emphasized. This will also allow for a social bond, and the building of a care mechanism, which through transference may accommodate an individual who could make certain requests.

  6. Reactivation of triosephosphate isomerase from three trypanosomatids and human: effect of suramin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X G; Garza-Ramos, G; Saavedra-Lira, E; Cabrera, N; De Gómez-Puyou, M T; Perez-Montfort, R; Gómez-Puyou, A

    1998-05-15

    The reactivation of the homodimeric triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs) from Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania mexicana and humans was determined after their denaturation with guanidine hydrochloride. In the range of 2-32 microg of T. brucei TIM per ml and 0.2-5 microg of the other enzymes per ml, the rate and extent of TIM reactivation depended on protein concentration, indicating that at these protein concentrations, the rate-limiting step of reactivation is monomer association and not monomer folding. The rate of monomer association was more than one order of magnitude lower in the T. brucei enzyme than in the other three enzymes. Suramin is a drug of choice in the treatment of sleeping sickness, but its mechanism of action is not known. At micromolar concentrations, Suramin inhibited the reactivation of the four enzymes, but the extent of inhibition by Suramin decreased with increasing protein concentration as consequence of a diminution of the life time of the folded monomer. Since the life time of the monomer of T. brucei TIM is longer than that of the other enzymes, Suramin is a more effective inhibitor of the reactivation of TIM from T. brucei, particularly at monomer concentrations above 1 microg of protein per ml (monomer concentration approx. 37 nM). Compounds that are structurally related to Suramin also inhibit TIM reactivation; their effect was about five times more pronounced in the enzyme from T. brucei than in human TIM.

  7. The effect of exercise training on cutaneous microvascular reactivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Sean M; Johnson, Nathan A; Baker, Michael K; Caterson, Ian D; Chuter, Vivienne H

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to review the efficacy of exercise training for improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in response to local stimulus in human adults. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of Medline, Cinahl, AMED, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase was conducted up to June 2015. Included studies were controlled trials assessing the effect of an exercise training intervention on cutaneous microvascular reactivity as instigated by local stimulus such as local heating, iontophoresis and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia. Studies where the control was only measured at baseline or which included participants with vasospastic disorders were excluded. Two authors independently reviewed and selected relevant controlled trials and extracted data. Quality was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Seven trials were included, with six showing a benefit of exercise training but only two reaching statistical significance with effect size ranging from -0.14 to 1.03. The meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise had a moderate statistically significant effect on improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity (effect size (ES)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.08-0.78, p=0.015). Individual studies employing an exercise training intervention have tended to have small sample sizes and hence lacked sufficient power to detect clinically meaningful benefits to cutaneous microvascular reactivity. Pooled analysis revealed a clear benefit of exercise training on improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in older and previously inactive adult cohorts. Exercise training may provide a cost-effective option for improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in adults and may be of benefit to those with cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of acid-base imbalance on vascular reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Celotto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid-base homeostasis maintains systemic arterial pH within a narrow range. Whereas the normal range of pH for clinical laboratories is 7.35-7.45, in vivo pH is maintained within a much narrower range. In clinical and experimental settings, blood pH can vary in response to respiratory or renal impairment. This altered pH promotes changes in vascular smooth muscle tone with impact on circulation and blood pressure control. Changes in pH can be divided into those occurring in the extracellular space (pHo and those occurring within the intracellular space (pHi, although, extracellular and intracellular compartments influence each other. Consistent with the multiple events involved in the changes in tone produced by altered pHo, including type of vascular bed, several factors and mechanisms, in addition to hydrogen ion concentration, have been suggested to be involved. The scientific literature has many reports concerning acid-base balance and endothelium function, but these concepts are not clear about acid-base disorders and their relations with the three known mechanisms of endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity: nitric oxide (NO/cGMP-dependent, prostacyclin (PGI2/cAMP-dependent and hyperpolarization. During the last decades, many studies have been published and have given rise to confronting data on acid-base disorder and endothelial function. Therefore, the main proposal of this review is to provide a critical analysis of the state of art and incentivate researchers to develop more studies about these issues.

  9. Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Thompson, Janet A; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Jackson, Mark C; Kashon, Michael L; Frazer, David G; Hubbs, Ann F; Shimko, Michael J; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    "Popcorn workers' lung" is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100-360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism.

  10. Neutron fluence effects on SLOWPOKE-2 beryllium reflector composition and reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Francesc, E-mail: fpuig@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dennis, Haile, E-mail: haile.dennis02@uwimona.edu.jm [International Centre for Environmental and Nuclear Sciences, 2 Anguilla Close, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7 (Jamaica)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • SLOWPOKE-2 reflector composition evolution estimated using two different methods. • Reactivity effects of reflector composition changes calculated using MCNP5. • Impurities depletion dominates over poisons buildup, increasing reactivity. • Results contradict previously published behavior estimates for MNSR reactors. • Identified main factors explaining the observed prediction discrepancies. - Abstract: Within the scope of the conversion process from HEU to LEU of the Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (JM-1), the effects of the neutron fluence on the beryllium reflector composition, and the corresponding effect on reactivity throughout the life of the reactor core, have been studied. Two different methods have been used and compared involving MCNP5, ORIGEN2.2, ORIGEN-S and COUPLE codes, reaching excellent agreement between them. The neutron flux profile and energy spectrum specific to the beryllium reflectors of this reactor design have been taken into account to analyze several scenarios, comprising both real and hypothetical conditions and involving different initial reflector compositions and reactor burnups. The analysis has been extended to provide estimates for the similar MNSR reactor design and compared with previously published predictions for the Syrian MNSR. The results show small overall reactivity effects in most cases, being dominated by impurity depletion as opposed to poison buildup, contrarily to what generally occurs in beryllium reflected reactors of far higher power and to MNSR predictions. The resulting reactivity increases are typically of less than 0.4 mk for usual impurity levels and maximum HEU core burnup achievable.

  11. Subjective effects of Salvia divinorum: LSD- or marijuana-like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Dawn N; Grubbs, Laura E

    2009-09-01

    Salvia divinorum is a naturally occurring psychedelic considered to be one of the most potent hallucinogens found to date. The few behavioral studies conducted conclude that Salvia's effects may be similar to traditional psychedelics, which is noteworthy because Salvia acts via a unique molecular mechanism as a kappa opioid receptor agonist. One hundred and ninety-three participants, including 34 Salvia users, were asked to fill out a series of questionnaires related to general drug use, personality characteristics, demographics and their experiences with Salvia. Salvia users were found to differ from nonusers on personality characteristics and reported consuming significantly more alcohol than nonusers. In addition, although Salvia users rated their hallucinogenic experiences as similar to those seen in previously published reports, the majority likened their experiences as most similar to marijuana instead of more traditional psychedelics. Low scores on the ARCI LSD subscale confirmed this finding and call into question the reigning theory of LSD-like subjective effects elicited by Salvia.

  12. Effect of gender on the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    Studies have reported that both gender and adiposity influence cardiovascular reactivity amongst adolescents. However, not much is known about the effect of gender on the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity. The current study was conducted to learn how gender affects the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity in the Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to develop preventive strategies for the local population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 428 (Girls-173, Boys-255) Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years. Adiposity was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Fat Percentage (BF %), Fat Mass (FM), Fat Mass Index (FMI) and Waist Circumference (WC). Percentage Rise in Pulse Rate (%RPR) and Percentage Rise in Diastolic Blood Pressure (%RDBP) during Isometric Handgrip Test were used to assess the cardiovascular reactivity to acute sympathetic stress. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to find the association of adiposity with cardiovascular reactivity. Boys were found to have a significantly larger WC, higher physical fitness and greater %RDBP in comparison to girls while girls had a significantly higher BF% and FMI in comparison to boys. In both boys and girls, BMI, BF%, FMI and WC showed significant positive association with %RDBP with stronger correlationship found in girls. Girls also showed a significant negative correlationship between physical fitness and vascular reactivity. It could thus be concluded that gender affected the association of adiposity with vascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescent such that girls tend to have a larger correlationship between adiposity and vascular reactivity than boys which is most likely due to lower physical fitness.

  13. The effect of reactive emotions expressed in response to another's anger on inferences of social power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareli, Shlomo; David, Shlomo

    2017-06-01

    Social perception of emotions is influenced by the context in which it occurs. One such context is a social interaction involving an exchange of emotions. The way parties to the interaction are perceived is shaped by the combination of emotions exchanged. This idea was examined by assessing the extent to which expressions of anger toward a target-which, in isolation, are perceived as signals of high social power-are influenced by the target's emotional reaction to it (i.e., reactive emotions). Three studies show that the angry person was perceived as having a higher level of social power when this anger was responded by fear or sadness than when it was responded by neutrality or anger. Study 1 indicated that reactive emotions have a stronger effect on perceived social power when emotions were incongruent with gender stereotypes. Study 2 indicated that these effects are a result of these emotions serving as reactive emotions rather than a benchmark against which the angry person's power is assessed. Study 3 showed that reactive emotions affect perceived social power by serving as signals of the level to which the high social power suggested by the first person's expression is confirmed by its target. Comparing effects of reactive emotions to anger with reactive emotions to sadness, showed that perceived social power of the expresser is determined by the nature of the expression, with some adjustment caused by the reactive emotions. This underscores the importance of social interaction as a context for the social perception of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Study of Temporal Effects on Subjective Video Quality of Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampis, Christos George; Zhi Li; Moorthy, Anush Krishna; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Aaron, Anne; Bovik, Alan Conrad

    2017-11-01

    HTTP adaptive streaming is being increasingly deployed by network content providers, such as Netflix and YouTube. By dividing video content into data chunks encoded at different bitrates, a client is able to request the appropriate bitrate for the segment to be played next based on the estimated network conditions. However, this can introduce a number of impairments, including compression artifacts and rebuffering events, which can severely impact an end-user's quality of experience (QoE). We have recently created a new video quality database, which simulates a typical video streaming application, using long video sequences and interesting Netflix content. Going beyond previous efforts, the new database contains highly diverse and contemporary content, and it includes the subjective opinions of a sizable number of human subjects regarding the effects on QoE of both rebuffering and compression distortions. We observed that rebuffering is always obvious and unpleasant to subjects, while bitrate changes may be less obvious due to content-related dependencies. Transient bitrate drops were preferable over rebuffering only on low complexity video content, while consistently low bitrates were poorly tolerated. We evaluated different objective video quality assessment algorithms on our database and found that objective video quality models are unreliable for QoE prediction on videos suffering from both rebuffering events and bitrate changes. This implies the need for more general QoE models that take into account objective quality models, rebuffering-aware information, and memory. The publicly available video content as well as metadata for all of the videos in the new database can be found at http://live.ece.utexas.edu/research/LIVE_NFLXStudy/nflx_index.html.

  15. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  16. Direct comparison of the acute subjective, emotional, autonomic, and endocrine effects of MDMA, methylphenidate, and modafinil in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolder, Patrick C; Müller, Felix; Schmid, Yasmin; Borgwardt, Stefan J; Liechti, Matthias E

    2017-05-27

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is used recreationally and investigated as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Methylphenidate and modafinil are psychostimulants that are used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, respectively, but they are also misused as cognitive enhancers. Little is known about differences in the acute effects of equally cardiostimulant doses of these stimulant-type substances compared directly within the same subjects. We investigated the acute autonomic, subjective, endocrine, and emotional effects of single doses of MDMA (125 mg), methylphenidate (60 mg), modafinil (600 mg), and placebo in a double-blind, cross-over study in 24 healthy participants. Acute drug effects were tested using psychometric scales, the Facial Emotion Recognition Task (FERT), and the Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI). All active drugs produced comparable hemodynamic and adverse effects. MDMA produced greater increases in pupil dilation, subjective good drug effects, drug liking, happiness, trust, well-being, and alterations in consciousness than methylphenidate or modafinil. Only MDMA reduced subjective anxiety and impaired fear recognition and led to misclassifications of emotions as happy on the FERT. On the SADI, only MDMA produced sexual arousal-like effects. Only MDMA produced marked increases in cortisol, prolactin, and oxytocin. In contrast to MDMA, methylphenidate increased subjective anxiety, and methylphenidate and modafinil increased misclassifications of emotions as angry on the FERT. Modafinil had no significant subjective drug effects but significant sympathomimetic and adverse effects. MDMA induced subjective, emotional, sexual, and endocrine effects that were clearly distinct from those of methylphenidate and modafinil at the doses used.

  17. The effect of core configuration on temperature coefficient of reactivity in IRR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettan, M.; Silverman, I.; Shapira, M.; Nagler, A. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne (Israel)

    1997-08-01

    Experiments designed to measure the effect of coolant moderator temperature on core reactivity in an HEU swimming pool type reactor were performed. The moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity ({alpha}{sub {omega}}) was obtained and found to be different in two core loadings. The measured {alpha}{sub {omega}} of one core loading was {minus}13 pcm/{degrees}C at the temperature range of 23-30{degrees}C. This value of {alpha}{sub {omega}} is comparable to the data published by the IAEA. The {alpha}{sub {omega}} measured in the second core loading was found to be {minus}8 pcm/{degrees}C at the same temperature range. Another phenomenon considered in this study is core behavior during reactivity insertion transient. The results were compared to a core simulation using the Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants. It was found that in the second core loading factors other than the moderator temperature influence the core reactivity more than expected. These effects proved to be extremely dependent on core configuration and may in certain core loadings render the reactor`s reactivity coefficient undesirable.

  18. Effect of Subject Control and Graduated Exposure on Snake Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Alain; Cauthen, Nelson R.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of two of the variables in Leitenberg's graduated exposure technique for treating phobias, graduated exposure and subject control of the exposure time, was investigated using 15 snake-phobic subjects. Subjective fear significantly decreased from pretesting to posttesting. (Author)

  19. Effects of proline on photosynthesis, root reactive oxygen species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exogenous proline also alleviate salinity-induced damage of membrane in both melon cultivars. In conclusion, proline treatment enhanced the salinity tolerance of both melon plants and alleviated their salinity-induced damage. However, all the above effects of proline were markedly more significant in cv. Xuemei than in cv ...

  20. Leishmania infantum in a Central Italy dog shelter: retrospective study of serologic reactivity during a 4-year period in a confined dog population subjected to preventive and therapeutic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podaliri Vulpiani, Michele; Iannetti, Luigi; Di Mattia, Tiberio; Dalla Villa, Paolo

    2009-03-23

    Leishmaniasis from Leishmania infantum is a parasitary zoonotic disease and a serious problem to public health. Guidelines from Italian Health Authority (Istituto Superiore di Sanità) suggest to control the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis canine reservoir in endemic areas using an association of preventive and therapeutic tools. Moreover, in literature there are no studies about the long term effects on the disease seroprevalence and incidence in relation to this "holistic" approach. Past research has considered the effects of the alternative employment of preventive or therapeutic treatment, usually for limited periods. In this retrospective study the patterns of seroprevalence and incidence of leishmaniasis in a dog shelter sited in an endemic area of Central Italy are described throughout a 4-year period. Both preventive spot-on tools (imidacloprid/permetrin) and therapeutic protocols based on antimonials and allopurinol were administered. The results showed a progressive reduction of prevalence and incidence of serological reactivity to L. infantum, corroborating the effectiveness of the treatment administered to the animals. Significant improvements from the beginning to the end of the 4-year period were reported, considering both prevalence and incidence. A very low rate of relapses (8% in a pool of 67 subjects positive since 2004; 10.2% among all subjects enrolled in the study) was achieved.

  1. The effect of turbulent clustering on particle reactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, Jonas; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Løvås, Terese

    2016-01-01

    The effect of turbulence on the heterogeneous (solid-fluid) reactions of solid particles is studied numerically with Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). A simplified reaction system is used, where the solid-fluid reaction is represented by a single isothermal reaction step. It is found that, due to the clustering of particles by the isotropic turbulence, the overall reaction rate is entirely controlled by the turbulence for large Damk\\"ohler numbers. The particle clustering significantly slows down the reaction rate for increasing Damk\\"ohler numbers which reaches an asymptotic limit that can be analytically derived. This implies that the effect of turbulence on heterogeneously reacting particles should be included in models that are used in CFD simulations of e.g. char burnout in combustors or gasifiers. Such a model, based on the chemical and turbulent time scales, is here proposed for the heterogeneous reaction rate in the presence of turbulence.

  2. Distracting effect of TV watching on children's reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo V; Fontani, Giulio; Corradeschi, Franco; Iantorno, Lorenzo; Maffei, Marianna; Migliorini, Silvia; Perrone, Serafina; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2010-09-01

    The experiment, aimed to evaluate the distracting effect of television, was carried out on 122 children, divided into three groups. All groups performed the auditory vigilance test (AVT) to assess reaction time (RT) to an auditory stimulus and the number of errors in responding to the stimulus. Children in group 1 performed the AVT while in front of a blank TV set and listening to the soundtrack of a movie (SO test), then watching a black and white cartoon (BW test). Children in group 2 performed the AVT while in front of a blank TV set and listening to the soundtrack of a movie (SO test), then watching a color cartoon (CC test). Group 3 performed SO, BW, and CC tests consecutively. RT and the number and type of errors were measured. In each group, 30 days separated one session from the following. A significant increase of median RTs (more than 10%) and errors (twice and more) was observed both in the case of BW and CC tests with respect to SO test. RT increased throughout all tests. During SO test, errors are mainly "false reactions", but in BW and CC tests, errors are more numerous, and they are mainly "omissions". TV movies have a significant distracting and attention-capturing effect, which increases throughout the vision of the show. No advantage in decreasing this effect is offered by removing color from the movie.

  3. Effects of High-Dose Capsaicin on TMD Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B.K.; Fillingim, R.B.; Lee, S.; Brao, R.; Price, D.D.; Neubert, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a complex musculoskeletal disorder that presents with pain, limited jaw opening, and abnormal noises in the temporomandibular joint. Despite the significant impact that TMD has in terms of suffering and financial burden, relatively few new treatments have emerged; therefore, development of novel treatments to treat TMD pain remains a high priority. The rationale of this study was to use a double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of a high-concentration (8%) capsaicin cream on TMD. This is based on the hypothesis that targeting TRP vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1) for pain control may provide a novel method for pain relief in TMD patients. TRPV1 is primarily expressed on a population of nociceptive-specific neurons and provides a candidate target for the development of pain treatments. Capsaicin is the primary agonist for TRPV1 and has been used previously in relatively low doses (0.025% to 0.075%) as a therapeutic for a variety of pain disorders, including postherpetic neuralgia and osteoarthritis; however, analgesic efficacy remains equivocal. TMD and healthy control subjects were assigned to either an active capsaicin or vehicle control group. The treatments were applied for 2 h and then removed. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was completed prior to drug application (baseline), 2 h after drug application, and 1 wk later. Perceived pain intensity was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) following capsaicin or vehicle cream application. Significantly lower pain was reported in the week after application in the capsaicin-treated TMD subjects. For QST measures, there was a decreased thermal pain threshold 2 h after capsaicin application for both the control and TMD groups, but this resolved within a week. Capsaicin had no effect on pressure pain threshold or mechanical sensitivity in both TMD and healthy individuals. This study demonstrates that 8% topical capsaicin therapy is a

  4. [Objective assessment of the reactive effectiveness of middle frequency electromyostimulation using mechanical muscle diagnosis (myomechanography)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, P; Viol, M; Schleicher, W

    1989-03-01

    Using a new method of measuring passive-mechanical tonus-parameters of muscle tissue in situ ("Myomechanographie, MMG") we evaluated in 12 healthy men reactive changes of the muscle tonus immediate after one middle-frequent Electromyostimulations (EMS)-period (duration: 15 min). With the MMG was proved, that the applied EMS cause an organic effectiveness; the muscle in situ is more "elastic". This showes especially the increase of the single parameters 'elastic retraction' and 'total compressibility'. In the comparison group (n = 12) we obtained contrary after relaxly steady position (duration: 15 min.) clear reduced single parameters. The muscle is reactive less "elastic".

  5. Effects of toluene and its metabolites on cerebral reactive oxygen species generation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattia, CJ; Lebel, CP; Bondy, SC

    1991-01-01

    The effects of toluene on lipid peroxidation and rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation have been studied in isolated systems and in vivo. The induction of reactive oxygen species was assayed using the probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). Toluene exposure (1 g/kg, 1 hr, i.p.) did not stimulate cortical lipid peroxidation as evaluated by measurement of conjugated dienes. Exposure to toluene, however, both in vivo and in vitro, caused a significant elevation of ROS form...

  6. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity of biomass-petroleum coke blended char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Gong, Yan; Ding, Lu; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-06-01

    In this work, effects of gasification temperature (900°C-1100°C) and blended ratio (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) on reactivity of petroleum coke and biomass co-gasification were studied in TGA. Quantification analysis of active AAEM transformation and in situ investigation of morphological structure variations in gasification were conducted respectively using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer and heating stage microscope to explore synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity. The results indicated that char gasification reactivity was enhanced with increasing biomass proportion and gasification temperature. Synergistic effect on co-gasification reactivity was presented after complete generation of biomass ash, and gradually weakened with increasing temperature from 1000°C to 1100°C after reaching the most significant value at 1000°C. This phenomenon was well related with the appearance of molten biomass ash rich in glassy state potassium and the weakest inhibition effect on active potassium transformation during co-gasification at the temperature higher than 1000°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of mechanical activation on structure changes and reactivity in further chemical modification of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yanjuan; Hu, Huayu; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei; Chen, Dong; Huang, Kai; Huang, Aimin; Qin, Xingzhen; Feng, Zhenfei

    2016-10-01

    Lignin was treated by mechanical activation (MA) in a customized stirring ball mill, and the structure and reactivity in further esterification were studied. The chemical structure and morphology of MA-treated lignin and the esterified products were analyzed by chemical analysis combined with UV/vis spectrometer, FTIR,NMR, SEM and particle size analyzer. The results showed that MA contributed to the increase of aliphatic hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl groups but the decrease of methoxyl groups. Moreover, MA led to the decrease of particle size and the increase of specific surface area and roughness of surface in lignin. The reactivity of lignin was enhanced significantly for the increase of hydroxyl content and the improvement of mass transfer in chemical reaction caused by the changes of molecular structure and morphological structure. The process of MA is green and simple, and is an effective method for enhancing the reactivity of lignin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Coupling stress and reactive transport in fractures: Effects on contacting asperities, permeability and stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, K.; Peters, C. A.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Morris, J.; Fitts, J. P.; Deng, H.

    2015-12-01

    The permeability and geomechanical stability of fractured rock can be altered by reactive flow that induces mineral dissolution and/or precipitation. Understanding the coupling of geochemical and geomechanical processes is critical for predicting and identifying leakage pathways for environmentally-relevant fluids in the subsurface. This study couples a two-dimensional reactive transport model with a mechanical deformation model to simulate reaction, flow and deformation in a fractured carbonate rock under subsurface confining pressures. The fracture is represented as a homogenous calcite material subjected to high-pressure reactive CO2-acidified brine, and the dissolution reaction is modeled to be kinetically-limited by carbonic acid. Initial conditions for the simulations were based on fractured Indiana Limestone geometries obtained from xCT data. Simulation of reactive flow results in the enlargement of apertures and reduction in contact area along preferential flow paths, while apertures outside these channelized flow paths remain relatively unchanged. At high confining pressures, contact area occurred mainly in regions where channelization did not occur, resulting in a two- to three-fold reduction in the fracture specific stiffness. Moreover, at high confining stresses, channelized regions were preserved, enabling permeability to remain relatively unchanged compared to non-channelized regions, which in contrast showed an order of magnitude decrease in permeability when stressed. These simulations suggest that differences in dissolution patterns can lead to significant variations in fracture permeability and stiffness when subject to subsurface confining stresses. This work has important applications for geologic carbon sequestration, natural gas storage, hydraulic fracturing, geothermal energy and deep well injection of hazardous waste.

  9. Effect of cyclodextrins on the reactivity of fenitrothion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, Natalia M; Cruickshank, Dyanne L; Vico, Raquel V; Bourne, Susan A; Caira, Mino R; Buján, Elba I; de Rossi, Rita H

    2011-02-01

    The hydrolysis reaction of fenitrothion was studied in water containing 2% dioxane and in the presence of native cyclodextrins (α-, β- and γ-CD) and two commercially available modified derivatives, namely, permethylated β- and α-cyclodextrin (TRIMEB and TRIMEA, respectively). The kinetics of the reaction in the presence of TRIMEA could not be measured because the complex formed is insoluble and precipitated even at low concentration. On the other hand, the reaction is only weakly affected by the presence of α-CD. The hydrolysis reaction is inhibited by all the other cyclodextrins. From the kinetic data the association equilibrium constants for the formation of the 1:1 inclusion complexes were determined as 417, 511 and 99M(-1) for β-CD, TRIMEB and γ-CD, respectively. Despite the differences in the association constants for β- and γ-CD, the observed inhibition effect is about the same and this is due to the fact that the rate of hydrolysis in the cavity of γ-CD is smaller than that in the cavity of β-CD. The strongest inhibitor is TRIMEB and this result is consistent with the known structure of the complex in the solid state. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Autonomic effects of cognitive reappraisal and acceptance in social anxiety: evidence for common and distinct pathways for parasympathetic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Ioana A; Valenza, Gaetano; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; Szentágotai Tătar, Aurora; Gentili, Claudio; David, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Few studies investigated the effects of emotion regulation strategies on autonomic parameters in socially anxious individuals. We asked 99 socially anxious participants to give an impromptu speech in front of an audience in a virtual reality environment. In the anticipation phase, they practiced an emotion regulation strategy: negative functional reappraisal, acceptance, negative dysfunctional reappraisal. All strategies led to decreases in parasympathetic activity and increases in heart rate during anticipation. Parasympathetic activity remained low in the recovery phase, while heart rate increased, indicating a possible rebound effect of social performance. Exploratory moderation analysis revealed that for subjects with higher social anxiety, acceptance led to increased parasympathetic activity in the anticipation and recovery phases than negative functional reappraisal. Our results indicate that although globally parasympathetic reactivity seems to be a more general marker of simply attempting to regulate emotions, it could help distinguish between emotion regulation strategies for some participant subgroups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of multi axis vibration and subject postures on sketching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sedentary activities such as reading, writing, sketching, etc. are affected due to the train vibrations. Therefore, the present study investigates the extent of perceived difficulty and distortion in a sketching task by seated subjects in two postures under low frequency, multi axial random vibrations. Thirty male voluntary subjects ...

  12. To eat or not to eat. The effects of expectancy on reactivity to food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Scott, Jade; Field, Matt; Jones, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Cue reactivity may be determined by the ability of cues to evoke expectations that a reward will be imminently received. To test this possibility, the current study examined the effects of manipulating expectations about the receipt of food (pizza) on self-reported and physiological responses to pizza cues, and attentional bias to pizza pictures. It was predicted that expecting to eat pizza would increase salivation, self-reported measures of motivation and attentional bias to pizza cues relative to conditions where there was no eating expectancy. In a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 42 hungry participants completed two pizza-cue exposures in a single experimental session during which their expectation of consuming the pizza was manipulated (i.e., expectancy of eating imminently vs. no eating expectancy). They also completed a computerised attentional bias task during which the probability of receiving pizza (0%, 50% or 100%) was manipulated on a trial-by-trial basis. Participants showed reliable increases in hunger and salivation in response to the pizza cues, as well as a bias in attentional maintenance on pizza pictures. However, these responses were not influenced by eating expectancy. Contrastingly, expectancy did influence early attentional processing (initial orientation of attention) in that participants directed their first gaze towards pizza pictures more often on 100% and 50% probability trials relative to 0% trials. Overall, our findings indicate that exposure to food cues triggers appetitive responses regardless of explicit expectancy information. Methodological features of the study that may account for these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of dietary patterns on serum C-reactive protein level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Kang, D; Lee, S-A

    2014-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a marker of inflammation which has been shown in multiple prospective epidemiological studies to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Dietary patterns may influence the risk of diseases through the effects of CRP on inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of dietary patterns with CRP in blood, taking into consideration gender and blood pressure. The present cross-sectional analysis included 7574 participants from a large, population-based study of middle-aged Koreans. Four dietary patterns, including 'fruit', 'vegetable', 'meat' and 'coffee', were derived using factor analysis. Multiple linear regressions were used to evaluate the association between dietary patterns and CRP after adjusting for age, sex, education, waist circumference, smoke status and alcohol consumption. We found that the 'vegetable' pattern was inversely associated with CRP (Ptrend = 0.01). The adjusted mean CRP was 0.04 mg/dl lower (95% CI -0.07, -0.01) for subjects in the highest quartile of the 'vegetable' pattern compared with those in the lowest quartile. This inverse association was more pronounced in men with hypertensive blood; CRP concentrations across increasing quartile categories of the 'vegetable' pattern score were 0.1, 0.14, and 0.15 mg/dl reduction compared to the 1st quartile (the lowest quartile) (Ptrend = 0.04, Plinearity = 0.02). The inverse association of the 'vegetable' pattern with CRP was assessed, and the association appeared to be more predominant in men with hypertensive blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxime reactivators and their in vivo and in vitro effects on nicotinic receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, O.; Krůšek, Jan; Kaniaková, Martina; Kumar, U. K.; Oz, M.; Jun, D.; Fusek, J.; Kuča, K.; Tobin, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), s. 679-686 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0806; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/1907 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : organophosphates * patch-clamp * nicotinic receptors * reactivator * isometric muscle contraction * TE671 cells Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.555, year: 2011

  15. Effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia on the endothelial glycocalyx and digital reactive hyperemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Bergström, Anita; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia is associated with increased capillary permeability. This study tested whether acute hypobaric hypoxia involves degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. METHODS: We exposed 12 subjects to acute hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4500 m for 2-4 h) and measured venous blood....../nitrate decreased from 23 (18-27) μM at baseline to 19 (14-24) μM and 18 (14-21) μM in hypoxia and recovery, respectively (p pre-occlusion ratio (reactive hyperemia index, RHI) decreased from 1.80 (1.52-2.07) in normoxia to 1.62 (1.28-1.96) after 2...

  16. Effect of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria on reactivation and shedding of the eight human herpes viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Chêne

    Full Text Available Human herpes viruses (HHVs are widely distributed pathogens. In immuno-competent individuals their clinical outcomes are generally benign but in immuno-compromised hosts, primary infection or extensive viral reactivation can lead to critical diseases. Plasmodium falciparum malaria profoundly affects the host immune system. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the direct effect of acute P. falciparum infection on reactivation and shedding of all known human herpes viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV, CMV, HHV-6, HHV-7, HHV-8. We monitored their presence by real time PCR in plasma and saliva of Ugandan children with malaria at the day of admission to the hospital (day-0 and 14 days later (after treatment, or in children with mild infections unrelated to malaria. For each child screened in this study, at least one type of HHV was detected in the saliva. HHV-7 and HHV-6 were detected in more than 70% of the samples and CMV in approximately half. HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-8 were detected at lower frequency. During salivary shedding the highest mean viral load was observed for HSV-1 followed by EBV, HHV-7, HHV-6, CMV and HHV-8. After anti-malarial treatment the salivary HSV-1 levels were profoundly diminished or totally cleared. Similarly, four children with malaria had high levels of circulating EBV at day-0, levels that were cleared after anti-malarial treatment confirming the association between P. falciparum infection and EBV reactivation. This study shows that acute P. falciparum infection can contribute to EBV reactivation in the blood and HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity. Taken together our results call for further studies investigating the potential clinical implications of HHVs reactivation in children suffering from malaria.

  17. Tolerable hearing-aid delays: IV. effects on subjective disturbance during speech production by hearing-impaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael A; Moore, Brian C J

    2005-04-01

    We assessed the effects of time delay in a hearing aid on subjective disturbance and reading rates while the user of the aid was speaking, using hearing-impaired subjects and real-time processing. The time delay was constant across frequency. A digital signal processor was programmed as a four-channel, fast-acting, wide-dynamic-range compression hearing aid. One of four delays could be selected on the aid to produce a total delay of 13, 21, 30, or 40 msec between microphone and receiver. Twenty-five subjects, mostly with near-symmetric hearing impairment of cochlear origin, were fitted bilaterally with behind-the-ear aids connected to the processor. The aids were programmed with insertion gains prescribed by the CAMEQ loudness equalization procedure for each subject and ear. Subjects were asked to read aloud from scripts: speech production rates were measured and subjective ratings of the disturbance of the delay were obtained. Subjects required some training to recognize the effects of the delay to rate it consistently. Subjective disturbance increased progressively with increasing delay and was a nonmonotonic function of low-frequency hearing loss. Subjects with mild or severe low-frequency hearing loss were generally less disturbed by the delay than those with moderate loss. Disturbance ratings tended to decrease over successive tests. Word production rates were not significantly affected by delay over the range of delays tested. The results follow a pattern similar to those presented in , obtained using a simulation of hearing loss and normally hearing subjects, except for the nonmonotonic variation of disturbance with low-frequency hearing loss. We hypothesize that disturbance is maximal when the levels in the ear canal of the low-frequency components are similar for the unaided and aided sounds. A rating of 3, which is probably just acceptable, was obtained for delays ranging from 14 to 30 msec, depending on the hearing loss. Some acclimatization to the

  18. Effects of divalproex on smoking cue reactivity and cessation outcomes among smokers achieving initial abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W; Oliver, Jason A; Myrick, Hugh; Henderson, Scott; Saladin, Michael E; Drobes, David J

    2012-08-01

    Divalproex, a GABA agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of tobacco dependence. Cue reactivity assessment paradigms are ideally suited to explore basic mechanisms underlying the pharmacological effects of medications that purport to have efficacy for smoking cessation. Our primary goal in the current study was to examine the effects of divalproex on in-treatment reactivity to smoking-relevant and affective cues, and to determine if these reactions were predictive of posttreatment smoking behavior. There were 120 nicotine dependent smokers enrolled in an 8-week double-blind clinical trial and randomly assigned to either divalproex or placebo conditions. Of these, 72 smokers (60% female) who achieved a minimal level of abstinence underwent an in-treatment cue reactivity assessment. Contrary to expectations, divalproex was associated with greater craving and arousal during smoking cue presentation. Divalproex also inhibited cardiovascular response to pleasant cues. Although no significant differences in cessation-related outcomes between divalproex- and placebo-treated participants were observed, cue-elicited craving to smoke predicted end-of-treatment and posttreatment smoking rates. These findings suggest that in-treatment cue reactivity assessment may proactively and dynamically inform ongoing treatment as well as provide a tool for screening potential medications for smoking cessation.

  19. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong Lai Teik, Derek; Lee, Xiao Shiang; Lim, Chu Jian; Low, Chia Mei; Muslima, Mariyam; Aquili, Luca

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement. Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24) received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg) or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg) (N = 24), and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks) in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo) increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline) to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal) was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa) that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo) blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline) to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo. These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  20. Effects of toluene and its metabolites on cerebral reactive oxygen species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattia, C J; LeBel, C P; Bondy, S C

    1991-07-25

    The effects of toluene on lipid peroxidation and rates of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation have been studied in isolated systems and in vivo. The induction of reactive oxygen species was assayed using the probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). Toluene exposure (1 g/kg, 1 hr, i.p.) did not stimulate cortical lipid peroxidation as evaluated by measurement of conjugated dienes. Exposure to toluene, however, both in vivo and in vitro, caused a significant elevation of ROS formation within cortical crude synaptosomal fractions (P2) and microsomal fractions (P3). The ROS-inducing properties of toluene were blocked in vivo in the presence of a mixed-function oxidase inhibitor, metyrapone. This suggested that a metabolite of toluene may catalyze reactive oxygen formation. Both benzyl alcohol and benzoic acid, in vitro, were found to have free radical quenching properties, while benzaldehyde exhibited significant induction of ROS generation. It appears that benzaldehyde is the metabolite responsible for the effect of toluene in accelerating reactive oxygen production within the nervous system. Benzaldehyde may also contribute to the overall neurotoxicity of toluene.

  1. EFFECT OF REACTIVE MAGNESIUM OXIDE ON PROPERTIES OF ALKALI ACTIVATED SLAG GEOPOLYMER CEMENT PASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Abdel-Gawwad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different proportions and different reactivities of MgO on the drying shrinkage and compressive strength of alkali activated slag pastes (AAS has been investigated. The slag was activated by 6 wt.% sodium hydroxide and liquid sodium silicate at ratio of 3:3 (wt.. The different reactivities of MgOs were produced from the calcination of hydromagnesite at different temperatures (550, 1000, 1250 C. The results showed that the reactivity of magnesium oxide decreases with increasing the calcination temperature. Also, the drying shrinkage of AAS was reduced by the replacement of slag with MgOs. The highly reactive MgO accelerated the hydration of AAS at early ages. The replacement of slag with 5% MgO550 increased one day compressive strength by ~26 % while MgO1250 had little effect. A significant increase in strength was observed after 7 days in case of replacement of slag with 5 % MgO1250. The MgO reacts with slag to form hydrotalcite likephases (Ht as detected by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA/DTG analysis and SEM.

  2. Ginseng and Ginkgo Biloba Effects on Cognition as Modulated by Cardiovascular Reactivity: A Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Ong Lai Teik

    Full Text Available There is some evidence to suggest that ginseng and Ginkgo biloba can improve cognitive performance, however, very little is known about the mechanisms associated with such improvement. Here, we tested whether cardiovascular reactivity to a task is associated with cognitive improvement.Using a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover design, participants (N = 24 received two doses of Panax Ginseng (500, 1000 mg or Ginkgo Biloba (120, 240 mg (N = 24, and underwent a series of cognitive tests while systolic, diastolic, and heart rate readings were taken. Ginkgo Biloba improved aspects of executive functioning (Stroop and Berg tasks in females but not in males. Ginseng had no effect on cognition. Ginkgo biloba in females reversed the initial (i.e. placebo increase in cardiovascular reactivity (systolic and diastolic readings increased compared to baseline to cognitive tasks. This effect (reversal was most notable after those tasks (Stroop and Iowa that elicited the greatest cardiovascular reactivity during placebo. In males, although ginkgo also decreased cardiovascular readings, it did so from an initial (placebo blunted response (i.e. decrease or no change from baseline to cognitive tasks. Ginseng, on the contrary, increased cardiovascular readings compared to placebo.These results suggest that cardiovascular reactivity may be a mechanism by which ginkgo but not ginseng, in females is associated with certain forms of cognitive improvement.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02386852.

  3. [EFFECT OF MELATONIN ON AGE-RELATED DYNAMICS OF THE REACTIVE PROPERTIES OF BONE TISSUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashov, M I; Chaka, E G; Yanko, R V; Zamorska, T M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of melatonin (MT) on the bone tissue (BT) reactive properties was investigated among 80 male Wistar rats at the age of 3, 9, 12 and 16 months. The reactive properties of BT were judged by its ability to polarization under the influence of the alternating electric current. The value of reactance at the frequency of maximum polarization was used as the indicator of BT reactivity. Experimental animals received daily melatonin (Unipharm Inc., USA) at the rate of 1 mg/kg of body mass for 28 days. Freshly isolated femurs of rats served as a material for investigation. Introduction of MT to rats resulted in a significant increase in bone mass and polarization properties of BT. However, the clear tendency to increase the reactance not more than 2.2 % (p p p < 0.05) among 15-month old animals. Thus the introduction of MT increased the reactivity of BT. This effect had a clear dependence on the age and appeared more among older animals.

  4. Differential effects of painful and non-painful stimulation on tactile processing in fibromyalgia syndrome and subjects with masochistic behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Pollok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects repeated tactile stimulation in a conditioning test stimulation paradigm yields attenuation of primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortical activation, whereas a preceding painful stimulus results in facilitation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since previous data suggest that cognitive processes might affect somatosensory processing in S1, the present study aims at investigating to what extent cortical reactivity is altered by the subjective estimation of pain. To this end, the effect of painful and tactile stimulation on processing of subsequently applied tactile stimuli was investigated in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS and in subjects with masochistic behaviour (MB by means of a 122-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG system. Ten patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis of FMS, 10 subjects with MB and 20 control subjects matched with respect to age, gender and handedness participated in the present study. Tactile or brief painful cutaneous laser stimuli were applied as conditioning stimulus (CS followed by a tactile test stimulus (TS 500 ms later. While in FMS patients significant attenuation following conditioning tactile stimulation was evident, no facilitation following painful stimulation was found. By contrast, in subjects with MB no attenuation but significant facilitation occurred. Attenuation as well as facilitation applied to cortical responses occurring at about 70 ms but not to early S1 or S2 responses. Additionally, in FMS patients the amount of attenuation was inversely correlated with catastrophizing tendency. CONCLUSION: The present results imply altered cortical reactivity of the primary somatosensory cortex in FMS patients and MB possibly reflecting differences of individual pain experience.

  5. Sex based levels of C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in subjects with metabolic syndrome: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Gharipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein (CRP and white blood cell (WBC are proinflammatory markers. They are major pathophysiological for the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS. This study aimed to address the independent associations between MetS and WBC counts and serum CRP levels and evaluation of their magnitude in relation to the MetS, based on the sex in the Iranian adults. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects who met the MetS criteria, based on the Adult Treatment Panel III were selected from the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program database. A questionnaire containing the demographic data, weight, height, waist, and hip circumference of the respondents was completed for each person. Blood pressure was measured and the anthropometric measurements were done, and fasting blood samples were taken for 2 h postload plasma glucose (2 hpp. Serum [total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and low-density lipoprotein] levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, and CRP as well as WBC counts were determined. The univariate analyses were carried out to assess the relation between the CRP levels, WBC counts with the MetS in both sexes the. Results: In men with the abdominal obesity, the higher levels of WBC count, high serum triglyceride and blood glucose levels, a low serum HDL level, and raised systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. However, the higher serum CRP levels were only observed in those with the low serum HDL-cholesterol levels. The mean values of the WBC counts were statistically different between the men with and without MetS, but the mean values of the CRP levels were similar between the two groups. In women, the mean values of WBC count and CRP levels were statistically different in the subjects with and without a MetS components (except for the low serum HDL levels and high diastolic blood pressure for the WBC measures and abdominal obesity for the CRP measures and for those with and without MetS. The age and

  6. Effects of gamma irradiations on reactive pulsed laser deposited vanadium dioxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madiba, I.G., E-mail: madibagiven@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Émond, N.; Chaker, M. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS),1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X1S2 (Canada); Thema, F.T. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, P O Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Tadadjeu, S.I. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Department of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, French South African Institute of Technology/Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellville campus, PO Box 1906, Bellville, 7530 (South Africa); Muller, U.; Zolliker, P. [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Braun, A. [ETH Zurich, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, CH-8057, Zurich (Switzerland); Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories Materials Science and Technology, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Kotsedi, L. [iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); and others

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Synthesis of VO{sub 2} thin films by Reactive pulsed laser deposition has been achieved. • Properties VO{sub 2} remain mainly unaffected when subjected to gamma ray doses similar to those encountered during space missions. • The long range crystal structure of VO{sub 2} remains intact upon irradiation on different doses up to 100 kGy. • XPS reveals a shift from V{sup 4+} to V{sup 5+} oxidation state upon irradiation, due to the frenkel pair formation on the surface. • Irradiated films show the characteristic SMT of VO{sub 2}, although the electrical and optical properties are slightly affected. - Abstract: Vanadium oxide films are considered suitable coatings for various applications such as thermal protective coating of small spacecrafts because of their thermochromic properties. While in outer space, such coating will be exposed to cosmic radiations which include γ-rays. To study the effect of these γ-rays on the coating properties, we have deposited vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) films on silicon substrates and subjected them to extensive γ-irradiations with typical doses encountered in space missions. The prevalent crystallographic phase after irradiation remains the monoclinic VO{sub 2} phase but the films preferential orientation shifts to lower angles due to the presence of disordered regions caused by radiations. Raman spectroscopy measurements also evidences that the VO{sub 2} structure is slightly affected by gamma irradiation. Indeed, increasing the gamma rays dose locally alters the crystalline and electronic structures of the films by modifying the V–V inter-dimer distance, which in turns favours the presence of the VO{sub 2} metallic phase. From the XPS measurements of V2p and O1s core level spectra, an oxidation of vanadium from V{sup 4+} towards V{sup 5+} is revealed. The data also reveal a hydroxylation upon irradiation which is corroborated by the vanishing of a low oxidation state peak near the Fermi energy in the

  7. The effect of alcohol priming on neural markers of alcohol cue-reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Kelly E; Ghahremani, Dara G; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Priming doses of alcohol are associated with increased desire to drink and disinhibitory effects on subsequent control over drinking. Despite the importance of alcohol priming in the cue-reactivity literature, the effects of priming on brain responses to alcohol cues remains unclear. Furthermore, evidence suggests this relationship may be moderated by OPRM1 genotype. Twenty individuals with alcohol dependence (six females; 90% Caucasian; mean age = 29.4) who were prospectively genotyped on the OPRM1 gene underwent two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a priming dose of alcohol, each including a gustatory alcohol cue reactivity paradigm and self-reported craving measures. Self-reported alcohol craving generally increased and remained higher for alcohol versus water cue presentations across pre- and post-priming scans. Compared to alcohol cues delivered during the post-priming scan, alcohol cues delivered pre-priming were associated with greater activation in regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, inferior frontal gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. Controlling for alcoholism severity increased statistical significance of activation in these regions. Follow-up analyses revealed a positive correlation between alcoholism severity and pre- versus post-priming alcohol cue-reactivity primarily in frontal regions. OPRM1 genotype was also found to moderate alcohol cue-reactivity across scans. This study provides initial evidence of alcohol cue-elicited habituation in fronto-temporal regions, despite continued craving, following a priming dose of alcohol. Further, it provides preliminary evidence for moderating roles of alcoholism severity and OPRM1 genotype on priming-related changes in cue-reactivity, adding to our understanding of the function of alcohol priming in alcohol dependence.

  8. The Effects of Training Contingency Awareness During Attention Bias Modification on Learning and Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Seidner, Shiran; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-09-01

    Current attention bias modification (ABM) procedures are designed to implicitly train attention away from threatening stimuli with the hope of reducing stress reactivity and anxiety symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying effective ABM delivery are not well understood, with awareness of the training contingency suggested as one possible factor contributing to ABM efficacy. Here, 45 high-anxious participants were trained to divert attention away from threat in two ABM sessions. They were randomly assigned to one of three training protocols: an implicit protocol, comprising two standard implicit ABM training sessions; an explicit protocol, comprising two sessions with explicit instruction as to the attention training contingency; and an implicit-explicit protocol, in which participants were not informed of the training contingency in the first ABM session and informed of it at the start of the second session. We examined learning processes and stress reactivity following a stress-induction task. Results indicate that relative to implicit instructions, explicit instructions led to stronger learning during the first training session. Following rest, the explicit and implicit groups exhibited consolidation-related improvement in performance, whereas no such improvement was noted for the implicit-explicit group. Finally, although stress reactivity was reduced after training, contingency awareness did not yield a differential effect on stress reactivity measured using both self-reports and skin conductance, within and across sessions. These results suggest that explicit ABM administration leads to greater initial learning during the training protocol while not differing from standard implicit administration in terms of off-line learning and stress reactivity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of intranasal oxytocin on amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in recently trauma-exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijling, Jessie L; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Koch, Saskia B J; Nawijn, Laura; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2016-02-01

    There is a need for effective, early post-trauma preventive interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Attenuating amygdala hyperreactivity early post-trauma, a likely PTSD vulnerability factor, may decrease PTSD risk. Since oxytocin modulates amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli, oxytocin administration early post-trauma may be a promising candidate for PTSD prevention. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fMRI study, we investigated effects of a single intranasal oxytocin administration (40 IU) on amygdala reactivity to happy, neutral and fearful faces in 41 recently trauma-exposed men and women showing moderate to high distress after initial post-trauma screening. We explored treatment interactions with sex. Participants were scanned within 11 days post-trauma. Compared with placebo, oxytocin significantly increased right amygdala reactivity to fearful faces. There was a significant treatment by sex interaction on amygdala reactivity to neutral faces, with women showing increased left amygdala reactivity after oxytocin. These findings indicate that a single oxytocin administration may enhance fearful faces processing in recently trauma-exposed individuals and neutral faces processing in recently trauma-exposed women. These observations may be explained by oxytocin-induced increased salience processing. Clinical implications of these findings for PTSD prevention should be further investigated. Netherlands Trial Registry; Boosting Oxytocin after trauma: Neurobiology and the Development of Stress-related psychopathology (BONDS); NTR3190; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC = 3190. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Perceived racism and vascular reactivity in black college women: moderating effects of seeking social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study explored the association of perceived racism and seeking social support to vascular reactivity in a college sample of 110 Black women. Perceived racism and seeking social support were assessed via self-report, and vascular reactivity was measured before and during a standardized speaking task. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived racism was positively related to changes in systolic blood pressure. These analyses also indicated that seeking social support moderated the relationship between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes. This interaction effect persisted after controlling for several potential confounders. Follow-up regression analyses showed that perceived racism was positively associated with reactivity among participants who were low in seeking social support. A significant relationship was not observed between perceived racism and systolic blood pressure changes among participants who were high in seeking social support. Perceived racism and seeking social support were not significantly associated with changes in diastolic blood pressure. These findings highlight the importance of examining psychosocial factors that may mitigate the hypothesized relationship between perceived racism and reactivity. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Training and Subject Reproducibility During Vertical Impact Acceleration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallagher, Hilary; Pellettiere, Joseph; Doczy, Erica

    2005-01-01

    .... There is little data, however, describing the effects of subject training on human response. There are also questions regarding the effect of subject reproducibility and how it might affect data variability...

  12. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Effect of the Gulf War on reactivation of adverse combat-related memories in Vietnam veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, N; Chamberlain, K; Vincent, C

    1994-03-01

    Symptoms of combat related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported extensively in Vietnam veterans. A few of these studies have reported situations in which PTSD has been reactivated in veterans with a history of PTSD. The present study reports the effects of media coverage of the Gulf War on a community sample of New Zealand Vietnam veterans. Levels of PTSD, distress, and well-being were assessed before and after the outbreak of hostilities. Most veterans closely followed the media presentation of the war and reported revived memories of Vietnam. Increased memories of Vietnam were associated with higher levels of PTSD and distress. It is suggested that veterans have heightened susceptibility to combat related stimuli because of their previous combat experience and that these stimuli can reactivate PTSD symptoms and distress. Implications of this finding for other groups in the community who harbour residual PTSD effects are discussed.

  14. Quantifying hemodynamic refractory bold effects in normal subjects at the single-subject level using an inverse logit fitting procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Benedicte; Vandemaele, Pieter; Reyngoudt, Harmen; Deblaere, Karel; Leybaert, Luc; Paemeleire, Koen; Achten, Eric

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether hemodynamic refractory effects provoked by repeated visual stimulation can be detected and quantified at the single-subject level using a recently described hemodynamic response function (HRF) fitting algorithm. Hemodynamic refractory effects were induced with an easily applicable functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm. A fitting method with inverse logit (IL) functions was applied to quantify net HRFs at the single-subject level with three interstimulus intervals (ISI; 1, 2, and 6 s). The model yielded amplitude, latencies, and width for each HRF. HRF fitting was possible in 44 of 51 healthy volunteers, with excellent goodness-of-fit (R(2) = 0.9745 ± 0.0241). Refractory effects were most pronounced for the 1-s ISI (P < 0.001) and had nearly disappeared for the 6-s ISI. Quantifying refractory effects in individuals was possible in 86.3% of normal subjects using the IL fitting algorithm. This setup may be suitable to explore such effects in individual patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l-1 with Vmax 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l-1 h-1 and Km 227 ± 41 mg l-1. Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on platelet reactivity and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemer-Wassercug, Noa; Haim, Moti; Leshem-Lev, Dorit; Orvin, Katia L; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Gutstein, Ariel; Kadmon, Ehud; Mager, Aviv; Kornowski, Ran; Lev, Eli I; Lev, Eli L

    2015-10-01

    The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) reduce stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), but dabigatran may increase risk of coronary ischemic events for unclear reasons. Thus, this study assessed the effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban on platelet reactivity and inflammatory markers in patients with non-valvular AF. Patients with non-valvular AF planned to begin treatment with NOACs were included. Seventeen patients were prescribed dabigatran and ten rivaroxaban. Platelet function (as assessed by multiple-electrode aggregometry, Impact-R shear-induced platelet deposition, P-selectin expression and plasma RANTES levels) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at enrollment (prior to initiation of NOAC treatment) and at least 7 days into treatment with either dabigratran or rivaroxaban. Seventeen patients treated with dabigatran (mean age 69 ± 7 years, 35 % women, mean CHADS2 score 2.6 ± 1.2), and ten patients treated with rivaroxaban (mean age 73 ± 9 years, 20 % women, mean CHADS2 score 2.7 ± 1.6) completed the study. In both groups, there were no significant differences in platelet reactivity between the baseline and on-anticoagulant treatment time-points, as measured by each of the platelet-specific assays. There was a trend towards increased platelet reactivity in response to arachidonic acid from baseline to on-treatment in both groups, probably as a result of aspirin discontinuation in 33 % of patients. No significant differences were noted between baseline and on-treatment in hs-CRP in both anticoagulant groups. Treatment with dabigatran and rivaroxaban does not appear to be associated with changes in markers of platelet reactivity or systemic inflammation.

  17. Effects of Autoregulation and CO2 Reactivity on Cerebral Oxygen Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, S.J.; Selb, J.; Boas, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    Both autoregulation and CO2 reactivity are known to have significant effects on cerebral blood flow and thus on the transport of oxygen through the vasculature. In this paper, a previous model of the autoregulation of blood flow in the cerebral vasculature is expanded to include the dynamic behavior of oxygen transport through binding with hemoglobin. The model is used to predict the transfer functions for both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in response to fluctuations in arterial blood pr...

  18. Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Copper Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Miao; Kwon, Hyun Soo; Peng, Zhenmeng; Elder, Alison; Yang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Mercaptocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain lengths were used for stabilizing uniform 15 nm copper nanoparticles. The effects of surface chemistry such as ligand type and surface oxidation on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the copper nanoparticles were examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and an acellular ROS assay show that ROS generation is closely related to the surface oxidation of copper nanoparti...

  19. Study of effects of metformin on C-reactive protein level in Type-2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Niteshkumar C. Gamit; Naresh D. Kantharia; Khushbu B. Vaghasiya; Ankit J. Vataliya; Aashal B. Shah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is extremely common; represent a significant global health problem. Type-2 DM is considered to be associated with a low grade inflammation, which may play a significant role in development of cardiovascular complications evidenced by C-reactive protein (CRP) is a an extremely sensitive marker of systemic inflammation. The study was undertaken to check the effect of metformin on CRP level in Type-2 DM. Methods: The study was prospective and non-randomized....

  20. The spectrum of subjective effects of antipsychotic medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, HA; Knegtering, R; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study examined the spectrum of subjective experiences which patients attribute to the use of antipsychotic medication. Methods: We collected interview data and answers to structured questions based on a comprehensive checklist in 77 patients using various types of classical or

  1. Social support and loneliness in college students: effects on pulse pressure reactivity to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Aoife; Hughes, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Socially supportive relationships at university may buffer against psychological stress in students, particularly in those experiencing loneliness. To examine the relation of social support at university and loneliness with pulse pressure (PP) reactivity to acute psychological stress in a sample of first-year undergraduate students. Sixty-five female, adolescent, first-year university students. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as the arithmetic difference between systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, which were measured during a resting baseline and during a stressful reading task. The difference between baseline and reading task PP represents PP reactivity. The Social Support at University Scale (SSUS) was used to assess social support availability in university, and the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess loneliness. Hierarchical linear regression was used to examine main and interactive effects of SSUS and loneliness on PP change scores, and simple slopes were computed to assist in the interpretation of interaction effects. Social support at university was associated with lower PP reactivity in students reporting medium (t = -2.03, p = .04) or high levels of loneliness (t = -2.93, p = .004), but not in those reporting low levels of loneliness (t = -0.20, p = .83). Psychosocial interventions designed to increase social support available at university, and targeted at students experiencing loneliness may buffer against the harmful effects of acute stressors in lonely first-year students.

  2. Biological Sensitivity to Context: The Interactive Effects of Stress Reactivity and Family Adversity on Socioemotional Behavior and School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Jelena; Bush, Nicole R.; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Adler, Nancy E.; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional and cognitive development in three hundred and thirty-eight 5- to 6-year-old children. Neurobiological stress reactivity was measured as respiratory sinus arrhythmia and salivary cortisol responses to social, cognitive, sensory, and…

  3. Effect of reactive and un-reactive substrates on photopolymerization of self-etching adhesives with different aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Ying; WANG, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of reactive (enamel) and un-reactive (glass) substrates on photo-polymerization of self-etching adhesives. Two commercial adhesives Adper Prompt L-Pop (APLP, pH~0.8) and Adper Easy Bond (AEB, pH~2.5) were applied onto prepared enamel and glass substrates using the same protocol. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the degree of conversion (DC) and the involved mechanism. DC of APLP was dramatically enhanced from ~9.4% to ~82.0% as when changing from glass to enamel, while DC of AEB on both substrates showed no difference. The DC distributions along the adhesive layers of the APLP and AEB on enamel showed descending and constant trends, respectively. Spectral analysis disclosed that the difference in chemical reaction of the two adhesives with enamel might be associated with the results. The chemical reaction of the adhesives with enamel significantly improved the DC of the strong APLP, but not that of the mild AEB. PMID:23719012

  4. Serological Reactivity and Identification of Immunoglobulin E-Binding Polypeptides of Ganoderma applanatum Crude Spore Cytoplasmic Extract in Puerto Rican Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilá-Héreter, Frances; Rivera-Mariani, Félix E; Bolaños-Rosero, Benjamín

    2017-01-01

    The allergenic potential of Ganoderma applanatum basidiospores has been demonstrated previously in Puerto Rico. However, basidiomycete allergens are not available for inclusion in allergy diagnostic panels. Therefore, we sought to confirm allergic sensitization to G. applanatum crude spore cytoplasmic extract through reactivity in serological assays and detection of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding polypeptides. Via an indirect ELISA, serological reactivity was compared between groups of individuals with different allergic profiles. Group 1 (n = 51) consisted of individuals with sIgE to the allergens included in the diagnostic panels; group 2 (n = 14) comprised individuals with no sIgE to the allergens tested; and group 3 (n = 22) included individuals with no allergic history. To visualize IgE-binding polypeptides, group 1 sera were examined via Western blotting (WB). Polypeptide bands with the highest reactivity were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS) for putative identification. The serological reactivity of group 1 was significantly higher than that of group 3 in an indirect ELISA (p = 0.03). Sixty-five percent of group 1 individuals showed reactivity to polypeptide bands in WB. Bands of 81 and 56 kDa had the highest reactivity proportions among the reactive sera, followed by a 45-kDa band. MS analysis of these 3 polypeptides suggests that they are basidiomycete-derived enzymes with aconitate hydratase, catalase, and enolase functions. G. applanatum spores have allergenic components recognized by Puerto Rican individuals, which could eventually be considered as markers in cases of fungal allergy and be included in diagnostic allergen panels in Puerto Rico and tropical regions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Effects of incomplete mixing on reactive transport in flows through heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elise E.; Richter, David H.; Bolster, Diogo

    2017-11-01

    The phenomenon of incomplete mixing reduces bulk effective reaction rates in reactive transport. Many existing models do not account for these effects, resulting in the overestimation of reaction rates in laboratory and field settings. To date, most studies on incomplete mixing have focused on diffusive systems; here, we extend these to explore the role that flow heterogeneity has on incomplete mixing. To do this, we examine reactive transport using a Lagrangian reactive particle tracking algorithm in two-dimensional idealized heterogeneous porous media. Contingent on the nondimensional Peclet and Damköhler numbers in the system, it was found that near well-mixed behavior could be observed at late times in the heterogeneous flow field simulations. We look at three common flow deformation metrics that describe the enhancement of mixing in the flow due to velocity gradients: the Okubo-Weiss parameter (θ ), the largest eigenvalue of the Cauchy-Green strain tensor (λC), and the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (Λ ). Strong mixing regions in the heterogeneous flow field identified by these metrics were found to correspond to regions with higher numbers of reactions, but the infrequency of these regions compared to the large numbers of reactions occurring elsewhere in the domain imply that these strong mixing regions are insufficient in explaining the observed near well-mixed behavior. Since it was found that reactive transport in these heterogeneous flows could overcome the effects of incomplete mixing, we also search for a closure for the mean concentration. The conservative quantity u2¯, where u =CA-CB , was found to predict the late time scaling of the mean concentration, i.e., Ci¯˜u2¯ .

  6. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  7. Effect of processing temperature on the bitumen/MDI-PEG reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Alfonso, M.J.; Partal, P.; Navarro, F.J.; Garcia-Morales, M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de ' El Carmen' , Universidad de Huelva, 21071, Huelva (Spain); Bordado, J.C.M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering Department, IBB, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, A.C. [Materials Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-04-15

    Reactive polymers are lately gaining acceptance to give added value to a residue of the crude oil refining process such as bitumen. The resulting material should display enhanced mechanical properties to be considered for advanced applications in construction. In the present paper, we report the effect of processing temperature on the reaction between bitumen compounds and an isocyanate-based reactive polymer, synthesized by reaction of polymeric MDI (4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) with a low molecular weight polyethylene-glycol (PEG). Rheokinetics experiments, viscosity measurements at 60 C, atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterization, thin layer chromatography (TLC-FID) analysis and thermogravimetric studies (TGA) were performed on the reactive polymer and on samples of MDI-PEG modified bitumen containing 2 wt.% of the polymer. Results showed the existence of an optimum processing temperature arisen as a consequence of opposite effects: microstructural availability for the formation of a polymer-bitumen network, reaction ability and polymer thermal degradation. Consequently, this study aims to serve as a guideline for the refining and asphalt industries facing the stage of selecting the optimum processing parameters. (author)

  8. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  9. Stressful Life Events and Depression Symptoms: The Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; Black, Shimrit K.; Liu, Richard T.; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. Method In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. PMID:23800893

  10. Effect of temperature and pressure on characteristics and reactivity of biomass-derived chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recari, J; Berrueco, C; Abelló, S; Montané, D; Farriol, X

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluates the influence of pyrolysis temperature (350-450°C) and pressure (0.1-2.0MPa) on product yields and char properties. Spruce chars were produced under slow pyrolysis conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Special attention was devoted to the study of the oxidation reactivity of the produced chars, and its relationship with the evaluated char properties. The obtained results showed that the effect of the pyrolysis condition on char production and in particular on the mechanism of secondary char formation strongly influenced the char reactivity. Additionally it has been observed that the interval of temperature between 350 and 450°C may be key in the mechanism of tar repolymerization. The information provided in this study is of great interest for the determination of optimal operation conditions and the design of new gasification concepts or the development of bioenergy carriers via pyrolysis technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stressful life events and depression symptoms: the effect of childhood emotional abuse on stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Black, Shimrit K; Liu, Richard T; Klugman, Joshua; Bender, Rachel E; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-03-01

    Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors. In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship. Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse. This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. EFFECT OF UV IRRADIATION ON THE DYEING OF COTTON FABRIC WITH REACTIVE BLUE 204

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes are synthetic organic compounds used on a wide scale in textile industry, for painting materials of different types and compositions (e.g. 100% cotton, wool, natural satin, viscose, synthetic fibres. Reactive dyes are solid compounds (powders completely water soluble at normal temperature and pressure conditions. Their structures contain chromophore groups, which generate colour, and auxochrome groups, which determine the compounds water solubility and the capacity to fix to the textile fiber. Such organic compounds absorb UV-Vis radiations at specific wavelengths, corresponding to maximum absorbtion peaks, in both solution and dyed fiber. The human organism, through the dyed clothing, comes in direct contact with those dyes which can undergo modifications once exposed to UV radiations, having the posibility to reach the organism via cutanated transport. As it is known, the provoked negative effects are stronger during summer when UV radiations are more intense and in order to reduce their intensity dark coloured clothing is avoided. Dyes can be transformed in compounds which are easily absorbed into the skin. Some of these metabolites can be less toxic than the original corresponding dye, whilst others, such as free radicals, are potentially cancerous. Knowledge of the biological effects of the organic dyes, reactive dyes in particular, correlated with their structural and physical characteristics, permanently consists an issue of high scientific and practical interest and its solution may contribute in the diminishing of risk factors and improving of population health. UV radiation influence on the structural and colour modifications of textile materials were studied. Colour modifications are due to structural changes in aromatic and carbonil groups. In most cases photo-oxidative processes were identified in the dye structure. Dyeing was performed using non-irradiated and irradiated cotton painted with reactive blue dye 204.

  13. Menstrual cycle phase effects in the gender dimorphic stress cue reactivity of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Wray, Jennifer M; Carpenter, Matthew J; McClure, Erin A; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Gray, Kevin M

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported that female smokers evidence greater subjective craving and stress/emotional reactivity to personalized stress cues than males. The present study employed the same dataset to assess whether females in the follicular versus luteal phase of the menstrual cycle accounted for the gender differences. Two objective criteria, onset of menses and luteinizing hormone surge (evaluated via home testing kits), were used to determine whether female smokers were in either the follicular (n = 22) or the luteal (n = 15) phase of their menstrual cycle, respectively. The females and a sample of male smokers (n = 53) were then administered a laboratory-based cue reactivity paradigm that involved assessment of craving, stress, and emotional reactivity in response to counterbalanced presentations of both a personalized stress script and neutral/relaxed script. While there were no significant differences between females in the follicular versus luteal phase on any outcome measure, females in the luteal menstrual phase reported greater craving than males whereas females in the follicular phase reported greater stress and arousal than males and perceived the stress cues as more emotionally aversive than males. This preliminary investigation suggests that gender differences in craving versus affective responding to stress cues may, in part, be explained variation by menstrual cycle phase. Study limitations and implications of the findings for future research and treatment are briefly discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effectiveness of reactive case detection for malaria elimination in three archetypical transmission settings: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardin, Jaline; Bever, Caitlin A; Bridenbecker, Daniel; Hamainza, Busiku; Silumbe, Kafula; Miller, John M; Eisele, Thomas P; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wenger, Edward A

    2017-06-12

    reactive case detection or mass drug campaigns. Reactive case detection is recommended only for settings where transmission has recently been reduced rather than all low-transmission settings. This is demonstrated in a modelling framework with strong out-of-sample accuracy across a range of transmission settings while including methodologies for understanding the most resource-effective allocations of health workers. This approach generalizes to providing a platform for planning rational scale-up of health systems based on locally-optimized impact according to simplified stratification.

  15. Effects of chronic hypoxia on maternal vasodilation and vascular reactivity in guinea pig and ovine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Margueritte M; Zhang, Lubo

    2003-01-01

    During pregnancy, exposure to chronic hypoxia is thought to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia and fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While some studies suggest that this process may be mediated through effects of chronic hypoxia on uterine artery vasodilation and growth, these observations are likely to be species specific and may represent genetic variability in maternal adaptation to hypoxia. This review is a comparative analysis of the effects of chronic hypoxia on vascular reactivity in pregnant and nonpregnant guinea pig and sheep. Data suggest that exposure to chronic hypoxia is associated with enhanced uterine artery blood flow in the sheep, whereas, in the guinea pig, blood flow is decreased.

  16. The effect of actinide thin films on the electronic structure and reactivity of various elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouder, T.; Colmenares, C.

    1994-12-08

    This report summarizes the experimental work carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the electronic structure and reactivity of uranium thin films on Pd, Pt, Si, graphite, Cu, and Au substrates from 1990 to 1993. The U-Pd system was studied in the most detail because it was the first to be chosen right after the completion of the experimental equipment. We first studied and characterized clean U overlayers and the possible surface reactions between this metal and the substrates studied. We then subjected these systems to reactive conditions such as heating and adsorbing corrosive gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). Finally we investigated the diffusion of U metal and some of its compounds into the substrates. A new technique was developed, based on Auger Electron Spectroscopy, to follow in real time the diffusion of U overlayers into the substrate. The temperature of the sample is ramped linearly up to 900{degrees}C while following the Auger peak intensities of the two components for a given system. Diffusion rates are obtained by differentiating the measured intensity curves, then peaks result corresponding to diffusion processes with different activation energies. This technique bears a strong similarity to thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS), where the sample is heated linearly and the rate of desorption is measured as a function of temperature and heating rate.

  17. Effects of neurofeedback therapy in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Sümeyra; Berberoglu, Bercim; Canan, Sinan; Dane, Şenol

    2016-12-01

    Neurofeedback refers to a form of operant conditioning of electrical brain activity, in which desirable brain activity is rewarded and undesirable brain activity is inhibited. The research team aimed to examine the efficacy of neurofeedback therapy on electroencephalogram (EEG) for heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) parameters in a healthy young male population. Forty healthy young male subjects aged between 18 to 30 years participated in this study. Neurofeedback application of one session was made with bipolar electrodes placed on T3 and T4 (temporal 3 and 4) regions and with reference electrode placed on PF1 (prefrontal 1). Electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) were assessed during Othmer neurofeedback application of one session to regulate slow wave activity for forty minutes thorough the session. Data assessed before neurofeedback application for 5 minutes and during neurofeedback application of 30 minutes and after neurofeedback application for 5 minutes throughout the session of 40 minutes. Means for each 5 minutes, that is to say, a total 8 data points for each subjects over 40 minutes, were assessed. Galvanic skin resistance increased and heart rate decreased after neurofeedback therapy. Beta activity in EEG increased and alfa activity decreased after neurofeedback therapy. These results suggest that neurofeedback can be used to restore sympathovagal imbalances. Also, it may be accepted as a preventive therapy for psychological and neurological problems.

  18. Menstrual cycle and cue reactivity in women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kevin M; DeSantis, Stacia M; Carpenter, Matthew J; Saladin, Michael E; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2010-02-01

    Emerging research suggests potential effects of the menstrual cycle on various aspects of smoking behavior in women, but results to date have been mixed. The present study sought to explore the influence of menstrual cycle phase on reactivity to smoking in vivo and stressful imagery cues in a sample of non-treatment-seeking women smokers. Via a within-subjects design, nicotine-dependent women (N = 37) participated in a series of four cue reactivity sessions, each during a distinct biologically verified phase of the menstrual cycle (early follicular [EF], mid-follicular [MF], mid-luteal [ML], and late luteal [LL]). Subjective (Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief; QSU-B) and physiological (skin conductance and heart rate) measures of craving and reactivity were collected and compared across phases. Subjective reactive craving (QSU-B) to smoking in vivo cues varied significantly across the menstrual cycle (p = .02) and was higher in both EF and MF phases versus ML and LL phases, but this finding was not sustained when controlling for reactivity to neutral cues. Heart rate reactivity to stressful imagery cues (p = .01) and skin conductance reactivity to smoking in vivo cues (p = .05) varied significantly across the menstrual cycle upon controlling for reactivity to neutral cues, with highest reactivity during the MF phase. Menstrual cycle phase may have an effect on reactivity to smoking-related and stressful cues among women smokers. These findings contribute to an expanding literature, suggesting menstrual cycle effects on smoking behaviors in women.

  19. Effects of aquifer heterogeneity and reaction mechanism uncertainty on a reactive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eykholt, G R; Elder, C R; Benson, C H

    1999-08-12

    This paper addresses impacts of aquifer heterogeneity and reaction mechanism uncertainty on permeable reactive barrier (PRB) performance and describes modeling tools and preliminary guidelines for risk-based design of reactive barriers at heterogeneous sites. A braided stream aquifer was generated stochastically, using a fixed correlation structure and four levels of variability in the hydraulic conductivity field. A vertical, homogeneous barrier was placed in the aquifer. Based on a deterministic design, the size of the PRB for uniform conditions was considered conservative (factor of safety=3.3). Monte Carlo simulation was used to model cis 1,2-DCE reduction by iron metal with uncertainty in the reaction mechanism rate constants. These results were combined with flow and particle tracking results to predict the spatial distribution and flow-averaged concentrations of cis 1,2-DCE and vinyl chloride at the exit face of the PRB. Evaluated on a risk basis, the deterministic design method was found to be unconservative for more heterogeneous aquifers. Uncertainty in the reaction mechanism accentuated the negative effects of aquifer heterogeneity. Several compensating factors that may reduce the vulnerability of reactive barriers to aquifer heterogeneity are discussed.

  20. Cued Memory Reactivation During SWS Abolishes the Beneficial Effect of Sleep on Abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennies, Nora; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Durrant, Simon J; Cousins, James N; Lewis, Penelope A

    2017-08-01

    Extracting regularities from stimuli in our environment and generalizing these to new situations are fundamental processes in human cognition. Sleep has been shown to enhance these processes, possibly by facilitating reactivation-triggered memory reorganization. Here, we assessed whether cued reactivation during slow wave sleep (SWS) promotes the beneficial effect of sleep on abstraction of statistical regularities. We used an auditory statistical learning task, in which the benefit of sleep has been firmly established. Participants were exposed to a probabilistically determined sequence of tones and subsequently tested for recognition of novel short sequences adhering to this same statistical pattern in both immediate and delayed recall sessions. In different groups, the exposure stream was replayed during SWS in the night between the recall sessions (SWS-replay group), in wake just before sleep (presleep replay group), or not at all (control group). Surprisingly, participants who received replay in sleep performed worse in the delayed recall session than the control and the presleep replay group. They also failed to show the association between SWS and task performance that has been observed in previous studies and was present in the controls. Importantly, sleep structure and sleep quality did not differ between groups, suggesting that replay during SWS did not impair sleep but rather disrupted or interfered with sleep-dependent mechanisms that underlie the extraction of the statistical pattern. These findings raise important questions about the scope of cued memory reactivation and the mechanisms that underlie sleep-related generalization.

  1. Protective Effect of Capsicum Frutescens on Contractile Reactivity of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Roghani-Dehkordi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Considering the higher incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes mellitus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of oral one-month administration of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens on the contractile reactivity of isolated aorta in diabetic rats. Materials & Methods : For this purpose, male Wistar rats(n=32 were randomly divided into control, pepper-treated control, diabetic, and pepper-treated diabetic groups. For induction of diabetes, streptozotcin (STZ was intraperitoneally administered (60 mg/Kg. Pepper-treated groups received pepper mixed with standard pelleted food at a weight ratio of 1/15. After one month, contractile reactivity of aortic rings to KCl and noreadrenaline was determined using isolated tissue setup. Results : Serum glucose level showed a significant increase in diabetic group at 2nd and 4th weeks (P<0.001, while this increase was less marked in pepper-treated diabetic group at the 2nd week (P<0.05. In addition, the latter group showed a lower contraction to KCl (P<0.05 and noreadrenaline (P<0.05 as compared to diabetic group. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between control and pepper-treated control groups regarding contractile reactivity. Conclusion : It can be concluded that oral administration of pepper for one month could attenuate the contractile responsiveness of the vascular system and may prevent the development of hypertension in diabetic rats.

  2. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marieke G N; Jacobs van Goethem, Tessa H; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2014-12-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional categories (i.e., war and disease) presented against a category-related background picture. One day later, participants returned to the lab and received a reminder of the words of one emotional category followed by exposure to a stress task (Stress group, n=22) or a control task (Control group, n=24). Six days later, memory contextualization was tested using a word stem completion task. Half of the word stems were presented against the encoding context (i.e., congruent context) and the other half of the word stems were presented against the other context (i.e., incongruent context). The results showed that participants recalled more words in the congruent context than in the incongruent context. Interestingly, cortisol mediated the effect of stress exposure on memory contextualization. The stronger the post-reactivation cortisol response, the more memory performance relied on the contextual embedding of the words. Taken together, the current findings suggest that a moderate cortisol response after memory reactivation might serve an adaptive function in preventing generalization of emotional memories over contexts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reactive species in non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas: Generation, transport, and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-05-04

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to

  4. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor is in contrast to high-sensitive C-reactive-protein associated with coronary artery calcifications in healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association between two markers of low-grade inflammation; soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score detected by cardiac ...

  5. The effects of aging on sleep architecture in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorffner, Georg; Vitr, Martin; Anderer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents normative data on healthy sleep, as measured by polysomnography (PSG), from "supernormal" subjects across the age range from 20 to about 90 years. The data originates from the SIESTA project database established in the late 1990s. While that data has been published and used in research in many ways, the novelty of the current analysis is (a) the focus on normative data following the latest sleep staging standard (AASM 2012), and (b) the results after narrowing down the data set by excluding outliers due to disturbed sleep pattern that can occur in a sleep lab and are thus not examples of "normal" sleep. Results demonstrate interesting dependencies of sleep architecture on age, in particular a reduction in total sleep time and changes in sleep stage distributions toward lighter sleep, which differ in detail between the two genders.

  6. [Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on reactivity to stress in menopausal women with and without hot flushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Hernández, Mariano; García Sánchez, Francisco Alberto; Martínez Selva, José María; Abellán Alemán, José

    2002-10-05

    To asses if the hot flushes during menopause are associated with an abnormal cardivascular reactivity to stress. We also aimed to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on reactivity to stress in menopausal women. Experimental study including 28 healthy menopausal women with hot flushes (12 on HRT) and 20 without flushes (6 on HRT). Parameters evaluated included determination of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, percentage of decrease of peripheral pulse volume, skin conductance level and frecuency of inespecific cutaneous responses. All studies were performed prior to and after 4-6 months under HRT therapy. Menopausal women reporting hot flashes showed the highest electrodermal activity in front of stress. HRT therapy led to a decreased physiological reactivity in menopausal women, especially reactivity to stressors. Hot flushes during menopause indicate an increased level of cardiovascular reactivity to stress situations, hence a higher cardiovascular risk.

  7. Reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keat, A

    1999-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is one of the spondyloarthropathy family of clinical syndromes. The clinical features are those shared by other members of the spondyloarthritis family, though it is distinguished by a clear relationship with a precipitating infection. Susceptibility to reactive arthritis is closely linked with the class 1 HLA allele B27; it is likely that all sub-types pre-dispose to this condition. The link between HLA B27 and infection is mirrored by the development of arthritis in HLA B27-transgenic rats. In this model, arthritis does not develop in animals maintained in a germ-free environment. Infections of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and respiratory tract appear to provoke reactive arthritis and a wide range of pathogens has now been implicated. Although mechanistic parallels may exist, reactive arthritis is distinguished from Lyme disease, rheumatic fever and Whipple's disease by virtue of the distinct clinical features and the link with HLA B27. As in these conditions both antigens and DNA of several micro-organisms have been detected in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis. The role of such disseminated microbial elements in the provocation or maintenance of arthritis remains unclear. HLA B27-restricted T-cell responses to microbial antigens have been demonstrated and these may be important in disease pathogenesis. The importance of dissemination of bacteria from sites of mucosal infection and their deposition in joints has yet to be fully understood. The role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of reactive arthritis is being explored; in some circumstances, both the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of certain antibiotics appear to be valuable. The term reactive arthritis should be seen as a transitory one, reflecting a concept which may itself be on the verge of replacement, as our understanding of the condition develops. Nevertheless it appropriately describes arthritis that is associated with demonstrable

  8. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Selected Oxidative Biomarkers in Bovine Spermatozoa Subjected to Ferrous Ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvrdá, E; Tušimová, E; Kováčik, A; Paál, D; Libová, Ľ; Lukáč, N

    2016-08-01

    Quercetin (QUE) is a natural flavonol-type flavonoid with antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory properties. It is also a powerful reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger and chelating agent. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of QUE to reverse ROS-mediated alterations to the motility, viability and intracellular antioxidant profile of bovine spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were washed out of fresh bovine semen, suspended in 2.9% sodium citrate and subjected to QUE treatment (7.5, 25, 50 and 100 μmol/l) in the presence or absence of a pro-oxidant, that is ferrous ascorbate (FeAA; 150 μmol/l FeSO4 and 750 μmol/l ascorbic acid) during a 6-h in vitro culture. Spermatozoa motion characteristics were assessed using the SpermVision computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) system. Cell viability was examined with the metabolic activity (MTT) assay, ROS generation was quantified via luminometry, and the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test was applied to quantify the intracellular superoxide formation. Cell lysates were prepared at the end of the in vitro culture to investigate the intracellular activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as well as the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FeAA treatment led to a reduced sperm motility (p vitality and antioxidant characteristics (p < 0.01 with respect to the enzymatic antioxidants, p < 0.001 in relation to GSH) with a concentration range of 50-100 μmol/l QUE revealing to be the most effective. Our results suggest that QUE exhibits significant ROS-scavenging and metal-chelating properties which may prevent spermatozoa alterations caused by ROS, and preserve the functionality of male reproductive cells. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Effects of oxytocin on cortisol reactivity and conflict resolution behaviors among couples with substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Fischer, Melanie S; Nietert, Paul J; Back, Sudie E; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Snead, Alexandra; Brady, Kathleen T

    2017-12-06

    Social stress, particularly in the form of dyadic conflict, is a well-established correlate of substance use disorders (SUD). The neuropeptide oxytocin can enhance prosocial behavior and mitigate addictive behaviors. These effects may be, in part, a result of oxytocin's ability to attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. However, only one study to date has examined the effects of oxytocin on neuroendocrine reactivity or conflict resolution behavior among couples. Participants (N = 33 couples or 66 total participants) were heterosexual couples in which one or both partners endorsed substance misuse. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, repeated-measures design and an evidence-based behavioral coding system, we compared the impact of oxytocin (40 IU) vs. placebo on cortisol reactivity and conflict resolution behaviors. Among women, oxytocin attenuated cortisol response following the task. Oxytocin was also associated with increased Distress Maintaining Attributions and decreased Relationship Enhancing Attributions. Among men, oxytocin was associated with decreased Distress Maintaining Attributions, and both oxytocin and placebo yielded declines in Relationship Enhancing Attributions. The findings support emerging hypotheses that oxytocin may have differential effects in men and women, and indicate the need for future efforts to translate oxytocin's positive neurobiological effects into therapeutic behavioral changes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on platelet function in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Chen, Walter; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2013-02-01

    Hyperactivation and aggregation of platelets play a major role in thrombosis and hemostasis. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on platelet function. Light transmission aggregometry and flow cytometric analyses of platelet activation and platelet-leukocyte aggregates were determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of omega-3 (docosahexaenoic acid 520 mg and eicosapentaenoic acid 120 mg) supplementation. In total, 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) completed the study. In healthy subjects, omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced (maximum amplitude, 77.0% ± 3.2% vs. 71.6% ± 3.4%, p = 0.036; maximum slope, 86.3 ± 1.8 vs. 80.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.014) and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation (maximum slope, 42.8 ± 2.7 vs. 37.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.013; lag time, 00:21 ± 00:02 vs. 00:31 ± 00:03 s, p = 0.002). Omega-3 PUFA also reduced P-selectin expression (40.5% ± 2.9% vs. 34.4% ± 2.4%, p = 0.049) on platelets and platelet-monocyte aggregates (38.5% ± 2.6% vs. 31.4% ± 2.5%, p = 0.022) after activation with ADP 0.5 µM. There were fewer changes in platelet aggregation and activation found in subjects with CVD. Nevertheless, there was a reduction in the slope of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation (13.21 ± 6.41 vs. 4.88 ± 3.01, p = 0.009) and increased lag time for U46619 (00:16 ± 00:00 vs. 00:29 ± 00:07 s, p = 0.018) induced platelet aggregation. Thus, 4-week supplementation of 640 mg omega-3 PUFA reduced measures of platelet aggregation and activation in healthy subjects but effects were less evident in patients with existing CVD. Our findings support the recommendation that the omega-3 PUFA dose be higher in CVD than among healthy subjects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Effects of hydrodynamically rough grassed waterways on dissolved reactive phosphorus loads coming from agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiener, P; Auerswald, K

    2009-01-01

    A modified type of grassed waterway (GWW) with large hydrodynamic roughness has proven ability to reduce sediment load and surface runoff under conditions where best management practices on the delivering fields reduce sediment inputs that could otherwise damage the grass cover. It is unknown how such a GWW affects the loading of surface runoff with dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP). The effect on DRP was tested in a landscape-scale study where DRP concentrations and loads in surface runoff were measured in two watersheds in which GWWs were newly installed and increased in effectiveness over time. Both watersheds were compared with paired watersheds without GWW installation; all watersheds were continuously monitored over 5 yr (1993-1997). Additionally, DRP concentrations were measured in open field and throughfall precipitation under growing grass and crops in field experiments, and DRP concentrations in surface runoff from straw covered surfaces were determined with laboratory rainfall simulation experiments. Dissolved reactive P in throughfall for the different cover types was highly variable, and the highest concentrations (up to 2.8 mg L(-1)) occurred especially during flowering of the respective crop and after frost events. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff from straw-covered surfaces were slightly higher compared with those from bare soil. On average, there was a small difference in DRP concentrations between throughfall under growing crops and grass and in runoff from bare or straw covered soil surfaces. Hence, the introduction of a relatively small grassed area has little effect on the DRP concentration in surface runoff from the total watershed. This finding was supported by the watershed data, where watersheds with and without GWW showed similar DRP concentrations. No change in DRP concentrations occurred over the 5-yr period. Such GWWs will thus reduce the DRP load analogously to the reduction in total surface runoff.

  12. Effect of pyrolysis conditions on reactivity of clean coals produced from poor quality coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skodras, G.; Natas, P.; Basinas, P.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Ptolemais (Greece)

    2005-07-01

    A preventive fuels pre-treatment technique, based on low temperature carbonization has been tested. Clean coals were produced from two Greek poor quality coals (Ptolemais and Megalopolis) and an Australian coal sample, in a lab-scale fixed bed reactor, under helium atmosphere and ambient pressure. The effects of carbonisation temperature (200-900{sup o}C) and residence time (5-120 min) on the properties of the obtained chars were investigated. Special attention was paid to the polluting compounds (S,N,Hg and Cl) removal. To account for possible mineral matter effects, mainly on sulphur removal, tests were also performed with demineralised coal. The reactivity under combustion conditions of the chars produced was also investigated. It was observed that low temperature carbonisation could contribute to clean coal production by effectively removing the major part of the existing polluting compounds in the coals. Thus, depending on coal type, nitrogen, mercury and chlorine conversion continuously increase with temperature, while sulphur removal seems to reach a plateau above 500-600{sup o}C. Furthermore, the prolongation of carbonisation time above 20 min does not affect the elements conversion of the pollutants. Therefore carbonization at 500-600{sup o}C for about 20 min could be considered sufficient for clean coal production for poor quality coals. The reactivity of the prepared clean coals was evaluated by performing non-isothermal combustion tests in a TA Q600 thermobalance at ambient pressure and 20{sup o}C/min heating rate. At increased pyrolysis temperatures higher initial combustion temperatures were observed, due to the volatile reduction in char production stage. Mineral matter removal leads to increased char reactivity by increasing both the initial combustion temperature and the combustion rate. 13 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Effects of D-cycloserine on extinction of mesolimbic cue reactivity in alcoholism: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Falk; Kirsch, Martina; Bach, Patrick; Hoffmann, Sabine; Reinhard, Iris; Jorde, Anne; von der Goltz, Christoph; Spanagel, Rainer; Mann, Karl; Loeber, Sabine; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine

    2015-07-01

    Mesocorticolimbic reactivity to alcohol-associated cues has been shown to be associated with relapse to renewed drinking and to be decreased by cue-exposure-based extinction training (CET). Evidence from preclinical studies suggests that the extinction of conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior might be facilitated by drugs increasing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-associated memory consolidation. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of CET treatment supplemented with the partial NMDA-receptor agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) at reducing mesolimbic cue reactivity (CR), craving, and relapse risk in alcoholism. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, we recruited 76 recently detoxified abstinent alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-two (16 DCS, 16 placebo) patients showed cue-induced ventral-striatal activation measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to treatment and were thus included in the efficacy analyses. After inpatient detoxification, patients underwent nine sessions of CET spaced over 3 weeks, receiving either 50 mg DCS or placebo 1 h prior to each CET session. FMRI was conducted before treatment and 3 weeks after treatment onset. Following treatment with CET plus DCS, cue-induced brain activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum was decreased compared to treatment with CET plus placebo. Elevated posttreatment ventral striatal CR and increased craving (assessed using the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale) were associated with increased relapse risk. DCS was shown to augment the effect of CET for alcohol-dependent subjects. The interaction between craving and ventral-striatal CR on treatment outcome suggests that CET might be especially effective in patients exhibiting both high craving and elevated CR.

  14. Psychophysiological and self-reported reactivity associated with social anxiety and public speaking fear symptoms: Effects of fear versus distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Dora; Constantinou, Elena; Paraskeva-Siamata, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined standardized anxiety situations, including social anxiety and animal fear scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher during social anxiety imagery. Public speaking fear was associated with increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity associated with social anxiety could be attributed to depression levels, while the specificity associated with public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also depression and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reactive Kripke semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2013-01-01

    This text offers an extension to the traditional Kripke semantics for non-classical logics by adding the notion of reactivity. Reactive Kripke models change their accessibility relation as we progress in the evaluation process of formulas in the model. This feature makes the reactive Kripke semantics strictly stronger and more applicable than the traditional one. Here we investigate the properties and axiomatisations of this new and most effective semantics, and we offer a wide landscape of applications of the idea of reactivity. Applied topics include reactive automata, reactive grammars, rea

  16. Systematic review: the effect of preventive lamivudine on hepatitis B reactivation during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomba, Rohit; Rowley, Ayana; Wesley, Robert; Liang, T Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H; Pucino, Frank; Csako, Gyorgy

    2008-04-01

    Lamivudine is increasingly being used to prevent hepatitis B reactivation in patients with cancer who test positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and are undergoing chemotherapy. To determine whether preventive lamivudine reduces chemotherapy-induced hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer who test positive for HBsAg. MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, TOXNET, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched in all languages until June 2007. Clinical trials and cohort studies that reported the efficacy of preventive lamivudine versus control on HBV reactivation in patients who tested positive for HBsAg and were receiving chemotherapy were included. Additional requirements included minimum sample size (>5 participants per treatment group) and reported HBV-related morbidity and mortality data. Two investigators independently did literature searches and data extraction, and 2 other investigators independently confirmed study eligibility and data retrieval. Fourteen studies (2 randomized, controlled trials; 8 prospective cohort studies; and 4 retrospective cohort studies) met the predefined criteria for analysis. There were 275 patients in the preventive lamivudine group and 475 control participants for the primary end point of HBV reactivation. With preventive lamivudine, the relative risk for both HBV reactivation and HBV-related hepatitis ranged from 0.00 to 0.21. None of the patients in the preventive lamivudine group developed HBV-related hepatic failure (0 of 108 patients vs. 21 of 162 patients), and only 4 deaths were attributable to HBV (4 of 208 patients vs. 27 of 394 patients) in the preventive lamivudine group. Lamivudine was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were noted. The studies included in the meta-analysis did not consistently report all of the outcomes of interest. Sample sizes were small and only 2 studies had a randomized, controlled design. Preventive therapy with

  17. Effectiveness of dietary supplements in spinal cord injury subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, Angela; Cuitiño, Pilar; Salas, Inés

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) consume more dietary supplements than the general population. However, there is limited information regarding the clinical effectiveness of dietary supplements in SCI population. To systematically review the effectiveness of dietary supplements for the prevention or treatment of health-related conditions associated with SCI. Randomized or non-randomized controlled clinical trials were selected, comparing the effect of any dose and form of a dietary supplement (defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act), with either no treatment, placebo, or other medication. Data Sources included the Cochrane Database, DARE, LILACS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, OTSeeker, PEDro, PsycINFO, SpeechBITE, ScienceDirect, Scopus, clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar, and OpenGrey. Two reviewers independently classified articles from January 1970 through October 2015, and 18 articles were selected. Due to the heterogeneity of outcome measures across studies, a meta-analysis was not conducted. However, high-quality evidence showed that cranberry supplementation is not effective for prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in SCI. Moderate-quality evidence supported a beneficial effect of vitamin D, alpha-lipoic acid, and omega-3 supplementation, although replication of results is needed. There were conflicting results for the effect of creatine supplementation on improvement of motor outcomes. Low-quality evidence does not permit assessment of the effectiveness of melatonin, whey protein, vitamin C, and Chinese herb in SCI. There is sufficient data suggesting that cranberry supplementation is ineffective for prevention of UTIs in individuals with SCI. There is insufficient data to support or refute the use of any other dietary supplement in individuals with SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Subject of research on effects of tourism on population development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devedžić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tourism in the context of economic and demographic recovery of certain regions has created an image of tourism as a development catalyst. Thus strategies of revitalization in depopulated and passive regions often consider tourism as an activity that can speed up the development and successfully valorize existing natural, cultural and demographic potentials. This "key" is used mainly in the absence of other development resources since tourism valorizes issues that other industries ignore (landscape features, ethnical heritage, authentic folk architecture, etc. In addition it is more difficult to recommend the right forms of tourism to be developed in depopulated regions, as well as to estimate the resulting economic and demographic effects. To this end, there are success stories, but there is also evidence of non-rational initiatives and projects that were never completed. This paper attempts to discover the most logical links between population development and tourism development, based on some important characteristics of population development. The characteristics used are overall population increase, population migrations, population structures and changes in households. They were selected because they best reflect not only direct, but also indirect multiplicative effects of tourism. Along with the theoretical and methodological background, the research is also supported by selected examples, interviews, and demographic analyzes. The effects are not universal. They depend on the region, the kind of tourism and the degree of its development, the demographic situation as it is, and the research approach, since global and local effects need not necessarily be unidirectional. Population increase initiated by tourism development is achieved due to the migration component, but the effects are most obvious at the level of tourist regions and their tourist centers. One can also note counter processes in some places that have tourist

  19. Reducing Schoolchildren With Reactive Aggression Through Child, Parent, and Conjoint Parent-Child Group Interventions: A Longitudinal Outcome Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai Chu

    2017-10-10

    This study was the first to evaluate the effectiveness of three different group interventions to reduce children's reactive aggression based on the social information processing (SIP) model. In the first stage of screening, 3,734 children of Grades 4-6 completed the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) to assess their reactive and proactive aggression. Respondents with a total score of z ≥ 1 on the RPQ were shortlisted for the second stage of screening by qualitative interview. Interviews with 475 children were conducted to select those who showed reactive aggression featuring a hostile attributional bias. Finally, 126 children (97 males and 29 females) aged 8 to 14 (M = 9.71, SD = 1.23) were selected and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: a child group, a parent group, and a parent-child group. A significant Time × Intervention effect was found for general and reactive aggression. The parent-child group and child group showed a significant drop in general aggression and reactive aggression from posttest to 6-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline scores, sex, and age. However, the parent group showed no treatment effect: reactive aggression scores were significantly higher than those in the child group at 6-month follow-up. This study has provided strong evidence that children with reactive aggression need direct and specific treatment to reconstruct the steps of the SIP involving the selection and interpretation of cues. The intervention could help to prevent severe violent crimes at the later stage of a reactive aggressor. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  20. The Effect of Acute Vibration Exercise on Short-Distance Sprinting and Reactive Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Vibration exercise (VbX) has been a popular modality to enhancing physical performance, where various training methods and techniques have been employed to improve immediate and long-term sprint performance. However, the use of acute side-alternating VbX on sprint and agility performance remains unclear. Eight female athletes preformed side-alternating vibration exercise (VbX) and control (no VbX) in a cross over randomised design that was conducted one week apart. After performing a warm-up, the athletes undertook maximal 5m sprints and maximal reactive agility sprints (RAT), this was followed by side-alternating VbX (26 Hz, 6mm) or control (no VbX). Immediately following the intervention, post-sprint tests and RAT were performed. There was a significant treatment effect but there was no time effect (pre vs. post) or interaction effect for sprint and RAT; however, side-alternating VbX did not compromise sprint and agility performance. Key Points Acute VbX could be beneficial for the acceleration phase (1.5m) of a short-distance sprint. Acute VbX does not have positive influence on short-distance (3m & 5m) sprint performance. Acute VbX does not enhance reactive agility performance. PMID:24149157

  1. Effect of Seven Newly Synthesized and Currently Available Oxime Cholinesterase Reactivators on Cyclosarin-Intoxicated Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Kassa, Jiri; Musilek, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav; Novotny, Ladislav; Kuca, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Seven new oxime-based acetylcholinesterase reactivators were compared with three currently available ones (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) for their ability to lessen cholinesterase inhibition in blood and brain of cyclosarin-treated rats. Oximes were given at doses of 5% their LD50 along with 21 mg/kg atropine five min before the LD50 of cyclosarin (120 ug/kg) was administered. Blood and brain samples were collected 30 minutes later. The greatest difference between acetylcholinesterase inhibition in blood of cyclosarin-treated rats was found after administration of HI-6 (40%), compared to 22% for trimedoxime and 6% for obidoxime. Only two of the seven newly synthesized oximes had any effect (K203 at 7%, K156 at 5%). Effective oximes against cyclosarin-inhibited plasma butyrylcholinesterase were HI-6 (42%), trimedoxime (11%), and K156 (4%). The oximes were less effective in brain than in blood, with reactivation values for HI-6 30% against acetylcholinesterase and 10% against butyrylcholinesterase. Values for newly synthesized oximes were less than 10% for K206, K269 and K203. PMID:19742125

  2. Reducing the Matrix Effect in Organic Cluster SIMS Using Dynamic Reactive Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hua; Wucher, Andreas; Winograd, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic reactive ionization (DRI) utilizes a reactive molecule, HCl, which is doped into an Ar cluster projectile and activated to produce protons at the bombardment site on the cold sample surface with the presence of water. The methodology has been shown to enhance the ionization of protonated molecular ions and to reduce salt suppression in complex biomatrices. In this study, we further examine the possibility of obtaining improved quantitation with DRI during depth profiling of thin films. Using a trehalose film as a model system, we are able to define optimal DRI conditions for depth profiling. Next, the strategy is applied to a multilayer system consisting of the polymer antioxidants Irganox 1098 and 1010. These binary mixtures have demonstrated large matrix effects, making quantitative SIMS measurement not feasible. Systematic comparisons of depth profiling of this multilayer film between directly using GCIB, and under DRI conditions, show that the latter enhances protonated ions for both components by 4- to ~15-fold, resulting in uniform depth profiling in positive ion mode and almost no matrix effect in negative ion mode. The methodology offers a new strategy to tackle the matrix effect and should lead to improved quantitative measurement using SIMS. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Effect of nimodipine on cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, G.; Bergholdt, B.; Sunde, N.; Voldby, B. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept.of Neurosurgery, Aarhus (Denmark); Dahl, B.; Cold, G. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Neuroanesthesia, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on autoregulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF), CO{sub 2} reactivity and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO{sub 2}) in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Eight patients with severe SAH were studied with repeated CBF and CMRO{sub 2} measurements on the first day of the bleeding and after at least 12 h of treatment of nimodipine. An initial resting study, an autoregulation study and a hyperventilation study was performed. CBF was measured using the 133-Xenon intravenous method. CMRO{sub 2} was calculated as AVDO{sub 2}xCBF. Nimodipine did not significantly change CBF and CMRO{sub 2} in the initial resting study. After induced arterial hypotension intact autoregulation was found before as well as after treatment with nimodipine. Beneficial effects of nimodipine were found on CO{sub 2} reactivity and CMRO{sub 2} during hypotension that may be explained as a positive effect on cerebral ischaemia. (au) 26 refs.

  4. T Cell Reactivity against Mycolyl Transferase Antigen 85 of M. tuberculosis in HIV-TB Coinfected Subjects and in AIDS Patients Suffering from Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycolyl transferase antigen 85 complex is a major secreted protein family from mycobacterial culture filtrate, demonstrating powerful T cell stimulatory properties in most HIV-negative, tuberculin-positive volunteers with latent M.tuberculosis infection and only weak responses in HIV-negative tuberculosis patients. Here, we have analyzed T cell reactivity against PPD and Ag85 in HIV-infected individuals, without or with clinical symptoms of tuberculosis, and in AIDS patients with disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Whereas responses to PPD were not significantly different in HIV-negative and HIV-positive tuberculin-positive volunteers, responses to Ag85 were significantly decreased in the HIV-positive (CDC-A and CDC-B group. Tuberculosis patients demonstrated low T cell reactivity against Ag85, irrespective of HIV infection, and finally AIDS patients suffering from NTM infections were completely nonreactive to Ag85. A one-year follow-up of twelve HIV-positive tuberculin-positive individuals indicated a decreased reactivity against Ag85 in patients developing clinical tuberculosis, highlighting the protective potential of this antigen.

  5. Effect Size Measure and Analysis of Single Subject Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    One of the vexing problems in the analysis of SSD is in the assessment of the effect of intervention. Serial dependence notwithstanding, the linear model approach that has been advanced involves, in general, the fitting of regression lines (or curves) to the set of observations within each phase of the design and comparing the parameters of these…

  6. Page 1 Subject Index Large amplitude Effects of transverse shear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effects of transverse shear and rotatory inertia on large amplitude vibration of composite plates and shells 367. Loss of coolant accident. Safety of nuclear power plants 263. Markov chains. Computer-aided reliability analysis of fault- tolerant systems 209. Metal matrix composites. Recent research and development, future ...

  7. Effects of gender and cigarette smoking on reactivity to psychological and pharmacological stress provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Sudie E; Waldrop, Angela E; Saladin, Michael E; Yeatts, Sharon D; Simpson, Annie; McRae, Aimee L; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P; Contini Sisson, Regana; Spratt, Eve G; Allen, Julia; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Brady, Kathleen T

    2008-06-01

    We examined the influence of gender and smoking status on reactivity in two human laboratory stress paradigms. Participants were 46 (21 men, 25 women) healthy individuals who completed the Trier Social Stress Task (i.e., performed speech and math calculations in front of an audience) and a pharmacological stress provocation (i.e., administration of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)) after an overnight hospital stay. Approximately half (53%) of the participants were smokers. Cortisol, adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH), physiologic measures (heart rate, blood pressure), and subjective stress were assessed at baseline and at several time points post-task. Men demonstrated higher baseline ACTH and blood pressure as compared to women; however, ACTH and blood pressure responses were more pronounced in women. Women smokers evidenced a more blunted cortisol response as compared to non-smoking women, whereas smoking status did not affect the cortisol response in men. Finally, there was a more robust cardiovascular and subjective response to the Trier as compared to the CRH. Although preliminary, the findings suggest that women may be more sensitive than men to the impact of cigarette smoking on cortisol response. In addition, there is some evidence for a more robust neuroendocrine and physiologic response to acute laboratory stress in women as compared to men.

  8. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren; Jeppesen, Per B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2...... diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize...... starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18% (P =.013). The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased...

  9. Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Søren; Jeppesen, Per B; Holst, Jens J; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2004-01-01

    Stevioside is present in the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB). Extracts of SrB have been used for the treatment of diabetes in, for example, Brazil, although a positive effect on glucose metabolism has not been unequivocally demonstrated. We studied the acute effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic patients. We hypothesize that supplementation with stevioside to a test meal causes a reduction in postprandial blood glucose. Twelve type 2 diabetic patients were included in an acute, paired cross-over study. A standard test meal was supplemented with either 1 g of stevioside or 1 g of maize starch (control). Blood samples were drawn at 30 minutes before and for 240 minutes after ingestion of the test meal. Compared to control, stevioside reduced the incremental area under the glucose response curve by 18% (P =.013). The insulinogenic index (AUC(i,insulin)/AUC(i,glucose)) was increased by approximately 40% by stevioside compared to control (P diabetic patients, indicating beneficial effects on the glucose metabolism. Stevioside may be advantageous in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Protective effect of Castanea sativa and Quercus robur leaf extracts against oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Isabel F; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José L F C; Costa, P C; Bahia, M F

    2008-05-29

    Topical natural antioxidants are a useful strategy for the prevention of photoaging and oxidative stress mediated skin diseases. In view of this underlying principle, the screening of natural plant extracts with scavenging activity for pro-oxidant reactive species is a primary requirement for the development of new topical antioxidant formulations. In the present study, an ethanol:water (7:3) extract from Castanea sativa leaves and a ethanol:water (2:3) extract from Quercus robur leaves were evaluated for their putative in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) namely superoxide radical (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()), peroxyl radical (ROO()), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) as well as on reactive nitrogen species (RNS) namely nitric oxide (()NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The extracts presented a high potency to scavenge the tested reactive species, all the IC(50)s being found at the microg/mL level. IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for the ROS O(2)(-),HO(),H(2)O(2) and (1)O(2) were 13.6+/-1.8; 216+/-4; 410+/-8; 12.3+/-0.7 microug/mL, respectively, for C. sativa, and 11.0+/-0.5; 285+/-22; 251+/-32; 7.90+/-0.56 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The ORAC values obtained for ROO() were 1.24+/-0.13 for C. sativa and 1.09+/-0.06 for Q. robur. The IC(50)s (mean+/-SE) for ()NO and ONOO(-) were 3.10+/-0.14 and 1.49+/-0.10 microg/mL, respectively, for C. sativa and 3.13+/-0.11 and 0.95+/-0.02 microg/mL, respectively, for Q. robur. The content of total phenolics for C. sativa and Q. robur were 284+/-9 and 346+/-4 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of lyophilized extract respectively. The observed effects might be of relevance considering the putative interest of these extracts as topical antioxidants.

  11. The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Clifford, Caroline E.; Van Essendelft, Dirk T. [The EMS Energy Institute, C211 Coal Utilization Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Narayanan, Deepa L. [Puget Sound Energy, 10885 NE 4th PSE-09S, Bellevue, WA 98004 (United States); Jain, Puja; Lueking, Angela D. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 120 Hosler, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sakti, Apurba [School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The effect of a pretreatment using reactive ball milling and calcination on the graphitizability of an anthracite coal is explored. A thermal anneal of Buck Mountain anthracite at 1400 C in argon increased the L{sub c} crystallite dimension (from 12 to 20 A) and led to an increase in the oxidation temperature of the product. Ball milling of the coal reduced particle size with a nominal effect on carbon order and the degree of graphitization after the 1400 C thermal anneal (L{sub c} from 18 to 29 A). Ball milling in cyclohexene led to a substantial increase in the graphitizability at 1400 C (L{sub c} from 12 to 50 A). The enhanced reactivity was due to both carbon structure and introduced metal. The products of the mechano-chemical pretreatment and thermal anneal consisted of nanographene ribbons and multi-walled nanopolyhedral particles. It oxidized at moderate temperatures and had a high (74.3%) degree of graphitization based on X-ray diffraction analysis; the derived material has potential as filler for production of graphite. (author)

  12. Effect of pH on pulmonary vascular tone, reactivity, and arachidonate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, I S; Gurtner, G H; Terry, P B; Tohidi, W; Yang, J N; Adkinson, N F; Michael, J R

    1989-07-01

    We studied the effects of perfusate pH on pulmonary vascular tone, reactivity, and thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis in isolated buffer-perfused rabbit lungs. Extracellular acidosis did not affect base-line vascular tone, but alkalosis had a biphasic effect. Increasing the perfusate pH from 7.40 to 7.65 caused vasodilation, whereas raising pH to 7.70-8.10 caused vasoconstriction. Removing calcium (Ca2+) from the perfusate completely prevented the vasoconstriction caused by alkalosis. Perfusate pH strikingly affected pulmonary vascular reactivity. Acidosis inhibited the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxane and potassium chloride (KCl) but did not affect the response to angiotensin II. Alkalosis, in contrast, augmented the vasoconstriction caused by thromboxane and angiotensin II but reduced the vasoconstriction caused by KCl. Changes in pH also altered thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis after the infusion of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) or the endogenous release of AA by the lipid peroxide tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

  13. Effect of static porosity fluctuations on reactive transport in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Ivan

    2018-02-01

    Reaction-diffusive transport phenomena in porous media are ubiquitous in engineering applications, biological and geochemical systems. The porosity field is usually random in space, but most models consider the porosity field as a well-defined deterministic function of space and time and ignore the porosity fluctuations. They use a reaction-diffusion equation written in terms of an average porosity and average concentration fields. In this contribution, we treat explicitly the effect of spatial porosity fluctuations on the dynamics of a concentration field for the case of a one-dimensional reaction-transport system with nonlinear kinetics. Three basic assumptions are considered. (i) The porosity fluctuations are assumed to have Gaussian properties and an arbitrary variance; (ii) we assume that the noise correlation length is small compared to the relevant macroscopic length scale; (iii) and we assume that the kinetics of the reactive term in the equations for the fluctuations is a self-consistently determined constant. Elimination of the fluctuating part of the concentration field from the dynamics leads to a renormalized equation involving the average concentration field. It is shown that the noise leads to a renormalized (generally smaller) diffusion coefficient and renormalized kinetics. Within the framework of the approximations used, numerical simulations are in agreement with our theory. We show that the porosity fluctuations may have a significant effect on the transport of a reactive species, even in the case of a homogeneous average porosity.

  14. Effects of a lifestyle program on vascular reactivity in macro- and microcirculation in severely obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Walther, Guillaume; Perez-Martin, Antonia; Mercier, Charles S; Gayrard, Sandrine; Vicente-Salar, Nestor; Sempere-Ortells, José Miguel; Martinez-Peinado, Pascual; Roche, Enrique; Vinet, Agnès

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively assess the macro- and microcirculation of severely obese adolescents (SOA) and normal-weight counterparts and to determine the longitudinal effects of weight loss on vascular function in SOA. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Seventeen SOA (body mass index z-score = 4.22 ± 0.73) and 19 puberty-matched normal-weight counterparts (body mass index z-score = -0.02 ± 1.04) were included. The SOA participated in a 4 month weight loss program. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and response to sublingual nitrate (nitrate-mediated dilation [NMD]) were assessed by high-resolution ultrasound. Microvascular reactivity was evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry in response to NMD, iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, and local hyperthermia. Plasma insulin, leptin, resistin, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, and tissue plasminogen activator were measured. At baseline, SOA had similar flow-mediated dilation and impaired NMD in the brachial artery compared to normal-weight adolescents. Similarly, peak responses to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside iontophoresis and to local hyperthermia were unaltered, whereas cutaneous blood flow after NMD was lower in the forearm microcirculation of SOA. All plasma measurements were significantly higher in SOA. After the 4-month program, SOA presented a weight reduction of 7.4 ± 3.1%, but neither brachial artery nor microvascular reactivity variables were improved. Significant decreases were detected in plasma leptin, myeloperoxidase, and tissue plasminogen activator. Macro- and microvascular endothelial function are preserved in adolescents with severe obesity. Conversely, weight loss does not improve their impaired smooth muscle response to exogenous organic nitrate in both vascular beds, despite reducing plasma markers adversely related to vascular homeostasis.

  15. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  16. Humic acid effect on catalase activity and the generation of reactive oxygen species in corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Flávio Couto; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza, Sonia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) have positive effects on plant physiology, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. The induction of root growth and emission of lateral roots (LRs) promoted by exogenous auxin is a natural phenomenon. Exogenous auxins are also associated with HA. Gas nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger produced endogenously in plants. It is associated with metabolic events dependent on auxin. With the application of auxin, NO production is significantly increased, resulting in positive effects on plant physiology. Thus it is possible to evaluate the beneficial effects of the application of HA as an effect of auxin. To investigate the effects of HA the parameters of root growth, Zea mays was studied by evaluating the application of 3 mM C L⁻¹ of HA extracted from Oxisol and 100 µM SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and the NO donor, subject to two N-NO₃⁻, high dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻) and low dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻). Treatments with HA and NO were positively increased, regardless of the N-NO₃⁻ taken, as assessed by fresh weight and dry root, issue of LRs. The effects were more pronounced in the treatment with a lower dose of N-NO₃⁻. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo and catalase activity were evaluated; these tests were associated with root growth. Under application of the bioactive substances tested, detection of ROS and catalase activity increased, especially in treatments with lower doses of N-NO₃⁻. The results of this experiment indicate that the effects of HA are dependent on ROS generation, which act as a messenger that induces root growth and the emission of LRs.

  17. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Time of day - effects on motor coordination and reactive strength in elite athletes and untrained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cagno, Alessandra; Battaglia, Claudia; Giombini, Arrigo; Piazza, Marina; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    the issue of time-of-day effects on performance is crucial when considering the goal of reaching peak results in sport disciplines. The present study was designed to examine time-of-day effects in adolescents on motor coordination, assessed with Hirtz's battery and neuromuscular components of strength, evaluated with reactive strength tests. forty-two elite female gymnasts, aged 13.3 ± 0.5 years (Mean ± SD), were recruited for the study. Fifty healthy female students (aged 12.8 ± 1.7 years) served as the control group. All participants underwent the testing sessions over two days at two different times of day in a randomized order. Oral temperature was measured at the two times of the day and a significant diurnal variation (p time of day, but significant differences were observed for reactive strength as assessed with the vertical jump tests (p time (F1.90 = 17.322 p time (F1.90 = 8.372; p time effect. The time-since-awakening influenced coordination performances in complex tasks more than reaction strength tests in simple tasks. The main outcome of the study was that we did not observe time-of-day effects on coordination skills in elite gymnasts and in untrained adolescents. The time of day in which athletes usually trained these skills could influence these results. Key pointsThe results obtained in this study suggested that the best time to perform a particular task depends specifically on the nature of the task, the precise size of the cognitive load and the level of practice of the participants.In the field of practice, it is incumbent for coaches to organise sports selection based on reactive strength, using the morning hours for untrained adolescents, when alertness and the benefits of sleeping could improve performance. Evening hours, conversely, should be used for elite gymnasts who specifically train at that time (specific "temporal training effect").These study results cannot give indications about the best time of the day to organize selection tests

  19. The Comparison of Ginkgo biloba and Cinnarizine effectiveness in tinnitus intensity of patients with subjective tinnitus

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Khazraei; Nasim khodami; Soroush Amani; Mina Shahtoosi; Alireza Khodami

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Subjective Tinnitus is one of the common problems in the world whose prevalence is estimated to be 7-20 percent in the community. In the present study, effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba with that of cinnarizine on subjective tinnitus were compared and assessed in order to determine the effective dose of Ginko on .patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study conducted on 61 patients with subjective tinnitus who had been referred or had come to Shahrekord ENT c...

  20. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples—the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)—to investigate the question of the “amplification” of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results—that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus—for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context—namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the

  1. Nonlocal Intuition: Replication and Paired-subjects Enhancement Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeed; Mirzaei, Maryam; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a study of repeat entrepreneurs in Tehran, Iran, in which nonlocal intuition was investigated in a replication and extension of experiment using measures of heart rate variability (HRV). Nonlocal intuition is the perception of information about a distant or future event by the body's psychophysiological systems, which is not based on reason or memories of prior experience. This study follows up on the McCraty, Radin, and Bradley studies, which found evidence of nonlocal intuition. We used Radin's experimental protocol, with the addition of HRV measures as in the McCraty studies involving computer administration of a random sequence of calm and emotional pictures as the stimulus, and conducted two experiments on mutually exclusive samples-the first on a group of single participants (N=15) and the second on a group of co-participant pairs (N=30)-to investigate the question of the "amplification" of intuition effects by social connection. Each experiment was conducted over 45 trials while heart rate rhythm activity was recorded continuously. Results, using random permutation analysis, a statistically conservative procedure, show significant pre-stimulus results-that is, for the period before the computer had randomly selected the picture stimulus-for both experiments. Moreover, while significant separation between the emotional and calm HRV curves was observed in the single-participant experiment, an even larger separation was apparent for the experiment on co-participant pairs; the difference between the two groups was also significant. Overall, the results of the single-participant experiment confirm previous finding: that electrophysiological measures, especially changes in the heart rhythm, can detect intuitive foreknowledge. This result is notable because it constitutes cross-cultural corroboration in a non-Western context-namely, Iran. In addition, the results for co-participant pairs offer new evidence on the amplification of

  2. Effects of volatiles on melt production and reactive flow in the mantle

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Magmatism in the Earth interior has a significant impact on its dynamic, thermal and compositional evolution. Experimental studies of petrology of mantle melting find that small concentrations of water and carbon dioxide have a significant effect on the solidus temperature and distribution of melting in the upper mantle. However, it has remained unclear what effect small fractions of deep, volatile-rich melts have on melting and melt transport in the shallow asthenosphere. We present a method to simulate the thermochemical evolution of the upper mantle in the presence of volatiles. The method is based on a novel, thermodynamically consistent framework for reactive, disequilibrium, multi-component melting/crystallisation. This is coupled with a system of equations representing conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for a partially molten grain aggregate. Application of this method to upwelling-column models demonstrates that it captures leading-order features of hydrated and carbonated peridotite melting. ...

  3. Scaling of Anomalous Hall Effects in Facing-Target Reactively Sputtered Fe4N Films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2015-05-13

    Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the reactively sputtered epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films is investigated systematically. The Hall resistivity is positive in the entire temperature range. The magnetization, carrier density and grain boundaries scattering have a major impact on the AHE scaling law. The scaling exponent γ in the conventional scaling of is larger than 2 in both the epitaxial and polycrystalline γ′-Fe4N films. Although γ>2 has been found in heterogeneous systems due to the effects of the surface and interface scattering on AHE, γ>2 is not expected in homogenous epitaxial systems. We demonstrated that γ>2 results from residual resistivity (ρxx0) in γ′-Fe4N films. Furthermore, the side-jump and intrinsic mechanisms are dominant in both epitaxial and polycrystalline samples according to the proper scaling relation.

  4. Effects of Reactive Nitrogen Scavengers on NK-Cell-Mediated Killing of K562 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Zeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the effects of reactive nitrogen metabolites (RNMS on natural-killer- (NK- cell-mediated killing of K562 cells and the influence of RNM scavengers, such as tiopronin (TIP, glutamylcysteinylglycine (GSH, and histamine dihydrochloride (DHT, on reversing the suppressing effect of RNM. We administered exogenous and endogenous RNM in the NK + K562 culture system and then added RNM scavengers. The concentrations of RNM, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and NK-cell cytotoxicity (NCC and the percentage of living NK cells were then examined. We found that both exogenous and endogenous RNM caused the KIR to decrease (<0.01; however, RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH rescued this phenomenon dose dependently. In conclusion, our data suggests that RNM scavengers such as TIP and GSH enhance the antineoplasmic activity of NK cells.

  5. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W Philip T; Caterson, Ian D; Coutinho, Walmir

    2010-01-01

    The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established.......The long-term effects of sibutramine treatment on the rates of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death among subjects at high cardiovascular risk have not been established....

  6. 47 CFR 76.905 - Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for identification of cable systems... Regulation § 76.905 Standards for identification of cable systems subject to effective competition. (a) Only the rates of cable systems that are not subject to effective competition may be regulated. (b) A cable...

  7. Effect of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on radiata pine char structure and apparent gasification reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Cetin; R. Gupta; B. Moghtaderi [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Discipline of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The knowledge of biomass char gasification kinetics has considerable importance in the design of advanced biomass gasifiers, some of which operate at high pressure. The char gasification kinetics themselves are influenced by char structure. In this study, the effects of pyrolysis pressure and heating rate on the char structure were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, digital cinematography, and surface area analysis. Char samples were prepared at pressures between 1 and 20 bar, temperatures ranging from 800 to 1000{degree}C, and heating rates between 20 and 500{degree}C/s. Our results indicate that pyrolysis conditions have a notable impact on the biomass char morphology. Pyrolysis pressure, in particular, was found to influence the size and the shape of char particles while high heating rates led to plastic deformation of particles (i.e. melting) resulting in smooth surfaces and large cavities. The global gasification reactivities of char samples were also determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) technique. Char reactivities were found to increase with increasing pyrolysis heating rates and decreasing pyrolysis pressure. 22 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Probabilistic Approach to Optimizing Active and Reactive Power Flow in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Cheol Kang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel probabilistic optimization algorithm for simultaneous active and reactive power dispatch in power systems with significant wind power integration. Two types of load and wind-speed uncertainties have been assumed that follow normal and Weibull distributions, respectively. A PV bus model for wind turbines and the wake effect for correlated wind speed are used to achieve accurate AC power flow analysis. The power dispatch algorithm for a wind-power integrated system is modeled as a probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF problem, which is operated through fixed power factor control to supply reactive power. The proposed P-OPF framework also considers emission information, which clearly reflects the impact of the energy source on the environment. The P-OPF was tested on a modified IEEE 118-bus system with two wind farms. The results show that the proposed technique provides better system operation performance evaluation, which is helpful in making decisions about power system optimal dispatch under conditions of uncertainty.

  9. Effect of magnesium on vascular reactivity in NOS inhibition-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basralı, Filiz; Nasırcılar Ülker, Seher; Koçer, Günnur; Ülker Karadamar, Pınar; Özyurt, Dilek; Cengiz, Melike; Şentürk, Ümit Kemal

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of magnesium on the vascular reactivity of conduit and resistance arteries in a nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model. The aorta and third-order branches of the mesenteric artery were dissected from normotensive control and hypertensive rats, and their constriction and dilation responses in physiological saline solution containing normal (1.2 mM) or high (4.8 mM) magnesium concentrations were examined. The responses of the vessels were evaluated using potassium chloride (KCl) and phenylephrine (Phe), acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside. The Phe-induced constriction response of the aortic rings increased, whereas the ACh-induced dilation response decreased, in the hypertensive group compared to controls, in the presence of a normal magnesium concentration. High magnesium did not alter these responses in either group. Both the KCl- and Phe-induced constriction responses of the mesenteric arteries increased, and the ACh-induced dilation response decreased in the hypertensive group compared to controls, in the presence of a normal magnesium concentration. High magnesium significantly decreased the KCl and Phe-induced constriction and increased the ACh-induced dilation response of the mesenteric arteries in the hypertensive group, while it did not alter these responses in controls. This study suggests that high magnesium improves vascular reactivity of resistance-, but not conduit-type arteries in the nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension model.

  10. Effects of compositional changes on reactivity continuum and decomposition kinetics of lake dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostovaya, Alina; Koehler, Birgit; Guillemette, François; Brunberg, Anna-Kristina; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2016-07-01

    To address the link between the composition and decomposition of freshwater dissolved organic matter (DOM), we manipulated the DOM from three boreal lakes using preincubations with UV light to cleave large aromatic molecules and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to remove colored phenolic compounds. Subsequently, we monitored the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss over 4 months of microbial degradation in the dark to assess how compositional changes in DOM affected different aspects of the reactivity continuum, including the distribution of the apparent decay coefficients. We observed profound effects on decomposition kinetics, with pronounced shifts in the relative share of rapidly and more slowly decomposing fractions of the DOM. In the UV-exposed treatment initial apparent decay coefficient k0 was almost threefold higher than in the control. Significantly higher relative DOC loss in the UV-exposed treatment was sustained for 2 months of incubation, after which decay coefficients converged with those in the control. The PVP removed compounds with absorbance and fluorescence characteristics representative of aromatic compounds, which led to slower decomposition, compared to that in the control. Our results demonstrate the reactivity continuum underlying the decomposition of DOM in freshwaters and highlight the importance of intrinsic properties of DOM in determining its decomposition kinetics.

  11. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Helena; Nielsen, Lars Toft; Sehr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence...... of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil......™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil...

  12. Effect of caffeine on reactive agility time when fresh and fatigued.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvnjak-Zaknich, Daniel M; Dawson, Brian T; Wallman, Karen E; Henry, Greg

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute caffeine ingestion on agility performance and decision-making accuracy after simulated team-sport exercise. Using a randomized, double-blinded, counterbalanced design, 10 moderately trained male team-sport athletes ingested either caffeine (6 mg·kg(-1)) or placebo (dextrose) 60 min before completing an 80-min (4 × 20 min) simulated team-game, intermittent running protocol. Interspersed between each exercise quarter was a reactive agility test (RAT) consisting of five trials where measures of total time (TT), reactive agility (RA) time, decision time (DT), movement time (MT), and decision-making accuracy were obtained. Although there were no significant differences between trials for TT (P = 0.54), RA time (P = 0.84), MT (P = 0.89), or DT (P = 0.91), caffeine ingestion resulted in consistently faster TT (2.3%), RA time (3.9%), MT (2.7%), and DT (9.3%) scores compared with placebo (significant main effect for condition for RA time, TT, DT, and MT; P benefit" and large effect size (ES) for RA (quarter 3) and "likely" to "very likely benefits" and moderate to large ES for TT (precircuit and quarters 1, 2, and 4) and RA time (precircuit and quarters 1, 2 and 4). A "likely benefit" and moderate ES was found for MT (quarters 1 and 3), but the effect of caffeine on DT was largely "unclear," with small ES and only a "likely" chance of benefit (quarters 2 and 3). Improved decision-making accuracy (3.8%) after caffeine ingestion was supported by a "likely benefit" (quarter 1) and large ES (quarters 1 and 4). Caffeine ingestion may be beneficial to RA performance when athletes are fresh and fatigued.

  13. The Interactive Effects of Stressful Family Life Events and Cortisol Reactivity on Adolescent Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeger, Christine M; Cook, Emily C; Connell, Christian M

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the associations between stressful family life events and adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, and the interactive effects of family life events and cortisol reactivity on problem behaviors. In a sample of 100 mothers and their adolescents (M age = 15.09; SD age = .98; 68 % girls), adolescent cortisol reactivity was measured in response to a mother-adolescent conflict interaction task designed to elicit a stress response. Mothers reported on measures of family life events and adolescent problem behaviors. Results indicated that a heightened adolescent cortisol response moderated the relations between stressful family life events and both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Results support context-dependent theoretical models, suggesting that for adolescents with higher cortisol reactivity (compared to those with lower cortisol reactivity), higher levels of stressful family life events were associated with greater problem behaviors, whereas lower levels of stressful family life events were related to fewer problem behaviors.

  14. Comparison of Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein as Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Coronary Heart Disease: In Search of the Best Predictor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Acevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a marker of metabolic syndrome (MS and cardiovascular (CV disease. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 also predicts CV disease. There are no reports comparing these markers as predictors of MS. Methods. Cross-sectional study comparing Lp-PLA2 and hsCRP as predictors of MS in asymptomatic subjects was carried out; 152 subjects without known atherosclerosis participated. Data were collected on demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric and biochemical measurements, and hsCRP and Lp-PLA2 activity levels. A logistic regression analysis was performed with each biomarker and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were constructed for MS. Results. Mean age was 46 ± 11 years, and 38% of the subjects had MS. Mean Lp-PLA2 activity was 185 ± 48 nmol/mL/min, and mean hsCRP was 2.1 ± 2.2 mg/L. Subjects with MS had significantly higher levels of Lp-PLA2 (P=0.03 and hsCRP (P<0.0001 than those without MS. ROC curves showed that both markers predicted MS. Conclusion. Lp-PLA2 and hsCRP are elevated in subjects with MS. Both biomarkers were independent and significant predictors for MS, emphasizing the role of inflammation in MS. Further research is necessary to determine if inflammation predicts a higher risk for CV events in MS subjects.

  15. Beyond a good story: from Hawthorne Effect to reactivity in health professions education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Elise; Sutkin, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Observational research is increasingly being used in health professions education (HPE) research, yet it is often criticised for being prone to observer effects (also known as the Hawthorne Effect), defined as a research participant's altered behaviour in response to being observed. This article explores this concern. First, this article briefly reviews the initial Hawthorne studies and the original formulation of the Hawthorne Effect, before turning to contemporary studies of the Hawthorne Effect in HPE and beyond. Second, using data from two observational studies (in the operating theatre and in the intensive care unit), this article investigates the Hawthorne Effect in HPE. Evidence of a Hawthorne Effect is scant, and amounts to little more than a good story. This is surprising given the foundational nature of the Hawthorne Studies in the social sciences and the prevalence of our concern with observer effects in HPE research. Moreover, the multiple and inconsistent uses of the Hawthorne Effect have left researchers without a coherent and helpful understanding of research participants' responses to observation. The authors' HPE research illustrates the complexity of observer effects in HPE, suggests that significant alteration of behaviour is unlikely in many research contexts, and shows how sustained contact with participants over time improves the quality of data collection. This article thus concludes with three recommendations: that researchers, editors and reviewers in the HPE community use the phrase 'participant reactivity' when considering the participant, observer and research question triad; that researchers invest in interpersonal relationships at their study site to mitigate the effects of altered behaviour; and that researchers use theory to make sense of participants' altered behaviour and use it as a window into the social world. The term 'participant reactivity' better reflects current scientific understandings of the research process and

  16. Exploring electronic and steric effects on the insertion and polymerization reactivity of phosphinesulfonato pdii catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-11-21

    Thirteen different symmetric and asymmetric phosphinesulfonato palladium complexes ([{(X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], M=Na, Li, 1= X(P^O)PdMe) were prepared (see Figure 1). The solid-state structures of the corresponding pyridine or lutidine complexes were determined for (MeO)21-py, (iPrO)21-lut, (MeO,Me2)1-lut, (MeO)31-lut, CF31-lut, and Ph1-lut. The reactivities of the catalysts X1, obtained after chloride abstraction with AgBF4, toward methyl acrylate (MA) were quantified through determination of the rate constants for the first and the consecutive MA insertion and the analysis of β-H and other decomposition products through NMR spectroscopy. Differences in the homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and MA regarding catalyst activity and stability over time, polymer molecular weight, and polar co-monomer incorporation were investigated. DFT calculations were performed on the main insertion steps for both monomers to rationalize the effect of the ligand substitution patterns on the polymerization behaviors of the complexes. Full analysis of the data revealed that: 1) electron-deficient catalysts polymerize with higher activity, but fast deactivation is also observed; 2) the double ortho-substituted catalysts (MeO)21 and (MeO)31 allow very high degrees of MA incorporation at low MA concentrations in the copolymerization; and 3) steric shielding leads to a pronounced increase in polymer molecular weight in the copolymerization. The catalyst properties induced by a given P-aryl (alkyl) moiety were combined effectively in catalysts with two different non-chelating aryl moieties, such as cHexO/(MeO)21, which led to copolymers with significantly increased molecular weights compared to the prototypical MeO1. Catalyst control: The influence of steric and electronic effects on the reactivity of phosphinesulfonato PdII catalysts in polymerization and copolymerization is explored through experimental and DFT methods. A comparison of thirteen different X(P O)PdMe catalysts ((P O)= κ2-P

  17. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Jeffriess, Adrian B. Schultz, Tye S. McGann, Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL, peroneus brevis (PB, and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG. Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01. Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02. There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers.

  18. [Effect of a hypocaloric diet in the oxidative stress in obese subjects without prescription of exercise and antioxidants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Liliana; García, José R; Rincón, María de Jesús; Ceballos, Guillermo M; Olivares, Ivonne M

    2015-07-06

    Obesity is characterized by a generalized increase of adipose tissue, high production of adipocytokines and presence of oxidative systemic stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes generated in the oxidative stress and anthropometric parameters in obese subjects by the prescription of a hypocaloric diet in combination with moderate aerobic exercise and supplementation with antioxidants. Oxidative damage was determined in the plasma from 30 normal weight and 30 obese subjects. Three groups of treatment were established: Hypocaloric diet (HD), HD plus moderate aerobic exercise (HDE) and HDE plus antioxidants (DHEA). Biomarkers of oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], carbonyl groups, dityrosine) and anthropometric parameters were determined. Higher values of biomarkers of oxidative damage were observed in obese (TBARS 13.74 ± 1.2 μM; carbonyl groups 0.89 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 478.9 ± 27.4 RFU/mg of protein) in comparison to normal weight subjects (TBARS 7.08 ± 0.8 μM; carbonyl groups 0.65 ± 0.04 nmol of osazone/mg of protein; dityrosine 126.3 ± 12.6 RFU/mg of protein), thus showing the presence of an oxidative damage. The prescription of HD decreased the oxidative damage and anthropometric parameters in the obese subjects. We did not observe additional benefit effects on these determinations with HDE or HDEA treatments. We demonstrated that an HD decreases the oxidative damage in obese subjects. Oxidative stress is an important factor in the development of comorbidity in obesity. Therefore, the prescription of a HD could be a key issue in the treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Reactivity effects in video-based classroom research: : an investigation using teacher and student questionnaires as well as teacher eye-tracking.

    OpenAIRE

    Praetorius, Anna; McIntyre, Nora Ann; Klassen, Robert Mark

    2017-01-01

    One prominent problem of conducting observational assessments of teaching quality is the possibility of reactivity effects. To date, the issue of reactivity has received limited empirical attention. The present study, therefore, investigated reactivity in 447 students from 24 classes as well as their 12 teachers. We compared reactivity during lessons that were video-recorded with those that were not: according to t‑test analyses of teacher ratings and MIMIC analyses of student ratings, no sig...

  20. Effects of Dielectrophoresis on Growth, Viability and Immuno-reactivity of Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Arun K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dielectrophoresis (DEP has been regarded as a useful tool for manipulating biological cells prior to the detection of cells. Since DEP uses high AC electrical fields, it is important to examine whether these electrical fields in any way damage cells or affect their characteristics in subsequent analytical procedures. In this study, we investigated the effects of DEP manipulation on the characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes cells, including the immuno-reactivity to several Listeria-specific antibodies, the cell growth profile in liquid medium, and the cell viability on selective agar plates. It was found that a 1-h DEP treatment increased the cell immuno-reactivity to the commercial Listeria species-specific polyclonal antibodies (from KPL by ~31.8% and to the C11E9 monoclonal antibodies by ~82.9%, whereas no significant changes were observed with either anti-InlB or anti-ActA antibodies. A 1-h DEP treatment did not cause any change in the growth profile of Listeria in the low conductive growth medium (LCGM; however, prolonged treatments (4 h or greater caused significant delays in cell growth. The results of plating methods showed that a 4-h DEP treatment (5 MHz, 20 Vpp reduced the viable cell numbers by 56.8–89.7 %. These results indicated that DEP manipulation may or may not affect the final detection signal in immuno-based detection depending on the type of antigen-antibody reaction involved. However, prolonged DEP treatment for manipulating bacterial cells could produce negative effects on the cell detection by growth-based methods. Careful selection of DEP operation conditions could avoid or minimize negative effects on subsequent cell detection performance.

  1. Protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis via reducing reactive oxygen species and bone-resorbing cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Long; Hu, Ya-Qian; Lu, Wei-Guang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian, E-mail: liujianhq@sina.com

    2014-11-01

    Oxidative stress is a crucial pathogenic factor in the development of osteoporosis. Myricitrin, isolated from Myrica cerifera, is a potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that myricitrin possessed protective effects against osteoporosis by partially reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and bone-resorbing cytokines in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). We investigated myricitrin on osteogenic differentiation under oxidative stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was used to establish an oxidative cell injury model. Our results revealed that myricitrin significantly improved some osteogenic markers in these cells. Myricitrin decreased lipid production and reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 (PPARγ2) expression in hBMSCs. Moreover, myricitrin reduced the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and IL-6 and partially suppressed ROS production. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Our results demonstrated that myricitrin supplementation reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) activity and increased reduced glutathione (GSH) activity. Importantly, it ameliorated the micro-architecture of trabecular bones in the 4th lumbar vertebrae (L4) and distal femur. Taken together, these results indicated that the protective effects of myricitrin against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in ROS and bone-resorbing cytokines, suggesting that myricitrin may be useful in bone metabolism diseases, particularly osteoporosis. - Highlights: • Myricitrin protects MC3T3-E1 cells and hBMSCs from oxidative stress. • It is accompanied by a decrease in oxidative stress and bone-resorbing cytokines. • Myricitrin decreases serum reactive oxygen species to some degree. • Myricitrin partly reverses ovariectomy effects in vivo. • Myricitrin may represent a beneficial anti-osteoporosis treatment method.

  2. Differential pharmacological effects on brain reactivity and plasticity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharine eBrem

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown.We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated with monotherapy (AChEI (N=7 were compared to patients receiving combination therapy (COM (N=9 and a group of age-matched, healthy controls (HC (N=13. Cortical reactivity and plasticity of the motor cortex (MC were examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Cognitive functions were assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog, activities of daily living with the ADCS-ADL. In addition we assessed the degree of brain atrophy by measuring brain-scalp distances in seven different brain areas.Patient groups differed in resting motor threshold and brain atrophy, with COM showing a lower motor threshold but less atrophy than AChEI. COM showed similar plasticity effects as the HC group, while plasticity was reduced in AChEI. Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI was impaired in both patient groups when compared to HC. ADAS-Cog scores were positively correlated with LICI measures and with brain atrophy, specifically in the left IPL.AD patients treated with mono- or combination therapy show distinct neurophysiological patterns. Further studies should investigate whether these measures might serve as biomarkers of treatment response and whether they could guide other therapeutic interventions.

  3. Effect of mannitol on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity in patients with intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sung-Chun; Lin, Ru-Jen; Shieh, Jiann-Shing; Wu, An-Yeu; Lai, Dar-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2015-09-01

    Mannitol is commonly used in patients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP), but its effect on cerebrovascular pressure reactivity (CVPR) is uncertain. We analyzed the changes of pressure reactivity index (PRx) during the course of mannitol treatment. Twenty-one patients who received mannitol treatment for increased ICP were recruited prospectively. Continuous waveforms of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and ICP were collected simultaneously for 60 minutes (10 minutes at baseline and 50 minutes since mannitol administration) during 37 events of mannitol treatment. The correlation coefficients between the mean ABP and ICP were averaged every 10 minutes and labeled as the PRx. The linear correlation of six time points of PRx in each event was calculated to represent the trend of CVPR changes. The negative slope of correlation was defined as improvement in CVPR under mannitol treatment and vice versa. At baseline, the average of ICP was 26.0 ± 9.1 mmHg and the values of PRx were significantly correlated with ICP (p = 0.0044, r = 0.46). After mannitol administration, the average of ICP decreased significantly to 21.2 ± 11.1 mmHg (p = 0.036), and CVPR improved in 59.4 % of all events. Further analysis showed that low baseline cerebral perfusion pressure was the only hemodynamic parameter significant association with the improvement of CVPR after mannitol treatment (p = 0.039). Despite lowering ICP, mannitol may have diverse effects on CVPR in patients with intracranial hypertension. Our study suggests that mannitol infusion may have a beneficial effect on CVPR, particularly in those with a low cerebral perfusion pressure at baseline. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Harnessing the Effect of Adoptively Transferred Tumor-Reactive T Cells on Endogenous (Host-Derived Antitumor Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Nesbeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell transfer therapy, the ex vivo activation, expansion, and subsequent administration of tumor-reactive T cells, is already the most effective therapy against certain types of cancer. However, recent evidence in animal models and clinical trials suggests that host conditioning interventions tailored for some of the most aggressive and frequent epithelial cancers will be needed to maximize the benefit of this approach. Similarly, the subsets, stage of differentiation, and ex vivo expansion procedure of tumor-reactive T cells to be adoptively transferred influence their in vivo effectiveness and may need to be adapted for different types of cancer and host conditioning interventions. The effects of adoptively transferred tumor-reactive T cells on the mechanisms of endogenous (host-derived antitumor immunity, and how to maximize their combined effects, are further discussed.

  5. The effects of applying silicon carbide coating on core reactivity of pebble-bed HTR in water ingress accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuhair, S.; Setiadipura, Topan [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia, Serpong Tagerang Selatan (Indonesia). Center for Nuclear Reactor Technology and Safety; Su' ud, Zaki [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia). Dept. of Physics

    2017-03-15

    Graphite is used as the moderator, fuel barrier material, and core structure in High Temperature Reactors (HTRs). However, despite its good thermal and mechanical properties below the radiation and high temperatures, it cannot avoid corrosion as a consequence of an accident of water/air ingress. Degradation of graphite as a main HTR material and the formation of dangerous CO gas is a serious problem in HTR safety. One of the several steps that can be adopted to avoid or prevent the corrosion of graphite by the water/air ingress is the application of a thin layer of silicon carbide (SiC) on the surface of the fuel element. This study investigates the effect of applying SiC coating on the fuel surfaces of pebble-bed HTR in water ingress accident from the reactivity points of view. A series of reactivity calculations were done with the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX and continuous energy nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII at temperature of 1200 K. Three options of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, and ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2} fuel kernel were considered to obtain the inter comparison of the core reactivity of pebble-bed HTR in conditions of water/air ingress accident. The calculation results indicated that the UO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR reactivity was slightly reduced and relatively more decreased when the thickness of the SiC coating increased. The reactivity characteristic of ThO{sub 2}/UO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR showed a similar trend to that of UO{sub 2}, but did not show reactivity peak caused by water ingress. In contrast with UO{sub 2}- and ThO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR, although the reactivity of PuO{sub 2}-fueled pebble-bed HTR was the lowest, its characteristics showed a very high reactivity peak (0.33 Δk/k) and this introduction of positive reactivity is difficult to control. SiC coating on the surface of the plutonium fuel pebble has no significant impact. From the comparison between reactivity characteristics of uranium, thorium and plutonium cores with 0

  6. Correlation between Inflammation and Fibrinolysis in Hypertensive Centrally Obese Subjects: A Study on C-Reactive Protein, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yati Sumiyati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension and central obesity are risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiology studies have shown that these two conditions are closely linked and often occur simultaneously. Inflammation is an underlying pathomechanism in hypertension and obesity. Vascular inflammation is related to coagulation pathway, whereby high level of inflammation increases the risk of atherothrombosis event. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between inflammation and fibrinolysis in hypertensive centrally obese subjects compared with hypertensive non obese subjects. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted in October 2009-June 2010 involving 53 eligible subjects according to the following criteria: men or women aged 30-65 years, had neither diabetes (FPG <126 mg/dL and or OGTT <200 mg/dL nor CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/minutes. All subjects were not in an acute inflammation state, had no unspecific infection (hs-CRP ≤10 mg/L, or taking anti-inflammation or anti-hypertensive medication. RESULTS: In this study we found that the levels of hs-CRP (2.636 mg/L vs. 1.024 mg/L, p=0.007, PAI-1 (43.58 ng/mL vs. 28.43 ng/mL, p=0.089 and TAFI (12.73 ng/mL vs. 12.19 ng/mL, p=0.479 were respectively higher in hypertensive subjects with central obesity than in hypertensive subjects with no central obesity. In hypertensive centrally obese subjects there was significant positive correlation between hs-CRP and PAI-1 (r=0.491, p=0.001 and TAFI (r=0.312, p=0.0390, meanwhile in hypertensive non-obese subjects significant correlation was found only between hs-CRP and TAFI (r=0.929, p=0.003. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in hypertensive subjects has higher inflammation state that is correlated with fibrinolysis disruption. KEYWORDS: hypertensive, obesity, hs-CRP, PAI-1, TAFI.

  7. Ambroxol therapy in simple chronic bronchitis: effects on subjective symptoms and ventilatory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, C H; Juhász, J; Jönsson, E; Mossberg, B

    1986-10-01

    Ambroxol, a metabolite of bromhexine, was investigated in a double-blind, controlled trial using parallel groups. We studied the effects of 60 mg and 120 mg daily versus placebo in subjects with simple chronic bronchitis. Possible therapeutic effects were evaluated by means of interviews on subjective drug effects and current respiratory symptomatology, patient diary cards, and lung function tests. Ninety-seven subjects entered the study and 92 completed satisfactorily. Comparison with the placebo group at the end of the study showed that significantly more subjects in the 120 mg ambroxol group reported improvement in respiratory symptoms, principally improved expectoration. Subjects in the 120 mg group tended to prefer the treatment period when compared to placebo but the diary cards did not indicate significant changes. Lung function values were mainly normal and did not change during treatment. We conclude that the drug had a symptomatic effect and that further studies in more severely affected patients would be worthwhile.

  8. Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation in Major Depression: Effects on Memory and Stress Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting ambiguous stimuli in a negative manner is a core bias associated with depression. Investigators have used cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) to demonstrate that it is possible to experimentally induce and modify these biases. This study extends previous research by examining whether CBM-I affects not only interpretation, but also memory and physiological stress response in individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). We found that CBM-I was effective in inducing an interpretive bias. Participants also exhibited memory biases that corresponded to their training condition and demonstrated differential physiological responding in a stress task. These results suggest that interpretation biases in depression can be modified, and that this training can lead to corresponding changes in memory and to decreases in stress reactivity. Findings from this study highlight the importance of examining the relations among different cognitive biases in MDD and the possibility of modifying cognitive biases.

  9. Effect of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on C-reactive protein levels in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Farin Kiany; Karimi, Noozhan; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Roozbeh, Jamshid

    2013-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) has been implicated as a possible mediator of the association between periodontitis and several systemic diseases. This study evaluated the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment on the serum levels of CRP in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on hemodialysis. A total of 77 CKD patients on hemodialysis were included in this study. At baseline, periodontal examination was assessed for all the patients, and chronic periodontitis was defined through clinical attachment level and probing pocket depth, according to the American Association of Periodontology. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment was performed and serum levels of CRP were evaluated at baseline and 8 weeks after periodontal treatment. Periodontal treatment resulted in significant reductions in CRP levels (p periodontitis. Periodontitis is an important source of systemic inflammation in CKD patients. Nonsurgical periodontal treatment can effectively reduce the serum level of CRP in these patients.

  10. Effects of Surface Chemistry on the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Copper Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Miao; Kwon, Hyun Soo; Peng, Zhenmeng; Elder, Alison; Yang, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Mercaptocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain lengths were used for stabilizing uniform 15 nm copper nanoparticles. The effects of surface chemistry such as ligand type and surface oxidation on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the copper nanoparticles were examined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, and an acellular ROS assay show that ROS generation is closely related to the surface oxidation of copper nanoparticles. It was found that the copper nanoparticles with longer chain ligands had surfaces that were better protected from oxidation and a corresponding lower ROS generating capacity than did particles with shorter chain ligands. Conversely, the copper nanoparticles with greater surface oxidation also had higher ROS generating capacity. PMID:22390268

  11. Effects of reactive element additions and sulfur removal on the oxidation behavior of FECRAL alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasik, M.C.; Pettit, F.S.; Meier, G.H. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Ashary, A. (Praxair, Indianapolis, IN (United States)); Smialek, J.L. (NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1994-12-15

    The results of this study have shown that desulfurization of FeCrAl alloys by hydrogen annealing can result in improvements in cyclic oxidation comparable to that achieved by doping with reactive elements. Moreover, specimens of substantial thicknesses can be effectively desulfurized because of the high diffusivity of sulfur in bcc iron alloys. The results have also shown that there is less stress generation during the cyclic oxidation of Y-doped FeCrAl compared to Ti-doped or desulfurized FeCrAl. This indicates that the growth mechanism, as well as the strength of the oxide/alloy interface, influences the ultimate oxidation morphology and stress state which will certainly affect the length of time the alumina remains protective.

  12. Effects of Radial Reflector Composition on Core Reactivity and Peak Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Song, Jae Seung

    2007-10-15

    The effects of radial SA-240 alloy shroud on core reactivity and peak power are evaluated. The existence of radial SA-240 alloy shroud makes reflector water volume decrease, so the thermal absorption cross section of radial reflector is lower than without SA-240 alloy shroud case. Finally, the cycle length is increased from 788 EFPD to 845 EFPD and the peak power is decreased from 1.66 to 1.49. In the case of without SA-240 alloy shroud, a new core loading pattern search has been performed. For the guarantee of the same equivalent cycle length of with SA-240 alloy shroud case, the enrichment of U-235 should be increased from 4.22 w/o to 4.68 w/o. The nuclear key safety parameters of new core loading pattern have been calculated and recorded for the future.

  13. Moderating effects of perceived racism on John Henryism and blood pressure reactivity in Black female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rodney; Adams, Jann H

    2004-10-01

    Relative to other ethnic groups in the United States Blacks have disproportionately higher rates of hypertension. Research suggest that perceived racism might moderate the relation between such Pearson variables as John Henryism and cardiac/vascular functioning. This study examined the possible moderating influence of perceived racism on the John Henryism reactivity relation in a sample of 117 Black female college students (M age = 26.10 years, SD = 8.83). Blood pressure was measured before and during a speaking task. John Henryism and perceived racism were assessed via self-report. Hierarchial regression analyses revealed that John Henryism was inversely related to systolic blood pressure reactivity (p = .007). These analyses also indicated that John Henryism and perceived racism interacted to predict both systolic (p = .007) and diastolic blood pressure reactivity (p = .0005). Follow-up regression analyses indicated that John Henryism was unrelated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity for women high in perceived racism (ps > .62) and was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactivity for women low in perceived racism (ps < .01). The findings highlight the importance of examining the potential moderating effects of ethnically relevant situation factors when exploring the relation of John Henryism to blood pressure reactivity.

  14. Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: the moderating effect of parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effects of Ramadan fasting on platelet reactivity in diabetic patients treated with clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouida, W; Baccouche, H; Sassi, M; Dridi, Z; Chakroun, T; Hellara, I; Boukef, R; Hassine, M; Added, F; Razgallah, R; Khochtali, I; Nouira, S

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Ramadan fasting (RF) on clopidogrel antiplatelet inhibition were not previously investigated. The present study evaluated the influence of RF on platelet reactivity in patients with high cardiovascular risk (CVR) in particular those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A total of 98 stable patients with ≥2 CVR factors were recruited. All patients observed RF and were taking clopidogrel at a maintenance dose of 75 mg. Clinical findings and serum lipids data were recorded before Ramadan (Pre-R), at the last week of Ramadan (R) and 4 weeks after the end of Ramadan (Post-R). During each patient visit, nutrients intakes were calculated and platelet reactivity assessment using Verify Now P2Y12 assay was performed. In DM patients, the absolute PRU changes from baseline were +27 (p = 0.01) and +16 (p = 0.02) respectively at R and Post-R. In addition, there was a significant increase of glycemia and triglycerides levels with a significant decrease of high-density lipoprotein. In non DM patients there was no significant change in absolute PRU values and metabolic parameters. Clopidogrel resistance rate using 2 cut-off PRU values (235 and 208) did not change significantly in DM and non DM patients. RF significantly decreased platelet sensitivity to clopidogrel in DM patients during and after Ramadan. This effect is possibly related to an increase of glycemia and serum lipids levels induced by fasting. Clinical Trials.gov NCT02720133. Registered 24 July 2014.Retrospectively registered.

  16. Serum C-reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women: Effect on pregnancy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmin Sultana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by development of hyperten­sion to the extent of 140/90 mm of Hg or more with proteinuria after the 20th gestational week in a previously normoten­sive and non protein uric women. According to the National High blood presure Working group (NHBPEP and Ameri­can college of obstetricans and Gynecologiests (ACOG hypertension in pregnancy is defined as a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman with previously normal blood pressure (NHBPEP, 2000; ACOG, 2002. If the disease is allowed to progress to the HELLP syndrome or eclampsia, maternal morbidity and mortality increases. The majority of perinatal losses are related to placental insufficiency, which causes intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity associated with preterm delivery, or abruptio placentae. Objectives: This study tried to explore the effect of serum C reactive protein concentration in preeclamptic women and its effect on pregnancy outcome.Methods: This case control study included 60 third trimester pregnant women (30 normotensive and 30 preeclamptic who attended Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, BIRDEM and DMCH, during July 2009 and June 2010. Estimation of serum C reactive protein (CRP concentrations was done by liquid phase immunoprecipitation assay and turbulometry at DMC.Results: Mean (±SD age showed no significant difference between groups; however, BMI, SBP, DBP and CRP were significantly (P<0.001 high in case group. Gravidity and ANC showed no significant variation between groups. CRP concentration was significantly high case group. Gestational age was significantly low in case group resulting in higher preterm delivery. No significant variation was observed regarding fetal outcome; however, birth weight was significantly low and neonatal complication was also significantly high in case group.Conclusion: CRP concentration was high in

  17. EFFECTS OF AGE AND ACUTE MUSCLE FATIGUE ON REACTIVE POSTURAL CONTROL IN HEALTHY ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V.; Foreman, K. Bo; Dibble, Lee E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. METHODS A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-minutes (T15) and 30-minutes (T30) of rest. FINDINGS Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. INTERPRETATION Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 minutes of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. PMID:26351001

  18. Effects of age and acute muscle fatigue on reactive postural control in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Evan V; Foreman, K Bo; Dibble, Leland E

    2015-12-01

    Falls can cause moderate to severe injuries such as hip fractures and head trauma in older adults. While declines in muscle strength and sensory function contribute to increased falls in older adults, skeletal muscle fatigue is often overlooked as an additional contributor to fall risk. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of acute lower extremity muscle fatigue and age on reactive postural control in healthy adults. A sample of 16 individuals participated in this study (8 healthy older adults and 8 healthy young persons). Whole body kinematic and kinetic data were collected during anterior and posterior reproducible fall tests before (T0) and immediately after (T1) eccentric muscle fatiguing exercise, as well as after 15-min (T15) and 30-min (T30) of rest. Lower extremity joint kinematics of the stepping limb during the support (landing) phase of the anterior fall were significantly altered by the presence of acute muscle fatigue. Step velocity was significantly decreased during the anterior falls. Statistically significant main effects of age were found for step length in both fall directions. Effect sizes for all outcomes were small. No statistically significant interaction effects were found. Muscle fatigue has a measurable effect on lower extremity joint kinematics during simulated falls. These alterations appear to resolve within 15 min of recovery. The above deficits, coupled with a reduced step length, may help explain the increased fall risk in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bronchial reactivity and intracellular magnesium: a possible mechanism for the bronchodilating effects of magnesium in asthma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dominguez, L J; Barbagallo, M; Di Lorenzo, G; Drago, A; Scola, S; Morici, G; Caruso, C

    1998-01-01

    .... In the present study we investigated the relationship between bronchial reactivity, assessed by methacholine-provocation test, and magnesium concentrations both at extracellular and intracellular...

  20. Increased ventricular ectopic activity in relation to C-reactive protein, and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide in subjects with no apparent heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajadieh, A; Nielsen, OW; Rasmussen, Verner

    2006-01-01

    with fasting laboratory testing and 48-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring. Frequent VPC was defined as VPC > or =30/hour. RESULTS: In 56 subjects (8%) with frequent VPC the prognosis was much poorer compared to those without frequent VPC (Hazard ratio and 95% CI: 2.3;1.2-4.4, P = 0.01), after adjustment...

  1. Oxidative stress parameters in unmedicated and treated bipolar subjects during initial manic episode: a possible role for lithium antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Andreazza, Ana Cristina; Viale, Carlos Ivan; Zanatto, Vanessa; Cereser, Victor; da Silva Vargas, Rafael; Kapczinski, Flávio; Portela, Luiz V; Souza, Diogo O; Salvador, Mirian; Gentil, Valentim

    2007-06-21

    Studies have proposed the involvement of oxidative stress and neuronal energy dysfunctions in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). This study evaluates plasma levels of the oxidative/energy metabolism markers, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) during initial episodes of mania compared to controls in 75 subjects. Two groups of manic subjects (unmedicated n=30, and lithium-treated n=15) were age/gender matched with healthy controls (n=30). TBARS and antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD and CAT) were increased in unmedicated manic patients compared to controls. Conversely, plasma NSE levels were lower during mania than in the controls. In contrast, acute treatment with lithium showed a significant reduction in both SOD/CAT ratio and TBARS levels. These results suggest that initial manic episodes are associated with both increased oxidative stress parameters and activated antioxidant defenses, which may be related to dysfunctions on energy metabolism and neuroplasticity pathways. Antioxidant effects using lithium in mania were shown, and further studies are necessary to evaluate the potential role of these effects in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of BD.

  2. Altering dietary lysine: arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The effect of dietary protein type on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity, with specific focus on the lysine to arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, has been studied sporadically. Objective: Determine effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reacti...

  3. Native language influence on the distributive effect in producing second language subject-verb agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyan; Chen, Baoguo; Liang, Lijuan; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the distributive effect when producing subject-verb agreement in English as a second language (L2) when the participant's first language either does or does not require subject-verb agreement. Both Chinese-English and Uygur-English bilinguals were included in Experiment 1. Chinese has no required subject-verb agreement, whereas Uygur does. Results showed that the distributive effect was observed in Uygur-English bilinguals but not in Chinese-English bilinguals, indicating that this particular first language (L1) syntactic feature is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. Experiment 2 further investigated the matter by choosing Chinese-English participants with higher L2 proficiency. Still, no distributive effect was observed, suggesting that the absence of distributive effect in Chinese-English bilinguals in Experiment 1 was not due to low proficiency in the target language. Experiment 3 changed the way the stimuli were presented, highlighting the singular or distributive nature of the subject noun phrases, and the distributive effect was observed in Chinese-English bilinguals. Altogether, the results show that the L1 syntactic feature of subject-verb agreement is one significant factor affecting the distributive effect in the production of subject-verb agreement in L2. More specifically, distributive effects rarely occur in L2 when L1 has no requirement on subject-verb agreement, whereas distributive effects are more likely to occur in L2 when the L1 also has required subject-verb agreement.

  4. Surface reactivity, cytotoxic, and morphological transforming effects of diatomaceous Earth products in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Zoé; Poirot, Odile; Fenoglio, Ivana; Ghiazza, Mara; Danière, Marie-Céleste; Terzetti, Francine; Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Matekovits, Ildiko; Fubini, Bice

    2006-06-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments on the surface reactivity and carcinogenic potential of diatomaceous earth (DE) products, the physicochemical features of some specimens--derived by heating the same original material--were compared with their cytotoxic and transforming potency. The samples were an untreated DE (amorphous) progressively heated in the laboratory at 900 degrees C (DE 900) and 1200 degrees C (DE 1200) and a commercial product manufactured from the same DE (Chd) from which the finer fraction (reactive oxygen species, and for their cytotoxic and transforming potencies in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. X-ray diffractometry showed that DE 900, like DE, was still amorphous, whereas DE 1200 as well as the commercial product (Chd) were partially crystallized into cristobalite. The ability of the dust to release hydroxyl (*OH) radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, as revealed by the spin-trapping technique, was as follows: Chd-F, DE 1200 > Chd > DE 900 > DE, suggesting that on heating, the surface acquires a higher potential for free radical release. Most of the silica samples generated COO* radicals from the formate ion, following homolytic rupture of the carbon-hydrogen bond, in the presence of ascorbic acid. A concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and colony-forming efficiency was observed in SHE cultures treated with Chd-F, Chd, and DE. Heating abolished DE cytotoxicity but conferred a transforming ability to thermal treated particles. DE was the only sample that did not induce morphological transformation of cells. According to their transformation capacity, the samples were classified as follows: Chd-F > Chd, DE 1200 > DE 900 > DE. Taken together, the reported results suggest that (1) the transforming potential of a biogenic amorphous silica is related to the thermal treatment that transforms the original structure in cristobalite and generates surface active sites; (2) the reactivity of samples in

  5. The reactivation effect of pralidoxime in human blood on parathion and paraoxon–induced cholinesterase inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Jafari

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation the reactivation of cholinesterases by pralidoxime in parathion and paraoxon intoxication in plasma and erythrocytes were studied. For this purpose, human plasma and erythrocytes were incubated with various concentrations of parathion (0.1-10 µM and paraoxon (0.03-0.3 µM at 37 oC for 10 min. Then, pralidoxime (10-300 µM was added to the samples and incubated for 10 min before cholinesterases assay. The results showed that effects of parathion and paraoxon were dose dependent. These agents inhibited more than 85% of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and the inhibitory effect of paraoxon was 10 times more than parathion. BChE activity was significantly higher than the control at 100 µM of pralidoxime and it reduced inhibitory effects of parathion to less than 50% and of paraoxon to 42% of control. When pralidoxime (10 µM was added to erythrocytes, the inhibitory effects of two organophosphates were reduced to less than 15%. At higher concentrations of pralidoxime (>100 µM, both BChE and AChE activities were inhibited.

  6. The Effects of Directional Processing on Objective and Subjective Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M.; Moore, Travis M.; Ricketts, Todd A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this investigation were (a) to evaluate the effects of hearing aid directional processing on subjective and objective listening effort and (b) to investigate the potential relationships between subjective and objective measures of effort. Method: Sixteen adults with mild to severe hearing loss were tested with study…

  7. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from

  8. Subacute effects of a maximal exercise bout on endothelium-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bousquet-Santos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated vascular reactivity after a maximal exercise test in order to determine whether the effect of exercise on the circulation persists even after interruption of the exercise. Eleven healthy sedentary volunteers (six women, age 28 ± 5 years were evaluated before and after (10, 60, and 120 min a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Forearm blood flow (FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography before and during reactive hyperemia (RH. Baseline FBF, analyzed by the area under the curve, increased only at 10 min after exercise (P = 0.01. FBF in response to RH increased both at 10 and 60 min vs baseline (P = 0.004. Total excess flow for RH above baseline showed that vascular reactivity was increased up to 60 min after exercise (mean ± SEM, before: 526.4 ± 48.8; 10 min: 1053.0 ± 168.2; 60 min: 659.4 ± 44.1 ml 100 ml-1 min-1 . s; P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively, vs before exercise. The changes in FBF were due to increased vascular conductance since mean arterial blood pressure did not change. In a time control group (N = 5, 34 ± 3 years, three women that did not exercise, FBF and RH did not change significantly (P = 0.07 and 0.7, respectively. These results suggest that the increased vascular reactivity caused by chronic exercise may result, at least in part, from a summation of the subacute effects of successive exercise bouts.

  9. Cognitive reappraisal ability buffers against the indirect effects of perceived stress reactivity on Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagui, Sara J; Levens, Sara M

    2016-10-01

    Stress contributes to poor health outcomes; importantly, a stress reaction begins with the negative appraisal of a situation. The ability to use cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves reinterpreting an initial appraisal to change its emotional impact, could be a protective factor against the health consequences of stress reactivity. The present study investigated (a) if cognitive reappraisal ability (CRA) acts as a stress buffer against a body mass index (BMI) indicative of being overweight (≥25 kg/m2) or obese (≥30 kg/m2), and (b) if this buffering effect persists against the indirect influences of perceived stress reactivity (PSR) on Type 2 diabetes. One hundred fifty participants (54% female; mean age = 40.4 years ± 12.4 years) completed an online CRA task, self-report measures of PSR, height, weight, and Type 2 diabetes diagnosis on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Results revealed that CRA significantly interacted with PSR to predict BMI, which indirectly predicted Type 2 diabetes. Individuals with higher PSR and higher CRA exhibited BMIs within a normal weight range and lower incidence of Type 2 diabetes. In contrast, individuals with higher PSR and lower CRA were overweight or obese, with a higher incidence of Type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, higher CRA was not protective in those who had lower levels of PSR. Findings from this study suggest that emotion regulation interventions can be developed to indirectly target Type 2 diabetes and similar obesity-related illnesses, and that emotion regulation interventions should be tailored to the individual. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Extreme Sleep Durations and Increased C-Reactive Protein: Effects of Sex and Ethnoracial Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Jackson, Nicholas; Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Pandey, Abhishek; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: We hypothesize that extremes of sleep duration are associated with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a pro-inflammatory marker for cardiovascular disease risk. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Population-based research. Participants: Nationally representative sample of 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants (n = 5,587 adults). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Associations between CRP and self-reported total sleep time (TST) were examined. Explanatory models considered contributions of sex, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), and BMI squared (BMI2). Models also explored the role of insomnia symptoms, sleep apnea, active medical illness, and antidiabetic/antihypertensive treatment. Differential patterns among race/ethnicity groups were examined using interactions and stratified analyses. Nonlinear relationships between CRP and TST were assessed using polynomial and multinomial regression models ( 9 h). Linear and squared terms were significant in all models in the complete sample, with notable differences by sex and ethnoracial group. Overall, in models adjusted for sociodemographics and BMI, different patterns were observed for non-Hispanic white (elevated CRP for 9 h), black/African-American (elevated CRP for 9 h), and Asian/ Other (higher in 9 and > 9 h and lower in 5 h and 6 h) groups. Ethnoracial groups also demonstrated patterning by sex. Conclusion: In a representative sample of American adults, elevated CRP was associated with extreme sleep durations. Sex, race/ethnicity, sleep disorders, and medical comorbidity influenced these associations. Differences in CRP along these dimensions should be considered in future research on sleep related disparities influencing cardiometabolic disease risk. Citation: Grandner MA; Buxton OM; Jackson N; Sands M; Pandey A; Jean-Louis G. Extreme sleep durations and increased C-reactive protein: effects of sex and ethnoracial group. SLEEP 2013

  11. The effect of cognitive testing and feedback on older adults' subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross; Hughes, Matthew; Saenz, Gabriel; Tirso, Robert

    2017-03-10

    Subjective age, or how old a person feels, is an important measure of self-perception that is associated with consequential cognitive and health outcomes. Recent research suggests that subjective age is affected by certain situations, including cognitive testing contexts. The current study examined whether cognitive testing and positive performance feedback affect subjective age and subsequent cognitive performance. Older adults took a series of neuropsychological and cognitive tests and subjective age was measured at various time points. Participants also either received positive or no feedback on an initial cognitive task, an analogies task. Results showed that participants felt older over the course of the testing session, particularly after taking a working memory test, relative to baseline. Positive feedback did not significantly mitigate this subjective aging effect. Results suggest that subjective age is malleable and that it can be affected by standard cognitive and neuropsychological test conditions.

  12. Mediating role of stress reactivity in the effects of prenatal tobacco exposure on childhood mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Aesoon; O'Malley, Stephanie S; King, Sarah L; Picciotto, Marina R

    2014-02-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure, through maternal smoking during pregnancy, has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in childhood. However, the mechanisms by which prenatal tobacco exposure compromises mental health later in life are unclear. We hypothesized that sensitized reactivity to stressful life events in early childhood mediates the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on mental health outcomes in middle childhood, after accounting for earlier mental health outcomes. Data were from 12,308 mothers and their children drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a large prospective population-based study. Mothers' self-reports of smoking during pregnancy, mothers' ratings of their child's reactivity to stressful life events, and teachers' and mothers' ratings of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire assessing 5 domains of mental health outcomes were measured. A positive association was found between prenatal tobacco exposure and stress reactivity between the ages of 2 and 6. In turn, stress reactivity was positively associated with peer (isolation), hyperactivity, conduct, and emotional problems (but not prosocial behaviors) between the ages of 7 and 11, after accounting for the mental health outcome at age 4 and other confounders. Heightened stress reactivity in preschool ages mediated the effect of prenatal tobacco exposure on adverse mental health outcomes between the ages of 7 and 11. Interventions to assist children exposed to tobacco smoke during gestation in coping with stressful life events may help mitigate psychiatric symptoms in this population.

  13. Silver nanoparticle-algae interactions: oxidative dissolution, reactive oxygen species generation and synergistic toxic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Di; Dorantes-Aranda, Juan José; Waite, T David

    2012-08-21

    The short-term toxicity of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ionic silver Ag(I) to the ichthyotoxic marine raphidophyte Chattonella marina has been examined using the fluorometric indicator alamarBlue. Aggregation and dissolution of AgNPs occurred after addition to GSe medium while uptake of dissolved Ag(I) occurred in the presence of C. marina. Based on total silver mass, toxicity was much higher for Ag(I) than for AgNPs. Cysteine, a strong Ag(I) ligand, completely removed the inhibitory effects of Ag(I) and AgNPs on the metabolic activity of C. marina, suggesting that the toxicity of AgNPs was due to the release of Ag(I). Synergistic toxic effects of AgNPs/Ag(I) and C. marina to fish gill cells were observed with these effects possibly attributable to enhancement in the generation of reactive oxygen species by C. marina on exposure of the organism to silver.

  14. The effects of stainless steel radial reflector on core reactivity for small modular reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Kil; Hah, Chang Joo; Cho, Sung Ju; Seong, Ki Bong

    2016-01-01

    Commercial PWR core is surrounded by a radial reflector, which consists of a baffle and water. Radial reflector is designed to reflect neutron back into the core region to improve the neutron efficiency of the reactor and to protect the reactor vessels from the embrittling effects caused by irradiation during power operation. Reflector also helps to flatten the neutron flux and power distributions in the reactor core. The conceptual nuclear design for boron-free small modular reactor (SMR) under development in Korea requires to have the cycle length of 4˜5 years, rated power of 180 MWth and enrichment less than 5 w/o. The aim of this paper is to analyze the effects of stainless steel radial reflector on the performance of the SMR using UO2 fuels. Three types of reflectors such as water, water/stainless steel 304 mixture and stainless steel 304 are selected to investigate the effect on core reactivity. Additionally, the thickness of stainless steel and double layer reflector type are also investigated. CASMO-4/SIMULATE-3 code system is used for this analysis. The results of analysis show that single layer stainless steel reflector is the most efficient reflector.

  15. Effect of wine phenolics on cytokine-induced C-reactive protein expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAUR, G.; RAO, L. V. M.; AGRAWAL, A.; PENDURTHI, U. R.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in blood was recognized as one of the cardiac disease risk factors. Consumption of wine is shown to reduce the risk from heart disease and improve longevity. Objectives In the present study, we evaluated the effect of various wine polyphenolic compounds and several active synthetic derivatives of resveratrol on the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β + IL-6)-induced CRP expression in Hep3B cells. Results Among the wine phenolics tested, quercetin and resveratrol, in a dose-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced CRP expression. Two of the synthetic derivatives of resveratrol, R3 and 7b, elicited a fiftyfold higher suppressive effect compared with resveratrol. The inhibitory effects of resveratrol and its derivatives on CRP expression were at the level of mRNA production. Investigation of signaling pathways showed that the cytokines induced the phosphorylation of p38 and p44/42MAP kinases. Inhibitors of p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation inhibited CRP expression, implicating the involvement of both pathways in cytokine-induced CRP expression. These data revealed a previously unrecognized role of the p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway in CRP expression. Wine polyphenolics or the synthetic compounds of resveratrol did not affect cytokine-activated phosphorylation of these MAPKs. Conclusions Wine phenolics inhibit CRP expression; however, to do so, they do not utilize the MAPK pathways. PMID:17388968

  16. The effects of multitasking on psychological stress reactivity in recreational users of cannabis and MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Atherton, Katie; Grainger, Jessica; Brosnan, Robert; Scholey, Andrew B

    2012-03-01

    Cannabis and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use is associated with psychobiological and neurocognitive deficits. Assessments of the latter typically include tests of memory and everyday cognitive functioning. However, to date, little attention has been paid to effects of drug use on psychological stress reactivity. We report three studies examining the effects of recreational use of cannabis and MDMA on mood and psychological responses to multitasking using a cognitively demanding laboratory stressor that provides an analogue for everyday situations involving responses to multiple stimuli. The effects of the multitasking framework on mood and perceived workload were assessed in cannabis (N=25), younger (N=18) and older (N=20) MDMA users and compared with non-target drug controls. Compared with respective control groups, cannabis users became less alert and content, and both MDMA groups became less calm following acute stress. Unexpectedly, the stressor increased ratings of calm in cannabis users. Users also scored higher than their controls with respect to ratings of resources needed to complete the multitasking framework. These findings show, for the first time, that recreational use of cannabis and MDMA, beyond the period of intoxication, can negatively influence psychological responses to a multitasking stressor, and this may have implications for real-life situations which place high demands on cognitive resources. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of Preventative Ankle Taping on Planned Change-of-Direction and Reactive Agility Performance and Ankle Muscle Activity in Basketballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffriess, Matthew D; Schultz, Adrian B; McGann, Tye S; Callaghan, Samuel J; Lockie, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of preventative ankle taping on planned change-of-direction and reactive agility performance and peak ankle muscle activity in basketballers. Twenty male basketballers (age = 22.30 ± 3.97 years; height = 1.84 ± 0.09 meters; body mass = 85.96 ± 11.88 kilograms) with no ankle pathologies attended two testing sessions. Within each session, subjects completed six planned and six reactive randomized trials (three to the left and three to the right for each condition) of the Y-shaped agility test, which was recorded by timing lights. In one session, subjects had both ankles un-taped. In the other, both ankles were taped using a modified subtalar sling. Peak tibialis anterior, peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB), and soleus muscle activity was recorded for both the inside and outside legs across stance phase during the directional change, which was normalized against 10-meter sprint muscle activity (nEMG). Both the inside and outside cut legs during the change-of-direction step were investigated. Repeated measures ANOVA determined performance time and nEMG differences between un-taped and taped conditions. There were no differences in planned change-of-direction or reactive agility times between the conditions. Inside cut leg PL nEMG decreased when taped for the planned left, reactive left, and reactive right cuts (p = 0.01). Outside leg PB and soleus nEMG increased during the taped planned left cut (p = 0.02). There were no other nEMG changes during the cuts with taping. Taping did not affect change-of-direction or agility performance. Inside leg PL activity was decreased, possibly due to the tape following the line of muscle action. This may reduce the kinetic demand for the PL during cuts. In conclusion, ankle taping did not significantly affect planned change-of-direction or reactive agility performance, and did not demonstrate large changes in activity of the muscle complex in healthy basketballers. Key pointsAnkle taping

  18. The Role of Negative Statements on the Subjective Effects of Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Vera, M.; Vila, J.; Godoy, J. F.

    1995-12-01

    This study assesses subjective effects of traffic noise and the mediator role that negative statements about the noise and about oneself play. Eighty-four students underwent two 15-minute presentations of high intensity traffic noise, with and without negative statements. The potential effect of the negative statements was enhanced by the use of instructions concerning the expectation of negative noise effects and the credibility of the statements in half the subjects. Level of anxiety, subjective noise aversion and time estimation of the noise were taken. The State Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire were used as pre- and post-tests. Noise increased anxiety levels, these levels being higher during the Statements condition than during the Noise alone condition. Instructions further increased the effects of these negative statements. Subjects did not adapt to noise. Scores in the questionnaires were significantly higher in the post-test than in the pre-test. Implications of these results are discussed.

  19. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects...

  20. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...

  1. Effect of lidocaine on inflammation in equine jejunum subjected to manipulation only and remote to intestinal segments subjected to ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauck, Anje G; Grosche, Astrid; Morton, Alison J; Graham, A Sarah; Vickroy, Thomas W; Freeman, David E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine effects of continuous rate infusion of lidocaine on transmural neutrophil infiltration in equine intestine subjected to manipulation only and remote to ischemic intestine. ANIMALS 14 healthy horses. PROCEDURES Ventral midline celiotomy was performed (time 0). Mild ischemia was induced in segments of jejunum and large colon. A 1-m segment of jejunum was manipulated by massaging the jejunal wall 10 times. Horses received lidocaine (n = 7) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (7) throughout anesthesia. Biopsy specimens were collected and used to assess tissue injury, neutrophil influx, cyclooxygenase expression, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression at 0, 1, and 4 hours after manipulation and ischemia. Transepithelial resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were measured by use of Ussing chambers. RESULTS Lidocaine did not consistently decrease neutrophil infiltration in ischemic, manipulated, or control tissues at 4 hours. Lidocaine significantly reduced circular muscle and overall scores for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in manipulated tissues. Manipulated tissues had significantly less HIF-1α expression at 4 hours than did control tissues. Mucosa from manipulated and control segments obtained at 4 hours had lower TER and greater mannitol flux than did control tissues at 0 hours. Lidocaine did not significantly decrease calprotectin expression. Severity of neutrophil infiltration was similar in control, ischemic, and manipulated tissues at 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Manipulated jejunum did not have a significantly greater increase in neutrophil infiltration, compared with 4-hour control (nonmanipulated) jejunum remote to sites of manipulation, ischemia, and reperfusion. Lidocaine did not consistently reduce neutrophil infiltration in jejunum.

  2. Effect of acute hypobaric hypoxia on the endothelial glycocalyx and digital reactive hyperemia in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär I Johansson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypoxia is associated with increased capillary permeability. This study tested whether acute hypobaric hypoxia involves degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx. Methods: We exposed 12 subjects to acute hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to 4,500 m for 2-4 hours and measured venous blood concentrations of biomarkers reflecting endothelial and glycocalyx degradation (catecholamines, syndecan-1, soluble CD40 ligand, protein C, soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-type plasminogen activators, histone-complexed DNA fragments and nitrite/nitrate. Endothelial function was assessed by the hyperemic response to brachial artery occlusion by peripheral arterial tonometry. Results: Compared with normoxic baseline levels, hypoxia increased concentrations of syndecan-1 from 22 (95% confidence interval: 17-27 to 25 (19-30 ng/ml (p < 0.02 and protein C from 76 (70-83 % to 81 (74-88 % (p < 0.02. Nitrite/nitrate decreased from 23 (18-27 μM at baseline to 19 (14-24 μM and 18 (14-21 μM in hypoxia and recovery, respectively (p < 0.05. Other biomarkers remained unchanged. The post-occlusion/pre-occlusion ratio (reactive hyperemia index, RHI decreased from 1.80 (1.52–2.07 in normoxia to 1.62 (1.28–1.96 after 2 to 4 hours of hypobaric hypoxia and thereafter increased to 2.43 (1.99-2.86 during normoxic recovery (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The increase in syndecan-1 and protein C suggests that acute hypobaric hypoxia produces minor degree of glycocalyx degradation and overall cellular damage. After hypoxia RHI rebounded to higher than baseline levels suggesting improved endothelial functionality.

  3. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Chris; Hamilton-Morris, Jennifer; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This study investigated the coadministration of an energy drink with alcohol to study the effects on subjective intoxication and objective performance. Objectives This study aims to evaluate the objective and subjective effects of alcohol versus placebo at two alcohol doses, alone and in combination with an energy drink, in a balanced order, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Methods Two groups of ten healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age of 24 (6.5), participated in the study. On...

  4. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W. H. M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E; Baak, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the effects of energy restriction on the acute responses of platelet alpha 2- and lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors to exercise in obese female subjects. Seven obese females were restricted to a low-energ...

  5. Effect of subjective estimate of self-fitness on motivation for sport participation

    OpenAIRE

    杉本, 龍勇; Sugimoto, Tatsuo; 渡部, 近志; Watabe, Chikashi

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study is Effect of subjective Estimate of self-fitness on motivation for sport participation of university students. Three different characteristics were identified form factor analysis. 1. Subjective Estimate of self-fitness or Results of “Shin Tairyoku Test (New fitness Test)” is not effective to motivate for regular sport participation in university students. 2. The Higher frequency of sports participation increases motivation of regular sport participation in university ...

  6. Subjective, psychomotor, and analgesic effects of oral codeine and morphine in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D J; Zacny, J P

    1998-11-01

    The subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects of analgesic doses of oral codeine and morphine were examined in 12 healthy volunteers. Subjects ingested placebo, morphine 20 or 40 mg, or codeine 60 or 120 mg in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The smaller and larger doses of each drug were putatively equianalgesic, and the cold-pressor test was included to test this assumption. Codeine and morphine increased ratings of "feel drug effect" but had little effect on other subjective measures, including the Addiction Research Center Inventory, visual analog scales, and adjective checklists. The few subjective effects that were observed were modest and were dose-related for morphine but not for codeine. The drugs did not affect performance on Maddox-Wing, digit-symbol substitution, coordination, auditory reaction, reasoning, and memory tests. Dose-related decreases in pupil size (miosis) were observed following codeine and morphine. Ratings of pain intensity decreased in a dose-related manner for morphine but not for codeine. Plasma codeine and morphine levels varied as an orderly function of dose. These results suggest that oral codeine and morphine are appropriate drugs for outpatient pain relief because they are effective analgesics at doses that have only modest effects on mood, produce few side effects, and do not impair performance. The results also suggest a possible ceiling effect of codeine on analgesia and subjective effects.

  7. Magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect of reactive sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - XCrxN films

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Xiaofei

    2013-09-01

    The reactive-sputtered polycrystalline Ti1 - xCrxN films with 0.17 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 are ferromagnetic and at x = 0.47 the Curie temperature TC shows a maximum of ~ 120 K. The films are metallic at 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.47, while the films with x = 0.51 and 0.78 are semiconducting-like. The upturn of resistivity below 70 K observed in the films with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.47 is from the effects of the electron-electron interaction and weak localization. The negative magnetoresistance (MR) of the films with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.51 is dominated by the double-exchange interaction, while at x = 0.78, MR is related to the localized magnetic moment scattering at the grain boundaries. The scaling ρxyA/n ∝ ρxx2.19 suggests that the anomalous Hall effect in the polycrystalline Ti1 - xCrxN films is scattering-independent. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insights into the Synergistic Effect of Fungi and Bacteria for Reactive Red Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial contamination is a prevalent problem in fungal dye wastewater decolorization that prevents the development of this technology in practical engineering. New insight into the relationship between fungi and bacteria is given in terms of settleability, bioadsorption, and biodegradation, which all confirm their synergistic effect. Sterilization is implied to be not the only mechanism for fungi decolorization. When the fungi and bacteria isolated from the activated sludge were cocultured, fungi removed more than 70% of the reactive red through sole bioadsorption in 5 min and enhanced the settleability of the bacteria group from 7.7 to 18.4 in the aggregation index. Subsequently, the bacteria played a more significant role in dye biodegradation according to the ultraviolet-visible spectrum analysis. They further enhanced the decolorization efficiency to over 80% when cocultured with fungi. Therefore, the advanced bioadsorption and settleability of fungi, combined with the good dye biodegradation ability of bacteria, results in the synergistic effect of the coculture microorganisms.

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of Re-Activated Lunar Dust Stimulant on Human Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust has been of significant concern due to various problems observed on the Apollo missions. Reports from astronauts have shown that the dust may have caused eye and nasal irritation as well as possible hay fever like symptoms. As NASA hopes to go to the Moon within the next few years, we hope to understand the possible toxic effects the dust might have. In these studies, we are looking at the effect of "re-activated" lunar dust stimulant on human bronchial cells. A simple grinding analog as a method of simulating micrometeorite crushing on the moon is used to "activate" the dust stimulant, i.e. capable of producing hydroxyl radicals. These radicals could then interact with human cells and may lead to a loss in membrane integrity and cell death. (Castranova, 1994) Cells are exposed to the dust for 6 and 24 hour intervals to assess cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity is measured by looking at the production of inflammatory cytokines. Cells are exposed to ground and unground stimulant and compared to cytokine production from cells exposed to quartz which have a known toxicity. Here we look at the cytotoxicity of the lunar dust stimulant relative to quartz by measuring the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  10. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  11. Effects of nesfatin-1 on atrial contractility and thoracic aorta reactivity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barutcigil, Ayşe; Tasatargil, Arda

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to examine the effects of nesfatin-1 on thoracic aorta vasoreactivity and to investigate the inotropic and chronotropic effects of nesfatin-1 on the spontaneous contractions of the isolated rat atria. Isolated right atria and thoracic aorta were used in organ baths. The reactivity of the thoracic aorta was evaluated by potassium chloride (KCl), phenylephrine (Phe), acetylcholine (ACh), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). The effects of nesfatin-1 on the spontaneous contractions of the rat atria were also examined. Nesfatin-1 (0.1-100 ng/ml) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation response in rat thoracic aorta. The relaxant responses to nesfatin-1 were inhibited by the removal of endothelium, NO synthase blocker N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10-4 M), and soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10-5 M). Nesfatin-1 (10 ng/ml, 30 min) increased the relaxation responses to either ACh or SNP, and the contractile response to both Phe and KCl did not significantly change in the arteries that were incubated with nesfatin-1 compared with the controls. The thoracic aorta contractions induced by the stepwise addition of Ca2+ to a high KCl solution with no Ca2+ were not significantly changed by nesfatin-1. Under calcium-free conditions, the contractions of the thoracic aorta rings incubated with nesfatin-1 in response to Phe were not significantly lower than those of the rings from the control rats. Nesfatin-1 showed positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat atria. Nesfatin-1 significantly changed the vascular responsiveness in rat thoracic aorta and produced positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on rat atria.

  12. Effect of Resistance Training on Serum Level of C-Reactive Protein (CRP and Fibrinogen in Male Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abbas saremi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Addiction to narcotic drugs is associated with cardiovascular diseases; and increased levels of biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein and fibrinogen are independently correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of resistance training on C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels in drug addicted men. Method: In this quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest, the number of 30 male addicts was randomly divided into resistance training group (n = 15 and non-sports control group (n = 15. Then, resistance training was conducted within two months, four days a week, and 50 to 60 minutes a day. The serum levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, body compositions, and metabolic parameters were evaluated before and after the training period. Results: After the passage of 8 weeks of resistance training, skeletal muscle strength significantly increased (P < .05. At the same time, levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen significantly decreased in response to resistance training (P < .05. Conclusion: Short-term resistance training program improves muscle mass and strength in the male addicts after drug abstinence and this improvement is associated with reduced levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen.

  13. Pore-scale modelling of the combined effect of physical and chemical heterogeneity on reactive flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T. D. S.; Bijeljic, B.; Blunt, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    We perform direct numerical simulations to study the combined impact of physical and chemical heterogeneity in subsurface rock to provide insights into the source of the discrepancy observed between mineral dissolution rates observed in laboratory experiments and in field-scale natural systems. The ultimate goal of this work is to use pore-scale simulation to compute upscaled properties - such as effective reaction rate - for use in larger-scale models.We present a methodology to simulate multispecies reactive flow through pore-space images obtained from micro-tomography. Using the sequential non-iterative approach, we couple the simulation of the transport equations with an advanced geochemical solver designed specifically for applications that require sequential equilibrium calculations. This geochemical solver uses novel numerical methods for the solution of multiphase chemical equilibrium and kinetics problems in a well-stirred batch model. Our model assumes that reactions can be classified into fast reactions, which are considered to be in equilibrium, and slow reactions, considered to be controlled by kinetics. This assumption of partial equilibrium simplifies the problem by replacing differential equations with algebraic ones. We allow for chemical heterogeneity of the solid phase by associating each voxel to a different mineral and reaction rate. A steady-state flow problem is solved in the pore space using a finite volume method to calculate the velocity field. Then we solve an advection-diffusion equation for the concentration and, modelling each liquid voxel as a well-mixed batch with a solid wall where applicable, we calculate reaction using the aforementioned geochemical solver. Both fluid-fluid and fluid-solid reactions are considered, geometry changes due to dissolution and precipitation are taken into account, and the velocity field is updated. We present the validation tests for acidic brine injected into rock for a range of transport (P

  14. Interactive effects of reactive nitrogen and climate change on US water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, J.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Finlay, J. C.; Chan, F.; Nolan, B. T.; Howarth, B.; Hall, E.; Boyer, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources and aquatic ecosystems are increasingly strained by withdrawals for agriculture and drinking water supply, nitrogen and other pollutant inputs, and climate change. We describe current and projected effects of the interactions of reactive nitrogen (N) and climate change on water resources of the United States. As perturbations to the N cycle intensify in a warmer less predictable climate, interactions will negatively affect the services we expect of our water resources. There are also feedbacks to the climate system itself through the production of greenhouse gases. We conclude: 1. Nitrogen concentrations will increase in the nation's waters from increased N loading and higher N mineralization rates. N export from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems exhibits a high sensitivity to climate variations. 2. Consequences range from eutrophication and acidification, which reduce natural biodiversity and harm economically valuable fisheries, to adverse impacts on human health. 3. Extreme flood events have the potential to transport N rapidly long distances downstream from its source. 4. A recent national assessment found 67% of streams derived more than 37% of their total nitrate load from base flow often derived from groundwater. Long residence times for groundwater nitrate below agricultural fields may cause benefits from proper N management practices to take decades to be realized under current and future climates. 5. Streams, wetlands, rivers, lakes, estuaries and continental shelves are hotspots for denitrification. Maintenance of N removal capacity thus a critical component of eutrophication management under changing climate and land use conditions. 6. The amount of N inputs from fertilizer and manure use, human population, and deposition is tightly coupled with hydrology to influence the rates and proportion of N emitted to the atmosphere as N2O. About 20% of global N2O emissions come from groundwater, lakes, rivers, and estuaries; stream and wetland

  15. The effect of mode of delivery on placental chorionic plate vascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Tracey A; Baker, Philip N; Wareing, Mark

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether delivery mode influences placental chorionic plate arterial and venous vascular reactivity. Normal term placentas were obtained after vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Chorionic plate arterial and venous function was assessed by wire myography. Sodium nitroprusside-induced arterial relaxation increased post cesarean section at 20% oxygen. Decreased U46619-induced venous contraction was observed in vaginal deliveries at 7% oxygen. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation increased in vaginal delivery at 20% oxygen. Delivery mode does not alter chorionic plate arterial vascular reactivity under physiological conditions, however venous reactivity was modified, a factor for consideration when interpreting functional experimental data.

  16. Measuring short-term and long-term physiological stress effects by cortisol reactivity in saliva and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holland, Berry J.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the concurrent relationship between short-term and long-term stress reactivity measured by cortisol excretion and (2) the relationship of these physiological stress effects with self-reported stress and need for recovery after work (NFR). Participants

  17. Live Video Classroom Observation: An Effective Approach to Reducing Reactivity in Collecting Observational Information for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of live video classroom observations of teaching practice to reduce reactivity (the observer effect) so as to obtain more credible observational information for teacher professional development in a secondary school in the largest city in southern China. Although much has been discussed regarding the use of…

  18. Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO) Oleocanthal and Oleacein Content on Platelet Reactivity in Healthy Adults. Roberta R Holt1, Karan Agarwal1, Xuequi Li2, Eleni Melliou3, Theresa Pedersen1, Selina Wang2, Dan Flynn2, Prokopios Magiatis3, John W Newman1,4 1Department of Nutrition, and 2UC Davis ...

  19. The reactive element effect; ionic processes of grain-boundary segregation and diffusion in chromium oxide scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, E.A.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The transport processes in chromium oxide reviewed here, are related to the basic ionic processes in oxide. Solid state science has been effective in describing the complicated diffusion-controlled oxide growth of chromium and chromia-forming alloys. Additions of reactive elements to chromia-forming

  20. Effects of Biomass Feedstock on the Yield and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Jensen, Peter A.; Glarborg, Peter

    This study investigated the effect of feedstock on the yield, nanostructure and reactivity of soot. Woody and herbaceous biomass were pyrolyzed at high heating rates and temperatures of 1250 and 1400°C in a drop tube furnace. The collected solid residues were structurally characterized by electron...

  1. Effects of attachment-based interventions on maternal sensitivity and infant attachment: differential susceptibility of highly reactive infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velderman, Mariska Klein; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2006-06-01

    The current intervention study aimed at breaking the potential intergenerational cycle of insecure attachment. The authors randomly assigned 81 first-time mothers to one of two intervention groups or a control group. The interventions involved four home visits when the infants were between 7 and 10 months old. The first intervention, VIPP, consisted of video-feedback and brochures to enhance sensitive parenting. The second intervention, VIPP-R, involved additional discussions of mothers' childhood attachment experiences in relation to their current caregiving. After the intervention, intervention mothers were more sensitive than control mothers. The interventions were most effective for highly reactive children and their mothers, providing experimental support for Belsky's (1997) hypothesis of highly reactive versus less reactive children's evolutionary based differential susceptibility to rearing influences. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Human Subject Effects on Torsion Pendulum Oscillations: Further Evidence of Mediation by Convection Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Richard; Linda Baldwin, Ann; Schwartz, Gary E

    When a human subject sits beneath a wire mesh, hemispheric torsion pendulum (TP) a rapid-onset series of oscillations at frequencies both higher and lower than the fundamental frequency of the TP have been consistently observed. This study was designed to replicate and extend prior findings that suggest the human subject effect on TP behavior is due to subject-generated, heat-induced convection currents. Effects on pendulum behavior were tested after draping an aluminized "space blanket" over the subject and by replacing the subject with a thermal mattress pad shaped to approximate the human form. Experiments were performed in a basic science university research laboratory. Real-time recordings and Fast Fourier Transform frequency spectra of pendulum oscillatory movement. The space blanket blocked, while the mattress pad mimicked, the human subject induced complex array of pendulum oscillations. Our findings support and strengthen previous results that suggest the effects of human subjects on behavior of a torsion pendulum are mediated by body-heat-induced air convection rather than an unknown type of biofield. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of reactive oral cholera vaccination in rural Haiti: a case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Louise C; Hilaire, Isabelle J; Teng, Jessica E; Almazor, Charles P; Jerome, J Gregory; Ternier, Ralph; Boncy, Jacques; Buteau, Josiane; Murray, Megan B; Harris, Jason B; Franke, Molly F

    2015-01-01

    Background Between April and June 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was conducted in Haiti using an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine (BivWC). Methods We conducted a case-control study to estimate field effectiveness of the vaccine. Cases had acute watery diarrhea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units from October 24, 2012 through March 9, 2014, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four controls (individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhea) were matched by location of residence, calendar time, and age. We also conducted a bias-indicator case-control study to assess the likelihood of bias in the vaccine effectiveness (VE) study. Findings During the study period, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhea and were enrolled. 47 were analyzed as cases in the VE case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. In multivariable analyses, VE was 63% [95% confidence interval (CI): 8%–85%] by self-reported vaccination and 58% [95% CI: 13%–80%] for verified vaccination. Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhea (VE: 18% [95% CI: −208%–−78%] by self-report and −21% [95%CI: −238%–57%] for verified vaccination). Interpretation BivWC oral cholera vaccine was effective in protecting against cholera in Haiti during the study period –from 4 through 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of epidemic cholera control efforts. Funding National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. PMID:25701994

  5. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and examined the influence of the diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with GLP-1 infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a one...... drug naïve subjects. Exercise-induced increases in insulin secretion are blunted in T2D subjects with high hyperglycaemia and in those using anti-diabetic drugs. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01812590.......-hour walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low quantiles of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c as well as current use/non-use of anti-diabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (P 

  6. Sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity: effects of the gender relevance of the stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, S J; Gillespie, B L; Eisler, R M; Southard, D R

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) in past research are a function of differences in cognitive appraisal of stressors as masculine or feminine tasks. In the present study, we examined the role of the gender relevance of the stressor as a mediator of sex differences in CVR. The CVR of male and female college students (n = 95) to the cold pressor test (CPT) was compared under masculine and gender-neutral instructions during an anticipation phase, a stressor phase, and a recovery phase. Men were expected to show greater CVR than women to the masculine CPT but not to the gender-neutral CPT. Results supported this prediction for systolic blood pressure reactivity and heart rate reactivity but not for diastolic blood pressure reactivity. The potential influence of sex differences in appraisal of situations on CVR and coronary heart disease is discussed.

  7. Impaired effect of relaxin on vasoconstrictor reactivity in spontaneous hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drongelen, J. van; Koppen, A. van; Pertijs, J.; Gooi, J.H.; Sweep, F.C.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Smits, P.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxin is thought to be involved in vasodilation to pregnancy by increasing endothelium-dependent vasodilation and compliance, and decreasing myogenic reactivity. Primary (essential) hypertension predisposes to circulatory maladaptation and subsequent gestational hypertensive disease. This study

  8. The effects of probiotic yoghurt on C-Reactive Protein in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hanoyesadat Ejtahed

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yoghurt improved C-Reactive Protein concentration in type 2 diabetic patients. Probiotic yoghurt consumption is recommended as auxiliary therapy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  9. Cortisol response mediates the effect of post-reactivation stress exposure on contextualization of emotional memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.G.N.; Jacobs van Goethem, T.H.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval of traumatic experiences is often accompanied by strong feelings of distress. Here, we examined in healthy participants whether post-reactivation stress experience affects the context-dependency of emotional memory. First, participants studied words from two distinctive emotional

  10. Effect of compound danshen dropping pill on angina as well as serum c-reactive protein (CRP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill on angina as well as serum C-reactive protein (CRP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP so as to provide reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Patients with angina treated in our hospital from February 2010 to August 2015 were enrolled in this research. The effect of Compound Danshen Dropping Pill on angina as well as serum C reaction protein (CRP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were analyzed. 110 cases of healthy subjects receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were taken as control. Results: After treatment, the duration of angina significantly decreased, the frequency of angina pectoris attack significantly decreased, and serum inflammatory factors IL1, IL2 and IL6 as well as Hcy, TG, TC and LDL levels significantly decreased while HDL, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels significantly increased, and compared with before treatment, differences were with notable statistical significance. Conclusion: Compound Danshen Dropping Pill can effectively treat angina, which is related to its regulation of serum C-reactive protein, brain natriuretic peptide and inflammatory factor levels.

  11. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F

    2011-10-31

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anchored metal nanoparticles: effects of support and size on their energy, sintering resistance and reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles T; Sellers, Jason R V

    2013-01-01

    Many catalysts consist of metal nanoparticles anchored to the surfaces of oxide supports. These are key elements in technologies for the clean production and use of fuels and chemicals. We show here that the chemical reactivity of the surface metal atoms on these nanoparticles is closely related to their chemical potential: the higher their chemical potential, the more strongly they bond to small adsorbates. Controlling their chemical potential by tuning the structural details of the material can thus be used to tune their reactivity. As their chemical potential increases, this also makes the metal surface less noble, effectively pushing its behavior upwards and to the left in the periodic table. Also, when the metal atoms are in a nanoparticle with higher chemical potential, they experience a larger thermodynamic driving force to sinter. Calorimetric measurements of metal vapor adsorption energies onto clean oxide surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum show that the chemical potential increases with decreasing particle size below 6 nm, and, for a given size, decreases with the adhesion energy between the metal and its support, Eadh. The structural factors that control the metal/oxide adhesion energy are thus also keys for tuning catalytic performance. For a given oxide, Eadh increases with (deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx)/OmegaM2/3 for the metal, where deltaHsub,M is its heat of sublimation, deltaHf,MOx is the standard heat of formation of that metal's most stable oxide (per mole of metal), and OmegaM is the atomic volume of the bulk solid metal. The value deltaHsub,M--deltaHf,MOx equals the heat of formation of that metal's oxide from a gaseous metal atom plus O2(g), so it reflects the strength of the chemical bonds which that metal atom can make to oxygen, and OmegaM2/3 simply normalizes this energy to the area per metal atom, since Eadh is the adhesion energy per unit area. For a given metal, Eadh to different clean oxide surfaces increases as: MgO(100) approximately TiO2

  13. Effects of metal ions on the reactivity and corrosion electrochemistry of Fe/FeS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Turcio-Ortega, David; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2014-04-01

    Nano-zerovalent iron (nZVI) formed under sulfidic conditions results in a biphasic material (Fe/FeS) that reduces trichloroethene (TCE) more rapidly than nZVI associated only with iron oxides (Fe/FeO). Exposing Fe/FeS to dissolved metals (Pd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), and Mn(2+)) results in their sequestration by coprecipitation as dopants into FeS and FeO and/or by electroless precipitation as zerovalent metals that are hydrogenation catalysts. Using TCE reduction rates to probe the effect of metal amendments on the reactivity of Fe/FeS, it was found that Mn(2+) and Cu(2+) decreased TCE reduction rates, while Pd(2+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) increased them. Electrochemical characterization of metal-amended Fe/FeS showed that aging caused passivation by growth of FeO and FeS phases and poisoning of catalytic metal deposits by sulfide. Correlation of rate constants for TCE reduction (kobs) with electrochemical parameters (corrosion potentials and currents, Tafel slopes, and polarization resistance) and descriptors of hydrogen activation by metals (exchange current density for hydrogen reduction and enthalpy of solution into metals) showed the controlling process changed with aging. For fresh Fe/FeS, kobs was best described by the exchange current density for activation of hydrogen, whereas kobs for aged Fe/FeS correlated with electrochemical descriptors of electron transfer.

  14. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine leaves under water stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Zou, Ying-Ning; Xia, Ren-Xue

    2007-04-01

    In a pot experiment, this paper studied the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch inoculation on the reactive oxygen metabolism of Citrus tangerine Hort. ex Tanaka leaves under water stress. The results showed that water stress decreased the colonization of G. versiforme on C. tangerine roots significantly, with a decrement of 33%. Under normal water supply and water stress, G. versiforme inoculation increased the leaf P content by 45% and 27%, and decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents by 25% and 21%, and 16% and 16%, respectively, compared with the control. Inoculation with G. versiforme enhanced the activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increased the contents of leaf soluble protein, ascorbate (ASC) and total ascorbate (TASC) notably, regardless soil moisture condition. Under water stress, G. versiforme inoculation decreased the leaf superoxide anion radical (O2-*) content by 31%, compared with that under normal water supply. It was suggested that the drought resistance of C. tangerine leaves was enhanced after G. versiforme inoculation.

  15. Effects of pregnancy, hypertension and nitric oxide inhibition on rat uterine artery myogenic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Carolyn; Mandala, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of hypertension and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition on myogenic tone in uterine arteries during pregnancy. Premyometrial radial uterine arteries from nonpregnant and late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated for myogenic reactivity from the following groups: control, hypertensive/NO-inhibited (L-NAME treatment) and normotensive/NO-inhibited (L-NAME plus hydralazine). In both nonpregnant and pregnant animals, L-NAME treatment significantly elevated blood pressures, while the addition of hydralazine made the animals normotensive. In nonpregnant animals, little myogenic tone was seen in controls; tone increased significantly in the L-NAME group, and was attenuated in those treated with L-NAME plus hydralazine. In pregnant animals, controls developed significant tone; this was reduced in the L-NAME group, and returned to control levels in the L-NAME plus hydralazine group. Dimensional measurements showed that arteries from the pregnant hypertensive group did not undergo expansive remodeling, suggesting that tone development is related to phenotypic alterations in vascular smooth muscle and/or altered physical forces secondary to adaptive changes in arterial diameter. These differences implicate pregnancy-specific pathways in the development and inhibition of myogenic tone, and point to potentially opposing roles of NO and hypertension. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The Effects of Daily Co-Occurrence of Affect on Older Adults’ Reactivity to Health Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Design Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS) and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60–79 years, M=71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80–89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect on eight consecutive days. Results An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health, and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (Health Stressor X Age Group X Co-Occurrence of Affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. Conclusion These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain specific stressors. PMID:26518259

  17. The effects of daily co-occurrence of affect on older adults' reactivity to health stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jennifer L; Neupert, Shevaun D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Spiro, Avron

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined age differences among older adults in the daily co-occurrence of affect and its potential role in buffering the negative effects of health stressors. Participants were from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study and included 249 young-old adults (age = 60-79 years, M = 71.6) and 64 old-old adults (age = 80-89, M = 82.9) who completed questionnaires assessing stressors, physical health symptoms, and positive and negative affect for eight consecutive days. An independent samples t-test showed young-old and old-old adults did not significantly differ in their mean levels of daily co-occurrence of affect. The between-person relationships among stressors, health and daily co-occurrence of affect revealed that neither stressors nor health were significantly related to daily co-occurrence of affect. However, results from a multilevel model revealed a three-way cross-level interaction (health stressor × age group × co-occurrence of affect) where old-old adults with higher levels of co-occurrence of affect were less emotionally reactive to health stressors than young-old adults. These findings provide support for the assertion that co-occurrence of affect functions in an adaptive capacity and highlight the importance of examining domain-specific stressors.

  18. Characterizing switching and congruency effects in the Implicit Association Test as reactive and proactive cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgard, Joseph; Bartholow, Bruce D; Dickter, Cheryl L; Blanton, Hart

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has identified an important role for task switching, a cognitive control process often associated with executive functioning, in the Implicit Association Test (IAT). However, switching does not fully account for IAT effects, particularly when performance is scored using more recent d-score formulations. The current study sought to characterize multiple control processes involved in IAT performance through the use of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). Participants performed a race-evaluative IAT while ERPs were recorded. Behaviorally, participants experienced superadditive reaction time costs of incongruency and task switching, consistent with previous studies. The ERP showed a marked medial frontal negativity (MFN) 250-450 ms post-stimulus at midline fronto-central locations that were more negative for incongruent than congruent trials but more positive for switch than for no-switch trials, suggesting separable control processes are engaged by these two factors. Greater behavioral IAT bias was associated with both greater switch-related and congruency-related ERP activity. Findings are discussed in terms of the Dual Mechanisms of Control model of reactive and proactive cognitive control. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Effect of cation exchange on the subsequent reactivity of lignite chars to steam. [108 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E. J.; Walker, Jr., P. L.

    1977-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role which cations in coal play in the subsequent reactivity of chars. It is hoped that this investigation will aid in an understanding of the catalytic nature of inorganic constituents in coal during its gasification. It was found that increased heat treatment temperature decreased reactivity. The decrease in reactivity was shown to be due, at least in part, to the changes in the nature of the cation with increased heat treatment temperature. Reactivity was found to be a linear function of the amount of Ca(++) exchange on the demineralized coal. The constant utilization factor over the wide range of loadings employed indicated that below 800/sup 0/C the calcium did not markedly sinter. Potassium, sodium, and calcium-containing chars were found to be much more reactive than the iron and magnesium-containing chars. However, the iron and magnesium containing chars were more reactive than chars produced from the demineralized coal. The iron char was highly active at first but the iron phase was quickly oxidized to a comparatively unreactive ..gamma..Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ phase. The state of magnesium was found to be MgO. Sodium and calcium were equally active as catalysts but not as active as potassium.

  20. H/D isotope effects on femtosecond electron reactivity in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauduel, Y.; Pommeret, S.; Migus, A.; Antonetti, A. (Ecole Polytechnique-ENS Techniques Avancees, Palaiseau (France))

    1991-01-24

    The effects of isotope substitution on the primary steps of electron reactivity in aqueous media have been investigated by using femtosecond near-infrared and visible spectroscopy. In neat deuterated water, a precursor of the hydrated electron has been identified. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, this localized state (e{sub prehyd}{sup {minus}}) which absorbs in the infrared is distinct from the fully hydrated state (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}). In neat D{sub 2}O the dynamics of electron localization is slightly slower (9%) than in H{sub 2}O; however, the lifetime of this transient electronic state (250 fs) remains similar to the analogue in light water. The absence of an H/D isotope effect on the electron hydration dynamics is confirmed in ionic aqueous media and in organized assemblies by using an anionic species (chloride ion) and a chromophore (phenothiazine), respectively, as the electron donor. In pure aqueous solutions, the changes due to isotope substitution are mainly observed during the early electron-radical pair recombination (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}} + X{sub 3}O{sub +}, e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}} + OX with X = H or D). The percentage of hydrated electrons involved in the fast recombination is increased in D{sub 2}O. This moderate H/D isotope effect can be linked to a change in the initial spatial distribution of the electron and prototropic radicals. The analysis of the femtosecond kinetics provides evidence that the primary electron-radical pairs (e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}{hor ellipsis}X{sub 3}O{sup +}, e{sub hyd}{sup {minus}}{hor ellipsis}OX) execute a one-dimensional (1D) walk before undergoing recombination.

  1. Immediate Effect of Short-foot Exercise on Dynamic Balance of Subjects with Excessively Pronated Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dong-Chul; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of short-foot exercise (SFE) on the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. [Subjects] This study included 18 subjects with excessively pronated feet (navicular drop ≥ 10 mm) selected using the navicular drop test. [Methods] The limit of stability (LOS) was measured to determine the changes in the dynamic balance from before and after SFE in the standing and sitting positions. [Result] After the SFE, LOS increased significantly in all areas, namely, the left, right, front, back, and overall. [Conclusion] SFE immediately improved the dynamic balance of subjects with excessively pronated feet. Subsequent studies will be conducted to examine the effects of SFE performed over the long term on postural stability.

  2. Metformin effects on peripheral sensitivity to insulin in non diabetic obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendri, S; Debussche, X; Puy, H; Vincent, O; Marcelli, J M; Dubreuil, A; Lalau, J D

    1993-01-01

    Using the euglycaemic insulin-clamp technique we examined the effects of one-month metformin treatment on peripheral glucose utilization in non diabetic obese subjects. Two groups of obese subjects were studied in comparison with untreated lean women. Group 1 (n = 6) experienced weight loss (BMI: 32.6 +/- 1.7 vs 34.8 +/- 1.6 kg/m2, p metformin treatment the mean Km decreased by 31% in group 1 (p diabetic obese subjects, metformin seems not to affect peripheral insulin-mediated glucose metabolism unless there is weight loss.

  3. Effect of intravenous N-acetylcysteine infusion on haemostatic parameters in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T T; Thorsen, S; Jensen, S A

    2005-01-01

    volunteers. METHODS: Haemostatic parameters in 10 healthy subjects were analysed before and following intravenous infusion of therapeutic doses of N-acetylcysteine, as well as in vitro. RESULTS: N-acetylcysteine induced significant decreases in plasma levels of vitamin K dependent haemostatic proteins...... in vivo, being maximal at one hour following the start of infusion, with maximal decreases from 1.00 to 0.73 (0.67-0.79) (mean (95% confidence interval)), 0.66 (0.58-0.73), 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.64 (0.57-0.70), 0.74 (0.65-0.82), and 0.61 (0.54-0.67) for factor II, VII, IX, and X activities, protein C...... activity, and free protein S reactivity, respectively. These data suggest that N-acetylcysteine induces protein modifications affecting activity. Five subjects developed an adverse reaction to infusion of N-acetylcysteine and these were associated with a rapid increase in levels of factor VIII and its...

  4. The effect of teacher interpersonal behaviour on students' subject-specific motivation

    OpenAIRE

    den Brok, P.; Levy, J.; Brekelmans, M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2006-01-01

    This study brings together insights from research on teaching and learning in specific subjects, learning environments research and effectiveness research by linking teacher interpersonal behaviour to students’ subject-related attitudes. Teaching was studied in terms of a model originating from clinical psychology that was adapted to education. Teacher interpersonal behaviour was analysed interms of two, independent behaviour dimensions called Influence and Proximity. This study investigated ...

  5. Acute effects of LSD on amygdala activity during processing of fearful stimuli in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, F.; Lenz, C; Dolder, P C; S. Harder; Schmid, Y; Lang, U E; Liechti, M E; Borgwardt, S.

    2017-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) induces profound changes in various mental domains, including perception, self-awareness and emotions. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the acute effects of LSD on the neural substrate of emotional processing in humans. Using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over study design, placebo or 100??g LSD were orally administered to 20 healthy subjects before the fMRI scan, taking into account the subjective and pharmacological pea...

  6. The Effects of Music on Subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia Disease in Cache Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Music has been shown to trigger old memories and induce various levels of stress relief and relaxation. My research focused on the effects of music on subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia disease. Eleven patients were selected through an informed consent process which included permission from responsible family members. During the course of three or more visits to patients in their care centers, the subjects listened to a variety of songs. These included songs that family members thought woul...

  7. Effects of lutein-enriched egg yolk in buttermilk or skimmed milk on serum lipids & lipoproteins of mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severins, N; Mensink, R P; Plat, J

    2015-02-01

    Earlier studies in our group suggested that traditionally prepared buttermilk influences cholesterol metabolism. We therefore designed a study to evaluate whether traditionally prepared buttermilk lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and/or prevents the LDL-C raising effect of egg yolks. Mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly allocated to one of four diet groups consuming daily at lunch 80 ml skimmed milk with (n = 23) or without (n = 25) lutein-enriched egg yolk (28 g from 1.5 eggs providing 323 mg cholesterol) or traditionally prepared buttermilk with (n = 23) or without (n = 21) lutein-enriched egg yolk during a 12 week period. Fasting blood samples were taken to measure concentrations of serum lipids, (apo)lipoproteins, liver and kidney function markers, and plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Egg yolk consumption significantly increased serum total cholesterol (total-C) (p = 0.035) and LDL-C concentrations (p = 0.022). Buttermilk did not change the effects of egg yolk on serum lipids and (apo)lipoproteins. There was a trend towards significant lower total-C (p = 0.077), but not LDL-C (p = 0.204) concentrations in the buttermilk groups. Plasma lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations increased significantly (p < 0.001) in the egg yolk groups. In mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects, daily consumption of traditionally prepared buttermilk for 12 weeks did not lower serum total-C or LDL-C concentrations, nor did it prevent the serum total-C and LDL-C raising effect of daily egg yolk consumption. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01566305. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The mediating effect of mindful non-reactivity in exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Hesser, Hugo; Andersson, Erik; Axelsson, Erland; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2017-08-01

    Exposure-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of severe health anxiety, but little is known about mediators of treatment effect. The aim of the present study was to investigate mindful non-reactivity as a putative mediator of health anxiety outcome using data from a large scale randomized controlled trial. We assessed mindful non-reactivity using the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire-Non-Reactivity scale (FFMQ-NR) and health anxiety with the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI). Participants with severe health anxiety (N=158) were randomized to internet-delivered exposure-based CBT or behavioral stress management (BSM) and throughout the treatment, both the mediator and outcome were measured weekly. As previously reported, exposure-based CBT was more effective than BSM in reducing health anxiety. In the present study, latent process growth modeling showed that treatment condition had a significant effect on the FFMQ-NR growth trajectory (α-path), estimate=0.18, 95% CI [0.04, 0.32], p=.015, indicating a larger increase in mindful non-reactivity among participants receiving exposure-based CBT compared to the BSM group. The FFMQ-NR growth trajectory was significantly correlated with the SHAI trajectory (β-path estimate=-1.82, 95% CI [-2.15, -1.48], pmindful non-reactivity may be of importance for achieving successful treatment outcomes in exposure-based CBT for severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of CPAP therapy on C-reactive protein and cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu Qing; Liao, Qing Chi; Xu, Xing Xiang; Sun, Li; Wang, Jing; Chen, Rui

    2016-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with neurocognitive impairment. We examined the role of the systemic inflammatory response, measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assay, and the effect of CPAP treatment on hsCRP and cognitive impairment in patients with OSAHS. Eligible subjects (n = 178) were categorized into two groups: absent or mild OSAHS, and moderate to severe OSAHS. First, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and serum hsCRP concentration were measured. Then, the moderate to severe OSAHS group was further divided into a conservative treatment subgroup (n = 68) and a CPAP subgroup (n = 68). After 6 months of treatment, MoCA scores and hsCRP concentrations were re-measured in the moderate to severe group. Compared with the absent or mild OSAHS group, hsCRP concentration was higher (1.00 ± 1.28 mg/L versus 2.71 ± 1.8, p education, body mass index, and neck circumference, hsCRP and MoCA scores correlated with parameters of overnight hypoxia. hsCRP and the proportion of time spent with blood oxygen saturation CPAP treatment subgroup. In conservatively managed patients, hsCRP concentration increased, and there was no improvement in neurocognitive dysfunction, with the memory subdomain significantly worse. hsCRP may play a role in neurocognitive dysfunction in OSAHS. Long-term CPAP treatment could normalize the serum hsCRP concentration and partially reverse cognitive dysfunction in OSAHS.

  10. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  11. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  12. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone responsiveness to low sodium and blood pressure reactivity to angiotensin-II are unrelated to cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, Jan A.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Navis, Gerjan; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The blood pressure increase associated with the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor, torcetrapib is probably attributable to an off-target effect but it is unknown whether activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) may be related to variation in the

  14. Effects of methyl group on aromatic hydrocarbons on the nanostructures and oxidative reactivity of combustion-generated soot

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrero Peña, Gerardo D.J.

    2016-07-23

    The substituted and unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons, present in transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel, are thought to be responsible for most of the soot particles produced during their combustion. However, the effects of the substituted alkyl groups on the aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting tendencies, and on the physical and chemical properties of soot produced from them are not well understood. In this work, the effect of the presence of methyl groups on aromatic hydrocarbons on their sooting propensity, and on the oxidative reactivity, morphology, and chemical composition of soot generated from them in diffusion flames is studied using benzene, toluene, and m-xylene as fuels. Several experimental techniques including high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to identify the morphological changes in soot, whereas the elemental and thermo-gravimetric analyses, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to study the changes in its chemical properties and reactivity. The activation energies for soot oxidation are calculated at different conversion levels, and a trend in the reactivity of soots from benzene, toluene and m-xylene is reported. It is observed that the sizes of primary particles and graphene-like sheets, and the concentrations of aliphatics and oxygenated groups in soot particles decreased with the addition of methyl group(s) on the aromatic ring. The physicochemical changes in soot are found to support the oxidative reactivity trends. © 2016 The Combustion Institute

  15. Effects of adverse childhood experiences on the association between intranasal oxytocin and social stress reactivity among individuals with cocaine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Julianne C; Baker, Nathaniel L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T; Moran-Santa Maria, Margaret M

    2015-09-30

    Drug dependence and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are commonly reflected by dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Accumulating research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin may regulate HPA function, resulting in reductions in neuroendocrine reactivity to social stress among individuals with drug dependence. However, emerging literature suggests that individual differences may differentially impact intranasal oxytocin's effects on human social behaviors. This study employed a double-blind, placebo-controlled design to examine the extent to which ACE influenced the effects of intranasal oxytocin (40IU) on neuroendocrine reactivity to a laboratory social stress paradigm in a sample of 31 cocaine-dependent individuals. ACE scores modified the relationship between intranasal oxytocin and cortisol reactivity. While ACE modified the relationship between intranasal oxytocin and DHEA response in a similar direction to what was seen in cortisol, it did not reach statistical significance. Findings are congruent with the emerging hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin may differentially attenuate social stress reactivity among individuals with specific vulnerabilities. Future research examining the nuances of intranasal oxytocin's therapeutic potential is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reactivity of alpha rhythms to eyes opening (the Berger effect) during menstrual cycle phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, Olga M; Nikolenko, Ekaterina D; Barry, Robert J

    2017-12-01

    The impact of the menstrual cycle on the alpha EEG reactivity to eyes opening (Berger effect) was studied in relation to hormonal and EMG indices. Repeated measurements of salivary progesterone and cortisol, forehead EMG, and EEG alpha-activity indices in 76 healthy women aged 18-27 were obtained in resting eyes closed (1min) and eyes open (30s) conditions. Ten recording sessions occurred, at 2-3day intervals, during 1-2 menstrual cycles. For example, if a participant had a menstrual cycle length of 30-32days, she could finish the investigation during 1cycle, but if she had a 24day cycle, she would finish the investigation over 1 1/2cycles. 6 women extended their investigation into a second cycle. The personal points of each woman's phase data were averaged before being used in group analyses. EEG and EMG responses to eyes open showed that magnitude of α-1 amplitude suppression corresponds to increasing EMG and salivary cortisol concentration only at the Follicular phase, when low alpha frequency waves are dominant in combination with low progesterone level. The magnitude of alpha suppression in response to eyes open in the upper α-2 frequency range does not vary with the menstrual cycle. The Luteal phase corresponds to the highest level of salivary progesterone and is associated with enhancement of the α-bandwidth. The most prominent reaction of salivary cortisol level, forehead EMG, and alpha EEG power to opening of the eyes occurs in the Follicular phase. This research reveals the dependence of the EEG Berger effect on the hormonal state and EEG alpha frequency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms and C-reactive protein in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migarine is the most common headache around the world including Iran. In recent years, Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to a global health problem. A few studies have been determined inverse association between serum levels of Vitamin D with a headache. So, in this study, we investigated the effect of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms and C-reactive protein (CRP among patients with migraine. Materials and Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, and controlled-placebo clinical trial. Sixty-five migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included for analysis. Vitamin D was administrated for 10 weeks with 50,000 IU dosage of Vitamin D per week. Multivariate analysis of covariate and univariate analysis of covariate were done to determine the effects of Vitamin D supplementation on symptoms, including severity, duration, frequency of headache, and the headache diary result (HDR. Results: Mean headache frequency and HDR had significant difference among two groups (5.9 ± 7.0 vs. 7.0 ± 6.0, P = 0.06 and 85.0 ± 134.2 vs. 132.1 ± 147.1, P = 0.04. But, a mean difference of headache frequency was marginally significant (P = 0.06. These values were lower among the intervention group compared to placebo group. The association was not observed between CRP with migraine disease. Conclusion: In this study, we shown Vitamin D supplementation may be useful in decreasing frequency of headache attacks and HDR among patients with migraine.

  18. Effects of C60 on the Photochemical Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species from Natural Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lijuan; Zhou, Huaxi; Lian, Lushi; Yan, Shuwen; Song, Weihua

    2016-11-01

    Buckminsterfullerenes (C60) are widely used nanomaterials that are present in surface water. The combination of C60 and humic acid (HA) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) under solar irradiation, but this process is not well understood. Thus, the present study focused on the photochemical formation of singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (HO•)-like species, superoxide radicals (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and triplet excited states (3C60*/3HA*) in solutions containing both C60 and HA. The quantum yield coefficients of excited triplet states (fTMP) and apparent quantum yields of ROS were measured and compared to the calculated values, which were based on the conservative mixing model. Although C60 proved to have only a slight impact on the 1O2 formation from HA, C60 played a key role in the inhibition of O2•-. The photochemical formation of H2O2 followed the conservative mixing model due to the reaction of C60•- with HO2•/O2•-, and the biomolecular reaction rate constant has been measured as (7.4 ± 0.6) × 106 M-1 s-1. The apparent fTMP was significantly lower than the calculated value, indicating that the steric effect of HA was significant in the reaction of 3C60* with the TMP probe. In contrast, C60 did not have an effect on the photochemical formation of HO• from HA, suggesting that HO• is elevated from the hydrophilic surface of HA. The aforementioned results may be useful for predicting the photochemical influence of C60 on aqueous environments.

  19. Investigation on the effects of ciclosporin (Atopica) on intradermal test reactivity and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Candice; Rosser, Edmund; Petersen, Annette; Hauptman, Joe

    2010-08-01

    The ability to use ciclosporin (Atopica®: Novartis Animal Health, Greensboro, NC, USA) prior to intradermal testing (IDT) would help avoid exacerbation of clinical disease that can be associated with drug withdrawal. This study evaluated the effects of 30 days of administration of ciclosporin at a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily on IDT reactivity (immediate phase reactions) in a group of dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) with initial positive IDT reactions. 16 dogs diagnosed with AD were included in the study. Eight dogs (group A) were treated with ciclosporin orally at 5 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. Eight dogs (group P) were treated with a placebo orally once daily for 30 days. IDT was performed at day 0 and day 30 on all dogs enrolled using a standardized panel of 45 aqueous allergens (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, NC, USA) appropriate to our geographical region. IDT reactivity was assessed by both subjective and objective methods at 15 min post-intradermal injection. Serum for allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology was obtained at day 0 and day 30. The study was designed as a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Data were analysed using a split-plot analysis of variance with the grouping factor of treatment and the repeat factor of time (SAS System for Windows). At week 4, ciclosporin did not have a statistically significant effect on IDT reactivity or serology results. It therefore appears that, no withdrawal is recommended to evaluate immediate phase reactions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Feeling sad makes us feel older: Effects of a sad-mood induction on subjective age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Anne J; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2017-08-01

    A mood-induction paradigm was implemented in a sample of 144 adults covering midlife and old age (40-80 years) to investigate associations between mood and subjective age. Sad or neutral mood was induced by texts and music pieces. Subjective age was operationalized as felt age relative to chronological age. Participants receiving the sad-mood induction reported changes toward older felt ages from pre- to postinduction. Participants receiving the neutral-mood induction reported comparable levels of subjective age at pre- and postinduction. Effects were comparable across middle- and older aged participants. Results suggest that sad affective states might dampen subjective age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Decreased glial reactivity could be involved in the antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V; Llorente, Ricardo; Del Bel, Elaine A; Viveros, Maria-Paz; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2015-05-01

    NMDA receptor hypofunction could be involved, in addition to the positive, also to the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits found in schizophrenia patients. An increasing number of data has linked schizophrenia with neuroinflammatory conditions and glial cells, such as microglia and astrocytes, have been related to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotomimetic constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties induces antipsychotic-like effects. The present study evaluated if repeated treatment with CBD (30 and 60 mg/kg) would attenuate the behavioral and glial changes observed in an animal model of schizophrenia based on the NMDA receptor hypofunction (chronic administration of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, for 28 days). The behavioral alterations were evaluated in the social interaction and novel object recognition (NOR) tests. These tests have been widely used to study changes related to negative symptoms and cognitive deficits of schizophrenia, respectively. We also evaluated changes in NeuN (a neuronal marker), Iba-1 (a microglia marker) and GFAP (an astrocyte marker) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens core and shell, and dorsal hippocampus by immunohistochemistry. CBD effects were compared to those induced by the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Repeated MK-801 administration impaired performance in the social interaction and NOR tests. It also increased the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the mPFC and the percentage of Iba-1-positive microglia cells with a reactive phenotype in the mPFC and dorsal hippocampus without changing the number of Iba-1-positive cells. No change in the number of NeuN-positive cells was observed. Both the behavioral disruptions and the changes in expression of glial markers induced by MK-801 treatment were attenuated by repeated treatment with CBD or clozapine. These data reinforces the proposal

  2. Effect of Metaboreflex on Cardiovascular System in Subjects of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pramita; Tiwari, Sunita; Bajpai, Manish; Singh, Kalpana; Jha, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Metaboreflex is a reflex in which muscle receptors send signals regarding metabolic (metabolites accumulation like lactic acid, potassium, adenosine) conditions of the muscles to nucleus tractus solitarius via afferent III and IV fibres to cause haemodynamic adjustments in order to regulate blood flow on the basis of the status of contracting muscle. Dysregulation in its mechanism in metabolic syndrome is demonstrated. To study the effect of metaboreflex by both isometric and rhythmic handgrip exercise on CVS parameters {Blood Pressure (BP), Cardiac Output (CO) and Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)} in subjects of metabolic syndrome. In this study, 27 subjects aged 25 to 45 years were enrolled after ethical clearance and proper consent. They were divided into: a) subjects without metabolic syndrome; and b) subjects with metabolic syndrome. Impedance cardiovasography was done to assess cardiac parameters (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance). Pre-exercise parameters were assessed followed by isometric exercise and post-isometric exercise parameter measurement. Again after rest, rhythmic exercise was followed. Finally post exercise parameters were assessed. Student paired t-test for comparison between pre and post exercise parameters were done. Changes in diastolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant, but to a lesser extent (p-value 0.1 and 0.01 respectively for isometric and rhythmic exercise). Changes in systolic BP following exercise were statistically significant in subjects without metabolic syndrome (p-value 0.001 and 0.001 following isometric and rhythmic exercise respectively). In subjects with metabolic syndrome also these changes were significant (p-value 0.01 and 0.001 respectively for isometric and

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Babu. K; Lisa Michael Pereira; Sai Kumar. N; Ayyappan. V.R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disab...

  4. On doubly stratified chemically reactive flow of Powell–Eyring liquid subject to non-Fourier heat flux theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    Full Text Available This investigation addresses the chemical reaction and double stratification effects in the flow induced by a nonlinear stretching surface with variable thickness. Flow formulation is developed using rheological expressions of Eyring–Powell liquid. Salient features of heat transfer are examined by considering non-Fourier heat flux model. Formulation is arranged for variable thermal conductivity. Flux model under consideration is the generalized form of Fourier’s classical expression with thermal relaxation time. Ordinary differential systems are obtained through implementation of appropriate transformations. Convergent series solutions are constructed. Non-dimensional velocity, temperature, concentration, skin friction and Sherwood number are displayed and discussed. It is anticipated that thermal and concentration stratified parameters decay the temperature and concentration respectively. Keywords: Double stratification, Chemical reaction, Eyring–Powell liquid, Non-Fourier heat flux model, Variable thermal conductivity

  5. Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids on Cortisol and Heart Rate Reactivity of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sandra J; Niemann, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    Administration of glucocorticoids (GCs) during pregnancy is an established practice for reducing morbidity and mortality of fetuses at risk of preterm delivery. However, preliminary research indicates that exposure to exogenous GCs in utero may be associated with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether preterm neonates who are exposed to antenatal corticosteroids show evidence of a suppressed stress-response system during their first few weeks of life, in contrast to infants who are not exposed. The sample (51% female) included 57 neonates, with 74% exposed to steroids. Mean gestational ages (GAs) were 32.6 weeks for exposed and 34.7 weeks for nonexposed infants. Although neonates in the two groups differed in gender, birth weight, and morbidity, these factors were controlled for in data analyses. Infants' salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after they received a standardized caregiving "stressor" while in the newborn intensive care unit. Infants exposed to GCs in utero had lower basal cortisol levels and higher HRs than their nonexposed peers. In contrast to infants who received no GCs, they also exhibited minimal HR or cortisol reactivity to the stressor. Findings suggest that preterm infants who were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids experience a suppressed response to stress. As preterm children develop, this dysregulation has numerous implications for later development of stress-related cardiovascular and mental health problems. Further research is needed to determine whether these postnatal effects of antenatal corticosteroids persist over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. The effect of chronic nitric oxide inhibition on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Hideto Takiuti

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The exact mechanism involved in changes in blood pressure and peripheral vascular resistance during pregnancy is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the importance of endothelium-derivated relaxing factor (EDRF and its main component, nitric oxide, in blood pressure and vascular reactivity in pregnant rats. DESIGN: Clinical trial in experimentation animals. SETTING: University laboratory of Pharmacology. SAMPLE: Female Wistar rats with normal blood pressure, weight (152 to 227 grams and age (90 to 116 days. INTERVENTION: The rats were divided in to four groups: pregnant rats treated with L-NAME (13 rats; pregnant control rats (8 rats; virgin rats treated with L-NAME (10 rats; virgin control rats (12 rats. The vascular preparations and caudal blood pressure were obtained at the end of pregnancy, or after the administration of L-NAME in virgin rats. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The caudal blood pressure and the vascular response to acetylcholine in pre-contracted aortic rings, both with and without endothelium, and the effect of nitric oxide inhibition, Nw-L-nitro-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME, in pregnant and virgin rats. The L-NAME was administered in the drinking water over a 10-day period. RESULTS: The blood pressure decreased in pregnancy. Aortic rings of pregnant rats were more sensitive to acetylcholine than those of virgin rats. After L-NAME treatment, the blood pressure increased and relaxation was blocked in both groups. The fetal-placental unit weight of the L-NAME group was lower than that of the control group. CONCLUSION: Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation sensitivity was greater in pregnant rats and that blood pressure increased after L-NAME administration while the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation response was blocked.

  7. Anomalous strain effect on the thermal conductivity of borophene: a reactive molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Le, Minh-Quy; Rabczuk, Timon; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C.

    2017-09-01

    Borophene, an atomically thin, corrugated, crystalline two-dimensional boron sheet, has been recently synthesized. Here we investigate mechanical properties and lattice thermal conductivity of borophene using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. We performed uniaxial tensile strain simulations at room temperature along in-plane directions, and found 2D elastic moduli of 188 N m-1 and 403 N m-1 along zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. This anisotropy is attributed to the buckling of the borophene structure along the zigzag direction. We also performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity. Considering its size-dependence, we predict room-temperature lattice thermal conductivities of 75.9 ± 5.0 W m-1 K-1 and 147 ± 7.3 W m-1 K-1, respectively, and estimate effective phonon mean free paths of 16.7 ± 1.7 nm and 21.4 ± 1.0 nm for the zigzag and armchair directions. In this case, the anisotropy is attributed to differences in the density of states of low-frequency phonons, with lower group velocities and possibly shorten phonon lifetimes along the zigzag direction. We also observe that when borophene is strained along the armchair direction there is a significant increase in thermal conductivity along that direction. Meanwhile, when the sample is strained along the zigzag direction there is a much smaller increase in thermal conductivity along that direction. For a strain of 8% along the armchair direction the thermal conductivity increases by a factor of 3.5 (250%), whereas for the same amount of strain along the zigzag direction the increase is only by a factor of 1.2 (20%). Our predictions are in agreement with recent first principles results, at a fraction of the computational cost. The simulations shall serve as a guide for experiments concerning mechanical and thermal properties of borophene and related 2D materials.

  8. A Multistage Subunit Vaccine Effectively Protects Mice Against Primary Progressive Tuberculosis, Latency and Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult tuberculosis (TB is the main cause of TB epidemic and death. The infection results mainly by endogenous reactivation of latent TB infection and secondarily transmitted by exogenous infection. There is no vaccine for adult TB. To this end, we first chose antigens from a potential antigenic reservoir. The antigens strongly recognized T cells from latent and active TB infections that responded to antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured under different metabolic states. Fusions of single-stage polyprotein CTT3H, two-stage polyprotein A1D4, and multistage CMFO were constructed. C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with DMT adjuvant ed CMFO (CMFO-DMT were protected more significantly than by CTT3H-DMT, and efficacy was similar to that of the only licensed vaccine, Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG and A1D4-DMT in the M. tuberculosis primary infection model. In the setting of BCG priming and latent TB infection, M. tuberculosis in the lung and spleen was eliminated more effectively in mice boosted with CMFO-DMT rather than with BCG, A1D4-DMT, or CTT3H-DMT. In particular, sterile immunity was only conferred by CMFO-DMT, which was associated with expedited homing of interferon-gamma+CD4+ TEM and interleukin-2+ TCM cells from the spleen to the infected lung. CMFO-DMT represents a promising candidate to prevent the occurrence of adult TB through both prophylactic and therapeutic methods, and warrants assessment in preclinical and clinical trials.

  9. Rapid effects of deep brain stimulation reactivation on symptoms and neuroendocrine parameters in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, P P; Figee, M; Endert, E; van den Munckhof, P; Schuurman, P R; Storosum, J G; Denys, D; Fliers, E

    2016-01-26

    Improvement of obsessions and compulsions by deep brain stimulation (DBS) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is often preceded by a rapid and transient mood elevation (hypomania). In a previous study we showed that improvement of mood by DBS for OCD is associated with a decreased activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal axis. The aim of our present study was to evaluate the time course of rapid clinical changes following DBS reactivation in more detail and to assess their association with additional neuroendocrine parameters. We included therapy-refractory OCD patients treated with DBS (>1 year) and performed a baseline assessment of symptoms, as well as plasma concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, growth hormone, copeptin and homovanillic acid. This was repeated after a 1-week DBS OFF condition. Next, we assessed the rapid effects of DBS reactivation by measuring psychiatric symptom changes using visual analog scales as well as repeated neuroendocrine measures after 30 min, 2 h and 6 h. OCD, anxiety and depressive symptoms markedly increased during the 1-week OFF condition and decreased again to a similar extent already 2 h after DBS reactivation. We found lower plasma prolactin (41% decrease, P=0.003) and TSH (39% decrease, P=0.003) levels during DBS OFF, which increased significantly already 30 min after DBS reactivation. The rapid and simultaneous increase in TSH and prolactin is likely to result from stimulation of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), which may underlie the commonly observed transient mood elevation following DBS.

  10. Attitudes Toward Alzheimer's Care-Seeking Among Korean Americans: Effects of Knowledge, Stigma, and Subjective Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Lee, Sang E

    2017-03-10

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ensures that affected individuals and their caregivers can make appropriate plans for health care needs, yet many ethnic minorities delay seeking care for AD until the disease has progressed. This study examined attitudes toward care-seeking for AD among Korean Americans (KAs) and identified factors affecting their attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from 234 KA adults. We conducted hierarchical regression analyses to examine the effects of sociocultural background (age, gender, education, cultural orientation), AD knowledge and exposure to AD, and beliefs about AD (stigma of pity, shame, and public avoidance) and AD care (subjective norm) on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care from primary care physicians (PCPs) and AD specialists. We also tested whether knowledge of AD moderated the impact of beliefs about AD and AD care on KAs' attitudes toward seeking AD care. For both PCPs and AD specialists, the subjective norm had the strongest effect on KAs' attitudes toward care seeking (β = 0.557 for PCPs, β = 0.360 for specialists). Effects of stigma beliefs disappeared in the presence of the subjective norm. AD knowledge moderated the impact of the subjective norm on the attitudes toward both PCPs (β = -1.653) and specialists (β = -1.742). The significance of the subjective norm in KAs' attitudes toward AD care-seeking underscores the importance of public education, and our study suggests that increasing AD knowledge could facilitate a change in public attitudes toward seeking AD care.

  11. Effect of Masking on Subjective Responses to Daily Disposable Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Nancy; Luensmann, Doerte; Woods, Craig A; Bergenske, Peter; Fahmy, Mary; Fonn, Desmond

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of masking on subjective responses when wearing daily disposable (DD) contact lenses. In an adaptation phase, habitual wearers of Manufacturer-A (MFA) (n = 43) and Manufacturer-B (MFB) (n = 53) wore MFA-brand 1 or MFB-brand 1 DDs, respectively, for 30 days, open-label. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of two experiments. Each experiment included two, 3-day crossover phases. An enhanced version of MFA and MFB lenses (MFA-brand 2 and MFB-brand 2) were worn contralaterally to evaluate potential differences in masking result between manufacturers. Experiment 1: subjects were fully masked to lens and packaging (FM) then unmasked (UM). Experiment 2: subjects were FM then partially masked using an over-label (PM). Comfort ratings (0-100) were recorded for each lens daily and preference between lenses was recorded on day 3 for each crossover phase. The mean difference between 0-100 ratings or preference when FM or PM versus UM for the same lens was considered a measurement of the effect associated with masking. The purpose of the study was withheld from subjects to minimize bias. The effect associated with masking for habitual wearers of MFA and MFB lenses was less than 1 out of 100 (0 ± 2.5) in both experiments. Fifty-eight subjects (60%) expressed no preference when FM. This decreased to 29 (30%) when UM or PM (proportion test, p lenses used in this study but did have an impact on lens preference. Subjects were more likely to express a preference when they handled the lenses and were exposed to the lens packaging and, in some cases, able to read the lens brand and lens manufacturer.

  12. Re-conceptualizing stress: Shifting views on the consequences of stress and its effects on stress reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jenny J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background The consequences of stress are typically regarded from a deficit-oriented approach, conceptualizing stress to be entirely negative in its outcomes. This approach is unbalanced, and may further hinder individuals from engaging in adaptive coping. In the current study, we explored whether negative views and beliefs regarding stress interacted with a stress framing manipulation (positive, neutral and negative) on measures of stress reactivity for both psychosocial and physiological stressors. Method Ninety participants were randomized into one of three framing conditions that conceptualized the experience of stress in balanced, unbalanced-negative or unbalanced-positive ways. After watching a video on stress, participants underwent a psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test), or a physiological (CO2 challenge) method of stress-induction. Subjective and objective markers of stress were assessed. Results Most of the sampled population regarded stress as negative prior to framing. Further, subjective and objective reactivity were greater to the TSST compared to the CO2 challenge. Additionally, significant cubic trends were observed in the interactions of stress framing and stress-induction methodologies on heart rate and blood pressure. Balanced framing conditions in the TSST group had a significantly larger decrease in heart rate and diastolic blood pressure following stress compared to the positive and negative framing conditions. Conclusion Findings confirmed a deficit-orientation of stress within the sampled population. In addition, results highlighted the relative efficacy of the TSST compared to CO2 as a method of stress provocation. Finally, individuals in framing conditions that posited stress outcomes in unbalanced manners responded to stressors less efficiently. This suggests that unbalanced framing of stress may have set forth unrealistic expectations regarding stress that later hindered individuals from adaptive responses to stress. Potential

  13. Effects of caffeine on repeated sprint ability, reactive agility time, sleep and next day performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, K J; Wallman, K E; Dawson, B T; Goodman, C

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of caffeine on repeated sprint ability (RSA), reactive agility time (RAT), sleep and next day exercise performance. Ten moderately trained male athletes (single-blind, randomized, crossover design) ingested either caffeine (6 mg.kg-1 bm) or placebo 1 h before exercise. Trials were performed on the same day one week apart. Performance measures included a RAT test (10 trials¥10.2 m, separated by 30 s), followed by 7 min of active recovery and then a RSA test (five sets of 6¥20 m sprints with 25 or 60 s of recovery). The RSA was then followed by 5 min of active recovery and another RAT. That night, participants wore a wrist sleep actigraph to bed. Next day, participants repeated the RAT and the first set of the RSA tests. Significant improvements were demonstrated after caffeine ingestion compared to placebo for the combined total time of each set (TT; combined sets 1, 3, 5; 58.947±1.88 vs. 59.683±2.54 s, respectively; P=0.05), best sprint time (BT; next day performance; 3.176±0.10 vs. 3.230±0.12 s, respectively, P=0.01), and % decrement (combined sets 2, 4; 2.866±1.24 vs. 3.801±1.69 s, respectively; P=0.02). Moderate to strong effect sizes were found for % decrement for set 2 (Cohen's d=-0.82; 1.312±0.65 vs. 2.110±1.20 s for caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively) and for sets 2 and 4 combined (Cohen's d=-0.63; 2.866±1.24 vs. 3.801±1.69 for caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively). No significant differences were found for RAT or for sleep measures (P>0.05). Caffeine improved RSA, including next day performance, but had little effect on RAT or sleep parameters.

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor-preferring agonist enhances the subjective effects of cocaine in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Thomas F.; Haile, Colin N.; Mahoney, James J.; Shah, Ravi; Verrico, Christopher D.; De La Garza, Richard; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Pramipexole is a D3 dopamine receptor-preferring agonist indicated for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Studies associate pramipexole with pathological gambling and impulse control disorders suggesting a role for D3 receptors in reinforcement processes. Clinical studies showed pramipexole decreased cocaine craving and reversed central deficits in individuals with cocaine use disorder. Preclinical studies have shown acute administration of pramipexole increases cocaine’s reinforcing effects whereas other reports suggest chronic pramipexole produces tolerance to cocaine. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we examined the impact of pramipexole treatment on the subjective effects produced by cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorder. Volunteers received pramipexole titrated up to 3.0 mg/d or placebo over 15 days. Participants then received intravenous cocaine (0, 20 and 40 mg) on day 15. Cardiovascular and subjective effects were obtained with visual analog scales at time points across the session. Pramipexole alone increased peak heart rate following saline and diastolic blood pressure following cocaine. Pramipexole produced upwards of two-fold increases in positive subjective effects ratings following cocaine. These results indicate that chronic D3 receptor activation increases the subjective effects of cocaine in humans. Caution should be used when prescribing pramipexole to patients that may also use cocaine. PMID:26239766

  15. Effect of chemical degradation on fluxes of reactive compounds – a study with a stochastic Lagrangian transport model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rinne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the analyses of VOC fluxes measured above plant canopies, one usually assumes the flux above canopy to equal the exchange at the surface. Thus one assumes the chemical degradation to be much slower than the turbulent transport. We used a stochastic Lagrangian transport model in which the chemical degradation was described as first order decay in order to study the effect of the chemical degradation on above canopy fluxes of chemically reactive species. With the model we explored the sensitivity of the ratio of the above canopy flux to the surface emission on several parameters such as chemical lifetime of the compound, friction velocity, stability, and canopy density. Our results show that friction velocity and chemical lifetime affected the loss during transport the most. The canopy density had a significant effect if the chemically reactive compound was emitted from the forest floor. We used the results of the simulations together with oxidant data measured during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010 campaign at a Scots pine site to estimate the effect of the chemistry on fluxes of three typical biogenic VOCs, isoprene, α-pinene, and β-caryophyllene. Of these, the chemical degradation had a major effect on the fluxes of the most reactive species β-caryophyllene, while the fluxes of α-pinene were affected during nighttime. For these two compounds representing the mono- and sesquiterpenes groups, the effect of chemical degradation had also a significant diurnal cycle with the highest chemical loss at night. The different day and night time loss terms need to be accounted for, when measured fluxes of reactive compounds are used to reveal relations between primary emission and environmental parameters.

  16. Effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary flow in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Beppu, Shintaro; Ueda, Hiroaki; Nehra, Ajay; Khandheria, Bijoy K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on coronary function in normal subjects. The study assessed mean blood pressure, left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) flow, and echocardiographic variables before and 30 and 60 minutes after taking 50 mg of sildenafil citrate. The mean velocity of LAD flow was assessed with Doppler flow imaging. The study subjects were 6 healthy male volunteers (mean age 37 years). The mean velocity of LAD flow increased 60 minutes after taking sildenafil citrate, but there were no other changes. Two volunteers felt mild flashing and one had mild headache during the study. Sildenafil citrate caused vasodilatation in a normal coronary artery without systemic pressure drops. These results suggest that the agent itself did not have negative effects on the heart in normal subjects.

  17. Interaction between mode of learning and subjective experience: translation effects in long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackie, James M; Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that writing auditorily presented words at encoding involves distinctive translation processes between visual and auditory domains, leading to the formation of distinctive memory traces at retrieval. This translation effect leads to higher levels of recognition than the writing of visually presented words, a non-translation effect. The present research investigated whether writing and the other translation effect of vocalisation (vocalising visually presented words) would be present in tests of recall, recognition memory and whether these effects are based on the subjective experience of remembering or knowing. Experiment 1 found a translation effect in the auditory domain in recall, as the translation effect of writing yielded higher recall than both non-translation effects of vocalisation and silently hearing. Experiment 2 found a translation effect in the visual domain in recognition, as the translation effect of vocalisation yielded higher recognition than both non-translation effects of writing and silently reading. This translation effect was attributable to the subjective experience of remembering rather than knowing. The present research therefore demonstrates the beneficial effect of translation in both recall and recognition, with the effect of vocalisation in recognition being based on rich episodic remembering.

  18. The effects of posture and subject-to-subject variations on the position, shape and volume of abdominal and thoracic organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beillas, Philippe; Lafon, Yoann; Smith, Francis W

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the thorax and the abdomen of nine subjects were imaged in four postures using a positional MRI scanner. The four postures were seated, standing, forward-flexed and supine. They were selected to represent car occupants, pedestrians, cyclists and a typical position for medical imaging, respectively. Geometrical models of key anatomical structures were registered from the imaging dataset using a custom registration toolbox. The analysis of the images and models allowed the quantification of the respective effects of posture and subject-to-subject variation on the position, shape and volume of the abdominal organs, skeletal components and thoracic cavity. In summary, except for the supine posture, the organ volumes and their positions in the spinal frame were mostly unaffected by the posture. The supine posture was associated with a motion of all solid organs of up to 39 mm (interpostural maximum for the liver, n=9), and a reduction of the thoracic cavity volume of up to 1300 cm3. Subject-to-subject variations were especially large for the volume of the spleen (variations between 120 and 400 cm3) and the position of the kidneys. As a result, subject-to-subject variations were larger than most postural effects. Other results include values of parameters that can help positioning human models such as positions, volumes and inertial properties of organs as well as skeletal parameters. Overall, this study suggests that subject-to-subject variations and the use of supine geometrical data can be problematic for finite element modeling of the abdomen for injury prediction.

  19. Effects of Couple Interactions and Relationship Quality on Plasma Oxytocin and Cardiovascular Reactivity: Empirical Findings and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; MacKenzie, Justin; Hicks, Angela; Campo, Rebecca A.; Reblin, Maija; Grewen, Karen; Amico, Janet A.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular reactivity is a potential mechanism underlying associations of close relationship quality with cardiovascular disease. Two models describe oxytocin as another mechanism. The “calm and connect” model posits an association between positive relationship experiences and oxytocin levels and responses, whereas the “tend and befriend” model emphasizes the effects of negative relationship experiences in evoking oxytocin release. In this study of 180 younger couples, relationship quality had a small, marginally significant inverse association with plasma oxytocin levels, and neither positive nor negative couple interactions evoked change in plasma oxytocin. Negative couple interactions evoked significant cardiovascular reactivity, especially among women. Hence, in the largest study of these issues to date, there was little support for key tenets of the “calm and connect” model, and only very modest support for the ”tend and befriend” model. However, findings were consistent with the view that CVR contributes to the effects of relationship difficulties on health. PMID:22543270

  20. A variant in ANKK1 modulates acute subjective effects of cocaine: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellicy, Catherine J.; Harding, Mark J.; Hamon, Sara C.; Mahoney, James J.; Reyes, Jennifer A.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Nielsen, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether functional variants in the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain-containing 1 gene (ANKK1) and/or the dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) modulate the subjective effects (reward or non-reward response to a stimulus) produced by cocaine administration. Cocaine-dependent participants (N = 47) were administered 40 mg of cocaine or placebo at time 0, and a subjective effects questionnaire (visual analog scale) was administered 15 minutes prior to cocaine administration, and at 5, 10,15, and 20 minutes following administration. The influence of polymorphisms in the ANKK1 and DRD2 genes on subjective experience of cocaine in the laboratory was tested. Participants with a T allele of ANKK1 rs1800497 experienced greater subjective ‘high’ (p = 0.00006), ‘any drug effect’ (p = 0.0003), and ‘like’ (p = 0.0004) relative to the CC genotype group. Although the variant in the DRD2 gene was shown to be associated with subjective effects, LD analysis revealed this association was driven by the ANKK1 rs1800497 variant. A participant’s ANKK1 genotype may identify individuals who are likely to experience greater positive subjective effects following cocaine exposure, including greater ‘high’ and ‘like’, and these individuals may have increased vulnerability to continue using cocaine or they may be at greater risk to relapse during periods of abstinence. However, these results are preliminary and replication is necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:24528631

  1. The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested a model of providing a predictive explanation of Big Five Factor on social reactivity among secondary school adolescents of Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 students randomly selected across 12 public secondary schools in the State participated in the study (120 male and 80 female). Data ...

  2. Steric Effect on the Nucleophilic Reactivity of Nickel(III) Peroxo Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jalee; Shin, Bongki; Kim, Hyunjeong; Lee, Junhyung; Kang, Joongoo; Yanagisawa, Sachiko; Ogura, Takashi; Masuda, Hideki; Ozawa, Tomohiro; Cho, Jaeheung

    2015-07-06

    A set of nickel(III) peroxo complexes bearing tetraazamacrocyclic ligands, [Ni(III)(TBDAP)(O2)](+) (TBDAP = N,N'-di-tert-butyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane) and [Ni(III)(CHDAP)(O2)](+) (CHDAP = N,N'-dicyclohexyl-2,11-diaza[3.3](2,6)pyridinophane), were prepared by reacting [Ni(II)(TBDAP)(NO3)(H2O)](+) and [Ni(II)(CHDAP)(NO3)](+), respectively, with H2O2 in the presence of triethylamine. The mononuclear nickel(III) peroxo complexes were fully characterized by various physicochemical methods, such as UV-vis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, resonance Raman, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray analysis. The spectroscopic and structural characterization clearly shows that the NiO2 cores are almost identical where the peroxo ligand is bound in a side-on fashion. However, the different steric properties of the supporting ligands were confirmed by X-ray crystallography, where the CHDAP ligand gives enough space around the Ni core compared to the TBDAP ligand. The nickel(III) peroxo complexes showed reactivity in the oxidation of aldehydes. In the aldehyde deformylation reaction, the nucleophilic reactivity of the nickel(III) peroxo complexes was highly dependent on the steric properties of the macrocyclic ligands, with a reactivity order of [Ni(III)(TBDAP)(O2)](+) < [Ni(III)(CHDAP)(O2)](+). This result provides fundamental insight into the mechanism of the structure (steric)-reactivity relationship of metal peroxo intermediates.

  3. The Predictive Effect of Big Five Factor Model on Social Reactivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested a model of providing a predictive explanation of Big Five Factor on social reactivity among secondary school adolescents of Cross River State, Nigeria. A sample of 200 students randomly selected across 12 public secondary schools in the State participated in the study (120 male and 80 female).

  4. Effect of interfacial properties on the reactivity of a lipophilic ingredient in multilayered emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaprenet, J.; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Elias, R.; Coupland, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the location and reactivity of a lipophilic spin probe, 4-phenyl- 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-imidazoline-1-oxyl nitroxide (PTMIO) in multilayered, biopolymer-based emulsions stabilized with a primary anionic layer (sodium caseinate) and a secondary cationic layer

  5. Transport of reactive colloids and contaminants in groundwater: effect of nonlinear kinetic interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, van de H.; Leijnse, A.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    1998-01-01

    Transport of reactive colloids in groundwater may enhance the transport of contaminants in groundwater. Often, the interpretation of results of transport experiments is not a simple task as both reactions of colloids with the solid matrix and reactions of contaminants with the solid matrix and

  6. Effect of lipophilization on the distribution and reactivity of ingredients in emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leong, Wai Fun; Berton-Carabin, C.C.; Elias, Ryan J.; Lecomte, Jérôme; Villeneuve, Pierre; Zhao, Yu; Coupland, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis: The reactivity of small molecules in emulsions is believed to depend on their partitioning between phases, yet this is hard to verify experimentally in situ. In the present work, we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to simultaneously measure the distribution and

  7. The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane and the effect of the depolymerization reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, V. W. A.; Padsalgikar, A. D.; Ganzeveld, K. J.; Janssen, L. P. B. M.

    The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane in a corotating twin-screw extruder was investigated. The polyurethane system consisted of a mixture of 2,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (2,4-MDI) and 4,4-MDI, methyl-propane-diol and a polyester polyol. An engineering extrusion model was designed

  8. Reactive nitrogen in the environment and its effect on climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Galloway, J.N.; Seitzinger, S.; Bleeker, A.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have doubled levels of reactive nitrogen in circulation, largely as a result of fertilizer application and fossil fuel burning. This massive alteration of the nitrogen cycle affects climate, food security, energy security, human health and ecosystem services. Our estimates show that nitrogen

  9. Effect of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in acetylsalicylic acid metabolic pathway genes on platelet reactivity in patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postula, Marek; Janicki, Piotr K.; Rosiak, Marek; Kaplon-Cieslicka, Agnieszka; Kondracka, Agnieszka; Trzepla, Ewa; Filipiak, Krzysztof J.; Kosior, Dariusz A.; Czlonkowski, Andrzej; Opolski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Background Platelet reactivity in patients on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) therapy can be influenced by physiological or pathological conditions affecting ASA pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. The mechanism of such variability in the therapeutic response to ASA, particularly in diabetic patients, is poorly understood. The rate of elimination of ASA and its metabolite, salicylic acid (SA), is likely a major factor determining drug efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the selected candidate genes within the ASA metabolic pathway on the platelet reactivity and concentration of ASA and thromboxane A2 (TxA2) metabolites in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Material/Methods The study cohort consisted of 287 Caucasians with T2DM who had been taking ASA tablets at the dose of 75 mg per day for at least 3 months. Platelet reactivity analyses were performed using VerifyNow Aspirin and PFA-100 assays. The measured ASA metabolite included salicylic acid (ASA), and TxA2 metabolites included serum TxB2 and urinary 11-dh-TxB2. Genotyping for the selected 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 5 genes of the ASA metabolic pathway was performed using a Sequenom iPLEX platform. Results No statistically significant association was observed between the investigated SNPs genotypes, platelet reactivity, and measured metabolites in the investigated cohort of patients. Conclusions The results of our study failed to confirm that the selected variants in the genes within the ASA metabolic pathway might contribute to platelet reactivity in a diabetic population treated with ASA. PMID:23715170

  10. Effects of CO2 fine bubble injection on reactive crystallization of dolomite from concentrated brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuko; Wada, Yoshinari; Hiaki, Toshihiko; Onoe, Kaoru; Matsumoto, Masakazu

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we used the minute gas-liquid interfaces around CO2 fine bubbles as new reaction fields where the crystal nucleation proceeds dominantly and developed a crystallization technique to synthesize dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) with the desired crystal quality. CaMg(CO3)2 has a crystal structure derived from calcite by ordered replacement of the Ca2+ in calcite by Mg2+. To improve the functionality of the crystal for better utilization of the CaMg(CO3)2, an effective method for an approach to a Mg/Ca ratio of 1.0 and downsizing is indispensable in the crystallization process. In the vicinity of the minute gas-liquid interfaces, the accumulation of Ca2+ and Mg2+ is caused by the negative electric charge on the fine bubbles surface; thus, CaMg(CO3)2 fine particles with a high Mg/Ca ratio can be expected to crystallize. At a reaction temperature (Tr) of 298 K and CO2 flow rate (FCO2) of 11.9 mmol/(L min), CO2 bubbles with an average bubble diameter (dbbl) of 40-2000 μm were continuously supplied to 300 mL of the concentrated brine coming from salt manufacture discharge and CaMg(CO3)2 crystallized within a reaction time of 120 min. Fine bubbles with dbbl of 40 μm were generated using a self-supporting bubble generator by increasing the impeller shear rate under reduced pressure. For comparison, the bubbles with dbbl of 300 or 2000 μm were obtained using a dispersing-type generator. Moreover, FCO2 and Tr were varied as operating parameters during the reactive crystallization supplying CO2 fine bubbles. Consequently, CO2 fine bubble injection is effective for the high-yield crystallization of CaMg(CO3)2 with a Mg/Ca ratio of 1.0 and downsizing of CaMg(CO3)2 particles owing to the acceleration of crystal nucleation caused by the local increase in the supersaturation at the minute gas-liquid interfaces.

  11. Reactive Power Dispatch Method in Wind Farms to Improve the Lifetime of Power Converter Considering Wake Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jie; Zhou, Dao; Su, Chi

    2017-01-01

    In Wind Farms (WF), the most popular and commonly implemented active power control method is the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT). Due to the wake effect, the upstream Wind Turbine (WT) in WFs has more active power generation than the downstream WT at the wind directions and wind speeds...... DFIG WTs. It can be concluded that, compared with the traditional reactive power dispatch method, the proposed method can increase the lifetime of the upstream WT’s power converter....

  12. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  13. The Effectiveness of a Peer-Helping Programme That Increases Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a peer-helping programme in increasing the subjective well-being of a group of university students compared with a control group with the same characteristics who did not receive the intervention. The intervention recipients consisted of 13 male and 17 female participants. The peer helpers…

  14. Comparison of Nonoverlap Methods for Identifying Treatment Effect in Single-Subject Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakap, Salih; Snyder, Patricia; Pasia, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    Debate is occurring about which result interpretation aides focused on examining the experimental effect should be used in single-subject experimental research. In this study, we examined seven nonoverlap methods and compared results using each method to judgments of two visual analysts. The data sources for the present study were 36 studies…

  15. Investigation of gyroscopic effects in vibrating fluid-filled cylinders subjected to axial rotation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, MY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available of the theory of gyroscopic effects in distributed structures. The model of a thick vibrating cylinder filled with a fluid and subjected to inertial rotation is analyzed. The dynamics of the cylinder is considered in terms of linear elasticity and the fluid...

  16. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Rest, O.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F. J.; van Staveren, W.A.; Dullemeijer, C.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Groot, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. Objective: To investigate the effect of

  17. The Effects of Objective Career Success on Subsequent Subjective Career Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Stephen A.; Tymon, Walter G., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of working adults (N = 638) to explore the effects of past objective career success (mobility, promotions, and salary change) on current subjective success (human capital assessments by one's managers, core self evaluations, satisfaction with one's career) by gender, across an economic cycle (2004-2011), controlling for career…

  18. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  19. Mothers Caring for an Adult Child with Schizophrenia: The Effects of Subjective Burden on Maternal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jan Steven; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined long-term effects that burdens associated with coping with mental illness have on parental health. Data from 81 mothers of adult children with schizophrenia revealed that subjective burdens associated with stigma and worries were related to lower levels of physical well-being among the mothers. (Author/NB)

  20. Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Şengül, Sare; Dereli, Mehtap

    2010-01-01

    ... at www.sciencedirect.com WCES-2010 Does instruction of “Integers” subject with cartoons effect students’ mathematics anxiety? Sare �engül a *, Mehtap Dereli b a Atatürk...

  1. Effect of fish oil on cognitive performance in older subjects: a randomized, controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rest, O van de; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Staveren, W.A. van; Dullemeijer, C.; Olderikkert, M.G.; Beekman, A.T.; Groot, CP de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results from epidemiologic studies are inconclusive, and results from randomized trials in elderly subjects without dementia are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of

  2. The Effect of Students' Subject Discipline on Their m-Learning Application Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delialioglu, Ömer; Alioon, Yasaman

    2016-01-01

    The effect of students' subject discipline on their preferences toward m-learning applications was investigated by using a mixed-method research design. A questionnaire on students' preferences of m-learning application features was used to collect data from 181 undergraduate students. One-way analysis of variance found a significant difference…

  3. EFFECT OF ECCENTRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMME ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH FOR SUBJECTS WITH MEDIAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Prashant Akhilesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Therapeutic eccentric exercise may provide both a structural and functional benefit during tendinopathy rehabilitation. The objective is to find the effect of eccentric exercises on improvement of pain and grip strength for subjects with Medial Epicondylitis. Method: Pre to post test experimental study design randomized thirty subjects with medial epicondylitis, 15 each into Group A and Group B. Group B subjects were treated with conventional therapy and Eccentric exercises. Group A subjects were treated with conventional therapy. Results: When means of post intervention were compared using Independent ‘t’ between groups there was no statistically significant difference in improvements obtained in VAS scores and grip strength. There was a statistically significant change in means of VAS score and Grip strength when means were analyzed by using Paired‘t’ test and Wilcoxon signed rank test within the groups with positive percentage of change. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of Eccentric Exercise Programme combined with conventional therapy shown significant effect on improving pain and Grip strength, however the improvement obtained has no difference when compared with control conventional treatment for Subjects with Medial Epicondylitis.

  4. Effect of kinesiotaping, non-elastic taping and bracing on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in healthy subjects and subjects with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuni, B; Mussler, J; Kalkum, E; Schmitt, H; Wolf, S I

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of kinesiotape, non-elastic tape, and soft brace on segmental foot kinematics during drop landing in subjects with chronic ankle instability and healthy subjects. Controlled study with repeated measurements. Three-dimensional motion analysis laboratory. Twenty participants with chronic ankle instability and 20 healthy subjects. The subjects performed drop landings with 17 retroreflective markers on the foot and lower leg in four conditions: barefoot, with kinesiotape, with non-elastic tape and with a soft brace. Ranges of motion of foot segments using a foot measurement method. In participants with chronic ankle instability, midfoot movement in the frontal plane (inclination of the medial arch) was reduced significantly by non-elastic taping, but kinesiotaping and bracing had no effect. In healthy subjects, both non-elastic taping and bracing reduced that movement. In both groups, non-elastic taping and bracing reduced rearfoot excursion in inversion/eversion significantly, which indicates a stabilisation effect. No such effect was found with kinesiotaping. All three methods reduced maximum plantar flexion significantly. Non-elastic taping stabilised the midfoot best in patients with chronic ankle instability, while kinesiotaping did not influence foot kinematics other than to stabilise the rearfoot in the sagittal plane. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01810471. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical evolution during rice straw and coal co-pyrolysis and its effect on co-gasification reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Juntao; Gong, Yan; Guo, Qinghua; Ding, Lu; Wang, Fuchen; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-03-01

    Physicochemical evolution (i.e. pore structure variation, carbon structure change and active AAEM transformation) during rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) co-pyrolysis was quantitatively determined in this work. Moreover, the corresponding char gasification was conducted using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and relative reactivity was proposed to quantify the co-pyrolysis impact on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that the development of pore structure in co-pyrolyzed chars was first inhibited and then enhanced with the decrease of SF proportion. The promotion effect of co-pyrolysis on order degree of co-pyrolyzed chars gradually weakened with increasing RS proportion. Co-pyrolysis mainly enhanced active K transformation in co-pyrolyzed chars and the promotion effect was alleviated with increasing RS proportion. The inhibition effect of co-pyrolysis on co-gasification reactivity weakened with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature, which was mainly attributed to the combination of carbon structure evolution and active AAEM transformation in co-pyrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of magnesium on vascular tone and reactivity in pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurant, P; Touyz, R M; Schiffrin, E L

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the effects of magnesium on vascular tone and reactivity in mesenteric resistance arteries from 17-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Third-order branches of mesenteric arteries were mounted in a pressurized flow chamber and studied with constant flow and transmural pressure. The mesenteric arteries were perfused extra- and intra-luminally with physiological salt solution containing a normal (1.2 mmol/L), high (4.8 mmol/L), or low (0.15 mmol/L) magnesium concentration. Vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and vasopressin was examined when the agonists were applied extraluminally. High magnesium increased lumen diameter and decreased media thickness whereas low magnesium decreased lumen diameter and increased media thickness in mesenteric arteries from both SHR and WKY rats. The effects of magnesium on vascular tone were less in arteries from SHR compared with normotensive controls (p magnesium potentiated norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR (p magnesium did not modify vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction in either SHR or WKY. High magnesium attenuated vasopressin- and norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in SHR (p magnesium attenuated only norepinephrine-induced vasoconstriction in WKY (p magnesium has differential modulatory effects on vascular tone and reactivity in mesenteric resistance arteries of SHR and WKY. Magnesium may play an important role in the modulation of peripheral resistance in hypertension.

  7. The effect of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine on rats subjected to surgically induced global cerebral ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Abelson, Klas; Koch, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal...... in buprenorphine-treated and untreated animals. A part from a slightly higher hyperthermia immediately after surgery and typical opiate-associated behaviour, the buprenorphine treatment had no apparent adverse effects on the experimental model. In contrast, the analgesic treatment improved the model by minimizing...

  8. THE EFFECT OF FRIENDSHIP SKILLS TRAINING ON FRIENDSHIP QUALITY AND SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING OF ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Çekiç; Aykut Kul; Ayşenur Çetin; Ümmügülsüm Cihangiroğlu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of friendship skills training on the quality of friendship and subjective well-being of adolescents. In order to determine the experimental and control groups, the Friendship Quality Scale and the Adolescent Subjective Well-Being Scale were administered to 311 students in 9th, 10th and 11th grade classes from a state school in İskenderun in Hatay during the 2015-2016 education year. As a result, 21 students who had lower than average scores were included...

  9. Altering dietary lysine:arginine ratio has little effect on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Sonia; Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Harding, Scott V; Rideout, Todd C; Ai, Masumi; Otokozawa, Seiko; Freed, Alicia; Kuvin, Jeffrey T; Jones, Peter J; Schaefer, Ernst J; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2010-06-01

    Information is scarce regarding the effect of dietary protein type, with specific focus on the lysine-to-arginine (Lys:Arg) ratio, on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in humans. Determine the effect of dietary Lys:Arg ratio on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Randomized cross-over design of two 35-day diet phases; thirty adults (21 females and 9 males, >or=50 years, LDL cholesterol>or=120 mg/dL). Diets had 20% energy (E) protein, 30%E fat, 50%E carbohydrate and were designed to have low (0.7) or high (1.4) Lys:Arg ratio. Measures included fasting and postprandial lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein concentrations; fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), small dense LDL (sdLDL) cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities; cholesterol fractional synthesis rate (FSR); and flow mediated dilation (FMD) and peripheral artery tonometry (PAT). No differences were observed in fasting and/or postprandial total, LDL, HDL and sdLDL cholesterol, RemLC, Lp(a) or apo B concentrations, LCAT and CETP activities, FSR, glycated albumin, immunoreactive insulin, FMD or PAT. The low, relative to the high, Lys:Arg ratio diet resulted in lower postprandial VLDL cholesterol (-24%, P=0.001) and triglycerides (-23%, P=0.001), and small but significant differences in fasting (-3%, P=0.003) and postprandial (-3%, P=0.018) apo AI, and fasting adiponectin concentrations (+7%, P=0.035). Fasting and postprandial hsCRP concentrations were 23% lower after the low Lys:Arg ratio diet (P=0.020 for both). Diets differing in Lys:Arg ratios had no or small effects on cardiovascular risk factors and vascular reactivity. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Reactive arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerloni, V; Fantini, F

    1990-01-01

    The term reactive arthritis was introduced to describe an acute non-purulent arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body. Reactive arthritis can also be classified into HLA-B27 associated and non-associated forms. Rheumatic fever is an example of the HLA-B27 non-associated forms with genetic factors other than HLA-B27 involved. HLA-B27 associated reactive arthritis includes enteric, urogenic and idiopathic arthritides. The bacteria known to trigger post-enteritic reactive arthritis are: Yersinia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile and Brucella; those known to trigger post-urethritic reactive arthritis are Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum, but often the germ remains unidentified. Mechanisms through which susceptibility to reactive arthritis is linked to HLA-B27 antigen are still incompletely understood, but a clue could be cross-reactivity between B27 and a surface antigen of pathogenic germs. The clinical profile of the disease is characterized by an asymmetrical oligoarthritis with involvement particularly of the peripheral joints of the lower limbs. The arthritis generally recovers without sequelae within a few weeks or months. Accompanying features can be the involvement of enthesis and tendon sheets in form of a talalgia or dactylitis. In some cases the arthritis can relapse and chronicize. In some cases, in addition, involvement of the axial skeleton can occur (spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis). Another feature of the disease is the frequent association with typical extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis and muco-cutaneous lesions.

  11. Effect of Flaxseed Intervention on Inflammatory Marker C-Reactive Protein: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Yu Ren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional food-flaxseed and its derivatives (flaxseed oil or lignans are beneficial for human health, possibly because of their anti-inflammatory effects. C-reactive protein (CRP, a sensitive marker of inflammation was chosen to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of flaxseed. We searched randomized controlled trials from PubMed and the Cochrane Library in October 2015 and conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of flaxseed and its derivatives on CRP. The mean differences (net change in CRP (mg/L concentrations were pooled with a random- or a fixed-effects model depending on the results of heterogeneity tests. Overall, flaxseed interventions had no effects on reduction of CRP (p = 0.428. The null effects were consistent in the subgroup analysis with multiple studies and population characteristics. Significant heterogeneity was observed in most of the analyses. Meta-regression identified baseline body mass index (BMI as a significant source of heterogeneity (P-interaction = 0.032, with a significant reduction in CRP of 0.83 mg/L (95% confidence interval −1.34 to −0.31; p = 0.002 among subjects with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2. In conclusion, our meta-analysis did not find sufficient evidence that flaxseed and its derivatives have a beneficial effect on reducing circulating CRP. However, they may significantly reduce CRP in obese populations.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  13. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  14. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Moulier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design: In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs, and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results: The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion: This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life.

  15. [Effects of Reactive Jump Training in Handball Players Regarding Jump Height and Power Development in the Triceps Surae Muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, N; Westermann, A; Möller, D; von Piekartz, H

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown changes in the technical and physical demands in modern handball. The game has increased considerably in speed, power and dynamics. Jump training has, therefore, become ever more important in the training of the athletes. These developments contribute to the fact that handball is now one of the most injury-prone types of sport, with the lower extremities being most frequently affected. Reactive jump training is not only used in training by now, but also increasingly in injury prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of reactive jump training with handball players. 21 regional league handball players were randomly divided into an intervention group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 9). The intervention group completed a six-week reactive jump training programme while the control group went through a non-specific training programme. Jump height (squat and counter movement jump), isokinetic and isometric maximum power as well as muscle activity served as measuring parameters. A comparison of the intervention and control groups revealed that the reactive jump training led to significant improvements in jump height. The isometric and isokinetic maximum power measurements and the electromyographic activities of the triceps surae muscle demonstrated an improvement in the values within the intervention group. However, this improvement was not significant compared with the control group. Likewise both jumps correlated with the muscle activity of the soleus muscle as shown by electromyography. A moderate correlation was noticed between the isokinetic maximum power measurement and the electromyographic activity of the soleus and gastrocnemius medialis muscles. Furthermore, the correlations of the isometric and isokinetic maximum power meas-urements resulted in a strong correlation coefficient. This study revealed a significant increase in jump height after reactive jump training. There was no significant difference in

  16. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, Chad J; Harrison, Joseph A; Carter, Lawrence P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-03-01

    Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, and 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, and 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a crossover design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9-h sessions. Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer-lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 min after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose-response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., "drug liking") were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance), the routes were equipotent. The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low.

  17. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  18. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary

    2002-02-01

    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  19. Effects of varied doses of psilocybin on time interval reproduction in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Jirí; Wittmann, Marc; Hasler, Felix; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2008-04-11

    Action of a hallucinogenic substance, psilocybin, on internal time representation was investigated in two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies: Experiment 1 with 12 subjects and graded doses, and Experiment 2 with 9 subjects and a very low dose. The task consisted in repeated reproductions of time intervals in the range from 1.5 to 5s. The effects were assessed by parameter kappa of the 'dual klepsydra' model of internal time representation, fitted to individual response data and intra-individually normalized with respect to initial values. The estimates kappa were in the same order of magnitude as in earlier studies. In both experiments, kappa was significantly increased by psilocybin at 90 min from the drug intake, indicating a higher loss rate of the internal duration representation. These findings are tentatively linked to qualitative alterations of subjective time in altered states of consciousness.

  20. Sex differences in the subjective effects of oral Δ9-THC in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Jessica S; Kelly, Thomas H; Westgate, Philip M; Lile, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that there are sex differences in endocannabinoid function and the response to exogenous cannabinoids, though data from clinical studies comparing acute cannabinoid effects in men and women under controlled laboratory conditions are limited. To further explore these potential differences, data from 30 cannabis users (N=18 M, 12 F) who completed previous Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) discrimination studies were combined for this retrospective analysis. In each study, subjects learned to discriminate between oral Δ9-THC and placebo and then received a range of Δ9-THC doses (0, 5, 15 and a "high" dose of either 25 or 30mg). Responses on a drug-discrimination task, subjective effects questionnaire, psychomotor performance tasks, and physiological measures were assessed. Δ9-THC dose-dependently increased drug-appropriate responding, ratings on "positive" Visual Analog Scale (VAS) items (e.g., good effects, like drug, take again), and items related to intoxication (e.g., high, stoned). Δ9-THC also dose-dependently impaired performance on psychomotor tasks and elevated heart rate. Sex differences on VAS items emerged as a function of dose. Women exhibited significantly greater subjective responses to oral drug administration than men at the 5mg Δ9-THC dose, whereas men were more sensitive to the subjective effects of the 15mg dose of Δ9-THC than women. These results demonstrate dose-dependent separation in the subjective response to oral Δ9-THC administration by sex, which might contribute to the differential development of problematic cannabis use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemia in the human calf: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-02-01

    In order to study the influence of muscular inactivity on reactive hyperaemia, postischaemic blood flow was measued with strain gauge plethysmography in the calf of twenty-nine patients, who had been treated with a plaster cast for a trauma of the lower limb. The contralateral leg served as a comparison. In all but two patients postischaemic maximal flow was lower in the immobilized calf. A negative correlation existed between maximal flow and the duration of immobilization. In the course of 6 weeks after removal of the cast, the difference in maximal flow between both sides became insignificant. Venous volume and venous emptying were not different in the two limbs. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemic response may be explained by an effect of inactivity on the arterioles, muscle atrophy, a decrease in capillarization and in oxidative capacity of the muscle fibres. It is concluded that inactivity and atrophy of the lower limb musculature in patients with peripheral arterial disease may be a contributing factor to the low reactive hyperaemic response in the calf of such patients.

  2. Effect of triclosan on the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis-susceptible subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, B; Dahlén, G; Volpe, A; Furuichi, Y; Ramberg, P; Lindhe, J

    1997-12-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effect of (i) meticulous self-performed, supragingival plaque control and (ii) the use of a triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrice in adult subjects susceptible to destructive periodontitis. 40 individuals were recruited into the trial. 3-5 years prior to the baseline examination, they had all been treated by nonsurgical means- for advanced periodontal disease. During the subsequent maintenance phase, all subjects had at different time intervals exhibited sites with recurrent periodontitis. At a baseline examination, 6 surfaces per tooth were examined regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and probing attachment level. The deepest pocket site in each quadrant (i.e. 4 sites per subject) was selected and samples of the subgingival bacteria were taken. At baseline, all volunteers received detailed information on proper oral hygiene techniques. This information was repeated on an individual need basis during the course of the subsequent 36-months. No professional subgingival therapy was delivered between the baseline and the 36-month examinations. The subjects were randomly distributed into 2 equal groups of 20 individuals each, 1 test and 1 control group. The members of the test group were supplied with a fluoridated dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer (Total, Colgate), while the controls received a corresponding dentifrice but without triclosan/copolymer. The findings demonstrated that in subjects with advanced and recurrent periodontitis, carefully practiced supragingival plaque control had some effects on the subgingival microbiota, but also that this was insufficient to prevent disease progression. In a corresponding group of subjects, however, who used a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, the subgingival microbiota was reduced in both quantitative and qualitative terms and recurrent periodontitis was almost entirely prevented.

  3. Effect of oral contraceptives and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and reactive hypoglycemia in PCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Mumm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS...... is undetermined. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12 month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 microgram ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day), or metformin +OCP. Five-hour oral glucose tolerance tests...... common after treatment with metformin +OCP (increase from 3/23 to 6/23, p=0.01). Reactive hypoglycemia was associated with higher insulin and C-peptide levels during 5h OGTT, but was unassociated with BMI and AUC GLP-1. GLP-1 levels were comparable in PCOS vs. CONTROLS: AUC GLP-1 levels were...

  4. Effects of hemolysis, lipemia, hyperbilirrubinemia, and anticoagulants in canine C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and ceruloplasmin assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to determine the effects that hemolysis, lipemia, bilirubinemia, and anticoagulants might have on the most commonly used assays for C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A, and determination of ceruloplasmin values in dogs. Solutions of hemoglobin, lipid, and bilirubin were added to serum aliquots. Additionally, serum and plasma samples with different anticoagulants (heparin, EDTA, and citrate) were obtained from healthy dogs. Hemolysis, lipemia, and hyperbilirubinemia interfered significantly with the C-reactive protein and ceruloplasmin results, but not with those for the serum amyloid A assay. The use of anticoagulants produced significant changes in the results for the assays tested. However, the magnitude of the differences caused by the interfering substances does not appear to have an important impact on the clinical interpretation of the tests. PMID:16152718

  5. Comparison of Occlusion Effect in Normal Hearing Subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meymaneh Jafari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: One of the most common complaints, particularly among patients with normal or near normal low-frequency hearing, is that their voice sounds "hollow". This is associated with "Occlusion effect". The aim of this study was to comparison of occlusion effect in normal hearing subjects via Real Ear Measurement and Audiometric Bing test. Materials and Method: Twenty volunteers with normal hearing (10 male, 10 female, with ages ranging from 18 – 24 years were enrolled in this study. First, audiometric Bing test was performed in frequencies of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 Hz. Then in real ear measurement, subjects were instructed to vocalize /â/ and /i/ for 5 seconds. Probe microphone was recorded the sound pressure in the ear canals. The degrees of occlusion effect unit were obtained for further analysis.Results: The means of occlusion effect were present in all subjects. There was no correlation between the results of audiometric Bing test and real-ear measurement. No significant difference was obtained between genders and monaural or binaural occlusion in real-ear measurement. But in audiometric Bing test, the difference between monaural or binaural occlusion was significant(p<0.05.Conclusion: The peak of occlusion effect varies significantly among hearing aid users, so the hearing aid must be tuned. Probe- microphone measures will assist in determination how much gain is enough, and where frequency- specific adjustments are needed.

  6. A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Elayne; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John L; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Cauchi, Avril J

    2011-09-01

    Human research investigating the impact of intranasal oxytocin on psychological processes has accelerated over the last two decades. No review of side effects, subjective reactions and safety is available. A systematic review of 38 randomised controlled trials conducted between 1990 and 2010 that investigated the central effects of intranasal oxytocin was undertaken. A systematic search for reports of adverse reactions involving intranasal oxytocin was also completed. Since 1990, research trials have reported on N=1529 (79% male) of which 8% were participants with developmental or mental health difficulties. Dosages ranged from 18 to 40 IU, mainly in single doses but ranged up to 182 administrations. Diverse methods have been used to screen and exclude participants, monitor side effects and subject reactions. Side effects are not different between oxytocin and placebo and participants are unable to accurately report on whether they have received oxytocin and placebo. Three case reports of adverse reactions due to misuse and longer-term use of intranasal oxytocin were reported. The evidence shows that intranasal oxytocin: (1) produces no detectable subjective changes in recipients, (2) produces no reliable side-effects, and (3) is not associated with adverse outcomes when delivered in doses of 18-40 IU for short term use in controlled research settings. Future research directions should include a focus on the dosage and duration of use, and application with younger age groups, vulnerable populations, and with females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Differences in the Effects of Perception of Organizational Injustice on Workplace Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Bolanle Ogungbamila; I. Bola Udegbe

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have not adequately examined, in a single model, how gender and perception of organizational injustice are related with revenge-motivated behaviors, especially in male-dominated societies. This study investigated the extent to which gender and perception of organizational injustice predicted employees’ tendencies to engage in workplace reactivity, which comprises organizational revenge, interpersonal revenge, interpersonal violence, and corruption in a sample of 703 (460 fema...

  8. Gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity : effects of the gender relevance of the stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lash, Steven Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sex differences in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) are a function of differences in cognitive appraisal of stressors as masculine-relevant or feminine-relevant tasks. Two studies were conducted to examine the role of the appraised gender relevance of stressors as a mediator of sex differences in CVR. In the first study the CVR of male and female college students (N = 95) to the cold-pressor test (CPT) was compared under masculine-relevan...

  9. Effect of organic matter on determination of reactive mercury in contaminated waters

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalhosa, Elsa; Río-Segade, Susana; Pereira, Eduarda; Vale, Carlos; Duarte, Armando

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved reactive mercury was determined in water samples from Ria da Aveiro, a coastal lagoon contaminated by mercury. Concentrations increased with acid dilution to a maximum of 193% in samples containing organic matter with high aromaticity, as inferred from absorbances at 250, 280 and 365 nm. Laboratory experiments with potassium hydrogenoftalate and humic acids solutions proved the influence of aromaticity in complexing mercury, how acid dilution protonates the aromatic Hg-complexes and...

  10. Substitution Effects on Reactivity of N-Acyl-2-amino-2-desoxyglucopyranoses. Quantum Chemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gytis Vektaris

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum mechanical calculations were carried out to study the molecular geometry and electronic structure of 2-amino-2-desoxyglucopyranose (AG and the Nacetyl-, N-ethanoyl-, series of N-phthalimidoalkanoyl-AG. The total charge density, electrostatic potential, spatial distribution and positions of HOMO and LUMO of N-acyl-AGs with respect to their substitutes yield information on the reactivity of the molecules.

  11. IJIERT-STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND WORKABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    ADITYA PATIL; VISHAL PATIL; AKASH PATIL

    2017-01-01

    The low tensile strength of concrete has many undesirable consequences for its performance as an efficient building material. This includes the need to support rebars as well as the requirement for thick-walled components that are beautiful and consume large quantities of aggregates. The total is an increasingly scarce resource in many urban areas. Reactive powder concrete(RPC) is a new technology that overcomes these limitations. Avoid aggregation in RPC to overcome the associated issues. RP...

  12. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, Mark; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework ...

  13. Biomass Chars: The Effects of Pyrolysis Conditions on Their Morphology, Structure, Chemical Properties and Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamseddine Guizani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid char is a product of biomass pyrolysis. It contains a high proportion of carbon, and lower contents of H, O and minerals. This char can have different valorization pathways such as combustion for heat and power, gasification for Syngas production, activation for adsorption applications, or use as a soil amendment. The optimal recovery pathway of the char depends highly on its physical and chemical characteristics. In this study, different chars were prepared from beech wood particles under various pyrolysis operating conditions in an entrained flow reactor (500–1400 °C. Their structural, morphological, surface chemistry properties, as well as their chemical compositions, were determined using different analytical techniques, including elementary analysis, Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX, Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR, and Raman Spectroscopy. The biomass char reactivity was evaluated in air using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The yield, chemical composition, surface chemistry, structure, morphology and reactivity of the chars were highly affected by the pyrolysis temperature. In addition, some of these properties related to the char structure and chemical composition were found to be correlated to the char reactivity.

  14. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-01-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4–6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects (‘good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1–51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of ‘good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder. PMID:25881117

  15. Effects of different types of fluid resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock on splanchnic organ microcirculation and renal reactive oxygen species formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Yu; Chan, Kuang-Cheng; Cheng, Ya-Jung; Yeh, Yu-Chang; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2015-12-11

    Fluid resuscitation is an indispensable procedure in the acute management of hemorrhagic shock for restoring tissue perfusion, particularly microcirculation in splanchnic organs. Resuscitation fluids include crystalloids, hypertonic saline (HTS), and synthetic colloids, and their selection affects the recovery of microcirculatory blood flow and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which is often evident in the kidney, following reperfusion. In this study, the effects of acute resuscitation with 0.9% saline (NS), 3% HTS, 4% succinylated gelatin (GEL), and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 were compared in a hemorrhagic shock rat model to analyze restoration of microcirculation among various splanchnic organs and the gracilis muscle and reperfusion-induced renal ROS formation. A total of 96 male Wistar rats were subjected to sham operation (sham group), hemorrhagic shock (control group), and resuscitation with NS, HTS, GEL and HES. Two hours after resuscitation, changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP), serum lactate level and the microcirculatory blood flow among various splanchnic organs, namely the liver, kidney, and intestine (mucosa, serosal muscular layer, and Peyer's patch), and the gracilis muscle, were compared using laser speckle contrast imaging. Renal ROS formation after reperfusion was investigated using an enhanced in vivo chemiluminescence (CL) method. Microcirculatory blood flow was less severely affected by hemorrhaging in the liver and gracilis muscle. Impairment of microcirculation in the kidney was restored in all resuscitation groups. Resuscitation in the NS group failed to restore intestinal microcirculation. Resuscitation in the HTS, GEL, and HES groups restored intestinal microcirculatory blood flow. By comparison, fluid resuscitation restored hemorrhagic shock-induced hypotension and decreased lactatemia in all resuscitation groups. Reperfusion-induced in vivo renal ROS formation was significantly higher in the GEL and HES groups

  16. Effect of Sweetened Dried Cranberry Consumption on Urinary Proteome and Fecal Microbiome in Healthy Human Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiares, Nell; Krueger, Christian G; Meudt, Jennifer J; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Reed, Jess D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship among diet, human health, and disease is an area of growing interest in biomarker research. Previous studies suggest that the consumption of cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) could beneficially influence urinary and digestive health. The present study sought to determine if daily consumption of sweetened dried cranberries (SDC) changes the urinary proteome and fecal microbiome, as determined in a prospective sample of 10 healthy individuals. Baseline urine and fecal samples were collected from the subjects in the fasted (8-12 h) state. The subjects then consumed one serving (42 g) of SDC daily with lunch for 2 weeks. Urine and fecal samples were collected again the day after 2 weeks of SDC consumption. Orbitrap Q-Exactive mass spectrometry of urinary proteins showed that consumption of SDC resulted in changes to 22 urinary proteins. Multiplex sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA genes in fecal samples indicated changes in relative abundance of several bacterial taxonomic units after consumption of SDC. There was a shift in the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, increases in commensal bacteria, and decreases or the absence of bacteria associated with negative health effects. A decrease in uromodulin in all subjects and an increase in Akkermansia bacteria in most subjects were observed and warrant further investigation. Future larger clinical studies with multiomics and multitissue sampling designs are required to determine the effects of SDC consumption on nutrition and health.

  17. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CYRIAX PHYSIOTHERPY WITH SUPERVISED EXERCISE PROGRAM IN SUBJECTS WITH TENNIS ELBOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Shridhar Thakare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose is to find long term effect of Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program in the reduction of pain and improvement of functional ability for subjects with tennis elbow. Method: An experimental study design, 30 subjects with Tennis Elbow randomized 15 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received Supervised Exercise program while Study group received Cyriax Physiotherapy with Supervised exercises program thrice in a week for 4 weeks and post intervention follow up after 2 weeks. Outcome measurements were measured for pain using Visual analogue Scale (VAS and Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE for functional ability. Results: There is no statistically significant difference in pre- intervention means of VAS and PRTEE when compared between the groups using independent ‘t’ test as a parametric and Mann Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. When means of post intervention and follow-up measurements were compared there is a statistically significant (p<0.05 difference in VAS and PRTEE scores between the groups. However greater percentage of improvements was obtained in study group than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is significant long term effect with greater percentage of improvement in pain and functional ability up to 2 weeks follow-up following 4 weeks of combined Cyriax physiotherapy with supervised exercise program than only supervised exercise program for subjects with tennis elbow.

  18. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne; de Vrese, Michael; Holst, Jens J; Thomsen, Claus; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Essence of Conscious Conflict: Subjective Effects of Sustaining Incompatible Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Gray, Jeremy R.; Krieger, Stephen C.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Conflict constitutes one of the fundamental ‘tuggings and pullings’ of the human experience. Yet, the link between the various kinds of conflict in the nervous system and subjective experience remains unexplained. We tested a hypothesis that predicts why both the ‘hot’ conflicts involving self-control and motivation, and the ‘cooler’ response conflicts of the laboratory, lead to changes in subjective experience. From this standpoint, these changes arise automatically from the activation of incompatible skeletomotor intentions, because the primary function of consciousness is to integrate such intentions for adaptive skeletal muscle output. Accordingly, we demonstrated for the first time that merely sustaining incompatible intentions (to move right and left) in a motionless state produces stronger subjective effects than sustaining compatible intentions. The results held equally strongly for two different effector systems involving skeletal muscle: arm movements and finger movements. In contrast, no such effects were found with conflict in a smooth muscle effector system. Together, these findings illuminate aspects of the nature of subjective experience and the role of incompatible intentions in affect and failures of self-control. PMID:19803593

  20. Comparative Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Response Inhibition Neural Networks in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Müller, Felix; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Zanchi, Davide; Liechti, Matthias E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Using a double-blind, within-subject, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were administrated to 21 healthy subjects while performing a go/no-go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition. Relative to placebo, methylphenidate and modafinil but not 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine improved inhibitory performance. Methylphenidate significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, middle/superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, presupplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate cortex compared with placebo. Methylphenidate also induced significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and presupplementary motor area and relative to modafinil. Relative to placebo, modafinil significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus and superior/inferior parietal lobule, while 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine significantly increased activation in the right middle/inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. Direct comparison of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine revealed broad recruitment of fronto-parietal regions but specific effects of methylphenidate on middle/superior temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and presupplementary motor area activation, suggesting dissociable modulations of response inhibition networks and potentially the superiority of methylphenidate in the

  1. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...

  2. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems, t...... into account. The book has arisen from various courses taught in Denmark and Iceland and is designed to give students a broad introduction to the area, with exercises throughout....

  3. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of Lupinus mutabilis in healthy volunteers and subjects with dysglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, M; Castro, J; Villacrés, E; Narváez, L; Villamar, M P; Baldeón, M E

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and type-2 diabetes are increasing health problems that negatively affect health care systems worldwide. There is a constant urge to develop new therapies with better effects, lower side effects at lower prices to treat these diseases. Lupinus species and their derivates are good candidates to be used as hypoglycaemic agents. A phase II clinical trial was conducted to assess the role of raw Lupinus mutabilis on blood glucose and insulin in normoglycemic and dysglycemic subjects. Results show that consumption of L. mutabilis by normal weight healthy young individuals did not change importantly blood glucose and insulin levels. On the other hand, consumption of similar doses of lupinus by dysglycemic individuals (fasting glucose > 100 mg/dL) decreased significantly blood glucose. Lupinus effects were greater in those subjects with higher basal glucose levels. Glucose lowering effects of lupinus were not observed after soy intake that was used as control. A statistically significant reduction in insulin levels was also observed in the lupinus group compared with the soy group after 60 minutes of treatment. Furthermore, only treatment with lupinus improved insulin resistance in dysglycemic subjects. These data demonstrate that lupinus consumption could be a feasible and low cost alternative to treat chronic hyperglycemic diseases.

  5. Emotional Stroop task: effect of word arousal and subject anxiety on emotional interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Thomas; Mériau, Katja; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2009-05-01

    Inconsistent findings regarding the emotional Stroop effect in healthy subjects may be explained by confounding effects of stimulus valence and arousal, as well as individual differences in anxiety. We examined reaction time data in a healthy sample using the emotional Stroop task while carefully matching arousal level of positive and negative words. Independent of valence, emotional relative to neutral words elicited emotional interference, indicating that arousal determines emotional interference. Independent of valence, emotional words were better re-called and recognized than neutral words. Individual differences in state anxiety were associated with emotional interference, that is, emotional interference was enhanced in subjects with high state anxiety. There was no influence of trait anxiety. These findings indicate that word arousal produces emotional interference independent of valence. State anxiety exacerbates interference of emotional words by further biasing attention towards emotionally salient stimuli.

  6. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane.

  7. Effects of a reactive barrier and aquifer geology on metal distribution and mobility in a mine drainage impacted aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Nora A.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2005-06-01

    The Nickel Rim aquifer has been impacted for five decades by a metal-rich plume generated from the Nickel Rim mine tailings impoundment. Metals released by the oxidation of pyrrhotite in the unsaturated zone of the tailings migrate into the downgradient aquifer, affecting both the groundwater and the aquifer solids. A reactive barrier has been installed in the aquifer to remove sulfate and metals from the groundwater. The effect of the reactive barrier on metal concentrations in the aquifer solids has not previously been studied. In this study, a series of selective extraction procedures was applied to cores of aquifer sediment, to ascertain the distribution of metals among various solid phases present in the aquifer. Extraction results were combined with groundwater chemistry, geochemical modelling and solid-phase microanalyses, to assess the potential mobility of metals under changing geochemical conditions. Reactions within the reactive barrier caused an increase in the solid-phase carbonate content downgradient from the barrier. The concentrations of poorly crystalline, oxidized phases of Mn and Fe, as well as concentrations of Cr(III) associated with oxidized Fe, and poorly crystalline Zn, are lower downgradient from the barrier, whereas total solid-phase metal concentrations remain constant. Iron and Mn accumulate as oxidized, easily extractable forms in a peat layer overlying the aquifer. Although these oxides may buffer reducing plumes, they also have the potential to release metals to the groundwater, should a reduced condition be imposed on the aquifer by remedial actions.

  8. Grapefruit juice markedly increases the plasma concentrations and antiplatelet effects of ticagrelor in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Mikko T; Tornio, Aleksi; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Lassila, Riitta; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study examined the effects of grapefruit juice on the new P2Y12 inhibitor ticagrelor, which is a substrate of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Methods In a randomized crossover study, 10 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water thrice daily for 4 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 90 mg dose of ticagrelor. Results Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor geometric mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) to 165% (95% confidence interval 147, 184%) and area under the concentration–time curve (AUC(0,∞)) to 221% of control (95% confidence interval 200, 245%). The Cmax and AUC(0,34 h) (P ticagrelor elimination half-life prolonging it from 6.7 to 7.2 h (P = 0.036). In good correlation with the elevated plasma ticagrelor concentrations, grapefruit juice enhanced the antiplatelet effect of ticagrelor, assessed with VerifyNow® and Multiplate® methods, and postponed the recovery of platelet reactivity. Conclusions Grapefruit juice increased ticagrelor exposure by more than two-fold, leading to an enhanced and prolonged ticagrelor antiplatelet effect. The grapefruit juice–ticagrelor interaction seems clinically important and indicates the significance of intestinal metabolism to ticagrelor pharmacokinetics. PMID:23126367

  9. Effect of cigarette smoking on subgingival bacteria in healthy subjects and patients with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karasneh, Jumana,; Al Habashneh, Rola ,; Marzouka, Nour Aldain,; Thornhill, Martin,

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of periodontal destruction and developing chronic periodontitis (CP). It is also reported to affect the subgingival bacterial profile among CP patients. However, studies on the effect of smoking on the bacterial profile among healthy subjects are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the subgingival bacterial profile in both healthy adults and CP patients. Methods Subgingival plaqu...

  10. Frataxin mRNA Isoforms in FRDA Patients and Normal Subjects: Effect of Tocotrienol Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo; Marina Marini; Alessandra Bolotta; Gemma Malisardi; Stefano Manfredini; Alessandro Ghezzo; Antonella Pini; Gianluca Tasco; Rita Casadio

    2013-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is caused by deficient expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin involved in the formation of iron-sulphur complexes and by consequent oxidative stress. We analysed low-dose tocotrienol supplementation effects on the expression of the three splice variant isoforms (FXN-1, FXN-2, and FXN-3) in mononuclear blood cells of FRDA patients and healthy subjects. In FRDA patients, tocotrienol leads to a specific and significant increase of FXN-3 expression while not a...

  11. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Min Kyung; Choi, Joon Yul; Kim, Sung Kean; Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins...

  12. EFFECTS OF NEURAL MOBILIZATION IN POSTERIOR MYOFASCIAL CHAIN FLEXIBILITY IN NORMAL SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stuti Sharma; Shiv Kumar Verma; Vaibhav Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this research is to see the effectiveness of neural mobilization on posterior myofascial chain flexibility. Methodology: Samples of 70 subjects were recruited for the study. Pre mobilization readings for finger floor distance, tibiotarsal angle and finger floor grades were taken for each individual, after whom slump mobilization was given and post mobilization readings were again taken in the same sequence after mobilization. Results: Both finger floor di...

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTUMENTAL ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION TECHNIQUE WITH STATIC STRETCHING IN SUBJECTS WITH PLANTAR FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Babu. K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization and static stretching found to be effective in plantar fasciitis, however the combined effectiveness of these techniques were unknown. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique for plantar fascia combined with static stretching of triceps surae for subjects with chronic stage of Plantar Fasciitis on pain intensity, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability. Methods: An experimental study design, selected subjects with chronic Plantar Fasciitis randomized subjects into each Study and Control group. Total of 40 subject’s data who completed study, 20 in each group, was used for analysis. Control group received conventional exercise while Study group received conventional exercises with Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle. Outcome measurements such as Intensity of pain using Numerical Pain Rating Scale-101 (NPRS-101, function disability using Foot Function Index Pain Subscale (FFI and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion using Goniometer was measured before and after 2 weeks of intervention. Results: There is statistically significant improvement in means of NRS-101, ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion and Foot Function Index Pain Subscale after intervention in both groups. When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 2 weeks of treatment there is statistically significant difference in means between the groups whereas study group showed greater percentage of improvement than control group. Conclusion: It is concluded that Instrumental assisted soft tissue mobilization technique combined with static stretching of triceps surae muscle is significantly effective than conventional exercises on reducing pain, improving ankle dorsiflexion range of motion and functional disability for subjects

  14. The effect of Group Hope Therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients

    OpenAIRE

    Roghayeh Ataie Moghanloo; Vahid Ataie Moghanloo; Jalil Babapour -Kheiroddin; Hamid Poursharifi; Maliheh Pishvaei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Women and men afflicted with HIV bear specific physical, mental and social problems. The aim of this research was to determine the effects of group hope therapy on subjective wellbeing, acceptance and rumination in HIV+ patients. Methods: The present study was a randomized clinical trial research with a pretest-posttest and control group. The study population included all the people infected with AIDS virus (HIV+) who referred to counseling and treatment center of behavioral di...

  15. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Immunoresponsiveness of cancer patients: effect of blood transfusion and immune reactivity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintiliani, L; Iudicone, P; Di Girolamo, M; Buzzonetti, A; Guglielmetti, M; Lapponi, P; Traietti, P; Monno, D; Giuliani, E

    1995-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of cancer patients submitted to surgery and perioperatively transfused was investigated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) were tested for the natural killer (NK) cytotoxic activity, for the in vitro synthesis of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The serum levels and the production of PGE2 by PBMC were significantly higher in patients than in controls, whereas no significant differences in the tested immunological variables emerged between the two groups of subjects. Instead, TIL produced significant larger amounts of spontaneous PGE2 (p < 0.001) and significant lower amounts of IFN-gamma (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) than autologous PBMC, suggesting an involvement of PGE2 in the impairment of the host immunoreactivity at the tumor site. To evaluate the immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion, the patients were reexamined 8 to 20 days after surgery. No differences were found in the NK cytotoxic activity, lymphokine synthesis, serum levels, and production of PGE2 between transfused and untransfused patients. These results do not support the hypothesis that blood transfusions negatively affect the immune response of neoplastic patients.

  17. The effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fibrin and thrombin generation in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Bradley J; Morel-Kopp, Marie-Christine; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Ward, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    Hypercoagulability plays a key role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake has been inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular events, the mechanisms are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of omega-3 on novel markers of global coagulation. The generation of fibrin and thrombin, measured via overall hemostasis potential (OHP) assay and calibrated automated thrombography, respectively, was determined in 40 healthy subjects and 16 patients with CVD at baseline and after 4 weeks of 640 mg/day omega-3 PUFA. In healthy subjects, fibrin generation was significantly reduced, as measured by overall coagulation potential (p = 0.013), OHP (p omega-3 PUFA significantly reduced OHP and significantly increased the lag time to thrombin generation (both p omega-3 PUFA had no effect on other fibrin and thrombin generation parameters in CVD patients. Four-week omega-3 PUFA supplementation reduced thrombotic potential in healthy subjects, as shown by reduced fibrin generation and peak thrombin. There was a greater effect on fibrin generation in healthy subjects compared with those with CVD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Internalizing and externalizing personality and subjective effects in a sample of adolescent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Sara; Matalí, Josep Lluís; Martín-Fernández, María; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, Maria; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-10-06

    Cannabis is the illicit substance most widely used by adolescents. Certain personality traits such as impulsivity and sensation seeking, and the subjective effects experienced after substance use (e.g. euphoria or relaxation) have been identified as some of the main etiological factors of consumption. This study aims to categorize a sample of adolescent cannabis users based on their most dominant personality traits (internalizing and externalizing profile). Then, to make a comparison of both profiles considering a set of variables related to consumption, clinical severity and subjective effects experienced. From a cross-sectional design, 173 adolescents (104 men and 69 women) aged 13 to 18 asking for treatment for cannabis use disorder in an Addictive Behavior Unit (UCAD) from the hospital were recruited. For the assessment, an ad hoc protocol was employed to register consumption, the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) 49-item short form were also administered. Factor analysis suggested a two-profile solution: Introverted, Inhibited, Doleful, Dramatizing (-), Egotistic (-), Self-demeaning and Borderline tendency scales composed the internalizing profile, and Submissive (-), Unruly, Forceful, Conforming (-) and Oppositional scales composed the externalizing profile. The comparative analysis showed that the internalizing profile has higher levels of clinical severity and more subjective effects reported than the externalizing profile. These results suggest the need to design specific intervention strategies for each profile.

  19. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric) on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C.) longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI) in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03) and 60 min (P = 0.041) after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048), 30 (P = 0.035), 90 (P = 0.03), and 120 (P = 0.02) minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327 PMID:20937162

  20. Effects of Curcuma longa (turmeric on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemansson Sandra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous animal studies have shown that Curcuma (C. longa lowers plasma glucose. C. longa may thus be a promising ingredient in functional foods aimed at preventing type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the study is to study the effect of C. longa on postprandial plasma glucose, insulin levels and glycemic index (GI in healthy subjects. Methods Fourteen healthy subjects were assessed in a crossover trial. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was administered together with capsules containing a placebo or C. longa. Finger-prick capillary and venous blood samples were collected before, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the start of the OGTT to measure the glucose and insulin levels, respectively. Results The ingestion of 6 g C. longa had no significant effect on the glucose response. The change in insulin was significantly higher 30 min (P = 0.03 and 60 min (P = 0.041 after the OGTT including C. longa. The insulin AUCs were also significantly higher after the ingestion of C. longa, 15 (P = 0.048, 30 (P = 0.035, 90 (P = 0.03, and 120 (P = 0.02 minutes after the OGTT. Conclusions The ingestion of 6 g C. longa increased postprandial serum insulin levels, but did not seem to affect plasma glucose levels or GI, in healthy subjects. The results indicate that C. longa may have an effect on insulin secretion. Trial registration number NCT01029327

  1. Pattern of use and subjective effects of Salvia divinorum among recreational users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Débora; Riba, Jordi; Bouso, José Carlos; Gómez-Jarabo, Gregorio; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2006-11-08

    Salvia divinorum is a member of the Lamiaceae family and contains the psychotropic diterpene and kappa-opioid receptor agonist salvinorin-A. Originally a shamanic inebriant used by the Mexican Mazatec Indians, the plant and its preparations are becoming increasingly popular among non-traditional users. Demographic data and information on pattern of use and subjective effects were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires from a sample of 32 recreational users of salvia and other psychedelics. Involvement with salvia appeared to be a recent phenomenon. Smoking the extract was the preferred form of administration. Subjective effects were described as intense but short-lived, appearing in less than 1 min and lasting 15 min or less. They included psychedelic-like changes in visual perception, mood and somatic sensations, and importantly, a highly modified perception of external reality and the self, leading to a decreased ability to interact with oneself or with one's surroundings. Although some aspects of the subjective effects reported were similar to high doses of classical psychedelics with serotonin-2A receptor agonist activity, the intense derealization and impairment reported appear to be a characteristic of salvia. The observed simultaneous high scores on the LSD and PCAG subscales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) have been previously reported for other kappa-opioid agonists, and support kappa receptor activation as the probable pharmacologic mechanism underlying the modified state of awareness induced by salvia.

  2. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  3. Effect of metformin compared with hypocaloric diet on serum C-reactive protein level and insulin resistance in obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Fatemeh; Zamani, Mohammad Mahdi; Heshmat, Ramin; Moini nia, Fatemeh

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of Metformin compared with a hypocaloric diet on C-reactive protein (CRP) level and markers of insulin resistance in obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Forty women with body mass index ≥ 27 and PCOS were randomly allocated to receive either Metformin or hypocaloric diet and were assessed before and after a treatment period of 12 weeks. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) and markers of insulin resistance (IR), homeostasis model assessment-IR, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index and fasting glucose to insulin ratio were evaluated in each patient. A total of 10 subjects did not complete the trial (three patients in the Metformin group and seven patients in the diet group) and a total of 30 subjects completed the trial (17 subjects in the Metformin group and 13 subjects in the diet group). Serum concentration of hs-CRP significantly decreased in both the Metformin (5.29 ± 2.50 vs 3.81 ± 1.99, P = 0.008) and diet groups (6.08 ± 2.14 vs 4.27 ± 1.60, P = 0.004). There were no significant differences in mean hs-CRP decrement between the two groups. Decrease in hs-CRP levels was significantly correlated with waist circumference in the diet group (r = 0.8, P diet with 5-10% weight reduction on markers of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment-IR, fasting glucose to insulin ratio, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index) was better than Metformin therapy (P = 0.001). Although weight reduction has equal efficacy with Metformin in decreasing serum hs-CRP levels, it was significantly more effective in improving insulin resistance in obese and overweight PCOS women. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. [Effect of frequency compression in hearing aids on speech intelligibility and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifholz, M; Margolf-Hackl, S; Kreikemeier, S; Kiessling, J

    2013-04-01

    The acceptance of hearing aids by users with high frequency hearing loss still represents a problem. Processing algorithms that shift high frequency signal components into an audible frequency range are proposed as a solution. We looked into the issue of whether frequency compression becomes more beneficial with increasing high frequency hearing loss or/and for users with cochlear dead regions (DR). A total of 20 hearing aid candidates were assessed audiometrically and classified into two test groups in terms of their hearing loss and the presence of DR. The subjects then evaluated four hearing aid settings that differed solely in the degree of frequency compression. Speech recognition threshold measurements and subjective sound quality ratings were carried out for all four settings. Data showed that 15 of the 20 test subjects understood fricatives with a high frequency spectrum component better, since they were able to distinguish between the two logatomes "Afa" and "Asa". No correlation was found between the beneficial effect of frequency compression and the degree of high frequency hearing loss or the presence of DR. Subjective sound quality ratings indicated no clear preference, but excessive frequency compression was generally deemed counterproductive. Frequency compression may be appropriate for hearing aid users with high frequency hearing loss and can improve speech recognition. The degree of frequency compression required to achieve maximal benefit varies from case to case and has to be optimized on an individual basis.

  5. Effective Inclusion of e-Learning in a Subject of Physics Experiments: Introductory Electronics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, T.; Abe, K.; Yamazaki, N.; Ooe, A.; Igarashi, K.; Hayashi, S.; Suzuki, M.

    2010-07-01

    A Web-based e-Learning homework system was introduced in the undergraduate subject of the introductory electronics experiment; "Introductory Electronics Laboratory". This homework is appended to practical trainings and face-to-face guidance in the laboratory (blended-type e-Learning). The e-Learning is mainly prepared to teach basic electronics and to guide necessary apparatus before the practical training. The overall impression about this subject in students' questionnaires has improved from 3.5 for 2005/2006 (e-Learning not introduced) to 3.9 2007/2008 (e-Learning introduced) (5 for good, 3 for average, and 1 for bad). Students understanding of the experiments has also improved from 3.43 for 2005/2006 to 3.45 for 2007/2008 (5, 4, 3, 2 for S, A, B, C grade). This subject is compulsory for all second-year students in our department (˜120 students). The e-Learning system in our case is considered to be effective especially for required subjects of experiments and large classes.

  6. Effects of instructions and cue subjectiveness on specificity of autobiographical memory recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge J. Ricarte-Trives

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study was to determine the power of instructions on the specificity of autobiographical memory as obtained with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 and the efficacy of cue word criteria selection based on subjective parameters obtained with a standardized lexical program. Results showed a high power of specific instructions in its written version in contrast to non-directed memory recall to the same list of words three weeks later in a counterbalanced repeated measures within-subjects design. This effect was stronger when subjects previously were faced to the non-specific recovery task. Matched word lists using the "Buscapalabras" program (Davis & Perea, 2005 showed a very similar behaviour. These results point out that the same stimuli can be used repeatedly to obtain voluntary and involuntary retrieval with changes at instructional level. Additionally, standardized lexical programs can be employed to adapt cue-words of memory recall systems controlling for subjective differences related to language parameters (frequency, imageability and familiarity.

  7. Protective Effect of Scutellaria litwinowii Extract on Serum/Glucose-Deprived Cultured PC12 Cells and Determining the Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afsharzadeh, Maryam; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Zare, Aryo; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, the protective effects of Scutellaria litwinowii Bornm. & Sint. on cell viability and reactive oxygen species production in cultured PC12 cells were investigated under serum/glucose-deprivation-induced cell death...

  8. Caffeic acid and quercetin exert caspases-independent apoptotic effects on Leishmania major promastigotes, and reactivate the death of infected phagocytes derived from BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia Belkhelfa-Slimani

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The leishmanicidal effect of caffeic acid and quercetin on promastigotes and amastigotes, as well as reactivation of infected phagocytes apoptosis, suggested a potential therapeutic role against cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  9. Effect of microwave irradiation on reactivity of metallurgical coke in CO2 atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of microwave irradiation on gasification behavior and crystallite parameters of coke samples was studied in this research. The results indicated that microwave irradiation have significant influence on the carbon structure and the reactivity of coke in CO2 atmosphere. The thermogravimetric results showed that the temperature of coke at different conversion rates of 10 %, 20 % and 30 % were reduced by 20 °C, 30 °C and 50 °C respectively. Simultaneously, microwave irradiation may lead to variation in lateral size and stacking height of crystallite and subsequently reduce the gasification reaction rate of coke in CO2 atmosphere.

  10. Effects of caffeine on alcohol reinforcement: beverage choice, self-administration, and subjective ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mary M; Meredith, Steven E; Evatt, Daniel P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2017-03-01

    Combining alcohol and caffeine is associated with increased alcohol consumption, but no prospective experimental studies have examined whether added caffeine increases alcohol consumption. This study examined how caffeine alters alcohol self-administration and subjective reinforcing effects in healthy adults. Thirty-one participants completed six double-blind alcohol self-administration sessions: three sessions with alcohol only (e.g., beverage A) and three sessions with alcohol and caffeine (e.g., beverage B). Participants chose which beverage to consume on a subsequent session (e.g., beverage A or B). The effects of caffeine on overall beverage choice, number of self-administered drinks, subjective ratings (e.g., Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale), and psychomotor performance were examined. A majority of participants (65%) chose to drink the alcohol beverage containing caffeine on their final self-administration session. Caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks. Caffeine significantly increased stimulant effects, decreased sedative effects, and attenuated decreases in psychomotor performance attributable to alcohol. Relative to nonchoosers, caffeine choosers reported overall lower stimulant ratings and reported greater drinking behavior prior to the study. Although caffeine did not increase the number of self-administered drinks, most participants chose the alcohol beverage containing caffeine. Given the differences in subjective ratings and pre-existing differences in self-reported alcohol consumption for caffeine choosers and nonchoosers, these data suggest that decreased stimulant effects of alcohol and heavier self-reported drinking may predict subsequent choice of combined caffeine and alcohol beverages. These predictors may identify individuals who would benefit from efforts to reduce risk behaviors associated with combining alcohol and caffeine.

  11. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigerwalt, Robert D.; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 subjects) or were not treated (18 subjects). The visual acuity, IOP, and ocular blood flow were measured at two, three, and six months. Results After two months of supplementation with Mirtogenol®, the mean IOP decreased from a baseline of 25.2 mmHg to 22.2 mmHg. After three months of treatment with Mirtogenol®, the IOP was significantly lowered compared to that of untreated controls (p<0.05) to 22.0 mmHg. No further improvement was found after six months. Nineteen of the twenty patients taking Mirtogenol had a decreased IOP after three months. Only marginal effects on the IOP were found in the 18 control subjects. No side effects were observed. Ocular blood flow (central retinal, ophthalmic, and posterior ciliary arteries) improved both in the systolic and diastolic components as measured by Color Doppler imaging. After three months of treatment, the improvement of ocular blood flow was significant as compared to both baseline and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions An improved ocular blood flow may contribute to the prevention of glaucoma. The results of this study indicate that Mirtogenol® may represent a safe preventative intervention for lowering the risk for developing symptomatic glaucoma by controlling IOP and improving ocular blood flow. PMID:18618008

  12. Differential effects of visual feedback on subjective visual vertical accuracy and precision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bjasch

    Full Text Available The brain constructs an internal estimate of the gravitational vertical by integrating multiple sensory signals. In darkness, systematic head-roll dependent errors in verticality estimates, as measured by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, occur. We hypothesized that visual feedback after each trial results in increased accuracy, as physiological adjustment errors (A-/E-effect are likely based on central computational mechanisms and investigated whether such improvements were related to adaptational shifts of perceived vertical or to a higher cognitive strategy. We asked 12 healthy human subjects to adjust a luminous arrow to vertical in various head-roll positions (0 to 120deg right-ear down, 15deg steps. After each adjustment visual feedback was provided (lights on, display of previous adjustment and of an earth-vertical cross. Control trials consisted of SVV adjustments without feedback. At head-roll angles with the largest A-effect (90, 105, and 120deg, errors were reduced significantly (p0.05 influenced. In seven subjects an additional session with two consecutive blocks (first with, then without visual feedback was completed at 90, 105 and 120deg head-roll. In these positions the error-reduction by the previous visual feedback block remained significant over the consecutive 18-24 min (post-feedback block, i.e., was still significantly (p<0.002 different from the control trials. Eleven out of 12 subjects reported having consciously added a bias to their perceived vertical based on visual feedback in order to minimize errors. We conclude that improvements of SVV accuracy by visual feedback, which remained effective after removal of feedback for ≥18 min, rather resulted from a cognitive strategy than by adapting the internal estimate of the gravitational vertical. The mechanisms behind the SVV therefore, remained stable, which is also supported by the fact that SVV precision - depending mostly on otolith input - was not affected by visual

  13. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p < 0.0001), number of painful joints (r = 0.218; p = 0.001), HAQ (r = 0.279; p < 0.0001), and DAS28 (r = 0.156; p < 0.0001). On regression analysis, both xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p < 0.001) and DAS28 (for severe disease activity: OR 13.26, 95% CI 3.15-55.79, p < 0.001) showed influence on functional incapacity. Forty-five individuals (19.1%) presented with secondary SS, and having this diagnosis was not associated with disease activity or functional capacity. Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  14. The effects of hypnosis on an elite senior European tour golfer: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pates, John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a hypnosis intervention on the performance and flow-state experiences of an elite senior European Tour golf professional. The experimental effect was assessed during 11 Senior European Tour golf events. Performance and flow data were analyzed using a single-subject design combined with a procedure to monitor the player's internal experience. The results indicated that the player's mean stroke average and mean flow scores increased from baseline to intervention. There were no overlapping data points between baseline and intervention conditions for both performance and flow-state scores. The qualitative data revealed hypnosis may positively control emotions, thoughts, feelings, and perceptions.

  15. Effect of nonlinear void reactivity on bifurcation characteristics of a lumped-parameter model of a BWR: A study relevant to RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Dinkar, E-mail: dinkar@iitk.ac.in [Nuclear Engineering and Technology Program, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India); Kalra, Manjeet Singh, E-mail: drmanjeet.singh@dituniversity.edu.in [DIT University, Dehradun 248 009 (India); Wahi, Pankaj, E-mail: wahi@iitk.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A simplified model with nonlinear void reactivity feedback is studied. • Method of multiple scales for nonlinear analysis and oscillation characteristics. • Second order void reactivity dominates in determining system dynamics. • Opposing signs of linear and quadratic void reactivity enhances global safety. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of nonlinear void reactivity on the dynamics of a simplified lumped-parameter model for a boiling water reactor (BWR) is investigated. A mathematical model of five differential equations comprising of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics encompassing the nonlinearities associated with both the reactivity feedbacks and the heat transfer process has been used. To this end, we have considered parameters relevant to RBMK for which the void reactivity is known to be nonlinear. A nonlinear analysis of the model exploiting the method of multiple time scales (MMTS) predicts the occurrence of the two types of Hopf bifurcation, namely subcritical and supercritical, leading to the evolution of limit cycles for a range of parameters. Numerical simulations have been performed to verify the analytical results obtained by MMTS. The study shows that the nonlinear reactivity has a significant influence on the system dynamics. A parametric study with varying nominal reactor power and operating conditions in coolant channel has also been performed which shows the effect of change in concerned parameter on the boundary between regions of sub- and super-critical Hopf bifurcations in the space constituted by the two coefficients of reactivities viz. the void and the Doppler coefficient of reactivities. In particular, we find that introduction of a negative quadratic term in the void reactivity feedback significantly increases the supercritical region and dominates in determining the system dynamics.

  16. Gratitude mediates the effect of emotional intelligence on subjective well-being: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the relationship among emotional intelligence, gratitude, and subjective well-being in a sample of university students. A total of 365 undergraduates completed the emotional intelligence scale, the gratitude questionnaire, and the subjective well-being measures. The results of the structural equation model showed that emotional intelligence is positively associated with gratitude and subjective well-being, that gratitude is positively associated with subjective well-being, and that gratitude partially mediates the positive relationship between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being. Bootstrap test results also revealed that emotional intelligence has a significant indirect effect on subjective well-being through gratitude.

  17. Rebuilding relationships: a pilot study of the effectiveness of the Mellow Parenting Programme for children with Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckering, Christine; Connolly, Brenda; Werner, Claudia; Toms-Whittle, Louise; Thompson, Lucy; Lennox, Jeannette; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Mellow Parenting is an intensive parenting programme which has been shown to be effective in improving the psychosocial functioning of very vulnerable babies and preschool children. We used a complex interventions model to evaluate its use with school-age children with Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), a serious disorder of social functioning associated with maltreatment. The programme had a positive effect on mothers' mental health, but had no measurable effects on symptoms of RAD or on parent-child interaction, although the variation between families after the group suggested that some had responded more than others. Mellow Parenting is an effective programme for vulnerable families with younger children and may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of school-age children with RAD, but it cannot be considered a definite treatment for RAD in this age group. The search continues for safe and effective treatments for RAD in school-age children.

  18. EFFECT OF TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA ON OVERWEIGHT HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS: DOUBLE BLIND STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhani Pashine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa on serum lipid profile in overweight hyperlipidemic subjects. Methods: This was a double blind randomised control study. The study was conducted in the Department of Medicine, CSM Medical University, Lucknow from July 2010-June 2011. A total of 120 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule whose BMI>25 and total cholesterol>200 mg/dl and/or triglyceride>150 mg/dl, were divided randomly using random number table into 2 groups Group-I (Aquous extract of Turmeric-1.4 gm per day (n=53 and Group-II (Placebo (n=52 for three months. They were given the same color capsules without revealing their identity, with the instructions to take the contents of each pack twice a day before meal for 90 days. Subjects were asked to give their 12 hour fasting blood samples on 0, 30, 60 and 90 day. The paired t-test was used to compare the changes amongst follow-ups and unpaired t-test was used to compare between groups. p-value<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: At the baseline, both the groups were similar in anthropometric and clinical parameters. Treatment group produced significant (p<0.0001 reduction in lipid profiles such as