WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject peck responses

  1. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  2. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.; Nielsen, B.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood,

  3. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte L; Buitenhuis, A J (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens, influenced by multiple factors. FP is thought to be redirected foraging behaviour, however fearful birds are also known to be more sensitive to develop FP. The relationship between fear-responses, foraging and FP is not well understood......, therefore we studied the behaviour of 16 birds from a high feather pecking (HFP) line and 16 birds from a low feather pecking (LFP) line at 35 weeks of age inside a plus-maze. Birds were from the 10th generation of selection for either high or low FP. First exposure to the maze was used to measure birds...... in the maze for 10 min during which they could choose to eat from all available food-items. When exposed for the first time in the maze HFP birds walked a longer distance, vocalized sooner and had more exploratory pecks compared to LFP birds who showed more wing-movements and defecations. When given a choice...

  4. Long term selection for reduced or increased pecking behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, A J; Kjaer, J B

    2008-01-01

    Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour. Direct comparison of the selected experiments is difficult......, as the selection criteria and even the selection procedures varied. Keeping these differences in mind, the results of the experiments showed that a) It is possible to change pecking behaviour in the desired direction using selection, b) Aggressive pecking is not related to feather pecking, c) There is no clear...... selection for reduced pecking behaviour changes the immune response. Feather pecking in laying hens is an important issue in animal welfare. Four studies in laying hens were selected which investigated increased or reduced pecking behaviour using direct or indirect measures of feather pecking behaviour...

  5. Reinforcer Magnitude Attenuates Apomorphine's Effects on Operant Pecking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    When given to pigeons, the direct-acting dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits pecking. The response has been likened to foraging pecking because it bears remarkable similarity to foraging behavior, and it is enhanced by food deprivation. On the other hand, other data suggest the response is not related to foraging behavior and may even interfere…

  6. Shock postponement reverses the effects of cocaine on the punished pecking of pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, T A; Gyorda, A M; Barrett, J E

    1994-06-01

    The effects of cocaine on punished and unpunished key peck responding of pigeons was examined before and after a history of treadle pressing maintained by shock postponement. In one schedule component, the first peck after 3 min produced grain. The alternate component was similar, but every 30 responses was also punished by a mild shock. Punished responding occurred at approximately 25% of the rate of unpunished responding. Cocaine (0.1-10.0 mg/kg IM) did not affect or decrease punished responding; unpunished responding was not systemically affected. Next, a foot treadle was installed and treadle presses postponed shocks for 25 s; shocks occurred every 5 s in the absence of pressing. The treadle was removed when shocks were reliably postponed. Next, the multiple schedule of key pecking was reinstated. At least one dose of cocaine now increased punished pecking; unpunished responding was not systematically altered. These results complement related findings with monkeys and show that pigeons are suitable subjects for studying the reversal of the effects of cocaine on punished responding by a history of postponing shock.

  7. Resurgence of responding after the cessation of response-independent reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R; Skinner, B F

    1980-10-01

    In an autoshaping experiment, food-deprived pigeons pecked rapidly at a moving dot that preceded the delivery of food. When the moving dot and food were no longer correlated, the rate of pecking dropped nearly to zero. When, subsequently, no food was given, pecking reappeared at a high rate (nearly 200 pecks per min for each subject), the rate dropping again in subsequent sessions. In two other experiments, designed to clarify relevant variables, the effect was replicated. The data suggest that although response-independent reinforcement produces a decrement in responding, it does not reduce a tendency to respond under other conditions.

  8. Pecking Order Behavior in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the pecking order hypothesis in 23 emerging market countries. Emerging market countries would appear to be an ideal setting for the pecking order hypothesis to hold because of the presence of strong asymmetric information issues and agency costs. We observe,

  9. Subject Responses to Electrochromic Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clear, Robert; Inkarojrit, Vorapat; Lee, Eleanor

    2006-03-03

    Forty-three subjects worked in a private office with switchable electrochromic windows, manually-operated Venetian blinds, and dimmable fluorescent lights. The electrochromic window had a visible transmittance range of approximately 3-60%. Analysis of subject responses and physical data collected during the work sessions showed that the electrochromic windows reduced the incidence of glare compared to working under a fixed transmittance (60%) condition. Subjects used the Venetian blinds less often and preferred the variable transmittance condition, but used slightly more electric lighting with it than they did when window transmittance was fixed.

  10. Pecking and respiration rhythms of pigeons (Columba livia)

    OpenAIRE

    Hörster, Wolfgang; Xia, Li; Delius, Juan

    2003-01-01

    The production and coordination of rhythmic activities in birds is seldom investigated. Here we describe the pecking and breathing rhythms of pigeons under different conditions. When feeding from a heap of small grains, hungry pigeons pecked at regular intervals of about 0.3 s. The pecking rhythm was slightly slower in the afternoon. The pecking rhythm induced by the dopaminergic drug apomorphine was somewhat faster but some overt pecks were skipped. The mean respiratory cycle during a nonpec...

  11. Do Portuguese SMEs Follow Pecking Order Financing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jan; Mateus, Cesario; Olson, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests for pecking order behavior in medium-sized private Portuguese firms. In contrast to the usual split between internal funds, debt, and external equity, we separate debt into four components – cheap trade credits (CTC), bank loans (BL), other loans, and expensive credits (EC). We use...... breakpoint tests to identify when firms switch between funding sources by examining the change in each funding source based on the financing deficit remaining after the previous pecking order funding source has been used. Our tests indicate that Portuguese companies generally move from lower cost to higher...... cost financing sources, but they do not exhaust each type of debt before moving on to the next funding source in the pecking order. Such behavior is consistent with a loose interpretation of pecking order financing, but not a strict interpretation of the theory. Instead, Portuguese firms may...

  12. Feather pecking in growers: a study with individually marked birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wechsler, B; Huber-Eicher, B; Nash, David Richard

    1998-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether individual birds specialise in feather pecking. Growers were individually marked and reared in groups of 30 or 31 in pens with a slatted floor. At an age of 4 to 6 weeks feather pecking was frequent in all pens. 2. On average 83% of all...... group members (10 groups, experiment 1) were recorded at least once as initiator of a feather pecking interaction. In each group 2 to 6 individuals feather pecked more than twice as often as the average for the group, and were defined as 'high rate peckers'. They initiated 39% of all recorded feather...... pecking interactions. 3. Every interaction was classified (with increasing intensity) as pecking, pinching, pulling or plucking. Compared to the others, 'high rate peckers' had more of their feather pecking classified as plucking and less classified as pecking. 4. There was no evidence that particular...

  13. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Deakin

    Full Text Available Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals' responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens' responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the 'screen-peck' task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue-P to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue-N to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive-NP; middle-M; near-negative-NN, and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias.

  14. A Screen-Peck Task for Investigating Cognitive Bias in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, William J.; Hodge, James J. L.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Affect-induced cognitive judgement biases occur in both humans and animals. Animals in a more negative affective state tend to interpret ambiguous cues more negatively than animals in a more positive state and vice versa. Investigating animals’ responses to ambiguous cues can therefore be used as a proxy measure of affective state. We investigated laying hens’ responses to ambiguous stimuli using a novel cognitive bias task. In the ‘screen-peck’ task, hens were trained to peck a high/low saturation orange circle presented on a computer screen (positive cue–P) to obtain a mealworm reward, and to not peck when the oppositely saturated orange circle was presented (negative cue–N) to avoid a one second air puff. Ambiguous cues were orange circles of intermediate saturation between the P and N cue (near-positive–NP; middle–M; near-negative–NN), and were unrewarded. Cue pecking showed a clear generalisation curve from P through NP, M, NN to N suggesting that hens were able to associate colour saturation with reward or punishment, and could discriminate between stimuli that were more or less similar to learnt cues. Across six test sessions, there was no evidence for extinction of pecking responses to ambiguous cues. We manipulated affective state by changing temperature during testing to either ~20°C or ~29°C in a repeated measures cross-over design. Hens have been shown to prefer temperatures in the higher range and hence we assumed that exposure to the higher temperature would induce a relatively positive affective state. Hens tested under warmer conditions were significantly more likely to peck the M probe than those tested at cooler temperatures suggesting that increased temperature in the ranges tested here may have some positive effect on hens, inducing a positive cognitive bias. PMID:27410229

  15. Feather pecking and monoamines - a behavioral and neurobiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) remains one of the major welfare issues in laying hens. SFP is the pecking at and pulling out of feathers, inflicting damage to the plumage and skin of the recipient. The neurobiological profile determining the vulnerability of individual hens to develop into a severe

  16. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people.

  17. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: September - December 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  18. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. [Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: August-October, 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from August through October of 1940. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  20. Fort Peck Game Range: Narrative report: January - April 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Pigeons use distinct stop phases to control pecking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Leslie M; Reid, Thomas; Troje, Nikolaus F

    2017-02-01

    Pecking at small targets requires accurate spatial coordination of the head. Planning of the peck has been proposed to occur in two distinct stop phases, but although this idea has now been around for a long time, the specific functional roles of these stop phases remain unsolved. Here, we investigated the characteristics of the two stop phases using high-speed motion capture and examined their functions with two experiments. In experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that the second stop phase is used to pre-program the final approach to a target and analyzed head movements while pigeons (Columba livia) pecked at targets of different size. Our results show that the duration of both stop phases significantly increased as stimulus size decreased. We also found significant positive correlations between stimulus size and the distances of the beaks to the stimulus during both stop phases. In experiment 2, we used a two-alternative forced choice task with different levels of difficulty to test the hypothesis that the first stop phase is used to decide between targets. The results indicate that the characteristics of the stop phases do not change with an increasing difficulty between the two choices. Therefore, we conclude that the first stop phase is not exclusively used to decide upon a target to peck at, but also contributes to the function of the second stop phase, which is improving pecking accuracy and planning the final approach to the target. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Key pecking during extinction after intermittent or continuous reinforcement as a function of the number of reinforcers delivered during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarcone, T J; Branch, M N; Hughes, C E; Pennypacker, H S

    1997-01-01

    Key pecking by 7 pigeons was established and maintained on a multiple variable-ratio variable-ratio (VR) schedule of food presentation. The schedule in one of the components was then changed to fixed-ratio (FR) 1 for a predetermined number of reinforcers. Both components were then changed to extinction (i.e., multiple extinction, extinction). This sequence was repeated a different number of times for each pigeon to determine the relation between the number of reinforcers delivered during each component of the multiple VR FR 1 schedule and the number of responses during extinction. For most pigeons, there were fewer responses during extinction in the presence of a stimulus recently correlated with FR 1, regardless of the number of reinforcers received. The ratio of the total responses in extinction in the former VR component to the total responses in the former FR 1 component increased as the number of reinforcers delivered during each component of the multiple schedule increased. Within-subject replications of the partial-reinforcement extinction effect generally occurred, and there were no overall reductions in the number of responses in extinction with repeated exposures to extinction. PMID:9037782

  3. Analysis of severe feather pecking behavior in a high feather pecking selection line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, R; Kjaer, J B; Abreu, G C G

    2009-01-01

    Even though feather pecking (FP) in laying hens has been extensively studied, a good solution to prevent chickens from this behavior under commercial circumstances has not been found. Selection against FP behavior is possible, but for a more effective selection across different populations......, it is necessary to characterize the genetic mechanism associated with this behavior. In this study, we use a high FP selection line, which has been selected for 8 generations. We present evidence of the presence of a major dominant allele affecting the FP behavior by using an argument based on the presence...... of mixture in the distribution of the observed FP and by studying the evolution of the proportion of very high FP along the sequence of 8 generations. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that the gene transcription profile of the birds performing high FP differs from the profile of the other...

  4. 40 CFR 147.3200 - Fort Peck Indian Reservation: Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes-Class II wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation is the program administered by the Assiniboine and... Tribes' program application: (a) Incorporation by reference. The requirements set forth in the Fort Peck... submitted as part of the Fort Peck Tribes' application. (d) Program Description. The Program Description...

  5. Shades of darkness : A pecking order of trading venues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkveld, Albert J.; Yueshen, Bart Zhou; Zhu, Haoxiang

    2017-01-01

    We characterize the dynamic fragmentation of U.S. equity markets using a unique data set that disaggregates dark transactions by venue types. The “pecking order” hypothesis of trading venues states that investors “sort” various venue types, putting low-cost-low-immediacy venues on top and

  6. Testing static tradeoff theiry against pecking order models of capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We test two models with the purpose of finding the best empirical explanation for corporate financing choice of a cross section of 27 Nigerian quoted companies. The models were developed to represent the Static tradeoff Theory and the Pecking order Theory of capital structure with a view to make comparison between ...

  7. Reduced Variance of Gene Expression at Numerous Loci in a Population of Chickens Selected for High Feather Pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, A L; Buitenhuis, A J

    2010-01-01

    Changes in gene expression in response to selection were studied by comparing microarray expression profiles among a population of domestic chickens selected for high feather pecking (FP) with a control population and a population selected for low FP. No transcripts showed significant differences...... and gentle FP were distinct, suggesting that very distinct underlying neural mechanisms underlie these 2 behaviors, with SFP showing more signs of an association with synaptic plasticity and with an immunosuppressive stress response...

  8. Comparison of individual and social feather pecking tests in two lines of laying hens at ten different ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to select a suitable test to measure feather pecking in laying hens. Pecking behaviour in individual and social feather pecking tests was compared with pecking behaviour in the homepen. Two lines of laying hens were used that differ in their propensity to display

  9. Inter-individual variability of oscillatory responses to subject's own name. A single-subject analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Kronbichler, Martin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Crone, Julia Sophia; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Golaszewski, Stefan; Ladurner, Gunther

    2011-06-01

    In previous studies event-related potentials and oscillations in response to subject's own name have been analyzed extensively on group-level in healthy subjects and in patients with a disorder of consciousness. Subject's own name as a deviant produces a P3. With equiprobable stimuli, non-phase-locked alpha oscillations are smaller in response to subject's own name compared to other names or subject's own name backwards. However, little is known about replicability on a single-subject level. Seventeen healthy subjects were assessed in an own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli of subject's own name, another name, and subject's own name backwards. Event-related potentials and non-phase locked oscillations were analyzed with single-subject, non-parametric statistics. No consistent results were found either for ERPs or for the non-phase locked changes of oscillatory activities. Only 4 subjects showed a robust effect as expected, that is, a lower activity in the alpha-beta range to subject's own name compared to other conditions. Four subjects elicited a higher activity for subject's own name. Thus, analyzing the EEG reactivity in the own-name paradigm with equiprobable stimuli on a single-subject level yields a high variance between subjects. In future research, single-subject statistics should be applied for examining the validity of physiologic measurements in other paradigms and for examining the pattern of reactivity in patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fearfulness and feather damage in laying hens divergently selected for high and low feather pecking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodenburg, T Bas; de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) remains a major welfare and economic problem in laying hens. FP has been found to be related to other behavioural characteristics, such as fearfulness. There are indications that fearful birds are more likely to develop FP. Furthermore, FP can lead to increased fearfulness...... in the victims. To investigate further the relationship between FP and fearfulness, feather damage and behavioural fear responses were recorded in three White Leghorn lines of laying hens: a line selected for high FP (HFP line), a line selected for low FP (LFP line) and an unselected control line (10th...... in fear responses between the HFP and LFP lines were not found, neither in the TI-test, nor in the HA or NO test. As expected, birds from the HFP line had considerably more feather damage than birds from the LFP line and birds from the unselected control line were intermediate. Cages that withdrew from...

  11. Traumatic endophthalmitis following a crane pecking injury - An unusual mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Prabu; Ramakrishnan, Seema; Dhoble, Pankaja; Gubert, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To report a case of beta-hemolytic streptococcal endophthalmitis following crane-pecking injury. A twelve-year-old boy was brought to us by his father with history of crane beak injury in his right eye. On examination, his vision was 6/24 Snellen's acuity. Anterior segment examination showed a full thickness two mm corneo-limbal tear at 1 o'clock with iris prolapse. Pupil showed peaking through the wound with a clear crystalline lens. There was no evidence of hypopyon in the anterior chamber and B-scan ultrasonography showed acoustically clear vitreous with an attached retina. Left eye was within normal limits. Primary corneo-limbal tear repair was performed within 24 hours from the time of presentation. Intra-operatively, the corneal surgeon noted turbid aqueous with minimal hypopyon. In view of clinical suspicion of infection, an intravitreal tap for culture was taken during the primary repair, and prophylactic intravitreal antibiotics were given. The culture report showed beta-hemolytic streptococci. Pars plana vitrectomy with intravitreal antibiotics was performed after 2 days as serial ultrasound scans showed appearance and worsening of endophthalmitis. A month after the surgery, his best corrected visual acuity improved to 6/12. Ocular injuries resulting from bird pecking are very rare. We treated a case of full thickness corneo-limbal tear with endophthalmitis caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci following a crane-pecking injury. We recommend that injecting intravitreal antibiotics along with primary globe repair in case of severe/contaminated injuries and early pars plana core-vitrectomy would result in better outcome like in our case.

  12. Applying chemical stimuli on feathers to reduce feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlander Matauschek, A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that spraying a distasteful substance (quinine) on a bird's feather cover reduced short-term feather pecking. The present experiment evaluated if other substances offer similar or better protection against feather pecking. One hundred and twenty birds were divided into 12

  13. "Irrelevant" ground pecking in agonistic situations in burmese red junglefowl (Gallus gallus spadiceus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feekes, Francisca

    1971-01-01

    Threatening cocks may suddenly peck at the ground, pick up a food grain and swallow it. The occurrence of a feeding pattern during threat appears to be out of context and seems functionally irrelevant. Kruijt (1964), concluded from his data that ground pecking in threatening cocks is caused by

  14. Firms' debt-equity decisions when the static tradeoff theory and the pecking order theory disagree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, A.; Verbeek, M.; Verwijmeren, P.

    This paper tests the static tradeoff theory against the pecking order theory. We focus on an important difference in prediction: the static tradeoff theory argues that a firm increases leverage until it reaches its target debt ratio, while the pecking order yields debt issuance until the debt

  15. The fearful feather pecker : applying the principles to practice to prevent feather pecking in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Billions of laying hens are kept worldwide. Severe feather pecking (SFP) is a behaviour which occurs with a high prevalence on commercial farms. SFP, the pecking and plucking of feathers of another bird, induces pain and stress and can ultimately lead to cannibalism. Moreover, SFP can occur if a

  16. The prevention and control of feather pecking: application to commercial systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicol, C.J.; Bestman, M.; Gilani, A.M.; Haas, de E.N.; Jong, de I.C.; Lampton, S.; Wagenaar, J.P.; Weeks, C.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the prevalence of feather pecking in different commercial laying hen 23 systems and its welfare and economic impacts are reviewed in the following paper. 24 Current methods for controlling feather pecking include beak-trimming and alterations to light regimes, but these methods have

  17. Subjective Response to Alcohol as a Research Domain Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Lara A; Bujarski, Spencer; Roche, Daniel J O

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in the subjective experience of the pharmacological effects of alcohol have long been implicated in the likelihood that one will drink heavily and develop alcoholism. The theme of this conceptual review and perspective article is to synthesize the literature on subjective responses to alcohol and to set an agenda for the next generation of research in the area. Specifically, we contend that in order for subjective response to alcohol to play a prominent role in alcoholism research, it is critical that it be studied as a multimodal phenotype. First, we review the human research on subjective response to alcohol measured under controlled laboratory conditions and draw recommendations for the application of these findings to understanding alcoholism neurobiology in humans. Second, we highlight multimodal approaches, including studies of the genetic and neural substrates of individual differences in subjective response to alcohol. Third, we review treatment implications with a focus on subjective response to alcohol as an intervention target. Upon review of the research on subjective response to alcohol across levels of analyses, we provide recommendations for leveraging these phenotypes in a systematic and methodologically rigorous fashion that can address central questions about alcoholism etiology, disease progression, and personalized treatment. The approach recommended herein is largely consistent with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative across the National Institute of Mental Health. The defining feature of such domains is that they inform behavior yet be amenable to examination through multiple units of analysis, such as molecular, genetic, circuit-level, and behavioral measurements. To that end, we contend that subjective response to alcohol represents a behaviorally and biologically plausible phenotype upon which to build using the RDoC framework for understanding alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society

  18. Evaluation of the subjects' response to antipsychotics questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, HA; Knegtering, R; Wiersma, D; van den Bosch, RJ

    The present study reports on the development of a new self-administered instrument to assess patients' responses to antipsychotic medication. The Subjects' Response to Antipsychotics (SRA) Questionnaire is a 74-item instrument with eight scales (Recovery, Weight Gain, Sexual Anhedonia, Sedation,

  19. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  20. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  2. Feather-pecking and injurious pecking in organic laying hens in 107 flocks from eight European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestman, M.; Verwer, Cynthia; Brenninkmeyer, Christine

    2017-01-01

    and flock characteristics (age, genotype). Near the end of lay, 50 hens per flock were assessed for plumage condition and wounds. Potential influencing factors were screened and submitted to a multivariate model. The majority of the flocks (81%) consisted of brown genotypes and were found in six countries...... access to the free range (30% of the variation explained). For feather damage in white hens, no model could be made. Wounds in brown hens were associated with not having daily access to free range (14% of the variation explained). Wounds in white hens were explained by a model containing not topping......-up litter during the laying period (26% of the variation explained). These results suggest that better feeding management, daily access to the free-range area and improved litter management may reduce incidence of plumage damage and associated injurious pecking, hence enhancing the welfare of organic laying...

  3. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: May, June, July, August 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: September, October, November, December 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by...

  5. Fort Peck Game Range: Refuge narrative report: January, February, March, April 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Fort Peck NWR and the easement refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1951. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Response amendment in fencing: differences between elite and novice subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L R; Walmsley, A

    2000-08-01

    Reaction time (RT), movement time (MT), total response time (RMT), and accuracy of 3 elite and 3 novice fencers were studied under a dual response paradigm requiring a full lunge. Electromyographic activity (EMG) from selected arm and leg muscles was used to compare response profiles of the two groups. Although the elite subjects had slower MTs, their faster RTs resulted in significantly shorter total response times. The EMG analysis showed that in comparison to the novice subjects, onset of muscle activity was significantly faster for the elite group in five of the six muscles studied. In addition, the elite subjects showed more coherent muscle synergies and more consistent patterns of muscle coordination. Although the requirement to change targets (signalled by the arrival of a second stimulus) led to slightly more target misses for the elite group, the overall frequency was low, which indicates that it did not pose difficulty for either group. The present findings show that measures of response timing and neuromuscular coordination differentiate skill level in the fencing lunge and draw attention to practical implications for skill assessment and training.

  7. Models of subjective response to in-flight motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrapatna, A. N.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    Mathematical relationships between subjective comfort and environmental variables in an air transportation system are investigated. As a first step in model building, only the motion variables are incorporated and sensitivities are obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis. The data for these models have been collected from commercial passenger flights. Two models are considered. In the first, subjective comfort is assumed to depend on rms values of the six-degrees-of-freedom accelerations. The second assumes a Rustenburg type human response function in obtaining frequency weighted rms accelerations, which are used in a linear model. The form of the human response function is examined and the results yield a human response weighting function for different degrees of freedom.

  8. Objective and subjective measures of vergence step responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2007-12-01

    Dichoptic nonius lines are used for subjectively (psychophysically) measuring vergence states, but they have been questioned as valid indicators of vergence eye position. In a mirror-stereoscope, we presented convergent and divergent step-stimuli and estimated the vergence response with nonius lines flashed at fixed delays after the disparity step stimulus. For each delay, an adaptive psychophysical procedure was run to determine the physical nonius offset required for subjective alignment; these vergence states were compared with objective eye movement recordings. Between both measures of initial vergence, we calculated the maximal cross-correlation coefficient: the median in our sample was about 0.9 for convergence and divergence, suggesting a good agreement. Relative to the objective measures, the subjective method revealed a smaller vergence velocity and a larger vergence response in the final phase of the response, but both measures were well correlated. The dynamic nonius test is therefore considered to be useful to relatively evaluate a subject's ability in disparity vergence.

  9. [Myofascial pain syndrome treated with sparrow-pecking moxibustion at trigger points: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yao; Bu, He; Jia, Ji-rong; Liu, Zheng

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy difference in treatment of myofasical pain syndrome between sparrow-pecking moxibustion and acupuncture at trigger points so as to provide the reference of the effective therapeutic method for myofascial pain syndrome. Ninety patients were randomized into a sparrow-pecking moxibustion group and an acupuncture group, 45 cases in each one. The trigger points were selected in pain areas in the two groups. In the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group, the sparrow-pecking moxibustion was applied, 30 min in each time. In the acupuncture group, the filiform needles were inserted obliquely at 45 degrees and retained for 40 min in each treatment. The treatment was given once a day and 10 treatments made one session in the two groups. The short-form McGill pain questionnaire was used as the observation index, and the changes in pain rating index (PRI), present pain intensity (PPI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after treatment were used for efficacy assessment. The results of PRI, PPI and VAS after treatment were reduced apparently as compared with those before treatment in the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group and the acupuncture group (all P0.05). The curative and remarkably effective rate was 80.0% (36/45) in the sparrow-pecking moxibustion group, which was better than 40.0% (18/45, Pmyofascial pain syndrome as compared with acupuncture at trigger points. This therapy is simpler in operation additionally.

  10. Behavioral responses to catecholamine depletion in unmedicated, remitted subjects with bulimia nervosa and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Simona; Stern, Jair; Gamper, Lara; Moergeli, Hanspeter; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) has been associated with dysregulation of the central catecholaminergic system. An instructive way to investigate the relationship between catecholaminergic function and psychiatric disorder has involved behavioral responses to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). The purpose of this study was to examine a possible catecholaminergic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of bulimia nervosa. CD was achieved by oral administration of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) in 18 remitted female subjects with BN (rBN) and 31 healthy female control subjects. The study design consisted of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial. The main outcome measures were bulimic symptoms assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire. Measures were assessed before and 26, 30, 54, 78, 102 hours after the first AMPT or placebo administration. In the experimental environment (controlled environment with a low level of food cues) rBN subjects had a greater increase in eating disorder symptoms during CD compared with healthy control subjects (condition × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). In the experimental environment, rBN subjects experienced fewer bulimic symptoms than in the natural environment (uncontrolled environment concerning food cues) 36 hours after the first AMPT intake (environment × diagnosis interaction, p < .05). Serum prolactin levels increased significantly, and to a comparable degree across groups, after AMPT administration. This study suggests that rBN is associated with vulnerability for developing eating disorder symptoms in response to reduced catecholamine neurotransmission after CD. The findings support the notion of catecholaminergic dysfunction as a possible trait abnormality in BN. © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  11. Subjective social status moderates cortisol responses to social threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenewald, Tara L; Kemeny, Margaret E; Aziz, Najib

    2006-07-01

    Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between social status, physiology and health in humans and animals. However, perceptions of social status within a specific social group have rarely been studied in this area and may provide additional relevant information. The current investigation examines subjective perceptions of social status as a moderator of cognitive, emotional and cortisol responses to stressor tasks characterized by social-evaluative threat or its absence. As part of a larger study, 81 college students living in a residential dormitory completed a measure of their subjective perceptions of their social status within their dormitory floor. They were randomly assigned to undergo a standard performance stressor task either with or without social evaluation. It was hypothesized that individuals who perceived that they were of low status within their dorm group would show greater increases in negative self-evaluative emotions (i.e., shame) and cognitions (low social self-esteem) and greater cortisol responses to the stressor under conditions of social-evaluative threat. Subjective social status moderated cortisol responses to the social-evaluative stressor, but in a direction opposite that hypothesized. Individuals who perceived themselves to be of high status showed sizable and significant cortisol increases (both peak and recovery), while those who perceived themselves to be of low status did not mount a significant cortisol response to the stressor. Both groups showed increased negative self-evaluative responses to the tasks. A discussion of the possible health implications of the robust cortisol responses of high status individuals and the hyporesponsive cortisol reactions of low status individuals is provided.

  12. Attenuated response to repeated daily ozone exposures in asthmatic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, H. Jr.; Linn, W.S. [Rancho Low Amigos Medical Center, Downey, CA (United States); McManus, M.S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The development of attenuated response ({open_quotes}tolerance{close_quotes}) to daily ozone (O{sub 3}) exposures in the laboratory is well established in healthy adult volunteers. However, the capability of asthmatics to develop tolerance during multiday ozone exposures in unclear. We exposed 10 adult volunteers with mild asthma to 0.4 ppm O{sub 3} in filtered air for 3 h/d on 5 consecutive d. Two similar filtered-air exposures during the preceding week served as controls. Follow-up O{sub 3} exposures were performed 4 and 7 d after the most recent consecutive exposure. All exposures were performed in an environmental chamber at 31 {degrees}C and 35% relative humidity. The subjects performed moderate exercise (mean ventilation rate of 32 l/min) for 15 min of each half-hour. Responses were measured with spirometry and symptom evaluations before and after each exposure, and a bronchial reactivity test (methacholine challenge) was conducted after each exposure. All response measurements showed clinically and statistically significant day-to-day variation. Symptom and forced-expiratory-volume-in-1-s responses were similarly large on the 1st and 2nd O{sub 3} exposure days, after which they diminished progressively, approaching filtered air response levels by the 5th consecutive O{sub 3} day. This tolerance was partially lost 4 and 7 d later. Bronchial reactivity peaked after the first O{sub 3} exposure and remained somewhat elevated after all subsequent O{sub 3} exposures, relative to its control level following filtered-air exposures. Individual responses varied widely; more severe initial responses to O{sub 3} predicted less rapid attenuation. We concluded that asthmatics can develop tolerance to frequent high-level O{sub 3} exposures in much the same manner as normal subjects, although the process may be slower and less fully effective in asthmatics. 27 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Hallucinogenic drugs attenuate the subjective response to alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sean P; Archambault, Jennifer; Engelberg, Marla J; Pihl, Robert O

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated possible interactions between alcohol and hallucinogens in 22 lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and/or psilocybin users through retrospective structured interviews. Of those who had used LSD with alcohol, 86;7 per cent reported a complete blockade of subjective alcohol effects, while the remaining cases reported a diminished response. In addition, 60 per cent of respondents who had used alcohol and psilocybin together reported a partial antagonism of subjective alcohol effects.T-test analyses revealed that LSD's antagonism of alcohol effects were significantly greater than those associated with psilocybin. It is proposed that LSD's effect on alcohol intoxication may involve interactions with various serotonergic and/or dopaminergic receptor systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  15. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7......Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  16. Flexible motor adjustment of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows but not in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts. However, the flexibility of avian head-reaching and bill-grasping with body-part extensions remains poorly understood. This study comparatively investigated the flexibility of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows and pigeons. Pecking performance and kinematics were examined when the bill extension was attached, and after its removal. The bill extension deteriorated pecking in pigeons in both performance and kinematics over 10 days. After the bill removal, pigeons started bill-grasping earlier, indicating motor adaptation to the bill extension. Contrastingly, pecking in crows was deteriorated transiently with the bill extension, but was recovered by adjusting pecking at closer distances, suggesting a quick adjustment to the bill extension. These results indicate flexible visuomotor control to extended body parts in crows but not in pigeons. PMID:28386435

  17. Temperature Response in Hardened Concrete Subjected to Tropical Rainforest Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Egba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to characterize concrete micro-environment temperature response to the natural climate of the tropical rainforest. The peculiar warmth, high humidity, and low pressure nature of the tropical rainforest necessitated the present study. Temperature probes were inserted into concrete specimens subjected to the sheltered and unsheltered environment to measure the micro-environment temperature of the concrete, and study the hysteresis characteristics in relation to the climate temperature. Some mathematical relationships for forecasting the internal temperature of concrete in the tropical rainforest environment were proposed and tested. The proposed relationships were found reliable. It was observed that the micro-environment temperature was lower at the crest, and higher at the trough than the climate environment temperature with a temperature difference of 1-3 oC. Also, temperature response in concrete for the unsheltered micro-environment was 1.85 times faster than the response in the sheltered micro-environment. The findings of the study may be used to assist the durability assessment of concrete.

  18. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  19. Compliance and Subjective Patient Responses to Eyelid Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Yousef A; Camp, Andrew; Feuer, William; Karp, Carol L; Wellik, Sarah; Galor, Anat

    2017-07-01

    Lid hygiene is a commonly prescribed first-line therapy in patients with lid margin disease, yet compliance with therapy is not well characterized. The goals of this study were to assess patient compliance with lid hygiene and evaluate which factors predict a favorable symptomatic response to treatment. This was a cross-sectional study of patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic between August and December 2014. An evaluation was performed to assess dry eye symptoms and lid margin signs. All patients were then instructed to perform warm compresses and lid scrubs. A follow-up phone survey assessed compliance and subjective therapeutic response 6 weeks later. Two hundred seven of 211 (98%) patients (94% male, 60% white) completed the survey. Of the 207 patients, 188 (91%) completed the follow-up survey. Compliance with therapy was reported in 104 patients (55%); 66 reported complete improvement, 30 partial improvement, and 8 no improvement in symptoms. Patients who self-reported dry eye symptoms at first visit (n=86, 74%) were more likely to be compliant with lid hygiene than those who did not report symptoms (n=18, 25%) (P<0.0005). The only factor associated with poorer response to lid hygiene was longer time of self-reported dry eye symptoms. None of the other signs studied, including the presence of skin rosacea and lid margin telangiectasia, were associated with a differential response to lid hygiene. Patients with dry eye symptoms were moderately compliant with lid hygiene, and patients who performed the routine noted improvement in symptoms.

  20. Decreased fibularis reflex response during inversion perturbations in FAI subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Matthew S; Docherty, Carrie L; Riley, Zachary A

    2014-02-01

    Investigate reflex responses in muscles throughout the lower limb and low back during sudden inversion perturbations in individuals with and without Functional Ankle Instability (FAI) while walking. Forty subjects participated in the study. Surface electromyogram recordings were obtained from the fibularis (FIB), gluteus medius (GM), erector spinae (ES), and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) of the injured/matched side as well as the uninjured/matched contralateral side (FIB_CLS, GM_CLS, or ES_CLS). Latency and amplitude data were collected while subjects were walking on a custom-built perturbation walkway. The onset of the short-latency stretch reflex of the FIB was significantly later in the injured side of the FAI individuals when compared to the control group (P=0.009). Both the short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly smaller in the FIB muscle in the FAI group than in the control group (P.05). Interpretation of these results indicate that during a dynamic perturbation task individuals with FAI demonstrate longer fibularis muscle latencies on the injured side while no significant changes in the proximal muscle groups. Additionally, short and long latency reflex amplitude was significantly decreased in FAI individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reaction to frustration in high and low feather pecking lines of laying hens from commercial or semi-natural rearing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Koene, P.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of rearing conditions on feather pecking and reaction to frustration was studied in two lines of laying hens. From commercial rearing conditions (large group, no mother hen), seven birds from a high feather pecking line (HC birds) and eight birds from a low feather pecking line (LC birds)

  2. Extracting the dynamics of perceptual switching from 'noisy' behaviour: an application of hidden Markov modelling to pecking data from pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterpohl, J R; Haynes, J D; Emmert-Streib, F; Vetter, G; Pawelzik, K

    2000-01-01

    When studying animal perception, one normally has the chance of localizing perceptual events in time, that is via behavioural responses time-locked to the stimuli. With multistable stimuli, however, perceptual changes occur despite stationary stimulation. Here, the challenge is to infer these not directly observable perceptual states indirectly from the behavioural data. This estimation is complicated by the fact that an animal's performance is contaminated by errors. We propose a two-step approach to overcome this difficulty: First, one sets up a generative, stochastic model of the behavioural time series based on the relevant parameters, including the probability of errors. Second, one performs a model-based maximum-likelihood estimation on the data in order to extract the non-observable perceptual state transitions. We illustrate this methodology for data from experiments on perception of bistable apparent motion in pigeons. The observed behavioural time series is analysed and explained by a combination of a Markovian perceptual dynamics with a renewal process that governs the motor response. We propose a hidden Markov model in which non-observable states represent both the perceptual states and the states of the renewal process of the motor dynamics, while the observable states account for overt pecking performance. Showing that this constitutes an appropriate phenomenological model of the time series of observable pecking events, we use it subsequently to obtain an estimate of the internal (and thus covert) perceptual reversals. These may directly correspond to changes in the activity of mutually inhibitory populations of motion selective neurones tuned to orthogonal directions.

  3. Cardiac autonomic responses after resistance exercise in treated hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alves Trevizani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess and to compare heart rate variability (HRV after resistance exercise (RE in treated hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Nine hypertensive men [HT: 58.0±7.7 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP =133.6±6.5 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP =87.3±8.1 mmHg; under antihypertensive treatment] and eleven normotensive men (NT: 57.1±6.0 years, SBP =127±8.5 mmHg, DBP =82.7±5.5 mmHg performed a single session of RE (2 sets of 15-20 repetitions, 50% of 1RM, 120 s interval between sets/exercise for the following exercises: leg extension, leg press, leg curl, bench press, seated row, triceps push-down, seated calf flexion, seated arm curl. HRV was assessed at resting and during 10 min of recovery period by calculating time (SDNN, RMSSD and frequency domain (LF and HF indices. Mean values of HRV indices were reduced in the post-exercise period compared to the resting period (HT: lnHF: 4.7±1.4 vs. 2.4±1.2 ms²; NT: lnHF: 4.8±1.5 vs. 2.2±1.1 ms², p<0.01. However, there was no group vs. time interaction in this response (p=0.8. The results indicate that HRV is equally suppressed after RE in normotensive and hypertensive individuals. These findings suggest that a single session of RE does not bring additional cardiac autonomic stress to treated hypertensive subjects.

  4. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Thomas J.; Kent, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured. Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2) to day 65 (wk 10). Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5), and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6) and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4) had no effect on subsequent peck rate. Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching. The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF) source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking. PMID:25374777

  5. Chicks change their pecking behaviour towards stationary and mobile food sources over the first 12 weeks of life: improvement and discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Murphy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus learn to peck soon after hatching and then peck in rapid bursts or bouts with intervals of non-pecking activity. The food sources may be static such as seeds and chick crumb, or mobile such as a mealworm. Here, changes with age in pecking toward chick crumb and a mealworm were measured.Chicks were reared in pairs and their pecking of crumb food was video recorded in their pair housed environment, from food presentation, every third day from day 8 (wk 2 to day 65 (wk 10. Peck rate at crumb food reached maximum levels at day 32 (wk 5, and then declined, fitting a quadratic model, with no sex, sex of cagemate, or box order effects. Within bouts the peck rate was higher and it increased to day 41 (wk 6 and then declined, and here males pecked faster than females. A change in dietary protein concentration from 22% to 18% at day 28 (wk 4 had no effect on subsequent peck rate.Pecking at and consumption of a mealworm in pair housed chicks were measured weekly from wks [5 to 12]. The latency to first worm peck and latency to swallow decreased to wk 8 and increased thereafter. The peck rate to first wormpeck and number of pecks to swallow increased to wk 8 and then declined paralleling the changes with crumb food. The increase in peck rate is coupled with an increase in efficiency in worm catching.The results are consistent with the view that the improvement in pecking ability and accuracy compliments change in nutritional requirement best served by an invertebrate food (IF source requiring speed to achieve feeding success, especially with live prey. When this food source is no longer crucial these associated skill levels decline. An appreciation of the role of domestic fowl in controlling insect populations, at farm level, that are often vectors in disease spread is lacking.

  6. What drives security issuance decisions : Market timing, pecking order, or both?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, M.; Loncarski, I.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Veld, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    We study market timing and pecking order in a sample of debt and equity issues and share repurchases of Canadian firms from 1998 to 2007. We find that only when firms are not financially constrained is there evidence that firms issue (repurchase) equity when their shares are overvalued (undervalued)

  7. Shortleaf pine natural community restoration on Peck Ranch Conservation Area in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Tuttle; Kim J. Houf

    2007-01-01

    Oak decline has become a significantly increasing problem on Peck Ranch Conservation Area over the last several years. Most of the oak decline problems exist on past shortleaf pine sites. To address this issue, the area managers wrote a natural community restoration plan for 2,233 acres located on the Current-Eleven Point Oak-Pine Woodland Dissected Plain land type...

  8. Robert Newton Peck and Shaker Beliefs: A Day the Truth Would Die.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Raises issues about the obligation of an author to depict ethnic or religious groups such as the Shakers in accurate terms. Takes issues with Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die," charging that it presents an almost libelous picture of the Shakers. Reviews Shaker history and culture. (TB)

  9. The pecking, resting and feeding behaviour of four broiler strains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were housed 15 per replicate pen and there were two replicates pens for each of the four strains. The birds were fed with commercial broiler starter from 0 - 6 weeks and finisher from 7 - 8 weeks. The criteria of measurements used were the number of birds pecking or resting, feed and water intakes and the weight ...

  10. Simulation of Fort Peck Lake Temperature Releases and Downstream Missouri River Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-09

    Poin t. Water Quality Modeling Repmt Fmt Peck Lake 15 U.S. Anny Corps of Engineers Omaha District 25...through the powerhouse utilizing the power generating capacity of the water releases. The following simulations evaluate the effectiveness of passing...the effectiveness of temperature release scenarios. Decreased generator efficiency and power generation or geotechnical stability of the spillway

  11. Control of Eurasian Water Milfoil, Fort Peck Project Area, Various Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    spathula), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), cisco (Coregonus artedi) and spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius). The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus...normal feeding , breeding, and sheltering. Recreational opportunities and activities at Fort Peck Project Area would likely be directly impacted if a...protected as native species thrive. Fish would be allowed to conduct their normal feeding , breeding, and sheltering absent the large stand of the noxious

  12. Subjective stress, salivary cortisol and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming eQi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.

  13. Apical enlargement according to different pecking times at working length using reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyo-Jin; Paranjpe, Avina; Ha, Jung-Hong; Kim, Euiseong; Lee, WooCheol; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apical preparation sizes resulting from repetitive pecking motions at the working length (WL) by using reciprocating files. Sixty simulated endodontic training blocks with a J-shaped root canal were instrumented using Reciproc R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) or WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) (n = 30 each). Each group was divided into 3 subgroups based on the repetitive pecking times at the WL: 1, 2, and 4 times. All specimens were prepared by 1 operator who was competent in instrumenting canals with both file systems. All of the procedures, including the WL measurement, were performed under an operating microscope. The replica of the prepared canal was taken with silicone impression material. After 24 hours of allowing the impression to set, each sample was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope at the apical tip, and the apical preparation size (diameter) was measured at the D0 level of the impression. The data were analyzed statistically using 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test at P = .05. The mean diameter (μm) varied between 253 and 274 and between 258 and 277 for Reciproc and WaveOne, respectively, without significant differences. However, more repetitive pecking motions at the WL resulted in a significantly larger apical preparation size than the subgroups with less pecking times (P < .05). Under the conditions of this study, the results indicate that a greater number of repetitive pecking times at the WL may result in an apical preparation size that is larger than the actual file size. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant responses of chickpea plants subjected to boron toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardic, M; Sekmen, A H; Tokur, S; Ozdemir, F; Turkan, I

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated oxidative stress and the antioxidant response to boron (B) of chickpea cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought. Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to 0.05 (control), 1.6 or 6.4 mm B in the form of boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) for 7 days. At the end of the treatment period, shoot length, dry weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, B concentration, malondialdehyte content and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were measured. The 1.6 mm B treatment did not cause significant changes in shoot length of cultivars, although shoot length increased in the drought-tolerant Gökce and decreased in the drought-sensitive Küsmen after 6.4 mm B treatment. Dry weights of both cultivars decreased with 6.4 mm B treatment. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) did not change in Gökce at either B level. Nor did it change in Küsmen with 1.6 mm B but Fv/Fm decreased with 6.4 mm B. Boron concentration in the shoots of both cultivars increased significantly with increasing levels of applied B. Significant increases in total SOD activity were observed in shoots of both cultivars given 1.6 and 6.4 mm B. Shoot extracts exhibited five activity bands, two of which were identified as MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD. In comparison to the control group, all enzyme activities (except APX and SOD) decreased with 1.6 mm B stress. GR activity decreased, while activities of CAT, POX and APX did not change with 6.4 mm B in Küsmen. On the other hand, activities of CAT, APX and SOD increased in Gökce at both B levels. In addition, lipid peroxidation was higher in Küsmen than in Gökce, indicating more damage by B to membrane lipids in the former cultivar. These results suggest that (i) Gökce is tolerant and Küsmen is sensitive to B, and (ii) B tolerance of Gökce might be closely related to increased capacity of the antioxidative system (total SOD, CAT and APX) to

  15. Geothermal Space Heating Applications for the Fort Peck Indian Reservation in the Vicinity of Poplar, Montana. Phase I Report, August 20, 1979--December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Glenn J.; Cohen, M. Jane

    1980-01-04

    This engineering and economic study is concerned with the question of using the natural heat of the earth, or geothermal energy, as an alternative to other energy sources such as oil and natural gas which are increasing in cost. This document represents a quarterly progress report on the effort directed to determine the availability of geothermal energy within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana (Figure 1), and the feasibility of beneficial use of this resource including engineering, economic and environmental considerations. The project is being carried out by the Tribal Research office, Assinboine and Sioux Tribes, Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Poplar, Montana under a contract to the United States Department of Energy. PRC TOUPS, the major subcontractor, is responsible for engineering and economic studies and the Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) is providing support in the areas of environment and finance, the results of which will appear in the Final Report. The existence of potentially valuable geothermal resource within the Fort Peck Indian Reservation was first detected from an analysis of temperatures encountered in oil wells drilled in the area. This data, produced by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, pointed to a possible moderate to high temperature source near the town of Poplar, Montana, which is the location of the Tribal Headquarters for the Fort Peck Reservation. During the first phase of this project, additional data was collected to better characterize the nature of this geothermal resource and to analyze means of gaining access to it. As a result of this investigation, it has been learned that not only is there a potential geothermal resource in the region but that the producing oil wells north of the town of Poplar bring to the surface nearly 20,000 barrels a day (589 gal/min) of geothermal fluid in a temperature range of 185-200 F. Following oil separation, these fluids are disposed of by pumping into a deep groundwater

  16. Comparing the difficulty of examination subjects with item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korobko, O.B.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Bosker, Roel; Luyten, Johannes W.

    2008-01-01

    Methods are presented for comparing grades obtained in a situation where students can choose between different subjects. It must be expected that the comparison between the grades is complicated by the interaction between the students' pattern and level of proficiency on one hand, and the choice of

  17. PENGUJIAN PECKING ORDER THEORY PADA EMITEN SYARIAH DI BURSA EFEK JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutapa Sutapa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test empirically whether capital structure decisionof Indonesian firms followed a hierarchy of sources of finance called Pecking Order. Samplesin this study were 29 firms listed in Jakarta Islamic Index (JII from 2001 to 2004. Variabelsused as proxy of Pecking Order Theory (POT were profitability, investment opportunity andfirm size. The results of this study were as follows: a. simultaneously, all proxies for POT couldexplain capital structure at Indonesian Capital Market, b. more profitable firms were lesslevered, c. bigger firms were more levered, d. result for investment opportunity did notsupport hypothesis. Firms listed at JII tended to follow POT in their financing decision. Part ofresults of this study was consistent with study of Wiwattanakantang (1999, Fama and French(2002, Benito (2003 and Mutamimah (2003.

  18. Response mechanisms of attached premixed flames subjected to harmonic forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreekrishna

    The persistent thrust for a cleaner, greener environment has prompted air pollution regulations to be enforced with increased stringency by environmental protection bodies all over the world. This has prompted gas turbine manufacturers to move from nonpremixed combustion to lean, premixed combustion. These lean premixed combustors operate quite fuel-lean compared to the stochiometric, in order to minimize CO and NOx productions, and are very susceptible to oscillations in any of the upstream flow variables. These oscillations cause the heat release rate of the flame to oscillate, which can engage one or more acoustic modes of the combustor or gas turbine components, and under certain conditions, lead to limit cycle oscillations. This phenomenon, called thermoacoustic instabilities, is characterized by very high pressure oscillations and increased heat fluxes at system walls, and can cause significant problems in the routine operability of these combustors, not to mention the occasional hardware damages that could occur, all of which cumulatively cost several millions of dollars. In a bid towards understanding this flow-flame interaction, this research works studies the heat release response of premixed flames to oscillations in reactant equivalence ratio, reactant velocity and pressure, under conditions where the flame preheat zone is convectively compact to these disturbances, using the G-equation. The heat release response is quantified by means of the flame transfer function and together with combustor acoustics, forms a critical component of the analytical models that can predict combustor dynamics. To this end, low excitation amplitude (linear) and high excitation amplitude (nonlinear) responses of the flame are studied in this work. The linear heat release response of lean, premixed flames are seen to be dominated by responses to velocity and equivalence ratio fluctuations at low frequencies, and to pressure fluctuations at high frequencies which are in the

  19. Dynamic response of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes subjected to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dynamic behaviours of multiwall boron nitride nanotubes (MWBNNTs) with finite length were studied by employing continuum ... Multiwall boron nitride nanotube; dynamic response; impact; wave propagation. 1. Introduction. Boron nitride .... eV nm6 26 and R0 = 0.344 nm27 in equation (11) yields η = 0.262 GPa nm−1.

  20. Relationships of Impulsivity and Subjective Response to Alcohol Use and Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berey, Benjamin L; Leeman, Robert F; Pittman, Brian; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    Impulsivity and subjective response to alcohol are predictors of alcohol use disorder. The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend prior research examining relationships between impulsivity and subjective response patterns. In addition, impulsivity and initial subjective response patterns were examined in relation to current heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Data were cross-sectional, retrospective self-reports, obtained from baseline assessments from five studies affiliated with the Yale Center for the Translational Neuroscience of Alcoholism. Analyses were conducted in a sample restricted to nondependent, young adults (n = 186) and in a larger, more heterogeneous sample (n = 363). Data were analyzed using hierarchical regression in three separate types of models. In the young adult, nondependent sample, impulsivity was a statistically significant predictor of lower recent sedative subjective response. Impulsivity and initial sedative subjective response patterns were statistically significant predictors of past-year heavy drinking. Impulsivity, but not initial subjective response patterns, was a statistically significant predictor of past-year alcohol-related problems. Findings in the larger sample were similar. More-impulsive individuals may perceive less sedation from alcohol, which is associated with increased heavy drinking. However, higher levels of impulsivity may be more responsible than diminished subjective response for poor decision making that results in negative drinking consequences. These results suggest that high impulsivity and certain subjective response patterns are worthy intervention targets.

  1. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Ivan D; Lindquist, W Brent

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon

  3. The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Chase

    Full Text Available The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders. Our evaluation using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail shells occupied in populations of hermit crabs.

  4. Subjective and Neural Responses to Intravenous Alcohol in Young Adults with Light and Heavy Drinking Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Gilman, Jodi M; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Crouss, Tess; Hommer, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption during young adulthood is a risk factor for the development of serious alcohol use disorders. Research has shown that individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol may affect individuals' vulnerability to developing alcoholism. Studies comparing the subjective and objective response to alcohol between light and heavy drinkers (HDs), however, have yielded inconsistent results, and neural responses to alcohol in these groups have not been characterized. We ...

  5. Test-retest reliability of the underlying latent factor structure of alcohol subjective response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Joseph A; Childs, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol subjective experiences are multi-dimensional and demonstrate wide inter-individual variability. Recent efforts have sought to establish a clearer understanding of subjective alcohol responses by identifying core constructs derived from multiple measurement instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal stability of this approach to conceptualizing alcohol subjective experiences across successive alcohol administrations in the same individuals. Healthy moderate alcohol drinkers (n = 104) completed six experimental sessions each, three with alcohol (0.8 g/kg), and three with a non-alcoholic control beverage. Participants reported subjective mood and drug effects using standardized questionnaires before and at repeated times after beverage consumption. We explored the underlying latent structure of subjective responses for all alcohol administrations using exploratory factor analysis and then tested measurement invariance over the three successive administrations using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analyses on responses to alcohol across all administrations yielded four factors representing "Positive mood," "Sedation," "Stimulation/Euphoria," and "Drug effects and Urges." A confirmatory factor analysis on the separate administrations indicated acceptable configural and metric invariance and moderate scalar invariance. In this study, we demonstrate temporal stability of the underlying constructs of subjective alcohol responses derived from factor analysis. These findings strengthen the utility of this approach to conceptualizing subjective alcohol responses especially for use in prospective and longitudinal alcohol challenge studies relating subjective response to alcohol use disorder risk.

  6. Seqüência de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta de bicar: efeitos sobre a aquisição de desempenhos em matching e oddity Stimuli sequencing during pecking responses build up: effects upon matching and oddity acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Damiani

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito da seqüência de apresentação de estímulos durante o fortalecimento da resposta (pré-treino de bicar em pombos, sobre a aquisição do matching de identidade (IMTS e oddity-from-sample (OFS com 3 cores como estímulos e 2 escolhas. O problema se remete à disparidade no desempenho inicial em OFS em relação aos níveis do acaso, reiteradamente relatado na literatura. Durante o pré-treino, apenas uma cor era apresentada em qualquer uma de 3 chaves de resposta. O sorteio da seqüência de estímulos nas tentativas foi realizado com a restrição de que a probabilidade de 2 estímulos iguais serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas foi semelhante à probabilidade de 2 estímulos diferentes serem apresentados em tentativas consecutivas. Em seguida, os sujeitos foram submetidos ou ao treino IMTS ou ao OFS. Os resultados replicaram aqueles descritos na literatura, indicando que o controle realizado sobre a seqüência de tentativas no pré-treino não teve efeito sobre a aquisição do IMTS e OFS.This study was aimed to investigate the question why oddity-from-sample acquisition in animals always start at above chance level. A question was raised concerning the role of stimuli sequences and a possible bias introduced in responding. Thus, this study analyzed the effects of stimuli sequencing during response build up in the pigeon (pre-training upon the acquisition of identity matching (IMTS and oddity-from-sample (OFS with three color stimuli and two comparisons. During pre-training one color was presented at the time in any one of three response key. Color presentation was randomized but for the restriction that the probability of two like colors being presented consecutively was the same as the probability of two non-like colors being presented consecutively. This controlled for any sequencing bias effects upon responding. Following, subjects were submitted either to IMTS or to OFS training. Results

  7. Subjective response as a consideration in the pharmacogenetics of alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel Jo; Ray, Lara A

    2015-01-01

    Currently available pharmacological treatments for alcoholism have modest efficacy and high individual variability in treatment outcomes, both of which have been partially attributed to genetic factors. One path to reducing the variability and improving the efficacy associated with these pharmacotherapies may be to identify overlapping genetic contributions to individual differences in both subjective responses to alcohol and alcoholism pharmacotherapy outcomes. As acute subjective response to alcohol is highly predictive of future alcohol related problems, identifying such shared genetic mechanisms may inform the development of personalized treatments that can effectively target converging pathophysiological mechanisms that convey risk for alcoholism. The focus of this review is to revisit the association between subjective response to alcohol and the etiology of alcoholism while also describing genetic contributions to this relationship, discuss potential pharmacogenetic approaches to target subjective response to alcohol in order to improve the treatment of alcoholism and examine conceptual and methodological issues associated with these topics, and outline future approaches to overcome these challenges.

  8. Neural Response to Catecholamine Depletion in Unmedicated Subjects With Major Depressive Disorder in Remission and Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Fromm, Stephen; Carlson, Paul J.; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Waldeck, Tracy; Geraci, Marilla; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Neumeister, Alexander; Meyers, Noah; Charney, Dennis S.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2009-01-01

    Context The pathophysiologic mechanism of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been consistently associated with altered catecholaminergic function, especially with decreased dopamine neurotransmission, by various sources of largely indirect evidence. An instructive paradigm for more directly investigating the relationship between catecholaminergic function and depression has involved the mood response to experimental catecholamine depletion (CD). Objectives To determine whether catecholaminergic dysfunction represents a trait abnormality in MDD and to identify brain circuitry abnormalities involved in the pathophysiologic mechanism of MDD. Design Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, single-site experimental trial. Setting Psychiatric outpatient clinic. Participants Fifteen unmedicated subjects with MDD in full remission (hereinafter referred to as RMDD subjects) and 13 healthy controls. Intervention Induction of CD by oral administration of α-methylparatyrosine. Sham depletion used identical capsules containing hydrous lactose. Main Outcome Measures Quantitative positron emission tomography of regional cerebral glucose utilization to study the neural effects of CD and sham depletion. Behavioral assessments included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (anhedonia). Results Depressive and anhedonic symptoms increased during CD to a greater extent in RMDD subjects than in controls. In both groups, CD increased metabolism in the anteroventral striatum and decreased metabolism in the orbital gyri. In a limbic-cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamic network previously implicated in MDD, composed of the ventromedial frontal polar cortex, midcingulate and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, temporopolar cortex, ventral striatum, and thalamus, metabolism increased in RMDD subjects but decreased or remained unchanged in controls. Metabolic changes induced by CD in the left ventromedial frontal polar cortex

  9. A semi-parametric within-subject mixture approach to the analyses of responses and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Bolsinova, Maria; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2017-10-17

    In item response theory, modelling the item response times in addition to the item responses may improve the detection of possible between- and within-subject differences in the process that resulted in the responses. For instance, if respondents rely on rapid guessing on some items but not on all, the joint distribution of the responses and response times will be a multivariate within-subject mixture distribution. Suitable parametric methods to detect these within-subject differences have been proposed. In these approaches, a distribution needs to be assumed for the within-class response times. In this paper, it is demonstrated that these parametric within-subject approaches may produce false positives and biased parameter estimates if the assumption concerning the response time distribution is violated. A semi-parametric approach is proposed which resorts to categorized response times. This approach is shown to hardly produce false positives and parameter bias. In addition, the semi-parametric approach results in approximately the same power as the parametric approach. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  10. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman's test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal-Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (PROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique.

  11. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W. H. M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E; Baak, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the effects of energy restriction on the acute responses of platelet alpha 2- and lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors to exercise in obese female subjects. Seven obese females were restricted to a low-energ...

  12. Volitional and Nonvolitional Responses to Hypnotic Suggestions: Predictors and Subjective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, John C; Schutkofsky, Meriel J

    2017-04-01

    This investigation combined the data from two studies that used modified scoring of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (Shor & Orne, 1962) to evaluate deliberate, volitional responses to suggestions. One study also employed subjective ratings of each item of the Harvard Scale, with comparisons of nonvolitional, volitional, and non-responses. Based on the assumption that participants would have marked volitional responses as positive responses using the traditional scale, the traditional scoring method was found to inflate mean hypnotic responsiveness by nearly one point. Two hypothesized correlates of hypnotic performance, rapport with the hypnotist and a phenomenological measure of hypnosis, increased significantly when volitional responses were taken into account. The way in which participants were recruited did not predict volitional responses, but individuals who reported deliberate responses to suggestions from the Harvard Scale were less likely to express willingness to participate in future studies. Some of the volitional responses to the items were rated as subjectively more real compared to no responses, though nonvolitional responses were rated as the most real compared with compliance responses and no responses for all items. More difficult items were more likely to be performed volitionally than easier items. It is suggested that future studies using hypnotic inventories account for volitional responses. The nature of deliberately produced responses should also be examined using qualitative and quantitative data, especially with respect to how a given suggestion may affect the execution of the volitional behavior.

  13. Selection method and early-life history affect behavioural development, feather pecking and cannibalism in laying hens: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Komen, J.; Ellen, E.D.; Uitdehaag, K.A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the effects of selection method and early-life history on the behavioural development of laying hens. Especially in larger groups, laying hens often develop damaging behaviours, such as feather pecking and cannibalism, leading to impaired animal welfare. We

  14. Low-velocity impact response of laminated beams subjected to initial stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, B. V.; Sun, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element procedures are used in conjunction with a numerical algorithm to compute the impact response of a graphite-epoxy laminated beam subjected to tensile initial stresses. The effect of initial stresses on the contact duration, impact force, coefficient of restitution, and bending and shear stresses are discussed. The analytically computed contact force history and strain response are compared with some experimental results.

  15. Single-subject prediction of response inhibition behavior by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Popescu, Florin; Neuhaus, Andres H; Beste, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Much research has been devoted to investigating response inhibition and the neuronal processes constituting this essential cognitive faculty. However, the nexus between cognitive subprocesses, behavior, and electrophysiological processes remains associative in nature. We therefore investigated whether neurophysiological correlates of inhibition subprocesses merely correlate with behavioral performance or actually provide information expedient to the prediction of behavior on a single-subject level. Tackling this question, we used different data-driven classification approaches in a sample of n = 262 healthy young subjects who completed a standard Go/Nogo task while an EEG was recorded. On the basis of median-split response inhibition performance, subjects were classified as "accurate/slow" and "less accurate/fast." Even though these behavioral group differences were associated with significant amplitude variations in classical electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (i.e., N2 and P3), they were not predictive for group membership on a single-subject level. Instead, amplitude differences in the Go-P2 originating in the precuneus (BA7) were shown to predict group membership on a single-subject level with up to 64% accuracy. These findings strongly suggest that the behavioral outcome of response inhibition greatly depends on the amount of cognitive resources allocated to early stages of stimulus-response activation during responding. This suggests that research should focus more on early processing steps during responding when trying to understand the origin of interindividual differences in response inhibition processes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The Comparison of the Average Thresholds of Auditory Steady-State Response in Adult Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghasem Ahmad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is a common symptom among lots of people but little is known about its origins. This study was aimed at comparing the Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR thresholds in normal cases and patients with subjective idiopathic tinnitus (SIT in order to diagnose its real origins.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 19 patients with tinnitus and 24 normal cases aged 18-40 yr.The patients underwent broad medical tests to roll out any background reason for their tinnitus. ASSR thresholds were estimated in both groups at 20 and 40 amplitude modulation. The patients were selected from tinnitus patients in Research Center in Hazrat Rasoul Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: The mean ASSR thresholds at 40HZ modulation were worse in tinnitus patients compared to normal ones (p<0.05 but no significant statistical differences was detected at 20HZ. These results were found in both situations in which we averaged both ears thresholds and when we estimated the thresholds of the ears separately.Conclusion: It seems that the origin of the responses of the modulation of 40Hz, primary auditory cortex, midbrain regions and subcortical areas, in these patients is involved or the origin of their tinnitus is related to some kind of problems in these areas, although more investigation is needed about 20Hz.

  17. Relationships between impulsivity and subjective response in an IV ethanol paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Limoncelli, Diana; Pittman, Brian; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Petrakis, Ismene L

    2014-07-01

    Impulsivity and individual differences in subjective response to alcohol are risk factors for alcohol problems and possibly endophenotypes for alcohol dependence. Few prior studies have addressed relationships between the two constructs. To predict subjective responses to ethanol, we tested self-reported impulsiveness, ethanol dose condition (high dose, low dose, or placebo), and time (seven time points) along with interactions among these variables. The present study is a secondary analysis of data from a within-subject, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging ethanol administration study using IV infusion with a clamping technique to maintain steady-state breath alcohol concentration. The sample consisted of healthy, non-alcohol dependent social alcohol drinkers between the ages of 21 and 30 (N=105). Participants at varying levels of impulsivity were compared with regard to stimulant and subjective responses to three ethanol dose conditions over time. Individuals with higher impulsivity reported elavated stimulant and dampened sedative response to alcohol, particularly at the higher dose. Higher impulsivity was associated with a steeper increase in stimulant effects during the first half of clamped ethanol infusion with the higher dose. These results suggest that impulsive individuals may experience enhanced reinforcing, stimulant effects, and relatively muted aversive sedative effects from alcohol. These subjective responses may relate to enhanced risk of alcohol problems among more impulsive individuals.

  18. Association between subjective and cortisol stress response depends on the menstrual cycle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Annie; Pruessner, Jens C

    2013-12-01

    The relation between the physiologic and subjective stress responses is inconsistently reported across studies. Menstrual cycle phases variations have been found to influence the psychophysiological stress response; however little is known about possible cycle phase differences in the relationship between physiological and subjective stress responses. This study examined the effect of menstrual cycle phase in the association between subjective stress and physiological response. Forty-five women in either the follicular (n=21) or the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle were exposed to a psychosocial stress task. Salivary cortisol, cardiovascular, and subjective stress were assessed throughout the experiment. Results revealed a significant group difference in the association between peak levels of cortisol and post task subjective stress. In women in the follicular phase a negative association was observed (r(2)=0.199, p=0.04), while this relation was positive in the group of women in the luteal phase (r(2)=0.227, p=0.02). These findings suggest a possible role of sex hormones in modulating the cortisol stress response function in emotion regulation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of repetitive pecking at working length for glide path preparation using G-file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hong; Jeon, Hyo-Jin; Abed, Rashid El; Chang, Seok-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyo; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-05-01

    Glide path preparation is recommended to reduce torsional failure of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments and to prevent root canal transportation. This study evaluated whether the repetitive insertions of G-files to the working length maintain the apical size as well as provide sufficient lumen as a glide path for subsequent instrumentation. The G-file system (Micro-Mega) composed of G1 and G2 files for glide path preparation was used with the J-shaped, simulated resin canals. After inserting a G1 file twice, a G2 file was inserted to the working length 1, 4, 7, or 10 times for four each experimental group, respectively (n = 10). Then the canals were cleaned by copious irrigation, and lubricated with a separating gel medium. Canal replicas were made using silicone impression material, and the diameter of the replicas was measured at working length (D0) and 1 mm level (D1) under a scanning electron microscope. Data was analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p = 0.05). The diameter at D0 level did not show any significant difference between the 1, 2, 4, and 10 times of repetitive pecking insertions of G2 files at working length. However, 10 times of pecking motion with G2 file resulted in significantly larger canal diameter at D1 (p length created an adequate lumen for subsequent apical shaping with other rotary files bigger than International Organization for Standardization (ISO) size 20, without apical transportation at D0 level.

  20. Effect of repetitive pecking at working length for glide path preparation using G-file

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hong Ha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Glide path preparation is recommended to reduce torsional failure of nickel-titanium (NiTi rotary instruments and to prevent root canal transportation. This study evaluated whether the repetitive insertions of G-files to the working length maintain the apical size as well as provide sufficient lumen as a glide path for subsequent instrumentation. Materials and Methods The G-file system (Micro-Mega composed of G1 and G2 files for glide path preparation was used with the J-shaped, simulated resin canals. After inserting a G1 file twice, a G2 file was inserted to the working length 1, 4, 7, or 10 times for four each experimental group, respectively (n = 10. Then the canals were cleaned by copious irrigation, and lubricated with a separating gel medium. Canal replicas were made using silicone impression material, and the diameter of the replicas was measured at working length (D0 and 1 mm level (D1 under a scanning electron microscope. Data was analysed by one-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests (p = 0.05. Results The diameter at D0 level did not show any significant difference between the 1, 2, 4, and 10 times of repetitive pecking insertions of G2 files at working length. However, 10 times of pecking motion with G2 file resulted in significantly larger canal diameter at D1 (p < 0.05. Conclusions Under the limitations of this study, the repetitive insertion of a G2 file up to 10 times at working length created an adequate lumen for subsequent apical shaping with other rotary files bigger than International Organization for Standardization (ISO size 20, without apical transportation at D0 level.

  1. Normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during Thoracic Slump Test (ST) in asymptomatic subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ketaki C; Eapen, Charu; Kumar, Senthil P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the normal sensory and range of motion (ROM) responses during the movement components of Thoracic Slump Test (Thoracic ST) in asymptomatic subjects. Sixty asymptomatic subjects were included in the study. Thoracic ST was performed in two sequences, proximal initiation, which was proximal to distal and distal initiation, which was distal to proximal. Subjects were randomized into four groups depending on the order of sequences and sides. Outcome measures of sensory responses (intensity, type, and location) and ROM responses were recorded after each sequence. Friedman’s test was done to compare between sensory responses of the subjects. Between-component comparison for prevalence of sensory responses within each sequence was done using Kruskal–Wallis test and Wilcoxonsigned ranks test was used for between-component comparisons of intensity of symptoms within each sequence of testing. Independent t test was used to assess the ROM responses. Results show the prevalence of sensory responses, its nature, area and intensity. These sensory and ROM responses may be considered as normal response of Thoracic ST. The intensity of the symptoms of proximal initiation sequence (1.09±1.35 cm) was significant (P<0.05) when compared to distal initiation sequence (0.08±1.26 cm). The change in the ROM was significant (P<0.05) for distal initiation (7.55±4.51 degrees) when compared to proximal initiation (4.96±3.76 degrees). These normal responses may be used as a reference when using the Thoracic ST as an assessment technique. PMID:24421610

  2. Objective and subjective whitening response of two self-directed bleaching systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Robert W; Barker, Matthew L; Sagel, Paul A

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate objective and subjective whitening responses of two marketed vital bleaching systems under intended use conditions. MATERIALSA ND METHODS: The randomized clinical trial evaluated 50 adults who received either a combination system with a 3% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel, pre-formed dual arch tray, dentifrice and oral rinse (Rapid White), or 6% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips (Crest Whitestrips). Efficacy was assessed objectively from L*a*b* tooth color at Days 7 & 14, while subjective, first-person whitening perception was measured by questionnaire. A cumulative multinomial probability model was generated to predict subjective responses from objectively measured tooth color. At end-of-treatment, adjusted mean deltab* was -2.05 +/- 0.158 for the whitening strip group compared to -0.69 +/- 0.141 for the combination group, with these groups differing significantly (P color parameter and time point in this study. Relative to the combination system, subjects in the whitening strip group rated that product significantly (P impression. These subjective responses were correlated with objective changes in tooth color measured during treatment. When the deltab* effect was included in a cumulative multinomial probability model, deltaL*, deltaa*, and treatment were non-significant predictors. Odds ratios demonstrate that a subject had 3.3 times (1/0.3003 = 3.33) greater odds of selecting a higher whiteness rating when the value of deltab* was decreased by 1.0 unit (less yellowness). Similar results were noted for whitening satisfaction and overall impression of treatment.

  3. Genetic Influences on Physiological and Subjective Responses to an Aerobic Exercise Session among Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollis C. Karoly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether genetic variants suggested by the literature to be associated with physiology and fitness phenotypes predicted differential physiological and subjective responses to a bout of aerobic exercise among inactive but otherwise healthy adults. Method. Participants completed a 30-minute submaximal aerobic exercise session. Measures of physiological and subjective responding were taken before, during, and after exercise. 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that have been previously associated with various exercise phenotypes were tested for associations with physiological and subjective response to exercise phenotypes. Results. We found that two SNPs in the FTO gene (rs8044769 and rs3751812 were related to positive affect change during exercise. Two SNPs in the CREB1 gene (rs2253206 and 2360969 were related to change in temperature during exercise and with maximal oxygen capacity (VO2 max. The SLIT2 SNP rs1379659 and the FAM5C SNP rs1935881 were associated with norepinephrine change during exercise. Finally, the OPRM1 SNP rs1799971 was related to changes in norepinephrine, lactate, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE during exercise. Conclusion. Genetic factors influence both physiological and subjective responses to exercise. A better understanding of genetic factors underlying physiological and subjective responses to aerobic exercise has implications for development and potential tailoring of exercise interventions.

  4. Variability of near-fainting responses in healthy 6-16-year-old subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong-de Vos van Steenwijk, C C; Wieling, W; Harms, M P; Wesseling, K H

    1997-09-01

    1. Fainting is a common phenomenon in young subjects, but the final events before the actual faint are not well known. The aim of the present study was to study the inter-individual variability of haemodynamic events associated with near-fainting in children and teenagers. 2. Sixty-eight healthy subjects (aged 6-16 years) performed a 70 degrees tilt-up test with intravascular instrumentation for 5 min. Responses in 29 near-fainting subjects were analysed and compared with 39 non-fainting subjects. Arterial pressure was measured by Finapres. Left ventricular stroke volume was computed from the pressure pulsation waveform. 3. Inability to maintain vasomotor tone was the mechanism underlying near-fainting in the vast majority of near-fainting subjects. The three classical haemodynamic responses (vasovagal, vasodepressor and vagal) could be recognized, but large individual differences were found. After tilt back, blood pressure in near-fainters showed a mirror response to the stage before tilt-back; blood pressure gradually increased and was normal at 1 min after tilt-back. 4. The variability in haemodynamic responses on approach of an orthostatic faint is wide in the young.

  5. Endocrinological and subjective stress responses in children with depressive, anxiety, or externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Bae, Yoon Ju; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-09-20

    In this study, we used a stress test to investigate endocrinological and subjective stress responses of 8- to 14-year-old children with internalizing or externalizing disorders and healthy controls. The sample (N = 170) consisted of clinical and community children. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to diagnose their children's psychiatric condition. We measured saliva cortisol and subjectively experienced arousal in children before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Children also rated their performance immediately after the stress test, and 1 hr later they rated their positive and negative thoughts about this stressful event. Children with internalizing or externalizing disorders exhibited a blunted cortisol response compared to healthy controls. Depressed children rated their test performance lower and reported more negative thoughts after the test in comparison to healthy controls, anxious children reported more arousal before and after the task, and children with externalizing disorders reported more positive thoughts. In regression analyses, cortisol and subjective stress responses were both predictive of psychiatric disorders. The study extends previous work on the relation between psychiatric disorders and children's stress responses to an experimentally induced stress task by including a broad range of psychiatric disorders and by integrating endocrinological and subjective stress responses.

  6. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  7. Stability and coherence of health experts' upper and lower subjective probabilities about dose-response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallsten, T S; Forsyth, B H

    1983-06-01

    As part of a method for assessing health risks associated with primary National Ambient Air Quality Standards. T. B. Feagans and W. F. Biller (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, May 1981) developed a technique for encoding experts' subjective probabilities regarding dose--response functions. The encoding technique is based on B. O. Koopman's (Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 1940, 46, 763-764; Annals of Mathematics, 1940, 41, 269-292) probability theory, which does not require probabilities to be sharp, but rather allows lower and upper probabilities to be associated with an event. Uncertainty about a dose--response function can be expressed either in terms of the response rate expected at a given concentration or, conversely, in terms of the concentration expected to support a given response rate. Feagans and Biller (1981, cited above) derive the relation between the two conditional probabilities, which is easily extended to upper and lower conditional probabilities. These relations were treated as coherence requirements in an experiment utilizing four ozone and four lead experts as subjects, each providing judgments on two separate occasions. Four subjects strongly satisfied the coherence requirements in both conditions. and three more did no in the second session only. The eighth subject also improved in Session 2. Encoded probabilities were highly correlated between the two sessions, but changed from the first to the second in a manner that improved coherence and reflected greater attention to certain parameters of the dose--response function.

  8. kMEn: analyzing noisy and bidirectional transcriptional pathway responses in single subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qike; Schissler, A. Grant; Gardeux, Vincent; Berghout, Joanne; Achour, Ikbel; Kenost, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    Motivation Understanding dynamic, patient-level transcriptomic response to therapy is an important step forward for precision medicine. However, conventional transcriptome analysis aims to discover cohort-level change, lacking the capacity to unveil patient-specific response to therapy. To address this gap, we previously developed two N-of-1-pathways methods, Wilcoxon and Mahalanobis distance, to detect unidirectionally responsive transcripts within a pathway using a pair of samples from a single subject. Yet, these methods cannot recognize bidirectionally (up and down) responsive pathways. Further, our previous approaches have not been assessed in presence of background noise and are not designed to identify differentially expressed mRNAs between two samples of a patient taken in different contexts (e.g. cancer vs non cancer), which we termed responsive transcripts (RTs). Methods We propose a new N-of-1-pathways method, k-Means Enrichment (kMEn), that detects bidirection-ally responsive pathways, despite background noise, using a pair of transcriptomes from a single patient. kMEn identifies transcripts responsive to the stimulus through k-means clustering and then tests for an over-representation of the responsive genes within each pathway. The pathways identified by kMEn are mechanistically interpretable pathways significantly responding to a stimulus. Results In ~9000 simulations varying six parameters, superior performance of kMEn over previous single-subject methods is evident by: i) improved precision-recall at various levels of bidirectional response and ii) lower rates of false positives (1-specificity) when more than 10% of genes in the genome are differentially expressed (background noise). In a clinical proof-of-concept, personal treatment-specific pathways identified by kMEn correlate with therapeutic response (p-valuesingle-subject transcriptome dynamics of bidirectionally-regulated signals, kMEn provides a novel approach to identify mechanism

  9. Subjective and physiological emotional response in euthymic bipolar patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Mathieu; Aguillon-Hernandez, Nadia; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Martineau, Joëlle; El-Hage, Wissam

    2014-12-15

    The euthymic phase of bipolar disorders may be associated with residual emotional and/or subsyndromal symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare subjective and physiologic emotional response to negative, neutral and positive emotion eliciting pictures between euthymic bipolar patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=30). We evaluated emotional response using an emotional induction method with emotional pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We measured subjective emotional response with the Self-Assessment Manikin and physiological emotional response by measuring pupil size. No difference was found between euthymic bipolar patients and controls regarding subjective emotional response. However, upon viewing positive pictures, pupil dilation was significantly lower in euthymic bipolar patients compared to controls. This finding suggests that euthymic bipolar phase may be associated with reduced physiologic emotional response to positive valence, which is consistent with a more general negative emotional bias or can be understood as a residual emotional subsyndromal symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forms of cooperation and subjects responsible for committing offences in commercial companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skerdian Kurti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the offences envisaged under the Criminal Code and other specific laws can be committed by general subjects, while another part may be committed only by subjects that enjoy certain qualities. A special significance in commercial criminal law takes the detailed study and knowledge of the entities responsible for committing offences of an economic nature. As noted above, it comes to criminal offenses which can be committed not only by special subjects, but also by general ones. What appears problematic in the current case due to the highly technical nature of these offences is the knowledge and understanding of the distinctive features of particular subjects. The definition of responsible subjects constitutes an important problem for the configuration of these offences, due to the fact that we are dealing with special subjects, which are lined with special qualities, that charge them with clearly defined rights and duties. Such a formulation of these offences may give rise to no less important problems of interpretation, especially in the collaboration cases of foreign persons and the formal exercise of specific functions provided by law.

  11. Dynamic Response of Bridge Subjected to Eccentrically Moving Flexible Vehicle: A Semianalytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lalthlamuana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic response of a single span bridge subjected to moving flexible vehicles has been studied using a semianalytical approach. The eccentricity of vehicle path giving rise to torsional motion of the bridge has been incorporated in the approach. The bridge surface irregularity has been considered as the nonhomogeneous process in spatial domain. A closed form expression has been derived to generate response samples corresponding to each input of roughness profile to form an ensemble. Thereafter, averaging across the ensemble has been carried out at each time step to determine mean and standard deviation of bridge and vehicle response. Further, dynamic amplification factor (DAF of the bridge response has been obtained for several combinations of bridge-vehicle parameters. The study reveals that structural bending modes of vehicle can significantly reduce dynamic response of the bridge. The eccentricity of vehicle path and flexural/torsional rigidity ratios plays a significant role in dynamic amplification of bridge response.

  12. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  13. Modeling of failure and response to laminated composites subjected to in-plane loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Iqbal; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    1993-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for predicting the response of laminated composites with or without a cutout and subjected to in-plane tensile and shear loads. Material damage resulting from the loads in terms of matrix cracking, fiber-matrix shearing, and fiber breakage was considered in the model. Delamination, an out-of-plane failure mode, was excluded from the model.

  14. Dynamic Response of Offshore Wind Turbines subjected to Joint Wave and Wind Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Weiliang; Chen, Jianbing; Liu, Wenfeng

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic response of offshore wind turbine systems subjected joint wind and wave loads. Relying on the finite element model, Kane’s equation is adopted to consider the rotation of blades. Besides, the generator-torque control and blade-pitch control are taken into consi...

  15. Less adrenergic response to mental task during verapamil compared to amlodipine treatment in hypertensive subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevre, K; Lefrandt, JD; Eide, [No Value; Smit, AJ; Rostrup, M

    2001-01-01

    We compared the effects of amlodipine and verapamil slow release on autonomic responses to a 5-min mental arithmetic test (MST) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Twenty subjects received 8 weeks of verapamil slow release 240 mg or amlodipine 10 mg in a double-blind crossover design,

  16. Authors' response: 'Lung cancer risk in subjects exposed to organic dust'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Kromhout, H.; Olsson, A.; Straif, K.; Vermeulen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Response to: Mastrangelo, G., Rylander, R., Cegolon, L. & Lange, J.H. (2012). Lung cancer risk in subjects exposed to organic dust: an unexpected and surprising story. Thorax 67(12), 1112–1112. Original article: Peters, S., Kromhout, H., Olsson, A.C., Wichmann, H.-E., Brüske, I., Consonni, D.,

  17. Blunted Hypercapnic Respiratory Drive Response in Subjects With Late-Onset Pompe Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito, Eduardo L; Monteiro, Sergio G; Aruj, Patricia K

    2016-07-01

    Patients with late-onset Pompe disease develop progressive hypercapnic respiratory failure that can be disproportionate to the respiratory muscle compromise and/or thoracic restriction. Although recent studies have reported the presence of a blunted hypercapnic respiratory response in some subjects with neuromuscular disorders and chronic hypercapnia, no study has evaluated the integrity of the respiratory drive in subjects with late-onset Pompe disease. Thus, we endeavor to determine the CO2 rebreathing response in subjects with late-onset Pompe disease. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory pressure, and the maximum expiratory pressure. The maximum inspiratory pressure reflects the strength of the diaphragm and other inspiratory muscles, whereas the maximum expiratory pressure reflects the strength of the abdominal muscles and other expiratory muscles. We studied the hypercapnic drive response (measured as the ratio of the change in airway-occlusion pressure 0.1 s after the start of inspiration and end-tidal PCO2 in 13 subjects with late-onset Pompe disease and 51 healthy controls. Overall inspiratory muscle strength was within normal limits or slightly diminished in the late-onset Pompe disease group. Five subjects (38.5%) were chronically hypercapnic, and 9 (69.2%) had an increased breath-holding time. Compared with controls, the change in airway-occlusion pressure 0.1 s/change in end-tidal CO2 pressure slope (hypercapnic respiratory drive) was lower in the late-onset Pompe disease group (median 0.050 [interquartile range 0.027-0.118] vs 0.183 [0.153-0.233], P disease had an impaired hypercapnic respiratory drive response. The clinical impact of this phenomenon in this subject subset deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  18. Zgorzel pędow borówki wysokiej wywołana przez grzyb Godronia cassandrae f. vaccinii (Peck. Groves [The canker of highbush blueberry caused by Godronia cassandrae f. vaccinii (Peck. Groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Borecki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fusicoccum canker of highbush blueberry was first detected in 1973 in Poland. The diseases appeared on the shoots of variety Jersey in the collection of the Department of Pomology, Agricultural University, Warsaw-Ursyn6w. The disease was caused by the fungus Godronia cassandrae f. vaccinii {Peck. Groves. The conidial stage is known as Topospora myrtilli (Felfch. Boermema syn. Fusicoccum putrefaciens Shear.

  19. Mind wandering at the fingertips: automatic parsing of subjective states based on response time variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mikaël; Sackur, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Research from the last decade has successfully used two kinds of thought reports in order to assess whether the mind is wandering: random thought-probes and spontaneous reports. However, none of these two methods allows any assessment of the subjective state of the participant between two reports. In this paper, we present a step by step elaboration and testing of a continuous index, based on response time variability within Sustained Attention to Response Tasks (N = 106, for a total of 10 conditions). We first show that increased response time variability predicts mind wandering. We then compute a continuous index of response time variability throughout full experiments and show that the temporal position of a probe relative to the nearest local peak of the continuous index is predictive of mind wandering. This suggests that our index carries information about the subjective state of the subject even when he or she is not probed, and opens the way for on-line tracking of mind wandering. Finally we proceed a step further and infer the internal attentional states on the basis of the variability of response times. To this end we use the Hidden Markov Model framework, which allows us to estimate the durations of on-task and off-task episodes. PMID:24046753

  20. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic subjects using ultrasound biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used to predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. Observational cross-sectional study. Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical responses with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Subjective Responses to Caffeine Are Influenced by Caffeine Dose, Sex, and Pubertal Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L; Ziegler, Amanda M; Martin, Catherine; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-12-01

    Background: Our previous work has shown that there are sex differences in subjective responses to acute caffeine administration in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine if these sex differences are dependent on pubertal development. Materials and Methods: We examined subjective responses before and after administration of 0, 1, and 2 mg/kg of caffeine in pre- and postpubertal boys and girls (n = 112). In addition, we examined differences in subjective responses to acute caffeine in both the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle in postpubertal girls. Results: Caffeine at both doses resulted in greater changes in responses on the Addiction Research Center Inventory and the Brief Assessment of Mood States compared with placebo. Girls reported greater increases from baseline to peak in feeling different and liking the feeling than boys after 2 mg/kg of caffeine regardless of pubertal stage. Postpubertal girls also had a greater decrease from baseline in reports of feeling high and greater increases from baseline in reports of wanting more than postpubertal males. Finally, girls had greater changes (both increases and decreases) in responses on the Brief Mood Questionnaire when in the follicular phase compared with the luteal phase. This was also true for reports of feeling high and feeling different on the Drug Effects Questionnaire. None of these effects varied as a function of usual caffeine use, suggesting that differences are not the result of tolerance or sensitization. Conclusions: These results suggest that subjective responses to caffeine emerge before puberty, but sex differences may be strengthened after pubertal development.

  2. Cortisol response and subjective sleep disturbance after low-frequency noise exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Waye, K.; Agge, A.; Clow, A.; Hucklebridge, F.

    2004-10-01

    A previous experimental study showed that the cortisol response upon awakening was reduced following nights with low-frequency noise exposure. This study comprised a larger number of subjects and an extended period of acclimatisation nights. In total, 26 male subjects slept during five consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Half of the subjects were exposed to low-frequency noise (40 dBA) on the 4th night and had their reference night (24 dBA) on the 5th night, while the reverse conditions were present for the other half of the group. Subjective sleep disturbances were recorded by questionnaires and cortisol response upon awakening was measured in saliva. The results showed that subjects were more tired and felt less socially orientated in the morning after nights with low-frequency noise. Mood was negatively affected in the evening after nights with low-frequency noise. No effect of noise condition was found on the cortisol secretion. There was a significant effect of group and weekday, indicating that further methodological developments are necessary before saliva cortisol secretion can be reliably used as an indicator of noise-disturbed sleep.

  3. Dendritic Cells from Aged Subjects Display Enhanced Inflammatory Responses to Chlamydophila pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Sangeetha; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gupta, Sudhir; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydophila pneumoniae (CPn) is a common respiratory pathogen that causes a chronic and persistent airway infection. The elderly display an increased susceptibility and severity to this infection. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are the initiators and regulators of immune responses. Therefore, we investigated the role of DCs in the age-associated increased CPn infection in vitro in humans. Though the expression of activation markers was comparable between the two age groups, DCs from aged subjects secreted enhanced levels of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and CXCL-10 in response to CPn. In contrast, the secretion of IL-10 and innate interferons, IFN-α and IFN-λ, was severely impaired in DCs from aged donors. The increased activation of DCs from aged subjects to CPn also resulted in enhanced proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T cells in a DC-T coculture. Furthermore, T cells primed with CPn-stimulated DCs from aged subjects secreted increased levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-10 compared to DCs obtained from young subjects. In summary, DCs from the elderly displayed enhanced inflammatory response to CPn which may result in airway remodeling and increase the susceptibility of the elderly to respiratory diseases such as asthma. PMID:25253920

  4. Simplifying continuous monitoring of multiple-response/multiple-subject classroom interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrtic, T M; Sepler, H J

    1982-01-01

    In order to facilitate the field monitoring of three subjects interacting according to one or more of 18 response categories, a modified version of several available, but oftentimes mechanically incompatible, observational procedures was designed. Its continuous recording strategy, sectioned into one-minute observational units, enabled researchers to derive highly representative behavior samples, and when accompanied by the specially tailored coding form and recording apparatus, observers achieved over 90% agreement across all reliability sessions. This procedure provides applied researchers with a simple, highly reliable, and adaptable observation tool for continuously and simultaneously monitoring the behaviors of one or more subjects.

  5. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    The influence of psychological states on physiological responses during exercise is of considerable importance to individuals for which the efficiency of energy production is critical to occupational performance. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic fitness is associated with enhanced cardiovascular efficiency at rest and that responses to mental stress demonstrate evidence of increased sensitivity (relative increase in HR response) and enhanced efficiency (a decrease in absolute HR). However, the effect of aerobic fitness and its impact on cardiorespiratory (CR) responses to psychological stress during exercise has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was three-fold; (1) to examine during exercise, anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses to a mental challenge, (2) to examine anxiety and heart rate (HR) responses from rest to exercise with mental challenge between below average fitness (Low Fit) and well-above average fitness (Hi Fit) individuals (exercising at similar relative intensities), and (3) to examine anxiety, effort sense, and CR responses of Low Fit and Hi Fit individuals to a mental challenge during exercise at a similar relative intensity. Twelve Low Fit and eleven Hi Fit subjects participated in two, 32-minute cycle ergometer rides at 65 % of VO2max. In the mental challenge condition (MCC), subjects rode while participating in mentally challenging tasks (Stroop Color-Word task and mental arithmetic) from min 6 to min 14 of the protocol. In the no mental challenge condition (NMCC), subjects exercised at the same intensity and duration without a stressor. Subjects were counter-balanced between fitness levels and condition. HR, VE, VE/VO2, RR, VO2, RER, effort sense (RPE), and state anxiety (SAI) were assessed at 5, 14, 24, and 30 min. SAI was also assessed at - 5 min before exercise and after 15 min of recovery. In addition, the NASA task load index (NTLX) was used to assess perceived overall workload. SAI increased

  6. Interpersonal interaction and cardiovascular response in type A subjects and coronary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembroski, T M; MacDougall, J M; Lushene, R

    1979-12-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that Type A subjects respond with greater cardiovascular response than Type B subjects during the structured interview used to assess the Type A pattern. Coronary patients (n = 31) and patient controls (n = 33) were subjected to the interview and a history quiz while ECG and blood pressure were monitored. As predicted, Type A relative to Type B subjects evidenced significantly greater increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which were sustained over the course of the entire 12-15 minute interview. Type A subjects compared with B's also showed significantly greater blood pressure elevations during the quiz. Coronary patients displayed significantly greater Type A attributes than control subjects and tended to show greater blood pressure elevations than controls during the interview. In addition, the quiz induced significant elevations in the blood pressure of coronary patients, but not patient controls, over that displayed during the interview, despite the presence of beta-adrenergic blocking medication. Implications of the findings for coronary-prone behavior and coronary heart disease are discussed.

  7. Reproducibility and responsiveness of a noninvasive EMG technique of the respiratory muscles in COPD patients and in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duiverman, ML; van Eykern, LA; Vennik, PW; Koeter, GH; Maarsingh, EJW; Wijkstra, PJ

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the reproducibility and responsiveness of transcutaneous electromyography (EMG) of the respiratory muscles in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) and healthy subjects during breathing against an inspiratory load. In seven healthy subjects and

  8. Comparative Effects of Methylphenidate, Modafinil, and MDMA on Response Inhibition Neural Networks in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, André; Müller, Felix; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin; Zanchi, Davide; Liechti, Matthias E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Using a double-blind, within-subject, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine were administrated to 21 healthy subjects while performing a go/no-go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition. Relative to placebo, methylphenidate and modafinil but not 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine improved inhibitory performance. Methylphenidate significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus, middle/superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, presupplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate cortex compared with placebo. Methylphenidate also induced significantly higher activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and presupplementary motor area and relative to modafinil. Relative to placebo, modafinil significantly increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus and superior/inferior parietal lobule, while 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine significantly increased activation in the right middle/inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. Direct comparison of methylphenidate, modafinil, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine revealed broad recruitment of fronto-parietal regions but specific effects of methylphenidate on middle/superior temporal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and presupplementary motor area activation, suggesting dissociable modulations of response inhibition networks and potentially the superiority of methylphenidate in the

  9. Individual variation in lipidomic profiles of healthy subjects in response to omega-3 Fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin L Nording

    Full Text Available Conflicting findings in both interventional and observational studies have resulted in a lack of consensus on the benefits of ω3 fatty acids in reducing disease risk. This may be due to individual variability in response. We used a multi-platform lipidomic approach to investigate both the consistent and inconsistent responses of individuals comprehensively to a defined ω3 intervention.The lipidomic profile including fatty acids, lipid classes, lipoprotein distribution, and oxylipins was examined multi- and uni-variately in 12 healthy subjects pre vs. post six weeks of ω3 fatty acids (1.9 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 1.5 g/d docosahexaenoic acid [DHA].Total lipidomic and oxylipin profiles were significantly different pre vs. post treatment across all subjects (p=0.00007 and p=0.00002 respectively. There was a strong correlation between oxylipin profiles and EPA and DHA incorporated into different lipid classes (r(2=0.93. However, strikingly divergent responses among individuals were also observed. Both ω3 and ω6 fatty acid metabolites displayed a large degree of variation among the subjects. For example, in half of the subjects, two arachidonic acid cyclooxygenase products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and thromboxane B2 (TXB2, and a lipoxygenase product, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE significantly decreased post intervention, whereas in the other half they either did not change or increased. The EPA lipoxygenase metabolite 12-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (12-HEPE varied among subjects from an 82% decrease to a 5,000% increase.Our results show that certain defined responses to ω3 fatty acid intervention were consistent across all subjects. However, there was also a high degree of inter-individual variability in certain aspects of lipid metabolism. This lipidomic based phenotyping approach demonstrated that individual responsiveness to ω3 fatty acids is highly variable and measurable, and could be used as a means to assess the

  10. Patients with gout differ from healthy subjects in renal response to changes in serum uric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether a change in serum uric acid (sUA) resulted in a corresponding change in the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) and whether the renal response was different in patients with gout versus healthy subjects. FEUA was calculated from previously published studies and four new phase I studies in healthy subjects and/or patients with gout before and after treatment to lower or raise sUA. Treatments included xanthine oxidase inhibitors to lower sUA as well as infusion of uric acid and provision of a high-purine diet to raise sUA. Plots were created of FEUA versus sUA before and after treatment. For the phase I studies, percent change in FEUA per mg/dL change in sUA was calculated separately for healthy subjects and patients with gout, and compared using Student's t test. Analysis of previously published data and the new phase I clinical data indicates that changing sUA by a non-renal mechanism leads to a change in FEUA. The magnitude of change is greater in subjects with higher baseline FEUA versus patients with gout. Healthy subjects excrete more urate than do patients with gout at physiological urate-filtered load; this difference disappears when the urate-filtered load is decreased to ∼5000mg/24hours. These observations are consistent with a less saturated urate reabsorption system in patients with gout versus healthy subjects, resulting in elevated retention of uric acid. Further investigation could lead to the discovery of mechanisms responsible for the etiology of hyperuricemia/gout. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  12. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  13. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  14. Subjective response of people to simulated sonic booms in their homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A; Brown, Sherilyn A; Hilliard, R David

    2004-09-01

    In order to determine the effect of the number of sonic boom occurrences on annoyance, a computer-based system was developed for studying the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The system provided a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys and a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory. A system was deployed for eight weeks in each of 33 homes. Each day from 4 to 63 sonic booms were played as the test subject went about his or her normal activities. At the end of the day, the test subjects rated their annoyance to the sonic booms heard during the day. The sonic booms consisted of different combinations of waveforms, levels, and occurrence rates. The experiment confirmed that the increase in annoyance resulting from multiple occurrences can be modeled by the addition of the term "10 * log(number of occurrences)" to the sonic boom level. Of several noise metrics considered, perceived level was the best annoyance predictor. Comparisons of the subjective responses to the different sonic boom waveforms found no differences that were not accounted for by the noise metrics.

  15. The Influence of Executive Functioning on Facial and Subjective Pain Responses in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is known to reduce reliability of subjective pain reports. Although facial expressions of pain are generally considered to be less affected by this decline, empirical support for this assumption is sparse. The present study therefore examined how cognitive functioning relates to facial expressions of pain and whether cognition acts as a moderator between nociceptive intensity and facial reactivity. Facial and subjective responses of 51 elderly participants to mechanical stimulation at three intensities levels (50 kPa, 200 kPa, and 400 kPa) were assessed. Moreover, participants completed a neuropsychological examination of executive functioning (planning, cognitive inhibition, and working memory), episodic memory, and psychomotor speed. The results showed that executive functioning has a unique relationship with facial reactivity at low pain intensity levels (200 kPa). Moreover, cognitive inhibition (but not other executive functions) moderated the effect of pressure intensity on facial pain expressions, suggesting that the relationship between pressure intensity and facial reactivity was less pronounced in participants with high levels of cognitive inhibition. A similar interaction effect was found for cognitive inhibition and subjective pain report. Consequently, caution is needed when interpreting facial (as well as subjective) pain responses in individuals with a high level of cognitive inhibition. PMID:27274618

  16. Cortisol and subjective stress responses to acute psychosocial stress in fibromyalgia patients and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-12-11

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.

  17. Plasma nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in response to the hyperventilation test in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Fiorella; Pizzi, Carmine; Bernardi, Pasquale; Pich, Emilio Merlo; Bedini, Andrea; Spampinato, Santi

    2010-04-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that nociceptin/orphanin FQ inhibits norepinephrine release, while the effects of norepinephrine on nociceptin/orphanin FQ release remain unknown. Previous studies in healthy and hypertensive subjects showed that prolonged and forced hyperventilation induces different blood pressure (BP) responses depending on changes in plasma catecholamine levels. We investigated whether the effects of hyperventilation on the sympatho-adrenergic system involve nociceptin/orphanin FQ release. Fifty-six healthy subjects (26 females, mean age 63+/-2 and 30 males, mean age 63+/-3) underwent the hyperventilation test. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on BP response to hyperventilation identified three groups of subjects: group 1 (n=20) with a decrease in BP, norepinephrine (1311.1+/-45.5 fmol/ml versus 900.0+/-55.3 fmol/ml, Phyperventilation in groups 1 and 3 were directly (Phyperventilation changes plasma nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels due to the direct effects of hypocapnic alkalosis or to different sympatho-adrenergic system responses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Masking on Subjective Responses to Daily Disposable Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keir, Nancy; Luensmann, Doerte; Woods, Craig A; Bergenske, Peter; Fahmy, Mary; Fonn, Desmond

    2016-08-01

    To explore the effect of masking on subjective responses when wearing daily disposable (DD) contact lenses. In an adaptation phase, habitual wearers of Manufacturer-A (MFA) (n = 43) and Manufacturer-B (MFB) (n = 53) wore MFA-brand 1 or MFB-brand 1 DDs, respectively, for 30 days, open-label. Subjects were then randomly assigned to one of two experiments. Each experiment included two, 3-day crossover phases. An enhanced version of MFA and MFB lenses (MFA-brand 2 and MFB-brand 2) were worn contralaterally to evaluate potential differences in masking result between manufacturers. Experiment 1: subjects were fully masked to lens and packaging (FM) then unmasked (UM). Experiment 2: subjects were FM then partially masked using an over-label (PM). Comfort ratings (0-100) were recorded for each lens daily and preference between lenses was recorded on day 3 for each crossover phase. The mean difference between 0-100 ratings or preference when FM or PM versus UM for the same lens was considered a measurement of the effect associated with masking. The purpose of the study was withheld from subjects to minimize bias. The effect associated with masking for habitual wearers of MFA and MFB lenses was less than 1 out of 100 (0 ± 2.5) in both experiments. Fifty-eight subjects (60%) expressed no preference when FM. This decreased to 29 (30%) when UM or PM (proportion test, p lenses used in this study but did have an impact on lens preference. Subjects were more likely to express a preference when they handled the lenses and were exposed to the lens packaging and, in some cases, able to read the lens brand and lens manufacturer.

  20. Do bipolar subjects' responses to personality questionnaires lack reliability? Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Marc; Capel, Roland; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2016-01-01

    Differences in personality scores between subjects with and without mood disorders might result from response biases rather than specific personality traits per se. The aim of this study was to compare subjects with bipolar disorders (BPD) to non-bipolar subjects in terms of response quality to the NEO-FFI. Using data from the population-based cohort study PsyCoLaus, subjects were compared in terms of responses to the NEO-FFI, and indices of response quality were calculated. Hierarchical regr...

  1. Effects on subjective and objective alertness and sleep in response to evening light exposure in older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, M; Scheuermaier, K D; Zhang, R; Dunne, S P; Guzik, A M; Silva, E J; Ronda, J M; Duffy, J F

    2011-10-31

    Evening bright light exposure is reported to ameliorate daytime sleepiness and age-related sleep complaints, and also delays the timing of circadian rhythms. We tested whether evening light exposure given to older adults with sleep-wake complaints would delay the timing of their circadian rhythms with respect to their sleep timing, thereby reducing evening sleepiness and improving subsequent sleep quality. We examined the impact of evening light exposure from two different light sources on subjective alertness, EEG activity during wakefulness, and sleep stages. Ten healthy older adults with sleep complaints (mean age=63.3 years; 6F) participated in a 13-day study. After three baseline days, circadian phase was assessed. On the evening of days 5-8 the subjects were exposed for 2h to either polychromatic blue-enriched white light or standard white fluorescent light, and on the following day circadian phase was re-assessed. Subjects were allowed to leave the laboratory during all but the two days when the circadian phase assessment took place. Evening assessments of subjective alertness, and wake and sleep EEG data were analyzed. Subjective alertness and wake EEG activity in the alpha range (9.75-11.25 Hz) were significantly higher during light exposures when compared to the pre-light exposure evening (plight exposures produced circadian phase shifts and significantly prolonged latency to rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep for both light groups (plight exposures was negatively correlated with REM sleep duration (plight exposure could benefit older adults with early evening sleepiness, without negatively impacting the subsequent sleep episode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effects of casein on postprandial lipemia and incretin responses in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brader, L; Holm, L; Mortensen, L; Thomsen, C; Astrup, A; Holst, J J; de Vrese, M; Schrezenmeir, J; Hermansen, K

    2010-02-01

    Exaggerated and prolonged postprandial lipemia is potentially atherogenic and associated with type 2 diabetes. Limited data exist regarding the influence of dietary protein on postprandial lipemia in type 2 diabetes. We investigated, over 8-h, the acute effects of casein alone or in combination with carbohydrate on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes. Eleven type 2 diabetic subjects ingested four test meals in random order: an energy-free soup plus 80 g of fat (control-meal); control-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO-meal); control-meal plus 45 g of casein (PRO-meal); and PRO-meal plus 45 g carbohydrates (CHO+PRO-meal). Triglyceride and retinyl palmitate responses were measured in plasma and in a chylomicron-rich and chylomicron-poor fraction. We found no significant differences in triglyceride responses to PRO- and CHO+PRO-meal compared to the control-meal. However, the addition of casein to the CHO-meal reduced the raised triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction. Retinyl palmitate responses did not differ significantly between meals in the chylomicron-rich fraction, whereas the PRO-meal increased retinyl palmitate in the chylomicron-poor fraction. PRO- and PRO+CHO-meal increased insulin and glucagon compared to the control-meal. PRO+CHO-meal increased the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide response while no change in glucagon-like peptide-1 responses was detected. The data presented suggest that casein per se did not modulate the postprandial triglyceride response in type 2 diabetes. When added to carbohydrate, casein suppressed the triglyceride response in the chylomicron-rich fraction, increased insulin and glucagon but did not affect the incretin responses. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining subjective and physiological responses to norm violation using text-based vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhuber, Eva G; Tsankova, Elena; Kappas, Arvid

    2016-01-13

    In this article, we describe a paradigm using text-based vignettes for the study of social and cultural norm violation. Towards this aim, a range of scenarios depicting instances of norm violations was generated and tested with respect to their ability in evoking subjective and physiological responses. In Experiment 1, participants evaluated 29 vignettes on how upsetting, excusable and realistic the described behaviour appeared to be. Based on those ratings we selected and extended three norm violation vignettes for Experiment 2 in which participants' physiological responses were obtained in addition to their subjective ratings. In both studies, the vignettes were successful in eliciting negative responses to norm violations and were significantly affected by the perceivers' level of ethnocultural empathy. The trait measure of cultural empathy further predicted facial electromyography (EMG) activity at muscle sites associated with disgust (M. Levator Labii), thereby suggesting a potential moral response to norm-violating scenarios. We discuss the methodological merits and implications of this vignettes paradigm for investigating perceived norm transgressions and make recommendations for future work. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  4. Infectious diseases and immunological responses in adult subjects with lifetime untreated, congenital GH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Viviane C; Barrios, Mônica R; Salvatori, Roberto; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; de Melo, Enaldo V; Nascimento, Ana C S; de Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro; Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H

    2016-10-01

    Growth hormone is important for the development and function of the immune system, but there is controversy on whether growth hormone deficiency is associated to immune disorders. A model of isolated growth hormone deficiency may clarify if the lack of growth hormone is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, or with an altered responsiveness of the immune system. We have studied the frequency of infectious diseases and the immune function in adults with congenital, untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency. In a cross-sectional study, 35 adults with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to a homozygous mutation in the growth hormone releasing hormone receptor gene and 31 controls were submitted to a clinical questionnaire, physical examination serology for tripanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, HIV, tetanus, hepatitis B and C, and serum total immunoglobulin G, M, E and A measurement. The immune response was evaluated in a subset of these subjects by skin tests and response to vaccination for hepatitis B, tetanus, and bacillus Calmette-Guérin. There was no difference between the groups in history of infectious diseases and baseline serology. Isolated growth hormone deficiency subjects had lower total IgG, but within normal range. There was no difference in the response to any of the vaccinations or in the positivity to protein Purified Derived, streptokinase or candidin. Adult untreated isolated growth hormone deficiency does not cause an increased frequency of infectious diseases, and does not alter serologic tests, but is associated with lower total IgG levels, without detectable clinical impact.

  5. Multiple-mode large deflection random response of beams with nonlinear damping subjected to acoustic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.

  6. The effect of feeding frequency on insulin and ghrelin responses in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Chambers, Edward S; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2008-01-01

    Recent work shows that increased meal frequency reduces ghrelin responses in sheep. Human research suggests there is an interaction between insulin and ghrelin. The effect of meal frequency on this interaction is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of feeding frequency on insulin...... and ghrelin responses in human subjects. Five healthy male volunteers were recruited from the general population: age 24 (SEM 2)years, body mass 75.7 (SEM 3.2) kg and BMI 23.8 (SEM 0.8) kg/m(2). Volunteers underwent three 8-h feeding regimens: fasting (FAST); low-frequency(two) meal ingestion (LOFREQ......(MEAL)); high-frequency (twelve) meal ingestion (HIFREQ(MEAL)). Meals were equi-energetic within trials,consisting of 64% carbohydrate, 23% fat and 13% protein. Total energy intake was equal between feeding trials. Total area under the curve for serum insulin and plasma ghrelin responses did not differ between...

  7. Sensitivity of Occupant Response Subject to Prescribed Corridors for Impact Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Crandall

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology to study the sensitivity of impact responses to prescribed test conditions is presented. Motor vehicle impacts are used to illustrate the principles of this sensitivity technology. Impact conditions are regulated by specifying either a corridor for the acceleration time history or other test parameters such as velocity change, static crush distance, and pulse duration. By combining a time domain constrained optimization method and a multirigid body dynamics simulator, the upper and lower bounds of occupant responses subject to the regulated corridors were obtained. It was found that these prescribed corridors may be either so wide as to allow extreme variations in occupant response or so narrow that they are physically unrealizable in the laboratory test environment. A new corridor based on specifications for the test parameters of acceleration, velocity. crush distance, and duration for frontal vehicle impacts is given.

  8. Response of Ambulatory Human Subjects to Artificial Gravity (Short Radius Centrifugation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Arya, Maneesh; Newby, Nathaniel; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity results in significant adaptive changes, including cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle atrophy, bone loss, and sensorimotor reorganization, that place individuals at risk for performing physical activities after return to a gravitational environment. Planned missions to Mars include unprecedented hypogravity exposures that would likely result in unacceptable risks to crews. Artificial gravity (AG) paradigms may offer multisystem protection from the untoward effects of adaptation to the microgravity of space or the hypogravity of planetary surfaces. While the most effective AG designs would employ a rotating spacecraft, perceived issues may preclude their use. The questions of whether and how intermittent AG produced by a short radius centrifuge (SRC) could be employed have therefore sprung to the forefront of operational research. In preparing for a series of intermittent AG trials in subjects deconditioned by bed rest, we have examined the responses of several healthy, ambulatory subjects to SRC exposures.

  9. A Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model to Characterize Cognition Over Time in Elderly Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkamp, Björn; Krahnke, Tillmann; Mielke, Johanna; Monsch, Andreas; Quarg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    For drug development in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, it is important to understand which cognitive domains carry the most information on the earliest signs of cognitive decline, and which subject characteristics are associated with a faster decline. A longitudinal Item Response Theory (IRT) model was developed for the Basel Study on the Elderly, in which the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease – Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (with additions) and the California Verbal Learning Test were measured on 1,750 elderly subjects for up to 13.9 years. The model jointly captured the multifaceted nature of cognition and its longitudinal trajectory. The word list learning and delayed recall tasks carried the most information. Greater age at baseline, fewer years of education, and positive APOEɛ4 carrier status were associated with a faster cognitive decline. Longitudinal IRT modeling is a powerful approach for progressive diseases with multifaceted endpoints. PMID:28643388

  10. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  11. The thermoluminescence response of doped SiO2 optical fibres subjected to fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S; Bradley, D A; Saripan, M I; Ramli, A T; Wagiran, H

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study of the thermoluminescence (TL) response of doped SiO(2) optical fibres subjected to (241)AmBe neutron irradiation. The TL materials, which comprise Al- and Ge-doped silica fibres, were exposed in close contact with the (241)AmBe source to obtain fast neutron interactions through use of measurements obtained with and without a Cd filter (the filter being made to entirely enclose the fibres). The neutron irradiations were performed for exposure times of 1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 7-days in a neutron tank filled with water. In this study, use was also made of the Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code version 5 (V5) to simulate the neutron irradiations experiment. It was found that the commercially available Ge-doped and Al-doped optical fibres show a linear dose response subjected to fast neutrons from (241)AmBe source up to seven days of irradiations. The simulation performed using MCNP5 also exhibits a similar pattern, albeit differing in sensitivity. The TL response of Ge-doped fibre is markedly greater than that of the Al-doped fibre, the total absorption cross section for Ge in both the fast and thermal neutrons region being some ten times greater than that of Al. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Greater impairment of postprandial triacylglycerol than glucose response in metabolic syndrome subjects with fasting hyperglycaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kim G; Walden, Charlotte M; Murray, Peter; Smith, Adrian M; Minihane, Anne M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Williams, Christine M

    2013-08-01

    Studies have started to question whether a specific component or combinations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components may be more important in relation to cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine the impact of the presence of raised fasting glucose as a MetS component on postprandial lipaemia. Men classified with the MetS underwent a sequential test meal investigation, in which blood samples were taken at regular intervals after a test breakfast (t=0 min) and lunch (t=330 min). Lipids, glucose and insulin were measured in the fasting and postprandial samples. MetS subjects with 3 or 4 components were subdivided into those without (n=34) and with (n=23) fasting hyperglycaemia (≥5.6 mmol/l), irrespective of the combination of components. Fasting lipids and insulin were similar in the two groups, with glucose significantly higher in the men with glucose as a MetS component (Ppostprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) response in men with fasting hyperglycaemia. Greater glucose AUC (Pglucose to be an important predictor of the postprandial TAG and glucose response. Our data analysis has revealed a greater impairment of postprandial TAG than glucose response in MetS subjects with raised fasting glucose. The worsening of postprandial lipaemic control may contribute to the greater CVD risk reported in individuals with MetS component combinations which include hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic Response of Underground Circular Lining Tunnels Subjected to Incident P Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic stress concentration in tunnels and underground structures during earthquakes often leads to serious structural damage. A series solution of wave equation for dynamic response of underground circular lining tunnels subjected to incident plane P waves is presented by Fourier-Bessel series expansion method in this paper. The deformation and stress fields of the whole medium of surrounding rock and tunnel were obtained by solving the equations of seismic wave propagation in an elastic half space. Based on the assumption of a large circular arc, a series of solutions for dynamic stress were deduced by using a wave function expansion approach for a circular lining tunnel in an elastic half space rock medium subjected to incident plane P waves. Then, the dynamic response of the circular lining tunnel was obtained by solving a series of algebraic equations after imposing its boundary conditions for displacement and stress of the circular lining tunnel. The effects of different factors on circular lining rock tunnels, including incident frequency, incident angle, buried depth, rock conditions, and lining stiffness, were derived and several application examples are presented. The results may provide a good reference for studies on the dynamic response and aseismic design of tunnels and underground structures.

  14. The neuroendocrine response of luteinizing hormone to estrogen administration in heterosexual, homosexual, and transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L

    1986-09-01

    The neuroendocrine response of LH to estrogen administration may be related to sexual dimorphism of the brain, and therefore, homosexual and especially transsexual individuals may differ from heterosexual individuals in their responses. This study failed to find such differences among groups of female heterosexuals, homosexuals, and transsexuals. Specifically, after single dose estrogen administration, all subjects had an initial decline in serum LH levels, followed by a brisk rise of equal magnitude. Among males, the type of response was less uniform. After an initial fall in serum LH levels, the individual responses varied. In 12 of 23 male homosexuals, 10 of 15 male heterosexuals, and all 6 genetic male transsexuals studied, serum LH levels remained below pretreatment levels. In the remaining 11 male homosexuals and 5 of the heterosexuals, serum LH levels increased to values exceeding those before treatment, resembling the response found in the 3 groups of women. Those homosexual and heterosexual men with a rise in serum LH levels to above pretreatment values also had the greatest fall in testosterone levels after estrogen administration, while these same men had the lowest testosterone response to hCG stimulation. I conclude from these results that 1) the similarity of LH responses to estrogen administration in all groups of women studied does not support a theory of brain androgenization as a factor in the establishment of gender identity of sexual orientation; and 2) individual differences in men in the type of LH response to estrogen administration can be satisfactorily explained by endocrine factors, such as Leydig cell function, and need not be related to gender identity, sexual orientation, or other possible causes.

  15. Acute subjective response to alcohol as a function of reward and punishment sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David H; Treloar, Hayley; Tsai, Chia-Lin; McCarty, Kayleigh N; McCarthy, Denis M

    2016-09-01

    Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol play a crucial role in the development of heavy drinking and related problems. In light of this, a growing focus of research has been identifying factors that contribute to differences in response. The aim of the present study was to determine whether individual differences in the subjective experience of rewarding and aversive effects of alcohol are a specific manifestation of general differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Eighty-nine participants (M age=22.4, SD=1.9; 47.2% women) consumed a moderate dose of alcohol, i.e., peak breath alcohol concentration (BrAC)≈0.080g%, and rated their level of stimulation and sedation at seven timepoints over the BrAC curve. Sensitivity to reward and punishment were assessed by a self-report questionnaire prior to consumption. Multilevel growth models showed that post-consumption changes in stimulation ratings varied as a function of participants' level of reward and punishment sensitivity. Drinkers more sensitive to reward reported feeling more stimulated shortly after drinking and exhibited an attenuated rate of decline in stimulation over the blood alcohol curve, relative to drinkers with less strong reward sensitivity. Reward sensitivity was not related to subjective ratings of sedation, and punishment sensitivity was not related to either stimulation or sedation ratings. Findings suggest that reward sensitivity may increase risk for alcohol misuse among young adult social drinkers by increasing their subjective feelings of stimulation while drinking. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mineral composition of different strains of edible medicinal mushroom Agaricus subrufescens Peck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györfi, Júlia; Geösel, András; Vetter, János

    2010-12-01

    Agaricus subrufescens Peck is a well-known Basidiomycota fungus (Royal Sun Agaricus), with rising demand in consumption and production worldwide. This particular mushroom with high medical value has been used successfully in cancer therapy and in the treatment of some bacterial and viral diseases. Four strains of A. subrufescens (Si2.2, 853, 1105, and 2603) were cultivated, and 22 mineral elements of basidiomes (fruit bodies) were analyzed (caps and stipes separately). The data obtained about the mineral compositions were compared to the "reference" Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom) and to the average of wild growing Agaricus species. The mineral composition of A. subrufescens strains can be characterized by the following: (1) high levels of valuable macroelements, i.e., potassium (28-30,000 mg/kg of dry matter), phosphorus (7-11,000 mg/kg of dry matter), and calcium and magnesium (for both elements, 1,000-1,500 mg/kg of dry matter); (2) significantly higher level of copper (compared to A. bisporus, 70-150 mg/kg of dry matter) and zinc (140-250 mg/kg of dry matter); (3) low quantity of sodium (140-180 mg/kg of dry matter); (4) attention should paid to the detectable amount of cadmium (2-17 mg/kg of dry matter) in strain Si2.2; (5) low or undetectable concentrations of some other poisonous microelements like As, Cr, and V; and (6) the distribution of elements in caps and stipes is characteristic-the majority of beneficial elements have higher contents in caps than in stipes, but some other elements, such as Ca, Fe, and Na, appear in an inverse proportion. In conclusion, it can be said that the mineral composition of A. subrufescens is definitely positive, with the exception of the above-mentioned Cd level.

  17. Associations of airway inflammation and responsiveness markers in non asthmatic subjects at start of apprenticeship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Valérie; Wild, Pascal; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Tossa, Paul; Bohadana, Abraham; Barbaud, Annick; Paris, Christophe

    2010-07-06

    Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma? Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed. Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy. Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question.

  18. A finite element large deflection random response analysis of beams and plates subjected to acoustic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chuh; Chiang, C. K.

    1987-01-01

    A finite element formulation is presented for the analysis of beams and rectangular plates undergoing large deflections subjected to Gaussian white noise excitations. Single-mode response is assumed in the present formulation. Root-mean-square (RMS) maximum deflections for simply supported and clamped beams and plates at various sound spectrum levels are obtained and compared with solutions using the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation and the equivalent linearization methods. RMS maximum stains and equivalent linear frequencies are compared with the equivalent linearization results for assessment of the accuracy of the finite element method.

  19. Nonrandom Acts of Kindness: Parasympathetic and Subjective Empathic Responses to Sadness Predict Children’s Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    How does empathic physiology unfold as a dynamic process, and which aspect of empathy predicts children’s kindness? In response to empathy induction videos, 4–6 year-old children (N = 180) showed an average pattern of dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change characterized by early RSA suppression followed by RSA recovery, and modest subsequent suppression during positive resolution of the empathic event. Children’s capacity for this pattern of flexible RSA change was associated with their subjective empathic feelings, which were concurrently associated with more sympathetic and prosocial responses to others. Conversely, only children’s dynamic RSA change longitudinally predicted prosocial behavior two years later. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamic and multifaceted nature of empathy, and its relation with prosocial development. PMID:28262932

  20. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  1. [Comparative analysis of the glycemic response and glycemic index of instant mashed potatoes in subjects undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Valdes, Gabriel; del Valle Flores, Miguel; Vega Soto, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a successful surgical procedure for morbid obesity. However, post surgery weight regain is usual, thus applying the glycemic index could promote good weight control. To compare the glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response (GR) obtained of instant mashed potatoes in individuals subjected to LSG versus control subjects. GI and GR were assessed in 10 LSG subjects and compared with 10 controls. GI methodology proposed by FAO/WHO was used; instant mashed potatoes as test food and white bread as standard food (50g available CHO). Capillary blood sample 0 (fasting), 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. The GI was determined by trapezoidal method. ANOVA was used to compare a factor between RG and IG groups; t-student to compare RG between foods. Statistical significance pglycemic responses in LSG group, and its consumption possibly favoring weight regain. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycemic response of rice, wheat and finger millet based diabetic food formulations in normoglycemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobana, Shanmugam; Kumari, Singh R Usha; Malleshi, Nagappa G; Ali, Syed Z

    2007-08-01

    Food formulations suitable as dietary supplements to diabetic subjects based on wheat, decorticated finger millet, popped (aralu) and expanded (puri) rice each blended separately with legumes, non-fat dry milk, vegetable oils, spices and a few hypoglycemic ingredients were formulated. The formulations contained 13.0-18.3% protein, 11.3-11.8% fat, 59.9-67.5% starch and 13.2-18.0% dietary fiber. A 50-g equivalent carbohydrate portion of the foods in the form of thick porridge was provided to eight healthy adult subjects and the postprandial blood glucose response was determined. The Glycemic Index (GI) values were 55.4+/-9, 93.4+/-7, 105+/-6 and 109+/-8 for wheat-based, millet-based, aralu-based and puri-based formulations. The variations in the GI could be attributed to the nature of available as well as non-available (non-starchy polysaccharides) carbohydrates in the foods besides the processing undergone by the cereal ingredients. The higher GI of rice formulations could be due to the easily digestible nature of starches and also their lower dietary fiber contents. The study revealed the suitability of wheat-based formulation as a food supplement or as meal replacer in diabetic subjects but the unsuitability of rice-based formulations.

  3. Visual BOLD Response in Late Blind Subjects with Argus II Retinal Prosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Castaldi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal prosthesis technologies require that the visual system downstream of the retinal circuitry be capable of transmitting and elaborating visual signals. We studied the capability of plastic remodeling in late blind subjects implanted with the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis with psychophysics and functional MRI (fMRI. After surgery, six out of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP blind subjects were able to detect high-contrast stimuli using the prosthetic implant. However, direction discrimination to contrast modulated stimuli remained at chance level in all of them. No subject showed any improvement of contrast sensitivity in either eye when not using the Argus II. Before the implant, the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD activity in V1 and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN was very weak or absent. Surprisingly, after prolonged use of Argus II, BOLD responses to visual input were enhanced. This is, to our knowledge, the first study tracking the neural changes of visual areas in patients after retinal implant, revealing a capacity to respond to restored visual input even after years of deprivation.

  4. Seismic Response of Power Transmission Tower-Line System Subjected to Spatially Varying Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of power transmission tower-line system subjected to spatially varying base excitations is studied in this paper. The transmission towers are modeled by beam elements while the transmission lines are modeled by cable elements that account for the nonlinear geometry of the cables. The real multistation data from SMART-1 are used to analyze the system response subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The seismic input waves for vertical and horizontal ground motions are also generated based on the Code for Design of Seismic of Electrical Installations. Both the incoherency of seismic waves and wave travel effects are accounted for. The nonlinear time history analytical method is used in the analysis. The effects of boundary conditions, ground motion spatial variations, the incident angle of the seismic wave, coherency loss, and wave travel on the system are investigated. The results show that the uniform ground motion at all supports of system does not provide the most critical case for the response calculations.

  5. First report of Gymnosporangium clavipes Cooke & Peck affecting Crataegus mexicana var. Chapeado and C. gracilior in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alvarado-Rosales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tejocote (Crataegus spp. is a tree considered to be native to Mexico. The aim of this study was to identify the causal agent of tejocote rust in the State of Puebla. Tejocote fruits were sampled in 2012 and 2013. The fungus was studied morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy and molecularly using phylogenetic analysis of 18S and 28S rDNA genes. The fungus was identified as Gymnosporangium clavipes on tejocote fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first confirmed report of Gymnosporangium clavipes Cooke & Peck affecting Crataegus mexicana var. Chapeado and C. gracilior in Puebla Mexico.

  6. Altered Circulating Levels of Serotonin and Immunological Changes in Laying Hens Divergently Selected for Feather Pecking Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Kjaer, Jørgen B.; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in immunological parameters as well as changes with respect to plasma levels of serotonin and tryptophan in lines selected for and against feather pecking (FP) behavior [high FP (HP) line and low FP (LP) line] for 5 generations. The hens from...... compared with the control and HP lines. Selection for or against FP, therefore, changes the number of white blood cells and the expression of MHC class I molecules on T and B cells, which may influence the health status of the birds...

  7. Effect of standing on neurohumoral responses and plasma volume in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Ertl, A. C.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    Upright posture leads to rapid pooling of blood in the lower extremities and shifts plasma fluid into surrounding tissues. This results in a decrease in plasma volume (PV) and in hemoconcentration. There has been no integrative evaluation of concomitant neurohumoral and PV shifts with upright posture in normal subjects. We studied 10 healthy subjects after 3 days of stable Na+ and K+ intake. PV was assessed by the Evans blue dye method and by changes in hematocrit. Norepinephrine (NE), NE spillover, epinephrine (Epi), vasopressin, plasma renin activity, aldosterone, osmolarity, and kidney response expressed by urine osmolality and by Na+ and K+ excretion of the subjects in the supine and standing postures were all measured. We found that PV fell by 13% (375 +/- 35 ml plasma) over approximately 14 min, after which time it remained relatively stable. There was a concomitant decrease in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate that peaked at the time of maximal decrease in PV. Plasma Epi and NE increased rapidly to this point. Epi approached baseline by 20 min of standing. NE spillover increased 80% and clearance decreased 30% with 30 min of standing. The increase in plasma renin activity correlated with an increase in aldosterone. Vasopressin increased progressively, but there was no change in plasma osmolarity. The kidney response showed a significant decrease in Na+ and an increase in K+ excretion with upright posture. We conclude that a cascade of neurohumoral events occurs with upright posture, some of which particularly coincide with the decrease in PV. Plasma Epi levels may contribute to the increment in heart rate with maintained upright posture.

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Individual Differences in Subjective Responses to D-Amphetamine, Alcohol, and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Using a Within-Subjects Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C Wardle

    Full Text Available Polydrug use is common, and might occur because certain individuals experience positive effects from several different drugs during early stages of use. This study examined individual differences in subjective responses to single oral doses of d-amphetamine, alcohol, and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC in healthy social drinkers. Each of these drugs produces feelings of well-being in at least some individuals, and we hypothesized that subjective responses to these drugs would be positively correlated. We also examined participants' drug responses in relation to personality traits associated with drug use. In this initial, exploratory study, 24 healthy, light drug users (12 male, 12 female, aged 21-31 years, participated in a fully within-subject, randomized, counterbalanced design with six 5.5-hour sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20mg, alcohol (0.8 g/kg, or THC (7.5 mg, each paired with a placebo session. Participants rated the drugs' effects on both global measures (e.g. feeling a drug effect at all and drug-specific measures. In general, participants' responses to the three drugs were unrelated. Unexpectedly, "wanting more" alcohol was inversely correlated with "wanting more" THC. Additionally, in women, but not in men, "disliking" alcohol was negatively correlated with "disliking" THC. Positive alcohol and amphetamine responses were related, but only in individuals who experienced a stimulant effect of alcohol. Finally, high trait constraint (or lack of impulsivity was associated with lower reports of liking alcohol. No personality traits predicted responses across multiple drug types. Generally, these findings do not support the idea that certain individuals experience greater positive effects across multiple drug classes, but instead provide some evidence for a "drug of choice" model, in which individuals respond positively to certain classes of drugs that share similar subjective effects, and dislike other types

  9. Differential effects of cognitive load on subjective versus motor responses to ambiguously valenced facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattek, Alison M; Whalen, Paul J; Berkowitz, Julia L; Freeman, Jonathan B

    2016-09-01

    Valence is a principal dimension by which we understand emotional experiences, but oftentimes events are not easily classified as strictly positive or negative. Inevitably, individuals vary in how they tend to interpret the valence of ambiguous situations. Surprised facial expressions are one example of a well-defined, ambiguous affective event that induces trait-like differences in the propensity to form a positive or negative interpretation. To investigate the nature of this affective bias, we asked participants to organize emotional facial expressions (surprised, happy, sad) into positive/negative categories while recording their hand-movement trajectories en route to each response choice. We found that positivity-negativity bias resulted in differential hand movements for modal versus nonmodal response trajectories, such that when an individual categorized a surprised face according to his or her nonmodal interpretation (e.g., a negatively biased individual selecting a positive interpretation), the hand showed an enhanced spatial attraction to the alternative, modal response option (e.g., negative) in the opposite corner of the computer screen (Experiment 1). Critically, we also demonstrate that this asymmetry between modal versus nonmodal response trajectories is mitigated when the valence interpretations are made under a cognitive load, although the frequency of modal interpretations is unaffected by the load (Experiment 2). These data inform a body of seemingly disparate findings regarding the effect of cognitive effort on affective responses, by showing within a single paradigm that varying cognitive load selectively alters the dynamic motor movements involved in indicating affective interpretations, whereas the subjective interpretations themselves remain consistent across variable cognitive loads. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  11. Plastic and Elastic Responses of a Jacket Platform Subjected to Ship Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with ship-jacket platform collisions. An examination on NORSOK N-004 rule is carried out. Furthermore, elastic and plastic response of jacket platform is studied. This paper also conducts a sensitivity analysis, focusing on collision points. Simulation models of a ductile and a rigid supply vessel were developed, as well as models of two typical jacket platforms. Data such as collision force, kinetic energy, and deformation energy have been obtained. Several conclusions have been drawn: NORSOK rule underestimates the resistance for certain indention, due to inaccurate description of column deformation mode. Elastic response is extremely important in dynamic analysis of ship-platform impacts, by contributing to reducing impact loads and local energy dissipation. Struck members are therefore subjected to impacts to a low extent, which can be regarded as result of a buffering effect. Before a buffering effect works, a time delay exists. This is caused because the topside has to take up adequate kinetic energy. Striking position has an effect on dynamic behavior of platform. High local strength is in favor of buffering an effect. Elastic response is more significant in a flexible platform than in a sticky one.

  12. Structural Response of Polyethylene Foam-Based Sandwich Panels Subjected to Edgewise Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lamberti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the mechanical behavior of low density polyethylene foam core sandwich panels subjected to edgewise compression. In order to monitor panel response to buckling, strains generated in the facesheets and overall out-of-plane deformations are measured with strain gages and projection moiré, respectively. A finite element (FE model simulating the experimental test is developed. Numerical results are compared with moiré measurements. After having been validated against experimental evidence, the FE model is parameterized, and a trade study is carried out to investigate to what extent the structural response of the panel depends on the sandwich wall construction and facesheet/core interface defects. The projection moiré set-up utilized in this research is able to capture the sudden and very localized buckling phenomena occurring under edgewise compression of foam-based sandwich panels. Results of parametric FE analyses indicate that, if the total thickness of the sandwich wall is fixed, including thicker facesheets in the laminate yields a larger deflection of the panel that becomes more sensitive to buckling. Furthermore, the mechanical response of the foam sandwich panel is found to be rather insensitive to the level of waviness of core-facesheet interfaces.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Larsen, Nadja; Pedersen-Skovsgaard, Theis

    2010-01-01

    According to animal studies, intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homeostasis. We hypothesised that probiotic bacteria improve insulin sensitivity by attenuating systemic inflammation. Therefore, the effects of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus...... course with either L. acidophilus NCFM or placebo. L. acidophilus was detected in stool samples by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Separated by the 4-week intervention period, two hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Furthermore......, the systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by subjecting the participants to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide injection (0·3 ng/kg) before and after the treatment course. L. acidophilus NCFM was detected in 75 % of the faecal samples after treatment with the probiotic bacterium. Insulin sensitivity...

  14. Nonlinear response of plates subjected to inplane and lateral pressure pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear response of a rectangular plate exposed to a far-field sonic boom disturbance is studied. The plate is subjected to both lateral and in-plane disturbances. The lateral disturbance is in the form of an N-shaped pressure pulse, and the in-plane disturbance is represented by a sinusoidal pulse. The equations of motion are reduced to a set of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using Galerkin's method. These equations are solved numerically using Hamming's (1959) modified predictor-corrector integration method. The effects of in-plane boundary conditions and in-plane inertia are investigated. The nonlinear results, when compared to the linear theory, serve to delineate the realm of validity of the linear theory.

  15. Inflammatory cytokines and plasma redox status responses in hypertensive subjects after heat exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is characterized by a pro-inflammatory status, including redox imbalance and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may be exacerbated after heat exposure. However, the effects of heat exposure, specifically in individuals with inflammatory chronic diseases such as hypertension, are complex and not well understood. This study compared the effects of heat exposure on plasma cytokine levels and redox status parameters in 8 hypertensive (H and 8 normotensive (N subjects (age: 46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years old, body mass index: 25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure: 98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively. They remained at rest in a sitting position for 10 min in a thermoneutral environment (22°C followed by 30 min in a heated environmental chamber (38°C and 60% relative humidity. Blood samples were collected before and after heat exposure. Plasma cytokine levels were measured using sandwich ELISA kits. Plasma redox status was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Hypertensive subjects showed higher plasma levels of IL-10 at baseline (P<0.05, although levels of this cytokine were similar between groups after heat exposure. Moreover, after heat exposure, hypertensive individuals showed higher plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR1 and lower TBARS (P<0.01 and FRAP (P<0.05 levels. Controlled hypertensive subjects, who use angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitors, present an anti-inflammatory status and balanced redox status. Nevertheless, exposure to a heat stress condition seems to cause an imbalance in the redox status and an unregulated inflammatory response.

  16. A phase response curve to single bright light pulses in human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Jewett, Megan E.; Cajochen, Christian; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker is differentially sensitive to the resetting effects of retinal light exposure, depending upon the circadian phase at which the light exposure occurs. Previously reported human phase response curves (PRCs) to single bright light exposures have employed small sample sizes, and were often based on relatively imprecise estimates of circadian phase and phase resetting. In the present study, 21 healthy, entrained subjects underwent pre- and post-stimulus constant routines (CRs) in dim light (approximately 2-7 lx) with maintained wakefulness in a semi-recumbent posture. The 6.7 h bright light exposure stimulus consisted of alternating 6 min fixed gaze (approximately 10 000 lx) and free gaze (approximately 5000-9000 lx) exposures. Light exposures were scheduled across the circadian cycle in different subjects so as to derive a PRC. Plasma melatonin was used to determine the phase of the onset, offset, and midpoint of the melatonin profiles during the CRs. Phase shifts were calculated as the difference in phase between the pre- and post-stimulus CRs. The resultant PRC of the midpoint of the melatonin rhythm revealed a characteristic type 1 PRC with a significant peak-to-trough amplitude of 5.02 h. Phase delays occurred when the light stimulus was centred prior to the critical phase at the core body temperature minimum, phase advances occurred when the light stimulus was centred after the critical phase, and no phase shift occurred at the critical phase. During the subjective day, no prolonged 'dead zone' of photic insensitivity was apparent. Phase shifts derived using the melatonin onsets showed larger magnitudes than those derived from the melatonin offsets. These data provide a comprehensive characterization of the human PRC under highly controlled laboratory conditions.

  17. Changes in quadriceps twitch tension in response to resistance training in healthy sedentary subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivodtzev, Isabelle; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice; Lévy, Patrick

    2005-09-01

    Magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve has been shown to evoke maximal quadriceps twitch contraction (TwQ(max)). Its measurement as a nonvolitional index of muscle strength has been proposed as a means to follow the disability of patients with neuromuscular disorders or peripheral muscle weakness. The aim of the present study was to investigate TwQ(max) sensitivity to interventions known to develop peripheral muscle strength. We thus measured changes in TwQ(max) after a short-duration resistance training program, examining its reproducibility and comparing its changes with other indices of muscle strength, such as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and one-repetition maximum (1-RM). In 23 subjects, TwQ(max)was measured on two occasions. High within- and between-session intraclass coefficients of correlation were observed (r > 0.99). Within-session and between-session differences in TwQ(max)were low (2.2 +/- 1% and 5.4 +/- 2%, respectively). Eight subjects subsequently participated in a resistance training program of the knee extensors, 3 days per week for 8 weeks. TwQ(max) and 1-RM increased significantly after training (10.9 +/- 3.7 vs. 12.3 +/- 4.4 kg, P MVC increase did not reach significance (41.9 +/- 16 kg vs. 42.3 +/- 15 kg, P = 0.25). Responses to magnetic stimulation of the femoral nerve are highly reproducible and sensitive enough to detect improvement in muscle contractile mechanisms after resistance training in healthy subjects. Patient cooperation is not required, which may be an advantage in clinical situations.

  18. REPETITIVE MCKENZIE SPINAL EXTENSION EXERCISES ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN CLASS I OBESE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Selvaganapathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obese population is dramatically increasing worldwide. There is a strong association between obesity and low back pain. The 1-month prevalence of low back pain ranges from 30% to 40% in the general population. McKenzie method is commonly used in the diagnosis and management of patients with back pain. The objective of the study is to examine the cardiovascular responses of two common exercises namely, extension in lying (EIL and extension in standing (EIS used in the McKenzie system with different repetitions among class I obese subjects. Method: 50 class I obese subjects (25 males and 25 females were randomly selected within the age range of 20-40 years. Baseline measures of resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP and rate pressure product (RPP were taken before and after exercises. Multiple comparisons were done to analyze the significance within groups. One-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare the dependent values obtained at rest and after 10, 15 and 20 repetitions. Independent “t” test was used to determine the significance between groups. Results: No significant differences (p>0.05 were found in SBP and DBP after 10 repetitions in group 1 and among HR and SBP after 10 and 15 repetitions in group 2. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in RPP after 15 and 20 repetitions within and between the groups. Conclusion: Increased repetitions of spinal extension exercises in prone lying bring more cardiovascular stress when compared to the same performed in the standing position among class 1 obese subjects.

  19. Annatto carotenoids attenuate oxidative stress and inflammatory response after high-calorie meal in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Miguel; Conte, Lisiane; da Silva, Dariane Trivisiol; Duarte, Thiago; Maurer, Luana Haselein; de Carvalho, José Antonio Mainardi; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Somacal, Sabrina; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto carotenoids intake associated to a single high-calorie meal (high fat and high carbohydrate) in postprandial biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Twelve healthy subjects (6 men, 6 women) were included in this randomised, controlled crossover study. Baseline blood samples were collected from fasting subjects that immediately received high-calorie meal without carotenoid (placebo) or containing 1.2mg/kg bixin (BIX) or 0.06mg/kg norbixin (NBIX). Blood samples were taken 60, 120 and 240min after meal intake. NBIX intake did not affect biochemical blood markers but reduced the postprandial levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α) and lipid oxidation 60-120min after meal. BIX only partially prevented postprandial-induced lipid oxidation. Results indicate that the intake of NBIX may be an alternative to reduce the postprandial inflammatory and oxidative stress responses to high-calorie meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative study between pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state responses in normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roberto Miquelino de Oliveira; Ramos, Bernardo Faria; Grasel, Signe Schuster; Ramos, Henrique Faria; Moraes, Maria Flávia Bonadia B de; Almeida, Edigar Rezende de; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) are an important tool to detect objectively frequency-specific hearing thresholds. Pure-tone audiometry is the gold-standard for hearing evaluation, although sometimes it may be inconclusive, especially in children and uncooperative adults. Compare pure tone thresholds (PT) with ASSR thresholds in normal hearing subjects. In this prospective cross-sectional study we included 26 adults (n = 52 ears) of both genders, without any hearing complaints or otologic diseases and normal puretone thresholds. All subjects had clinical history, otomicroscopy, audiometry and immitance measurements. This evaluation was followed by the ASSR test. The mean pure-tone and ASSR thresholds for each frequency were calculated. The mean difference between PTand ASSR thresholdswas 7,12 for 500 Hz, 7,6 for 1000 Hz, 8,27 for 2000 Hz and 9,71 dB for 4000 Hz. There were no difference between PT and ASSR means at either frequency. ASSR thresholds were comparable to pure-tone thresholds in normal hearing adults. Nevertheless it should not be used as the only method of hearing evaluation.

  1. Comparison of Auditory Brainstem Response in Noise Induced Tinnitus and Non-Tinnitus Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassem Mohammadkhani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an unpleasant sound which can cause some behavioral disorders. According to evidence the origin of tinnitus is not only in peripheral but also in central auditory system. So evaluation of central auditory system function is necessary. In this study Auditory brainstem responses (ABR were compared in noise induced tinnitus and non-tinnitus control subjects.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study is conducted in 60 cases in two groups including of 30 noise induced tinnitus and 30 non-tinnitus control subjects. ABRs were recorded ipsilateraly and contralateraly and their latencies and amplitudes were analyzed.Results: Mean interpeak latencies of III-V (p= 0.022, I-V (p=0.033 in ipsilatral electrode array and mean absolute latencies of IV (p=0.015 and V (p=0.048 in contralatral electrode array were significantly increased in noise induced tinnitus group relative to control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded from that there are some decrease in neural transmission time in brainstem and there are some sign of involvement of medial nuclei in olivery complex in addition to lateral lemniscus.

  2. Discrimination of subjective responses between contact lenses with a novel questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diec, Jennie; Naduvilath, Thomas; Tilia, Daniel; Papas, Eric B; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2017-12-01

    To describe a ranked symptoms scale (RSS) discriminating subjective responses in contact lens (CL) wear in various situations. Forty experienced clinical trial participants were interviewed for their perceptions of ocular comfort scales, resulting in a numerical RSS. For further evaluation, 20 CL wearers enrolled into a prospective, randomised, crossover trial. Two silicone-hydrogel CLs and a lens care solution (LCS) [Combinations A & B] were selected based on prior performance identifying best/worst combinations for end-of-day comfort. The RSS and a numerical rating scale (NRS) were administered at two time-points (insertion/removal) on alternating days for 6 days. Both NRS and RSS showed acceptable internal consistency for comfort, vision and handling (Cronbach alpha=0.71 for both scales) and similar repeatability for comfort and handling (coefficients-of-repeatability within 0.1 and 0.2 units, respectively, for each scale). The NRS and RSS discriminated differences between combinations for comfort (p≤0.031) and vision (p≤0.026) at both time-points. Additionally, the RSS showed lens/edge awareness influenced discomfort the most, ranking higher at insertion (p=0.038) and higher for Combination-B at both time-points (p≤0.002). Symptoms of dryness and tired eyes increased for both combinations at removal (pRSS also showed haziness and blurred distance vision influenced vision dissatisfaction with Combination-B at lens removal (p≤0.038) while eye strain/headache increased for both combinations by time of removal (p≤0.013). The RSS is able to discriminate subjective responses between combinations and time-of-day. The RSS's ability to rank symptoms may be a useful tool in understanding perceptions of discomfort or dissatisfaction with CL wear. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innate and adaptive immune responses to the major Parietaria allergen Par j 1 in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonura, A; Quaratino, S; Gervasi, F; Melis, M R; Di Sano, C; Colombo, P

    2013-07-01

    In this study we wanted to analyse the pattern of the immune response to the Parietaria major allergen Par j 1 in freshly purified peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from healthy subjects. We observed that Par j 1 was capable of inducing IFN-γ production by CD3⁻ and CD16⁺/CD56⁺ cells exclusively in healthy individuals. Furthermore, a multiparametric analysis allowed us a better definition of two IFN-γ-Par j 1 specific populations (IFN-γ(dim) and IFN-γ(high)) characterized by the presence of different proportions of NKT and NK cells. We also identified the concomitant presence of a subset of IL-10⁺ NK cells. Moreover, CFSE staining showed that the Par j 1 preferentially induced the proliferation of CD3⁻/CD56⁺/CD335⁺ cells. Finally, a subset of CD4⁺/CD25⁺/FoxP3⁺/IL-10⁻ T cells was identified. The result of this pilot study suggest that during a tolerogenic response, the major allergen of the Parietaria pollen works as an activator of both the innate and the adaptive human immune system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of different lines and cultivars of rice subjected to low temperatures under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra H Díaz Solís

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is the most important food crop in the world and primary source of food for more than a third of the population. The low temperatures are among the main abiotic stresses that affect the yield of this cereal. The objective of this work was to determinate the response of different lines and cultivars of rice in seedling state to low temperature stress under controlled conditions. 172 lines and cultivars were studied. It were subjected to 5 0C for 24 hours, when the plants were about three to four leaves. The evaluations were conducted by measured of chlorophyll fluorescence and visually. A wide range of response was obtained, which indicated a high allelic diversity for the low temperatures sensitivity in the studied germplasm. A group of 30 cultivars responded more favorably to the cold and the most prominent cultivars showed Fv/Fm values between 0.80 and 0.89. A significant relationship between visual evaluation and chlorophyll fluorescence was found. The correlation coefficient revealed a moderately strong relationship between both variables. Tolerant plant materials were more consistently identified. However, the dispersion between methods increased to more susceptible cultivars.   Keywords: cold tolerance, chlorophyll fluorescence, Oryza sativa, visual evaluation

  5. Stress hormone release is a key component of the metabolic response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS): studies in hypopituitary and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... of stress hormones. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HP) (in the absence of pituitary stress hormone responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary stress hormone responses). DESIGN: Single blind randomized. METHODS: We compared effects of LPS...

  6. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van S.J.; Mensink, M.R.; Esser, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Muller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional

  7. Subjective Responses to Alcohol Consumption as Endophenotypes: Advancing Behavioral Genetics in Etiological and Treatment Models of Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Lara A.; MacKillop, James; Peter M. Monti

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in subjective responses to alcohol consumption represent genetically-mediated biobehavioral mechanisms of alcoholism risk (i.e., endophenotype). The objective of this review is three-fold: (1) to provide a critical review the literature on subjective response to alcohol and to discuss the rationale for its conceptualization as an endophenotype for alcoholism; (2) to examine the literature on the neurobiological substrates and associated genetic factors subserving indivi...

  8. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Koška, J.; Kšinantová, L.; Pacak, K.; Hoff, T.; Noskov, V. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Vigaš, M.; Kvetňanský, R.

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transforred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  9. Inflammatory Responses, Spirometry, and Quality of Life in Subjects With Bronchiectasis Exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wei-Jie; Gao, Yong-Hua; Xu, Gang; Lin, Zhi-Ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-Min; Lin, Zhi-Min; Jiang, Mei; Zheng, Jin-Ping; Chen, Rong-Chang; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2015-08-01

    Bronchiectasis exacerbations are critical events characterized by worsened symptoms and signs (ie, cough frequency, sputum volume, malaise). Our goal was to examine variations in airway and systemic inflammation, spirometry, and quality of life during steady state, bronchiectasis exacerbations, and convalescence (1 week following a 2-week antibiotic treatment) to determine whether potentially pathogenic microorganisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were associated with poorer conditions during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Peripheral blood and sputum were sampled to detect inflammatory mediators and bacterial densities. Spirometry and quality of life (St George Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ]) were assessed during the 3 stages. Forty-eight subjects with bronchiectasis (43.2 ± 14.2 y of age) were analyzed. No notable differences in species and density of potentially pathogenic microorganisms were found during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Except for CXCL8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum inflammation was heightened during bronchiectasis exacerbations and recovered during convalescence. Even though sputum TNF-α was markedly higher during bronchiectasis exacerbations and remained heightened during convalescence, the variations in miscellaneous sputum markers were unremarkable. Bronchiectasis exacerbations were associated with notably higher SGRQ symptom and total scores, which recovered during convalescence. FVC, FEV1, and maximum mid-expiratory flow worsened during bronchiectasis exacerbations (median change from baseline of -2.2%, -0.8%, and -1.3%) and recovered during convalescence (median change from baseline of 0.6%, 0.7%, and -0.7%). Compared with no bacterial isolation, potentially pathogenic microorganism or P. aeruginosa isolation at baseline did not result in poorer clinical condition during bronchiectasis exacerbations. Bronchiectasis exacerbations are characterized by heightened inflammatory responses and poorer quality of life and

  10. Responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J van Dijk

    Full Text Available The ability of subjects to respond to nutritional challenges can reflect the flexibility of their biological system. Nutritional challenge tests could be used as an indicator of health status but more knowledge on metabolic and immune responses of different subjects to nutritional challenges is needed. The aim of this study was to compare the responses to high-fat challenges varying in fat type in subjects with different metabolic risk phenotypes.In a cross-over design 42 men (age 50-70 y consumed three high-fat shakes containing saturated fat (SFA, monounsaturated fat (MUFA or n-3 polyunsaturated (PUFA. Men were selected on BMI and health status (lean, obese or obese diabetic and phenotyped with MRI for adipose tissue distribution. Before and 2 and 4 h after shake consumption blood was drawn for measurement of expression of metabolic and inflammation-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma triglycerides (TAG, glucose, insulin, cytokines and ex vivo PBMC immune response capacity. The MUFA and n-3 PUFA challenge, compared to the SFA challenge, induced higher changes in expression of inflammation genes MCP1 and IL1β in PBMCs. Obese and obese diabetic subjects had different PBMC gene expression and metabolic responses to high-fat challenges compared to lean subjects. The MUFA challenge induced the most pronounced TAG response, mainly in obese and obese diabetic subjects.The PBMC gene expression response and metabolic response to high-fat challenges were affected by fat type and metabolic risk phenotype. Based on our results we suggest using a MUFA challenge to reveal differences in response capacity of subjects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00977262.

  11. Serotonin release in the caudal nidopallium of adult laying hens genetically selected for high and low feather pecking behavior: An in vivo microdialysis study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, Marjolein S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341590649; Kjaer, Joergen B.; Güntürkün, Onur; Westphal, Koen G.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304839337; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Olivier, Berend|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Korte, S. Mechiel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088952827

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (FP) is a detrimental behavior causing welfare problems in laying hens. Divergent genetic selection for FP in White Leghorns resulted in strong differences in FP incidences between lines. More recently, it was shown that the high FP (HFP) birds have increased locomotor

  12. A Multicultural Glimpse of Rural and Urban Adolescence in Robert Newton Peck's "A Day No Pigs Would Die" and Paul Zindel's "The Pigman."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Mary Frances Linden

    "A Day No Pigs Would Die" by Robert Newton Peck and "The Pigman" by Paul Zindel are 2 short novels that offer treasures in the form of many lessons in life to share in the language arts classroom. These two rich novels can serve as sources for multicultural understanding of rural and urban life, as well as for interpreting the…

  13. Effects of different types of dark brooders on injurious pecking damage and production-related traits at rear and lay in layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, A B; Guzman, D A

    2017-01-01

    Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective...... plumage condition throughout the experiment (P wounds during lay (P

  14. USE OF BACTERIAL LYSATES IN SUBJECTIVE IMPROVEMENT OF CLINICAL RESPONSE IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS PATIENTS

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    Vineel Muppidi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Allergic rhinitis is known to be one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. In this study, we provide an overview of allergic rhinitis responding to immunostimulating agents. According to the concept that allergic rhinitis patients generally suffer from an immune deficit in order to stimulate their immune system specifically or nonspecifically, immunomodulating agents from various sources such as synthetic compounds, tissue extracts or a mixture of bacterial extracts have been used. MATERIALS AND METHODS The aim of the present trial is to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with an immunostimulating agent consisting of a freeze dried bacterial lysates (Ismigen and analyse the improvement in clinical response in allergic rhinitis patients. 50 allergic rhinitis patients were enrolled. For all patients, after 3 months of PMBL (polyvalent mechanical bacterial lysates treatment clinical response was analysed. RESULTS A clinical improvement in subjective symptoms was observed in 43 of the 50 patients treated with bacterial lysates (85.6%. The results are as follows- 45 patients (91.8%, we noticed a decrease in symptoms of nasal blockage and 38 patients (90.4% were relieved from rhinorrhea; purulent nasal discharge was reduced in 13 cases (81.5%, 30 patients (90.9% had a large improvement in nasal/palate itching and 15 patients (75% with headache were relieved. CONCLUSION From this study, bacterial lysates have shown to have a protective effect, which induces a significant reduction of the symptoms and duration related to allergic rhinitis. No negative side effects or worsening of the symptoms have been observed with this medication.

  15. The impact of food viscosity on eating rate, subjective appetite, glycemic response and gastric emptying rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhu

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV and a high viscosity (HV semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020, with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively while fullness was higher (P<0.001. In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001, higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001 and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001. However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods.

  16. Calcium responses of endothelial cell monolayers subjected to pulsatile and steady laminar flow differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmlinger, G; Berk, B C; Nerem, R M

    1995-08-01

    The vascular endothelium is the primary transducer of hemodynamically imposed mechanochemical events. In this study, we measured the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) using the fluorescent probe fura 2 and ratiometric digital imaging in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) subjected to various laminar flow patterns. These were steady shear stress (0.2-70 dyn/cm2) and three types of sinusoidal pulsatile shear stress (nonreversing: 40 +/- 20 dyn/cm2; reversing: 20 +/- 40 dyn/cm2; and purely oscillatory: 0 +/- 20 dyn/cm2; flow frequencies: 0.4, 1.0, and 2.0 Hz) in a serum-containing medium. The most dramatic finding was failure of a purely oscillatory flow to increase [Ca2+]i in BAEC monolayers. In contrast, steady flow, as well as nonreversing and reversing pulsatile flows, increased [Ca2+]i. The dynamics of the response were dependent on the flow pattern. Both internal Ca2+ release and extracellular Ca2+ entry were involved in these [Ca2+]i increases. Also, switching from either a steady nonreversing pulsatile or reversing pulsatile flow back to a static condition resulted in a [Ca2+]i increase. However, switching from an oscillatory flow to a static condition did not induce any changes in average [Ca2+]i. This study shows that endothelial cells are able to sense different flow environments in terms of [Ca2+]i signaling and is relevant to further studies of the influence of hemodynamic forces on vascular pathophysiology.

  17. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  18. Transient Dynamic Response of Delaminated Composite Rotating Shallow Shells Subjected to Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Karmakar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a transient dynamic finite element analysis is presented to study the response of delaminated composite pretwisted rotating shallow shells subjected to low velocity normal impact. Lagrange's equation of motion is used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equation and moderate rotational speeds are considered wherein the Coriolis effect is negligible. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed in the finite element formulation incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. To satisfy the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front a multipoint constraint algorithm is incorporated which leads to unsymmetric stiffness matrices. The modified Hertzian contact law which accounts for permanent indentation is utilized to compute the contact force, and the time dependent equations are solved by Newmark's time integration algorithm. Parametric studies are performed in respect of location of delamination, angle of twist and rotational speed for centrally impacted graphite-epoxy composite cylindrical shells.

  19. Experimental Research on the Dynamic Response of Floating Structures with Coatings Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation into the dynamic response of three free floating stiffened metal boxes with protective coatings subjected to underwater explosion (UNDEX. One box was kept intact while the other two were, respectively, covered with monolithic coatings and chiral honeycomb coatings. Three groups of live fire tests with different attack angles and stand-off distances were conducted. The acceleration on the stiffener and strain peak on the bottom hull were selected as the major comparative criterions. Test results show that the impulse transmitted to the structure at the initial stage can be reduced, owing to the coating flexibility and fluid-structure interaction mechanism. Consequently, the acceleration peaks induced by both shock wave and bubble pulse were reduced. The shock environment can be more effectively improved by honeycomb coating when compared with monolithic coating. Most of the strain peaks decreased to a certain extent, but some of them were notably manifested, especially for honeycomb coating. The test affirms the fact that soft coating can cause stress concentration on the shell that is in direct contact with the coating due to the impedance mismatch between the interfaces of materials. A softer rubber coating induces a greater magnitude of strain.

  20. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  1. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a “traumatic” film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the “toy dog group” and the “alone group.” Results of the “dog group” were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a “traumatic” stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed. PMID:25250009

  2. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. RELIABILITY AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE DANISH MODIFIED INTERNATIONAL KNEE DOCUMENTATION COMMITTEE SUBJECTIVE KNEE FORM FOR CHILDREN WITH KNEE DISORDERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Julie Sandell; Knudsen, Pernille; Fynbo, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The modified international Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (Pedi-IKDC) is a widely used patient-reported tool applicable for children with knee disorders ranging on a scale from 0-100. We aimed to translate the Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee Form into Danish......, and furthermore to assess its reliability and responsiveness. Material and Methods The Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee Form was translated to Danish according to international guidelines. Reliability was assessed with Bland Altman plots, standard error of measurement (SEM), Minimal Detectable Change (MDC) and the Intra....... Reliability and responsiveness were assessed in 50 children (median 15 years) referred to hospital due to different knee disorders. Results The SEM was 4.2 points and the MDC was 11.5 points. The ICC was 0.91 (0.9-1.0). The change score of the Pedi-IKDC Subjective Knee form was correlated to the external...

  4. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic 'real-world' music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic ‘real-world’ music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. PMID:23578016

  6. Specific and combined subjective responses to noise and their association with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Vandasova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is one of the most extensive environmental factors affecting the general population. The present study is focused on the association between discomfort caused by noise and the incidence of certain diseases (ischaemic heart disease, stroke and hypertension. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire study, conducted in 10 cities in the Czech Republic, comprises two stages with 3592 obtained questionnaires in the first phase and 762 in the second phase. Twelve variables describe subjective responses to noise from different sources at different times of day. The intensity of the associations between variables was measured by correlation coefficient. Logistic regression was used for fitting models of morbidity, and confounders such as age and socio-economic status were included. The hypotheses from the first phase were independently validated using data from the second phase. Results: The general rates of noise annoyance/sleep disturbance had greater correlation with traffic noise variables than with neighbourhood noise variables. Factors significantly associated with diseases are: for hypertension − annoyance by traffic noise (the elderly, odds ratio (OR 1.4 and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (the elderly, OR 1.6; for ischaemic heart disease − the general rate of noise annoyance (all respondents, OR 1.5 and the adults 30–60 years, OR 1.8 and the general rate of annoyance and sleep disturbance (all respondents, OR 1.3; for stroke − annoyance and sleep disturbance by traffic and neighbourhood noise (all respondents, OR 1.8. Conclusion: Factors that include multiple sources of noise or non-specific noise are associated with the studied diseases more frequently than the source-specific factors.

  7. Air temperature and physiological and subjective responses during competitive singles tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Sarah M; Brotherhood, John R

    2007-11-01

    This report describes the thermal stresses and strains during competitive singles tennis. Thermoregulatory responses were investigated during best of three set tennis matches among 25 players. A total of 86 observations were made from 43 matches played, covering each season, with ambient temperatures ranging from 14.5 to 38.4 degrees C. Core body temperature and skin temperature were recorded each minute throughout the match, whilst heart rate was logged every 15 s. Body mass and fluid intake were measured before the match, after 30 min of play and at the completion of the match to determine sweat rate. Subjective ratings of thermal strain included thermal comfort, sweatiness and perceived exertion. The thermal environment was assessed by dry bulb, wet bulb and natural wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature and wind speed. Mean (SD) core temperature after 30 min of play was 38.4 degrees C (0.4 degrees C), and demonstrated no association with air temperature or wet bulb globe temperature. Mean skin temperature was 31.8 degrees C (2.3 degrees C) ranging from 25.7 to 36.5 degrees C, and showed a positive association with air temperature (pair temperature. Sweat rate averaged 1.0 (0.4) litres/h (0.2-2.4 litres/h) or 12.8 (5.5) ml/kg/h (2.7-26.0 ml/kg/h), and demonstrated a positive relationship with air temperature (pair temperature (p<0.001). Stressful environmental conditions produce a high skin temperature and rating of thermal discomfort. However, overall thermoregulatory strain during tennis is moderate, with core temperature remaining within safe levels.

  8. Stress response of a clinical Enterococcus faecalis isolate subjected to a novel antimicrobial surface coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss-Lendzian, Emanuel; Vaishampayan, Ankita; de Jong, Anne; Landau, Uwe; Meyer, Carsten; Kok, Jan; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2018-03-01

    Emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, paired with their ability to form biofilms on medical and technical devices, represents a serious problem for effective and long-term decontamination in health-care environments and gives rise to an urgent need for new antimicrobial materials. Here we present the impact of AGXX ® , a novel broad-spectrum antimicrobial surface coating consisting of micro-galvanic elements formed by silver and ruthenium, on the transcriptome of Enterococcus faecalis. A clinical E. faecalis isolate was subjected to metal stress by growing it for different periods in presence of the antimicrobial coating or silver-coated steel meshes. Subsequently, total RNA was isolated and next-generation RNA sequencing was performed to analyze variations in gene expression in presence of the antimicrobial materials with focus on known stress genes. Exposure to the antimicrobial coating had a large impact on the transcriptome of E. faecalis. After 24min almost 1/5 of the E. faecalis genome displayed differential expression. At each time-point the cop operon was strongly up-regulated, providing indirect evidence for the presence of free Ag + -ions. Moreover, exposure to the antimicrobial coating induced a broad general stress response in E. faecalis. Genes coding for the chaperones GroEL and GroES and the Clp proteases, ClpE and ClpB, were among the top up-regulated heat shock genes. Differential expression of thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase and glutathione synthetase genes indicates a high level of oxidative stress. We postulate a mechanism of action where the combination of Ag + -ions and reactive oxygen species generated by AGXX ® results in a synergistic antimicrobial effect, superior to that of conventional silver coatings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herman, A I; Jatlow, P I; Gelernter, J; Listman, J B; Sofuoglu, M

    2013-01-01

    ...)/Val genotype, compared with methionine (Met) carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking...

  10. Antibody Responses with Fc-Mediated Functions after Vaccination of HIV-Infected Subjects with Trivalent Influenza Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anne B; Lay, William N; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the ability of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) to induce nonneutralizing antibodies (Abs) with Fc-mediated functions in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects. Functional influenza-specific Ab responses were studied in 30 HIV-negative and 27 HIV......-positive subjects immunized against seasonal influenza. All 57 subjects received the 2015 TIV. Fc-mediated antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) Ab activity was measured in plasma before and 4 weeks after vaccination using Fc-receptor-binding assays, NK cell activation assays, and phagocytosis assays. At baseline, the HIV......-positive group had detectable but reduced functional Ab responses to both vaccine and nonvaccine influenza antigens. TIV enhanced Fc-mediated Ab responses in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups. A larger rise was generally observed in the HIV-positive group, such that there was no difference in functional...

  11. Subjective Response to Foot-Fall Noise, Including Localization of the Source Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Although an impact noise level is objectively evaluated the same according to current standards, a lightweight floor structure is often subjectively judged more annoying than a heavy homogeneous structure. The hypothesis of the present investigation is that the subjective judgment of impact noise...

  12. Effects of method and format on subjects' responses to a control of variables reasoning problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staver, John R.

    Excessive time and training demands have rendered Piaget's clinical method of reasoning assessment impractical for researchers and science teachers who work with large numbers of students. The published literature[Note ][See: Lawson, A. E. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1978, 15(1), 11-24; Shayer, M., Adey, P., & Wylam, H. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1981, 18(2), 157-168; Staver, J. R., & Gabel, D. L. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1979, 16(6), 534-544; Tobin, K. G., & Capie, W. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1981, 41(2), 413-424.] indicates that reliable, valid alternatives to clinical assessment are feasible. However, the overestimate/underestimate of reasoning for different methods and formats remains unresolved through research. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various methods and formats on subjects' responses to a Piagetian reasoning problem requiring control of variables. The task chosen for this investigation was the Mealworm problem.[Note ][See: Karplus, R., Lawson, A., Wollman, W., Appel, M., Bernoff, R., Howe, A., Rusch, J., & Sullivan, F. Science teaching and the development of reasoning. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1977.] The task was presented by three methods: (1) individual clinical interview; (2) group presentation of task followed by paper-and-pencil problem with illustration; and (3) group administration of paper-and-pencil instrument with illustration. Each method included four formats: (1) completion answer with essay justification; (2) completion answer with multiplechoice justification; (3) multiple-choice answer with essay justification; and (4) multiple-choice answer with multiple-choice justification. Two hundred and fifty-three (253) students who were enrolled in a freshman level biological science class participated in the study. The research design was a 3 × 4 factorial design with method and format of assessment as the main effects. The participants

  13. Effects of Family History of Alcohol Dependence on the Subjective Response to Alcohol using the Intravenous Alcohol Clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karin; Pittman, Brian; Ralevski, Elizabeth; Limoncelli, Diana; Koretski, Julia; Newcomb, Jenelle; Arias, Albert J.; Petrakis, Ismene L

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders are well recognized to be common, debilitating, and the risk of developing them is influenced by family history. The subjective response to alcohol may be determined familialy and related to the risk of developing alcoholism. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between family history positive (FHP) and family history negative (FHN) individuals in their response to alcohol within the domains of subjective, coordination, and cognitive effects using an IV clamping method of alcohol administration. Methods Two groups of healthy subjects, those with a FHP (n=65) vs. those who were FHN (n=115), between the ages of 21-30, participated in three test days. Subjects were scheduled to receive placebo, low dose ethanol (target BrAC=40mg%), and high dose ethanol (target BrAC=100mg%) on three separate test days at least three days apart in a randomized order under double-blind conditions. Outcome measures included subjective effects, measures of coordination and cognitive function. Results Both low and high dose alcohol led to dose-related stimulant and sedative subjective effects as measured the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale (BAES) and subjective measures of “high” and “drowsy” measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) However, there were no effects of family history. Similar dose-related effects were observed on cognitive and coordination related outcomes, but were not moderated family history. Conclusions Results from this study showed that healthy individuals responded to an IV alcohol challenge in a dose-related manner; however, there were no significant differences on subjective response, or on ethanol-induced impairment of coordination or cognition, between individuals with a positive family history for alcoholism and those with a negative family history. Results suggest that FH may not be a specific enough marker of risk, particularly in individuals who are beyond the age where alcohol use disorders often develop

  14. Stress responses of the fish Nile tilapia subjected to electroshock and social stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E. Barreto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and glucose levels were measured in 36 adult Nile tilapia males, Oreochromis niloticus (standard length, mean ± SD, 14.38 ± 1.31 cm, subjected to electroshock and social stressors. Pre-stressor levels were determined 5 days after the adjustment of the fish to the experimental aquaria (1 fish/aquarium. Five days later, the effects of stressors on both cortisol and glucose levels were assessed. The following stressors were imposed for 60 min: pairing with a larger resident animal (social stressor, or a gentle electroshock (AC, 20 V, 15 mA, 100 Hz for 1 min every 4 min. Each stressor was tested in two independent groups, one in which stress was quantified immediately after the end of the 60-min stressor imposition (T60 and the other in which stress was quantified 30 min later (T90. Pre-stressor values for cortisol and glucose were not statistically different between groups. Plasma cortisol levels increased significantly and were of similar magnitude for both electroshock and the social stressor (mean ± SD for basal and final samples were: electroshock T60 = 65.47 ± 15.3, 177.0 ± 30.3; T90 = 54.8 ± 16.0, 196.2 ± 57.8; social stress T60 = 47.1 ± 9.0, 187.6 ± 61.7; T90 = 41.6 ± 8.1, 112.3 ± 26.8, respectively. Plasma glucose levels increased significantly for electroshock at both time points (T60 and T90, but only at T90 for the social stressor. Initial and final mean (± SD values are: electroshock T60 = 52.5 ± 9.2, 115.0 ± 15.7; T90 = 35.5 ± 1.1, 146.3 ± 13.3; social stress T60 = 54.8 ± 8.8, 84.4 ± 15.0; T90 = 34.5 ± 5.6, 116.3 ± 13.6, respectively. Therefore, electroshock induced an increase in glucose more rapidly than did the social stressor. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between cortisol and glucose was detected only at T90 for the social stressor. These results indicate that a fish species responds differently to different stressors, thus suggesting specificity of fish stress response to a

  15. Naltrexone moderates the relationship between cue-induced craving and subjective response to methamphetamine in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Worley, Matthew J; Courtney, Kelly E; Bujarski, Spencer; London, Edythe D; Shoptaw, Steven; Ray, Lara A

    2017-07-01

    Reductions in cue-induced craving and subjective response to drugs of abuse are commonly used as initial outcome measures when testing novel medications for the treatment of addiction. Yet neither the relationship between these two measures at the individual level nor the moderating effects of pharmacotherapies on this relationship has been examined. This secondary data analysis sought to examine (1) the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and subsequent acute subjective response to methamphetamine (MA) and (2) whether the opioid-receptor antagonist naltrexone moderated this association in a sample of non-treatment-seeking individuals who met DSM-IV criteria for MA use disorder (abuse or dependence). Participants (n = 30) completed two 4-day medication regimens (oral naltrexone 50 mg or placebo, in a randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion). On day 4 of each medication regimen, participants completed a cue-reactivity paradigm followed by intravenous MA administration. Methamphetamine craving was assessed after the cue-reactivity paradigm, and subjective response to MA was assessed during MA infusion. Cue-induced craving for MA was positively associated with post-infusion subjective MA effects, including positive (i.e., stimulation, good effects, feel drug, high), negative (i.e., anxious and depressed), and craving-related (i.e., want more, would like access to drug, crave) responses. Naltrexone, vs. placebo, significantly reduced the association between cue-induced craving and positive subjective response to MA. The findings indicate that naltrexone moderates the predictive relationship between cue-induced craving and positive subjective effects of MA, thereby suggesting a behavioral mechanism by which naltrexone may be efficacious in treating MA use disorder.

  16. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading : volume II annex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  17. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  18. Nonlinear Response of Thin Cylindrical Shells with Longitudinal Cracks and Subjected to Internal Pressure and Axial compression Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, James H.; Rose, Cheryl A.

    1998-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear response of a thin unstiffened aluminum cylindrical shell with a longitudinal crack are presented. The shell is analyzed with a nonlinear shell analysis code that maintains the shell in a nonlinear equilibrium state while the crack is grown. The analysis accurately accounts for global and local structural response phenomena. Results are presented for internal pressure, axial compression, and combined internal pressure and axial compression loads. The effects of varying crack length on the nonlinear response of the shell subjected to internal pressure are described. The effects of varying crack length on the prebuckling, buckling and postbuckling responses of the shell subjected to axial compression, and subjected to combined internal pressure and axial compression are also described. The results indicate that the nonlinear interaction between the in-plane stress resultants and the out-of-plane displacements near a crack can significantly affect the structural response of the shell. The results also indicate that crack growth instabilities and shell buckling instabilities can both affect the response of the shell as the crack length is increased.

  19. Assessment of precast beam-column using capacity demand response spectrum subject to design basis earthquake and maximum considered earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Kay Dora Abd.; Tukiar, Mohd Azuan; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is surrounded by the tectonic feature of the Sumatera area which consists of two seismically active inter-plate boundaries, namely the Indo-Australian and the Eurasian Plates on the west and the Philippine Plates on the east. Hence, Malaysia experiences tremors from far distant earthquake occurring in Banda Aceh, Nias Island, Padang and other parts of Sumatera Indonesia. In order to predict the safety of precast buildings in Malaysia under near field ground motion the response spectrum analysis could be used for dealing with future earthquake whose specific nature is unknown. This paper aimed to develop of capacity demand response spectrum subject to Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) in order to assess the performance of precast beam column joint. From the capacity-demand response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the precast beam-column joints would not survive when subjected to earthquake excitation with surface-wave magnitude, Mw, of more than 5.5 Scale Richter (Type 1 spectra). This means that the beam-column joint which was designed using the current code of practice (BS8110) would be severely damaged when subjected to high earthquake excitation. The capacity-demand response spectrum analysis also shows that the precast beam-column joints in the prototype studied would be severely damaged when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) with PGA=0.22g having a surface-wave magnitude of more than 5.5 Scale Richter, or Type 1 spectra.

  20. Effect of 3 months vitamin E supplementation on indices of the cellular and humoral immune response in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.; Portengen, L.; Doekes, G.; Verwaal, C.J.; Kok, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    It has been suggested that decreased immune responsiveness in the elderly may be counteracted by the antioxidant vitamin E. In a 3-month double-blind placebo-controlled intervention trial among elderly subjects aged 65 years and over we studied the effects of a daily dose of 100 mg

  1. EEG-response consistency across subjects in an active oddball task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    Full Text Available The active oddball paradigm is a candidate task for voluntary brain activation. Previous research has focused on group effects, and has largely overlooked the potential problem of interindividual differences. Interindividual variance causes problems with the interpretation of group-level results. In this study we want to demonstrate the degree of consistency in the active oddball task across subjects, in order to answer the question of whether this task is able to reliably detect conscious target processing in unresponsive patients. We asked 18 subjects to count rare targets and to ignore frequent standards and rare distractors in an auditory active oddball task. Event-related-potentials (ERPs and time-frequency data were analyzed with permutation-t-tests on a single subject level. We plotted the group-average ERPs and time-frequency data, and evaluated the numbers of subjects showing significant differences between targets and distractors in certain time-ranges. The distinction between targets/distractors and standards was found to be significant in the time-range of the P300 in all participants. In contrast, significant differences between targets and distractors in the time-range of the P3a/b were found in 8 subjects, only. By including effects in the N1 and in a late negative component there remained 2 subjects who did not show a distinction between targets and distractors in the ERP. While time-frequency data showed prominent effects for target/distractor vs. standard, significant differences between targets and distractors were found in 2 subjects, only. The results suggest that time-frequency- and ERP-analysis of the active oddball task may not be sensitive enough to detect voluntary brain activation in unresponsive patients. In addition, we found that time-frequency analysis was even less informative than ERPs about the subject's task performance. Despite suggesting the use of more sensitive paradigms and/or analysis techniques, the

  2. Can subject-specific single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem response data be predicted from a model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Tiaan K; Hanekom, Tania; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-07-01

    This article investigates whether prediction of subject-specific physiological data is viable through an individualised computational model of a cochlear implant. Subject-specific predictions could be particularly useful to assess and quantify the peripheral factors that cause inter-subject variations in perception. The results of such model predictions could potentially be translated to clinical application through optimisation of mapping parameters for individual users, since parameters that affect perception would be reflected in the model structure and parameters. A method to create a subject-specific computational model of a guinea pig with a cochlear implant is presented. The objectives of the study are to develop a method to construct subject-specific models considering translation of the method to in vivo human models and to assess the effectiveness of subject-specific models to predict peripheral neural excitation on subject level. Neural excitation patterns predicted by the model are compared with single-fibre electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses obtained from the inferior colliculus in the same animal. Results indicate that the model can predict threshold frequency location, spatial spread of bipolar and tripolar stimulation and electrode thresholds relative to one another where electrodes are located in different cochlear structures. Absolute thresholds and spatial spread using monopolar stimulation are not predicted accurately. Improvements to the model should address this. Copyright © 2012 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell-mediated immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum purified soluble antigens in sickle-cell trait subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayoumi, R A; Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible differences in the immune response to Plasmodium falciparum between sickle-cell trait (Hb AS) and normal haemoglobin (Hb AA) individuals, we examined 35 Hb AS and 24 Hb AA subjects matched for age and microenvironment. Their age was 2-55 years and all lived in a malaria...... individuals (P less than 0.025). Responses of BMNCs to PPD and PHA were also higher among Hb AS individuals and correlated positively with responses to SPAg. These findings support the hypotheses that the sickle-cell trait protects individuals from P. falciparum infections, at least in part, by modulating...... endemic area 300 km south of Khartoum. Antibodies to ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155/RESA) and to circumsporozoite (CS) protein (anti-NANP40) indicated equal exposure to falciparum malaria. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs) from 20/35 (57%) Hb AS subjects compared with 10/24 (42...

  4. Social responsibility of ukrainian media as a subject of sociological annalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Nazarenko

    2016-06-01

    In terms of fundamental transformations of modern Ukrainian society problem of social responsibility requires deep analysis. Her study of a new one and requires investigation. Continuing our study will be useful for further sociological analysis of problems of social responsibility in the context of media.

  5. Self-compassion training modulates alpha-amylase, heart rate variability, and subjective responses to social evaluative threat in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Brown, Kirk Warren; Dean, Derek J; Landy, Lauren N; Brown, Kimberley D; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2014-04-01

    A growing body of research has revealed that social evaluative stressors trigger biological and psychological responses that in chronic forms have been linked to aging and disease. Recent research suggests that self-compassion may protect the self from typical defensive responses to evaluation. We investigated whether brief training in self-compassion moderated biopsychological responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in women. Compared to attention (placebo) and no-training control conditions, brief self-compassion training diminished sympathetic (salivary alpha-amylase), cardiac parasympathetic, and subjective anxiety responses, though not HPA-axis (salivary cortisol) responses to the TSST. Self-compassion training also led to greater self-compassion under threat relative to the control groups. In that social stress pervades modern life, self-compassion represents a promising approach to diminishing its potentially negative psychological and biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural responses to silent lipreading in normal hearing male and female subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruytjens, Liesbet; Albers, Frans; van Dijk, Pim; Wit, Hero; Willemsen, Antoon

    In the past, researchers investigated silent lipreading in normal hearing subjects with functional neuroimaging tools and showed how the brain processes visual stimuli that are normally accompanied by an auditory counterpart. Previously, we showed activation differences between males and females in

  7. Allergenic properties and differential response of walnut subjected to processing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walnut is one of the most frequently involved foods in anaphylactic reactions. We investigated changes in walnut allergenicity after physical treatments by in vitro techniques and physiologically relevant assays. Changes in the allergenicity of walnut subjected to high pressure and thermal/pressur...

  8. Deformation response of gellan gum based bone scaffold subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kytýř, Daniel; Krčmářová, Nela; Šleichrt, Jan; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Gantar, A.; Novak, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 14-21 ISSN 1210-2709 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) ATCZ38 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : gellan gum scaffold * reinforcement * uni-axial loading Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/3885

  9. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  10. Inner Subjective Experiences and Social Constructionism: A Response to Rudes and Guterman (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James T.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier article, the author argued that there had been a devaluation of inner subjective experiences by the counseling profession over the last several decades (J. T. Hansen, 2005). In their reply to this article, J. Rudes and J. T. Guterman (2007) advocated for a social constructionist position for the counseling profession. In the current…

  11. Substrate utilization and thermogenic responses to beta-adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects with NIDDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E E; Saris, W H; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    OBJECTIVE: This study intended to investigate disturbances in beta-adrenergically-mediated substrate utilization and thermogenesis in obese subjects with mild non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). DESIGN: Following a baseline period of 30 min, the beta-agonist isoproterenol (ISO) was

  12. Response and Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Frames subject to Earthquakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, Poul

    When civil engineering structures made of reinforced concrete (RC) such as some types of apartment buildings, hospitals, office buildings, bridges etc. are subjected to sufficiently high dynamic loads it is well known that some kind of damage will occur in the structure. The damage introduced in ...

  13. Response to activated protein C in subjects with and without dementia. The Dutch Vascular Factors in Dementia Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, M L; van Kooten, F; Breteler, M M; Slagboom, P E; Hofman, A; Haverkate, F; Meijer, P; Koudstaal, P J; Grobbee, D E; Kluft, C

    1998-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional case-control study among 295 subjects with dementia and 406 control subjects drawn from participants of the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study among subjects aged 55 years or over, and from participants of the Rotterdam Stroke Databank, a hospital-based stroke registry, to evaluate the association of the factor V Leiden mutation and activated protein C (APC) response with dementia and its subtypes. The risk of dementia was 2.11-fold increased among carriers of factor V Leiden mutation relative to subjects lacking factor V Leiden mutation (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.93-4.77). The increased risks of vascular dementia and of Alzheimer's disease were 4.28 (95% CI 1.26-14.5) and 2.15 (95% CI 0.82-5.63), respectively. No association was found for APC response. We showed a nonsignificant twofold increased risk of dementia among subjects with factor V Leiden. The association appeared to be stronger for vascular dementia.

  14. Comparison of dynamic balancing responses following outward lateral perturbations during walking of healthy and post-stroke subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjačić Zlatko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient dynamic balancing and movement coordination during walking are essential for stability. The objective of this preliminary study was to assess dynamic balancing responses in a selected post-stroke subject and to compare them with those assessed in neurologically intact individual. Balance Assessment Robot, a haptic robot that interfaces to a pelvis of a subject walking on an instrumented treadmill, was used to deliver perturbing pushes to the pelvis. We have assessed centre-of-pressure (CoP and horizontal components of ground reaction forces (GRF following outward pushes. The results have shown that depending on the amplitude of a perturbing push neurologically intact individual responded predominantly by “ankle” and “hip” strategies at lower amplitude of perturbation and “ankle” and “stepping” strategies at higher amplitude of perturbation. Post-stroke subject responded mainly by “ankle” and “hip” strategies when perturbed on the sound leg while the response when perturbed on the impaired leg was similar to the one observed in healthy subject. These preliminary results indicate that post-stroke subjects might be reluctant or not able to perform “cross step” with their impaired leg which is needed when counteracting outward perturbation.

  15. Left ventricular function response to exercise in normotensive obese subjects: influence of degree and duration of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, G; Scaglione, R; Paterna, S; Parrinello, G; Indovina, A; Dichiara, M A; Alaimo, G; Merlino, G

    1992-11-01

    This study has been designed to evaluate whether duration and severity of obesity can influence left ventricular function response to exercise in obese subjects without other known cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes or hyperlipoproteinemia. A total of 29 obese subjects were included and they were divided, according to their body mass index and to Garrow's criteria as follows: Overweight or mildly obese subjects: body mass index from 25 to 30 kg/m2; moderately obese subjects: body mass index > 30 and < 40 kg/m2. Both obese groups were further subdivided according to their duration of obesity evaluated by accurate anamnesis in subgroup A (duration of obesity less than 120 months) and subgroup B (duration of obesity more than 120 months). Left ventricular ejection fraction was detected by blood pool gated radionuclide angiocardiography both at rest and after symptom-limited bicycle ergometer procedure. At peak exercise left ventricular ejection fraction increased significantly (p < 0.05) only in overweight subjects. Exercise produced an increase of left ventricular ejection fraction in 14 overweight and in 5 moderately obese subjects and a decrease in 2 moderately obese subjects. At peak exercise mean heart rate and mean blood pressure increased significantly (p < 0.001) in both groups. When obese subjects were subgrouped according to duration of obesity, left ventricular ejection fraction increased significantly (p < 0.05) only in overweight subjects with duration of obesity less than 120 months. Duration of obesity correlated inversely with percent change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) at peak exercise (delta EF) (r = -0.59; p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Soy foods have low glycemic and insulin response indices in normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabor Aaron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods with a low glycemic index (GI may provide a variety of health benefits. The objective of the present study was to measure the GI and insulin index (II of select soy foods. Methods The study was conducted in two parts with low-carbohydrate products being tested separately. In Experiment 1, subjects averaged 23.2 years of age with BMI = 22.0 kg/m2, while subjects in Experiment 2 averaged 23.9 years of age with BMI = 21.6 kg/m2. The reference (glucose and test foods were served in portions containing 10 g of carbohydrates in Experiment 1 (two test foods and 25 g of carbohydrates in Experiment 2 (four test foods. Subjects consumed the reference food twice and each test food once. For each test, subjects were instructed to consume a fixed portion of the reference food or test food together with 250 g of water within 12 min. Blood samples were collected before each test and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after consumption of reference or test foods to quantify glucose and insulin. Two-hour blood glucose and plasma insulin curves were constructed and areas under the curves were calculated. GI and II values for each subject and test food were calculated. Results In Experiment 1, both low-carbohydrate soy foods were shown to have significantly (P Conclusion All but one of the soy foods tested had a low GI, suggesting that soy foods may be an appropriate part of diets intended to improve control of blood glucose and insulin levels.

  17. Indirect detection of an epitope-specific response to HIV-1 gp120 immunization in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Shmelkov

    Full Text Available A specific response of human serum neutralizing antibodies (nAb to a conformational epitope as a result of vaccination of human subjects with the surface envelope glycoprotein (gp120 of HIV-1 has not previously been documented. Here, we used computational analysis to assess the epitope-specific responses of human subjects, which were immunized with recombinant gp120 immunogens in the VAX003 and VAX004 clinical trials. Our computational methodology--a variation of sieve analysis--compares the occurrence of specific nAb targeted conformational 3D epitopes on viruses from infected individuals who received vaccination to the occurrence of matched epitopes in the viruses infecting placebo subjects. We specifically studied seven crystallographically defined nAb targeted conformational epitopes in the V3 loop, an immunogenic region of gp120. Of the six epitopes present in the immunogens and targeted by known monoclonal neutralizing antibodies, only the one targeted by the anti-V3 nAb 2219 exhibited a significant reduction in occurrence in vaccinated subjects compared to the placebo group. This difference occurred only in the VAX003 Thailand cohort. No difference was seen between vaccinated and placebo groups for the occurrence of an epitope that was not present in the immunogen. Thus, it can be theorized that a specific 2219-like human neutralizing antibody immune response to AIDSVAX immunization occurred in the VAX003 cohort, and that this response protected subjects from a narrow subset of HIV-1 viruses circulating in Thailand in the 1990s and bearing the conformational epitope targeted by the neutralizing antibody 2219.

  18. Response of a flexible filament in a flowing soap film subject to a forced vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Laibing; Xiao, Qing; Wu, Haijun; Wu, Yanfeng; Yin, Xiezhen

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between flexible plates and fluids are important physical phenomena. A flag in wind is one of the most simplified and classical models for studying the problem. In this paper, we investigated the response of a flag in flow with an externally forced vibration by using flexible filaments and soap film. Experiments show that for a filament that is either in oscillation or stationary, the external forced vibration leads to its oscillation. A synchronization phenomenon occurs in the experiments. A small perturbation leads to a large response of flapping amplitude in response. The insight provided here is helpful to the applications in the flow control, energy harvesting, and bionic propulsion areas.

  19. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, electrodermal activity and subjective stress responses to the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Tatyana; Schmahl, Christian; Wüst, Stefan; Bohus, Martin

    2012-06-30

    The availability of effective laboratory paradigms for inducing psychological stress is an important requirement for experimental stress research. Reliable protocols are scarce, usually laborious and manpower-intensive. In order to develop an economical, easily applicable standardized stress protocol, we have recently tailored the Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test (MMST). This test has been shown to induce relatively high stress responses without focusing on social-evaluative components. In this study we evaluated changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol in response to the MMST. The MMST simultaneously combines cognitive (mental arithmetic), emotional (affective pictures), acoustic (white noise) and motivational stressors (loss of money). This study comprised two independent experiments. For experiment 1, 80 female subjects were recruited; 30 subjects (15 females) participated in experiment 2. Significant changes in electrodermal activity and salivary cortisol levels in response to MMST exposure were found. Subjective stress and heart rate responses were significantly increased in both experiments. These results indicate that the MMST is an economical stress paradigm which is also applicable in larger cohorts or multicenter studies for investigating stress reactions. As social-evaluative threat is not the main stress component of the MMST, this procedure represents a useful and complementary alternative to other established stress protocols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventilation and Perfusion Lung Scintigraphy of Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Atopic Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Parameswaran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both ventilation (V and perfusion (Q of the lungs are altered in asthma, but their relationships with allergen-induced airway responses and gas exchange are not well described.

  1. Response of the aroma fraction in sherry wines subjected to accelerated biological aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, M B; Moreno, J J; Zea, L; Moyano, L; Medina, M

    1999-08-01

    The effect of an acceleration assay, carried out with a periodic aeration and an increased surface/volume ratio, on various aroma compounds of "fino" Sherry wines aging under a veil of a pure culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae race capensis G1 flor film yeast was studied. The results were subjected to multifactor analysis of variance, and the compounds simultaneously depending on acceleration conditions and aging time at p < 0.01 were subjected to principal component analysis. The first component, accounting for 86.14% of the overall variance, was mainly defined by acetaldehyde and its derivatives 1,1-diethoxyethane and acetoin. These compounds reached higher concentrations in accelerated aging wines in a shorter time than they did in control wines, and no browning problems were detected. Taking into account that these compounds can be used as indicators for biological aging of "fino" Sherry wines, the acceleration condition assayed can be applied to shorten the time of this process.

  2. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to pre-germinated brown rice in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Mizukuchi, Aya; Kise, Mitsuo; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi

    2005-08-01

    Effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations were compared with brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) in two studies. In the first study, we investigated the time course of postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations after ingesting 25% (W/V) glucose solution, PGBR, BR or WR in 19 healthy young subjects. In the second study, dose-dependent effect of PGBR on the time course of postprandial blood glucose concentrations was compared among 4 different mixtures of PGBR and WR in 13 healthy young subjects. They were solely PGBR, 2/3 PGBR (PGBR: WR = 2 : 1), 1/3 PGBR (PGBR : WR = 1 : 2) and solely WR. Each sample was studied on a different day. The samples were selected randomly by the subjects. All the rice samples contained 50 g of available carbohydrates. The previous day the subjects ate the assigned dinner by 9:00 pm and then were allowed only water until the examination. The next morning, they ingested each test rice sample with 150 ml of water in 5-10 min. Blood was collected into capillary tubes from finger at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after the ingestion. The incremental areas under the curve (IAUC) of blood glucose concentrations (IAUC-Glc) for 120 min after the administration of PGBR and BR were lower than those after WR. In contrast the IAUC-Glc of BR and PGBR were not different (Study 1). The higher the ratio of PGBR/WR, the lower the glycemic index became (Study 2). These results suggest that intake of PGBR instead of WR is effective for the control of postprandial blood glucose concentration without increasing the insulin secretion.

  3. Comparison of normal and asthmatic subjects' responses to sulfate pollutant aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utell, M.J.; Morrow, P.E.; Hyde, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an association between elevated levels of sulfates and acute respiratory disease. To determine if these pollutants produce airway hyperreactivity, 16 normal and 17 asthmatic subjects inhaled a control NaCl aerosol and the following sulfates: ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, ammonium bisulfate, and sulfuric acid. A Lovelace generator produced particles with an average MMAD of approx. 1.0 ..mu..m (sigma/sub g/ approx. = 2.0) and concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/m/sup 3/. By double-blind randomization, all subjects breathed these aerosols for a 16-minute period. To determine if sulfate inhalation caused increased reactivity to a known bronchoconstrictor, all subjects inhaled carbachol following each 16-minute exposure. Before, during, and after exposure, pulmonary function studies were performed. When compared to NaCl, sulfate (1 mg/m/sup 3/) produced significant reductions in airway conductance and flow rates in asthmatics. The two most sensitive asthmatics demonstrated changes even at 0.1 mg/m/sup 3/ sulfate. To a far more significant degree, the bronchoconstrictor action of carbachol was potentiated by sulfates more or less in relation to their acidity in normals and asthmatics.

  4. Impact of low filter resistances on subjective and physiological responses to filtering facepiece respirators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J Roberge

    Full Text Available Ten subjects underwent treadmill exercise at 5.6 km/h over one hour while wearing each of three identical appearing, cup-shaped, prototype filtering facepiece respirators that differed only in their filter resistances (3 mm, 6 mm, and 9 mm H2O pressure drop. There were no statistically significant differences between filtering facepiece respirators with respect to impact on physiological parameters (i.e., heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels, tympanic membrane temperature, pulmonary function variables (i.e., tidal volume, respiratory rate, volume of carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, or ventilation, and subjective ratings (i.e., exertion, thermal comfort, inspiratory effort, expiratory effort and overall breathing comfort. The nominal filter resistances of the prototype filtering facepiece respirators correspond to airflow resistances ranging from 2.1 - 6.6 mm H2O/L/s which are less than, or minimally equivalent to, previously reported values for the normal threshold for detection of inspiratory breathing resistance (6 - 7.6 mm H2O/L/sec. Therefore, filtering facepiece respirators with filter resistances at, or below, this level may not impact the wearer differently physiologically or subjectively from those with filter resistances only slightly above this threshold at low-moderate work rates over one hour.

  5. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Bighamian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio. The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift, and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE of 0.6 % and 9.5 % across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  6. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bighamian, Ramin; Reisner, Andrew T; Hahn, Jin-Oh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called "target volume ratio"). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifying the speed of fluid shift), and initial blood volume. This model can obviate the need to incorporate complex mechanisms involved in the fluid shift in reproducing blood volume response to fluid infusion. The ability of the model to reproduce real-world blood volume response to fluid infusion was evaluated by fitting it to a series of data reported in the literature. The model reproduced the data accurately with average error and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 0.6 and 9.5% across crystalloid and colloid fluids when normalized by the underlying responses. Further, the parameters derived for the model showed physiologically plausible behaviors. It was concluded that this simple model may accurately reproduce a variety of blood volume responses to fluid infusion throughout different physiological states by fitting three parameters to a given dataset. This offers a tool that can quantify the fluid shift in a dataset given the measured fractional blood volumes.

  7. Middle-aged Subjects With Habitual Low-speed Cycling Exercise Have Greater Mononuclear Cell Responsiveness Against Human Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuen-Chang Hsieh

    2010-06-01

    Conclusion: The results reveal that the immune response of MNC, which are stimulated by PHA to suppress hepatitis B surface antigen expression, is greater in middle-aged subjects with low-speed HCE than in sedentary subjects.

  8. Spectroscopic evidence of 'jumping and pecking' of cholinium and H-bond enhanced cation-cation interaction in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Anne; Fumino, Koichi; Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Ludwig, Ralf

    2015-12-14

    The subtle energy-balance between Coulomb-interaction, hydrogen bonding and dispersion forces governs the unique properties of ionic liquids. To measure weak interactions is still a challenge. This is in particular true in the condensed phase wherein a melange of different strong and directional types of interactions is present and cannot be detected separately. For the ionic liquids (2-hydroxyethyl)-trimethylammonium (cholinium) bis(trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)amide and N,N,N-trimethyl-N-propylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide which differ only in the 2-hydroxyethyl and the propyl groups of the cations, we could directly observe distinct vibrational signatures of hydrogen bonding between the cation and the anion indicated by 'jumping and pecking' motions of cholinium. The assignment could be confirmed by isotopic substitution H/D at the hydroxyl group of cholinium. For the first time we could also find direct spectroscopic evidence for H-bonding between like-charged ions. The repulsive Coulomb interaction between the cations is overcome by cooperative hydrogen bonding between the 2-hydroxyethyl functional groups of cholinium. This H-bond network is reflected in the properties of protic ionic liquids (PILs) such as viscosities and conductivities.

  9. Urban Great Tits (Parus major Show Higher Distress Calling and Pecking Rates than Rural Birds across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Senar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change associated with urbanization is considered one of the major threats to biodiversity. Some species nevertheless seem to thrive in the urban areas, probably associated with selection for phenotypes that match urban habitats. Previous research defined different “copying styles” in distress behavior during the handling of birds. These behaviors vary along a continuum from “proactive” to “reactive” copers. By studying avian distress behaviors we aimed to broaden our understanding of the relationship between coping styles and urbanization. Using a large-scale comparative study of seven paired rural and urban sites across Europe, we assayed distress behaviors during handling of urban and rural-dwelling populations of the great tit Parus major. We detected no consistent pairwise differences in breath rate between urban and rural habitats. However, urban great tits displayed more distress calling (fear screams and higher pecking rate (handling aggression than rural birds. These findings suggest that urban great tits have a more proactive coping strategy when dealing with stressful conditions. This finding is in line with previous studies implying that urban great tits are more explorative, less neophobic, and display shorter flight distances than their rural counterparts, representing further aspects of the same “proactive,” coping strategy. Future research should investigate whether reported differences in distress behavior are due to local adaption caused by natural selection or due to phenotypic plasticity.

  10. A binaural advantage in the subjective modulation transfer function with simple impulse responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    The speech transmission index (STI) has been a popular method for predicting speech intelligibility in rooms. It is based on the magnitude of the modulation transfer function, which can be derived from the impulse response of the room and the background noise levels. However, it does not take...... to enhance the detectability of sinusoidal intensity modulations imposed on a broadband noise carrier and then convolved with simple, dichotic impulse responses. The results show that there can be a significant advantage to listening with two ears over listening with just one. Some further investigations...

  11. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  12. Standardization of a computerized method for calculating autonomic function test responses in healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neumann

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were 1 to compare results obtained by the traditional manual method of measuring heart rate (HR and heart rate response (HRR to the Valsalva maneuver, standing and deep breathing, with those obtained using a computerized data analysis system attached to a standard electrocardiograph machine; 2 to standardize the responses of healthy subjects to cardiovascular tests, and 3 to evaluate the response to these tests in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. In all subjects (97 healthy and 143 with DM we evaluated HRR to deep breathing, HRR to standing, HRR to the Valsalva maneuver, and blood pressure response (BPR to standing up and to a sustained handgrip. Since there was a strong positive correlation between the results obtained with the computerized method and the traditional method, we conclude that the new method can replace the traditional manual method for evaluating cardiovascular responses with the advantages of speed and objectivity. HRR and BPR of men and women did not differ. A correlation between age and HRR was observed for standing (r = -0.48, P<0.001 and deep breathing (r = -0.41, P<0.002. Abnormal BPR to standing was usually observed only in diabetic patients with definite and severe degrees of autonomic neuropathy.

  13. Interaction of linear and angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes of human subjects in response to transient motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, D; Gianna, C C; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of synergistic interaction between the canal and otolith components of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was evaluated in human subjects by subtracting the response to pure angular rotation (AVOR) from the response to combined angular and translational motion (ALVOR) and comparing this difference with the VOR to isolated linear motion (LVOR). Assessments were made with target fixation at 60 cm and in darkness. Linear stimuli were acceleration steps attaining 0.25 g in less than 80 ms. To elicit responses to combined translational and angular head movements, the subjects were seated on a Barany chair with the head displaced forwards 40 cm from the axis of rotation. The chair was accelerated at approximately 300 deg/s2 to 127 deg/s peak angular velocity, the tangential acceleration of the head being comparable with that of isolated translation. Estimates of the contribution of smooth pursuit to responses in the light were made from comparisons of isolated pursuit of similar target trajectories. In the dark the slow phase eye movements evoked by combined canal-otolith stimuli were higher in magnitude by approximately a third than the sum of those produced by translation and rotation alone. In the light, the relative target displacement during isolated linear motion was similar to the difference in relative target displacements during eccentric and centred rotation. However, the gain of the translational component of compensatory eye movement during combined translational and angular motion was approximately unity, in contrast to the gain of the response to isolated linear motion, which was approximately a half. Pursuit performance was always poorer than target following during self-motion. The LVOR responses in the light were greater than the sum of the LVOR responses in the dark with pursuit eye movements. We conclude that, in response to transient motion, there is a synergistic enhancement of the translational VOR with concurrent canal

  14. Responses of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease after exposures to 0. 3 ppm ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrl, H.R.; Hazucha, M.J.; Solic, J.J.; Bromberg, P.A.

    1985-05-01

    The authors previously reported that the respiratory mechanics of intermittently exercising persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were unaffected by a 2-h exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone. Employing a single-blind, cross-over design protocol, 13 white men with nonreversible COPD (9 current smokers; mean FEV1/FVC, 56%) were randomly exposed on 2 consecutive days for 2 h to air and 0.3 ppm ozone. During exposures, subjects exercised (minute ventilation, 26.4 +/- 3.0 L/min) for 7.5 min every 30 min; ventilation and gas exchange measured during exercise showed no difference between exposure days. Pulmonary function tests (spirometry, body plethysmography) obtained before and after exposures were unchanged on the air day. On the ozone day the mean airway resistance and specific airway resistance showed the largest (25 and 22%) changes (p = 0.086 and 0.058, respectively). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO/sub 2/) obtained in 8 subjects during the last exercise interval showed a mean decrement of 0.95% on the ozone exposure day; this change did not attain significance (p = 0.074). Nevertheless, arterial oxygen desaturation may be a true consequence of low-level ozone exposure in this compromised patient group. As normal subjects undergoing exposures to ozone with slightly higher exercise intensities show a threshold for changes in their respiratory mechanics at approximately 0.3 ppm, these data indicate that persons with COPD are not unduly sensitive to the effects of low-level ozone exposure.

  15. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  16. Subjective response to foot-fall noise, including localization of the source position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Hwang, Ha Dong; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2011-01-01

    annoyance, using simulated binaural room impulse responses, with sources being a moving point source or a non-moving surface source, and rooms being a room with a reverberation time of 0.5 s or an anechoic room. The paper concludes that no strong effect of the source localization on the annoyance can...

  17. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patc...

  18. Nonrandom Acts of Kindness: Parasympathetic and Subjective Empathic Responses to Sadness Predict Children's Prosociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    How does empathic physiology unfold as a dynamic process, and which aspect of empathy predicts children's kindness? In response to empathy induction videos, 4- to 6-year-old children (N = 180) showed an average pattern of dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change characterized by early RSA suppression, followed by RSA recovery, and modest…

  19. Dissociated incretin hormone response to protein versus fat ingestion in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, O; Carr, RD; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    kcal/kg) fat (olive oil) or protein (whey protein) was ingested by non-diabetic obese male volunteers [body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) ; n = 12] and plasma GIP and GLP-1 were determined. We found no difference in the early GIP or GLP-1 responses to fat versus protein. However, the total 300-min GIP...

  20. A Pilot Study of Phase-Evoked Acoustic Responses From the Ears of Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Dewey, James; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2015-01-01

    Temporal properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are of interest as they help understand the dynamic behavior and spatial distribution of the generating mechanisms. In particular, the ringing behavior of responses to clicks and tone bursts have been investigated, and times of arrival and round......Temporal properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are of interest as they help understand the dynamic behavior and spatial distribution of the generating mechanisms. In particular, the ringing behavior of responses to clicks and tone bursts have been investigated, and times of arrival...... and roundtrip delays have been related to properties of the dispersive cochlea and internal reflections. Temporal suppression experiments (e.g. Kemp and Chum, 1980; Verhulst et al., 2008), where a suppressor click is presented just before the stimulus click, have shown how a click response depends on preceding...... within one, three and five periods of the stimulus-frequency every 64 ms (54 conditions). Using a combination of level and phase variation, emissions linked to any time-invariant nonlinearity could be extracted. Phase-evoked residual responses (PERRs) look like tone bursts with a phase...

  1. Gender differences in response to emotional stress: an assessment across subjective, behavioral, and physiological domains and relations to alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-07-01

    Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender-related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women.

  2. Do the rotator cuff tendons of young athletic subjects hypertrophy in response to increased loading demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Charles; Moran, Daniel S; Safran, Ori; Finsestone, Aharon S

    2012-11-01

    The rotator cuff is composed of muscle and tendon units. Although muscle has been shown to adapt to mechanical loads, the response of human tendon is not well defined. We hypothesized that increased loading demands on the rotator cuff of young trainees would cause an adaptive muscle response but not an adaptive hypertrophic tendon response. The hypertrophic response of the rotator cuff tendon, shoulder strength, aerobic fitness, and the lean body weight of 70 young male recruits were studied before and after a 1-year course of elite infantry training. Shoulder strength was assessed by the maximum number of pull-ups done and the rotator cuff thickness by ultrasound measurement of the supraspinatus thickness. Aerobic physical fitness was assessed by maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max). Lean body weight was measured by skin-fold thickness. The mean number of pull-ups done increased from 17.5 to 21.7 (P = .01), but the supraspinatus thickness at the beginning of training (6.1 mm) was unchanged at the end of the training. Vo(2) max increased from 57 to 64 mL/kg/min (P = .0001). Lean body weight increased from 58.3 to 64.7 kg (P = .0001). As a result of increased loading, the strength of the rotator cuff muscles of young trainees increased, but by the parameter of hypertrophy, no evidence was found of a parallel adaptive response of the rotator cuff tendon. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. COMT Val158Met modulates subjective responses to intravenous nicotine and cognitive performance in abstinent smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aryeh I.; Jatlow, Peter I.; Gelernter, Joel; Listman, Jennifer B.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The COMT Val158Met polymorphism may be a risk factor for nicotine addiction. This study examined the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on subjective, physiological, and cognitive effects of intravenous (IV) nicotine use in African American (AAs) (n=56) and European American (EAs) (n=68) smokers. Overnight abstinent smokers received saline followed by 0.5 and 1.0 mg/70 kg doses of nicotine, administered 30 minutes apart. Smokers with Val/Val genotype, compared to Met carriers, had greater negative subjective effects from IV nicotine and had more severe withdrawal severity following overnight abstinence from smoking. Women with Val/Val genotype reported greater difficulty concentrating and irritability than men with Val/Val or Met carrier genotypes. The Val/Val genotype was associated with better performance on the math task and in AA smokers it was associated with greater systolic blood pressure. These results support the rationale of pharmacologically inhibiting COMT to aid with smoking cessation among Val/Val genotype smokers. PMID:23459442

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) does not affect ventilatory and perceptual responses to exercise in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenti Bruni, Giulia; Gigliotti, Francesco; Scano, Giorgio

    2012-09-30

    We have tested the hypothesis that high mass loading effects and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) constrain the ventilatory response to exercise in morbidly obese subjects as compared to their counterparts without OSA. Fifteen obese patients with (8) and without OSA and 12 lean healthy subjects performed incremental cycle exercise. The functional evaluation included ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, end-expiratory-lung-volumes (EELV), inspiratory capacity, heart rate, dyspnea and leg effort (by a modified Borg scale). Changes in ventilation and dyspnea per unit changes in work rate and metabolic variables were similar in the three groups. Breathing pattern and heart rate increased from rest to peak exercise similarly in the three groups. Leg effort was the prevailing symptom for stopping exercise in most subjects. In conclusion, OSA does not limit exercise capacity in morbidly obese subjects. Ventilation contributes to exertional dyspnea similarly as in lean subjects and in obese patients regardless of OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Larson, Michael J; Romney, Lora; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Christensen, William F; LeCheminant, James D

    2017-02-01

    Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements. Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m 2 ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence. Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers. Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. The multi-modal responses of a physical head model subjected to various blast exposure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, S.; Phillippens, M.

    2017-11-01

    The local and global biomechanical response of the body to a blast wave is the first step of a sequence that leads to the development of stresses and strains which can exceed the tolerance of brain tissue. These stresses and strains may then lead to neuro-physical changes in the brain and contribute to initiate a cascade of events leading to injury. The specific biomechanical pathways by which the blast energy is transmitted through the head structure are, however, not clearly understood. Multiple transmission mechanisms have been proposed to explain the generation of brain stresses following the impingement of a blast wave on the head. With the use of a physical head model, the work presented here aims at demonstrating that the proposed transmission mechanisms are not mutually exclusive. They are part of a continuum of head responses where, depending on the exposure conditions, a given mechanism may or may not dominate. This article presents the joint analysis of previous blast test results generated with the brain injury protection evaluation device (BIPED) headform under four significantly different exposure conditions. The focus of the analysis is to demonstrate how the nature of the recorded response is highly dependent on the exposure characteristics and consequently, on the method used to reproduce blast exposure in a laboratory environment. The timing and magnitude of the variations in intra-cranial pressures (ICP) were analysed relative to the external pressure field in order to better understand the wave dynamics occurring within the brain structure of the headform. ICP waveforms were also analysed in terms of their energy spectral density to better identify the energy partitioning between the different modes of response. It is shown that the BIPED response is multi-modal and that the energy partitioning between its different modes of response is greatly influenced by exposure characteristics such as external peak overpressure, impulse, blast wave

  7. Arginine Vasopressin Effects on Subjective Judgments and Neural Responses to Same and Other-Sex Faces in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Li, Ting; Chen, Xiangchuan; Gautam, Pritam; Haroon, Ebrahim; Thompson, Richmond R

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) influences social and emotional behaviors across a wide range of species. In humans, intranasal AVP has been previously shown to alter physiological responses to and subjective judgments of same-sex faces in both men and women. The present study attempted to elucidate the neural mechanism for these effects by randomizing 40 healthy men and 40 healthy women to treatment with either 40 IU intranasal AVP or a saline placebo approximately 30 min before imaging their brain function with fMRI as they viewed same and other-sex faces. All subjects were also scanned a second time several days later with no treatment to evaluate the persistence of AVP effects over time. AVP acutely increased positive ratings of same-sex faces in women, with some evidence that these effects persisted until the second scan. While AVP had no acute effects on same-sex ratings in men, AVP increased positive ratings of same-sex faces several days later. On the other hand, AVP had no effect on other-sex face judgments in either sex. AVP modulation of brain function was focused on the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral septum, two reward processing areas involved in the formation of social bonds. AVP provoked acute increases in right NAc and bilateral lateral septum responses to female faces among men, with left lateral septum responses persisting over time while right NAc responses reversed over time. Finally, AVP modulated hypothalamic activation to faces in both men and women. The present study therefore indicates that intranasal AVP affects subjective ratings and neural responses to same and other-sex faces in men and women, with some effects persisting and others emerging over time. Future studies should investigate whether AVP effects are modulated by individual variables such as genotype, personality, or attachment style as previously reported for other nonapeptides.

  8. Composite Estimation for Single-Index Models with Responses Subject to Detection Limits

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Yanlin

    2017-11-03

    We propose a semiparametric estimator for single-index models with censored responses due to detection limits. In the presence of left censoring, the mean function cannot be identified without any parametric distributional assumptions, but the quantile function is still identifiable at upper quantile levels. To avoid parametric distributional assumption, we propose to fit censored quantile regression and combine information across quantile levels to estimate the unknown smooth link function and the index parameter. Under some regularity conditions, we show that the estimated link function achieves the non-parametric optimal convergence rate, and the estimated index parameter is asymptotically normal. The simulation study shows that the proposed estimator is competitive with the omniscient least squares estimator based on the latent uncensored responses for data with normal errors but much more efficient for heavy-tailed data under light and moderate censoring. The practical value of the proposed method is demonstrated through the analysis of a human immunodeficiency virus antibody data set.

  9. A Lumped-Parameter Subject-Specific Model of Blood Volume Response to Fluid Infusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramin Bighamian; Andrew Reisner; Jin-Oh Hahn

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a lumped-parameter model that can reproduce blood volume response to fluid infusion. The model represents the fluid shift between the intravascular and interstitial compartments as the output of a hypothetical feedback controller that regulates the ratio between the volume changes in the intravascular and interstitial fluid at a target value (called target volume ratio). The model is characterized by only three parameters: the target volume ratio, feedback gain (specifyi...

  10. Thermomechanical response of HTPB-based composite beams subjected to near-resonant inertial excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Daniel; Miller, Jacob; Rhoads, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    At this time, there is a pressing need to develop new technologies capable of detecting, identifying, and potentially neutralizing energetic materials, preferably from a stand-off distance. To address this need, an improved understanding of the mechanics of energetic materials, prior to detonation or deflagration, must be developed. In light of this, the present effort seeks to characterize the thermomechanical response of a polymer-based composite material, which is a mechanical surrogate fo...

  11. Social responsibility of ukrainian media as a subject of sociological annalysis

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Nazarenko

    2016-01-01

    The problem of establishing social dialogue has been and will be very important for society. High-functioning social significance of social dialogue determines the significance of providing conditions for successful functioning and development of society. During the transformation, which is experiencing a modern Ukrainian society, special importance is the issue of social responsibility. When society is looking for answers to various questions require important issues, the media can be a spec...

  12. The pharmaceutical industry's responsibility for protecting human subjects of clinical trials in developing nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Finnuala

    2004-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies increasingly perform clinical trials in developing nations. Governments of host nations see the trials as a way to provide otherwise unaffordable medical care, while trial sponsors are drawn to those countries by lower costs, the prevalence of diseases rare in developed nations, and large numbers of impoverished patients. Local governments, however, fail to police trials, and the FDA does not monitor trials in foreign countries, resulting in the routine violation of international standards for the protection of human subjects. This Note proposes independent accreditation of those institutions involved in clinical trials--the institutional review boards which oversee trial protocol; the organizations, such as pharmaceutical companies, which sponsor the trials; and the research organizations that conduct the trials. Accreditation, similar to that used in the footwear and apparel industries, would increase the transparency of pharmaceutical trials and would enable the United States government and consumers to hold trial sponsors accountable for their actions.

  13. Genealogy and Subjectivity: An Incoherent Foucault (A Response to Calvert-Minor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lightbody

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay “Archaeology and Humanism: An Incongruent Foucault”argues, among other things, that Foucault “endorses a kind of humanism.” Moreover, Calvert-Minor attempts to show that withoutsuch an endorsement then the curative aspects regarding Foucault’s genealogy of subjectivity would be nonsensical. To be sure, the author seems to demonstrate that there is a clear tension in Foucault’s oeuvre regarding the Frenchman’s changing stance towards, and at times unconscious embracement of, philosophical humanism. Such a claim, if true, would certainly be damaging to Foucault’s archaeological and genealogical projects as he stridently rejected humanism in all of its myriad forms.

  14. Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, E; Granfeldt, Y; Persson, L; Björck, I

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the potential of acetic acid supplementation as a means of lowering the glycaemic index (GI) of a bread meal, and to evaluate the possible dose-response effect on postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and satiety. In all, 12 healthy volunteers participated and the tests were performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. Three levels of vinegar (18, 23 and 28 mmol acetic acid) were served with a portion of white wheat bread containing 50 g available carbohydrates as breakfast in randomized order after an overnight fast. Bread served without vinegar was used as a reference meal. Blood samples were taken during 120 min for analysis of glucose and insulin. Satiety was measured with a subjective rating scale. A significant dose-response relation was seen at 30 min for blood glucose and serum insulin responses; the higher the acetic acid level, the lower the metabolic responses. Furthermore, the rating of satiety was directly related to the acetic acid level. Compared with the reference meal, the highest level of vinegar significantly lowered the blood glucose response at 30 and 45 min, the insulin response at 15 and 30 min as well as increased the satiety score at 30, 90 and 120 min postprandially. The low and intermediate levels of vinegar also lowered the 30 min glucose and the 15 min insulin responses significantly compared with the reference meal. When GI and II (insulinaemic indices) were calculated using the 90 min incremental area, a significant lowering was found for the highest amount of acetic acid, although the corresponding values calculated at 120 min did not differ from the reference meal. Supplementation of a meal based on white wheat bread with vinegar reduced postprandial responses of blood glucose and insulin, and increased the subjective rating of satiety. There was an inverse dose-response relation between the level of acetic acid and glucose and insulin responses and a linear dose-response relation between

  15. Abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of the C-reactive response to injury in subjects undergoing inguinal hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkulla Sashidhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and serum C-reactive protein (CRP (a sensitive marker of inflammatory activity are associated with most chronic diseases. Abdominal adiposity along with age is the strongest determinant of baseline CRP levels in healthy subjects. The mechanism of the association of serum CRP with disease is uncertain. We hypothesized that baseline serum CRP is a marker of inflammatory responsiveness to injury and that abdominal adiposity is the main determinant of this responsiveness. We studied the effect of abdominal adiposity, age and other environmental risk factors for chronic disease on the CRP response to a standardised surgical insult, unilateral hernia repair to not only test this hypothesis but to inform the factors which must be taken into account when assessing systemic inflammatory responses to surgery. Methods 102 male subjects aged 24-94 underwent unilateral hernia repair by a single operator. CRP was measured at 0, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Response was defined as the peak CRP adjusted for baseline CRP. Results Age and waist:hip ratio (WHR were associated both with basal CRP and CRP response with similar effect sizes after adjustment for a wide-range of covariates. The adjusted proportional difference in CRP response per 10% increase in WHR was 1.50 (1.17-1.91 p = 0.0014 and 1.15(1.00-1.31 p = 0.05 per decade increase in age. There was no evidence of important effects of other environmental cardiovascular risk factors on CRP response. Conclusion Waist:hip ratio and age need to be considered when studying the inflammatory response to surgery. The finding that age and waist:hip ratio influence baseline and post-operative CRP levels to a similar extent suggests that baseline CRP is a measure of inflammatory responsiveness to casual stimuli and that higher age and obesity modulate the generic excitability of the inflammatory system leading to both higher baseline CRP and higher CRP response to surgery. The mechanism for

  16. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  17. Effect of Inhaled Prostaglandin E2 on Methacholine and Leukotriene D4 Airway Responsiveness in Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil Hm Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in asthmatics have demonstrated that the endogenous release of inhibitory prostaglandins limits the bronchoconstrictor response to repeated challenges with exercise and histamine, and that inhaled prostaglandin (PG E2 attenuates allergen-induced asthmatic responses and exercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Inhaled PGE2 does not significantly attenuate methacholine airway responsiveness. These results, taken together, indicate that inhaled PGE2 attenuates the bronchoconstriction caused by stimuli, such as allergen and exercise, that result in bronchoconstriction through cysteinyl leukotriene (LT release. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhaled PGE2 could selectively attenuate LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction in seven stable asthmatic subjects. Each subject was studied on four different study days. On two occasions the subjects inhaled 100 mg PGE2, 30 mins before a methacholine, or LTD4 challenge test. On the other two study days, the subjects were pretreated with its diluent. Results were expressed as the provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (PC20. PGE2 pretreatment significantly increased the LTD4 PC20, but not the methacholine PC20. The mean LTD4 PC20 increased from 2.00 mg/mL (%SEM 1.65 after diluent pretreatment to 3.01 mg/mL (%SEM 1.64 after PGE2 pretreatment (P=0.008. The mean methacholine PC20 was 1.28 mg/mL (%SEM 1.68 after diluent pretreatment and 1.62 mg/mL (%SEM 1.46 after PGE2 pretreatment (P=0.28. These results suggest that PGE2 partially attenuates LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction; however, the magnitude of the effect is unlikely to account for its attenuation of exercise and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction.

  18. Oxidative stress augments toll-like receptor 8 mediated neutrophilic responses in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsunaga Kazuto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress has been reported to be generated in inflamed tissues and contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory lung diseases, exacerbations of which induced by viral infections are associated with toll-like receptor (TLR activation. Among these receptors, TLR8 has been reported as a key receptor that recognizes single-strand RNA virus. However, it remains unknown whether TLR8 signaling is potentiated by oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to examine whether oxidative stress modulates TLR8 signaling in vitro. Methods Human peripheral blood neutrophils were obtained from healthy non-smokers and stimulated with TLR 7/8 agonist imidazoquinoline resiquimod (R848 in the presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Neutrophilic responses including cytokine release, superoxide production and chemotaxis were examined, and the signal transduction was also analyzed. Results Activation of TLR8, but not TLR7, augmented IL-8 release. The R848-augmented IL-8 release was significantly potentiated by pretreatment with H2O2 (p L-cysteine reversed this potentiation. The combination of H2O2 and R848 significantly potentiated NF-kB phosphorylation and IkBα degradation. The H2O2-potentiated IL-8 release was suppressed by MG-132, a proteosome inhibitor, and by dexamethasone. The expressions of TLR8, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6 were not affected by H2O2. Conclusion TLR8-mediated neutrophilic responses were markedly potentiated by oxidative stress, and the potentiation was mediated by enhanced NF-kB activation. These results suggest that oxidative stress might potentiate the neutrophilic inflammation during viral infection.

  19. Effects of family budgeting responsibility on subjective health status: An empirical study of Japanese wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bing; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We examine whether the decision-making power of Japanese wives affects their health status. Looking at cross-sectional data from the Japanese Panel Survey of Consumers (JPSC) conducted with women, we create a new measure for decision-making power based on participation in family budgeting. The data sample covers 1,306 married women aged 25 to 45 years in 2004. We find that Japanese wives are more likely to report good health when they have more responsibility than their husbands for household budgeting. Additionally, having more education or being fully employed increased the probability of reporting "good health" by more than six percentage points.

  20. B-cell depletion is protective against anti-AAV capsid immune response: a human subject case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy strategies for congenital myopathies may require repeat administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV vectors due to aspects of the clinical application, such as: (i administration of doses below therapeutic efficacy in patients enrolled in early phase clinical trials; (ii progressive reduction of the therapeutic gene expression over time as a result of increasing muscle mass in patients treated at a young age; and (iii a possibly faster depletion of pathogenic myofibers in this patient population. Immune response triggered by the first vector administration, and to subsequent doses, represents a major obstacle for successful gene transfer in young patients. Anti-capsid and anti-transgene product related humoral and cell-mediated responses have been previously observed in all preclinical models and human subjects who received gene therapy or enzyme replacement therapy (ERT for congenital myopathies. Immune responses may result in reduced efficacy of the gene transfer over time and/or may preclude for the possibility of re-administration of the same vector. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of a Pompe patient dosed with an AAV1-GAA vector after receiving Rituximab and Sirolimus to modulate reactions against ERT. A key finding of this single subject case report is the observation that B-cell ablation with rituximab prior to AAV vector exposure results in non-responsiveness to both capsid and transgene, therefore allowing the possibility of repeat administration in the future. This observation is significant for future gene therapy studies and establishes a clinically relevant approach to blocking immune responses to AAV vectors.

  1. Isocitrate dehydrogenase of Helicobacter pylori potentially induces humoral immune response in subjects with peptic ulcer disease and gastritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abid Hussain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: H. pylori causes gastritis and peptic ulcers and is a risk factor for the development of gastric carcinoma. Many of the proteins such as urease, porins, flagellins and toxins such as lipo-polysaccharides have been identified as potential virulence factors which induce proinflammatory reaction. We report immunogenic potentials of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD, an important house keeping protein of H. pylori. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Amino acid sequences of H. pylori ICD were subjected to in silico analysis for regions with predictably high antigenic indexes. Also, computational modelling of the H. pylori ICD as juxtaposed to the E. coli ICD was carried out to determine levels of structure similarity and the availability of surface exposed motifs, if any. The icd gene was cloned, expressed and purified to a very high homogeneity. Humoral response directed against H. pylori ICD was detected through an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA in 82 human subjects comprising of 58 patients with H. pylori associated gastritis or ulcer disease and 24 asymptomatic healthy controls. The H. pylori ICD elicited potentially high humoral immune response and revealed high antibody titers in sera corresponding to endoscopically-confirmed gastritis and ulcer disease subjects. However, urea-breath-test negative healthy control samples and asymptomatic control samples did not reveal any detectable immune responses. The ELISA for proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 did not exhibit any significant proinflammatory activity of ICD. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ICD of H. pylori is an immunogen which interacts with the host immune system subsequent to a possible autolytic-release and thereby significantly elicits humoral responses in individuals with invasive H. pylori infection. However, ICD could not significantly stimulate IL8 induction in a cultured macrophage cell line (THP1 and therefore, may not be a notable proinflammatory agent.

  2. Responsiveness of the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia in Italian subjects with chronic low back pain undergoing motor and cognitive rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Rocca, Barbara; Foti, Calogero; Ferrante, Simona

    2016-09-01

    The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) is a commonly used measure for the assessment of kinesiophobia related to spinal diseases. The Italian version showed satisfactory psychometric properties, but its responsiveness has not yet been evaluated. This observational study is aimed at evaluating the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the TSK in subjects with chronic low back pain. At the beginning and end of an 8-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, 205 patients completed the TSK. After the programme, patients also completed the global perceived effect (GPE) scale, which was divided to produce a dichotomous outcome. Responsiveness was calculated by distribution [effect size (ES); standardised response mean (SRM)] and anchor-based methods [receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves; correlations between change scores of the TSK and GPE]. ROC curves were also used to compute the best cut-off levels between subjects with a "good" or "poor" outcome (MICs). The ES and the SRM were 1.49 and 1.36, respectively. The ROC analyses revealed a MIC value (AUC; sensitivity; specificity) of 5.5 (0.996; 95; 97). To avoid any dependence on the baseline scores, the MIC value [area under the curve (AUC); sensitivity; and specificity] was computed also based on the percentage of change from the baseline and a value of 18 % (0.998; 97; 98 %) was obtained. The correlation between change scores of the TSK and GPE was high (0.871). The TSK was sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with chronic low back pain. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when assessing patients' improvement or planning studies in this clinical context.

  3. Epicardial fat volume is associated with coronary microvascular response in healthy subjects: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Kober, Frank; Jacquier, Alexis; Moro, Pierre Julien; Flavian, Antonin; Quilici, Jacques; Cuisset, Thomas; Simeoni, Umberto; Cozzone, Patrick; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-06-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is an active ectopic fat depot, which has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis, and which could early influence endothelial function. We thus investigated the relationship between EF and endothelium-dependent vasoreactivity of the coronary microcirculation, in highly selected healthy volunteers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was determined by measuring coronary sinus flow with velocity-encoded cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T. We measured MBF at baseline and in response to sympathetic stimulation by cold pressor testing (CPT) in 30 healthy volunteers with normal left ventricular (LV) function (age 22 ± 4 years, BMI = 21.3 ± 2.8 kg/m(2)). EF volume was volumetrically assessed by manual delineation on short-axis views. CPT was applied by immersing one foot in ice water for 4 min. Mean EF volume was 56 ± 26 ml and mean LV mass 100 ± 28 g. CPT significantly increased heart rate (HR) by 32 ± 19%, systolic blood pressure by 14 ± 10%, and rate-pressure product by 45 ± 25%, P glycemic parameters. In multivariate analysis, adiponectin and EF volume remained both independently associated with ΔMBF. A high EF amount is associated with a lower coronary microvascular response, suggesting that EF could early influence endothelial function.

  4. Competing sovereignties: Oil extraction, corporate social responsibility, and indigenous subjectivity in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Emily Ruth

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs developed in recent years as the business response to social and environmental criticism of corporate operations, and are most debated in those societies where neoliberalism emerged most prominently, the United States and the United Kingdom. My dissertation expands these debates investigating the CSR programs of a Spanish-owned multinational oil company, Repsol-YPF operating in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. It explores CSR programs as institutions that can facilitate ongoing resource extraction, and particular technologies of rule that serve to discipline indigenous peoples at the point of extraction. I conducted an institutional ethnography to examine the social relationships produced through CSR programs, and contend that the relationships formed within CSR programs enable ongoing resource extraction. This dissertation argues that CSR programs produce entanglements between state, corporate and indigenous actors that lead to competing and conflicting spaces of governance in Ecuador. These entanglements reflect the Ecuadorian state's attempts to 'erase' indigenous difference in the name of securing wealth and membership in the nation-state. In turn, CSR programs can both contain indigenous mobilization and resistance in Ecuador, but also highlight indigenous difference and rights and access to resources, predicated on membership in the nation-state. To that end, the dissertation is attentive to the ambivalence and uncertainty of indigenous actors produced through engagement with corporate capital, and suggests that ambivalence can also be a productive space.

  5. Cortisol and glucose responses in juvenile striped catfish subjected to a cold shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabi Adloo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-shock stress happens when a fish had been adjusted to a specific water temperature or range of temperatures and is consequently exposed to a rapid drop in temperature, resulting in a cascade of physiological and behavioral responses and, in some cases, death. In the current study, the stress response of striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus was studied by evaluating serum cortisol and glucose level following an abrupt reduction in water temperature (from 28°C to 15°C at different time points (prior to, and after 1h, 12h and 24h cold treatment, respectively. Regardless of some mortality occurred in cold challenged fish, none of the physiological parameters changed during evaluation period. The results, suggesting that despite of necessity of cortisol and glucose evaluation in any of stress assessment, yet, due to their high variability in different fish species, additional complementary tests such as measurement of other stress hormones e.g. heat shock proteins as well as blood-cell counts (preferably in chronic experiments should also be included.

  6. Dose Finding of Lenvatinib in Subjects With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure–Response Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayato, Seiichi; Hojo, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Takuya; Okusaka, Takuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for up to 90% of primary liver cancer occurrences worldwide. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, was approved in radioiodine‐refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. In this phase 2 study (study 202), we aimed to identify the lenvatinib optimal dose for subjects with advanced HCC Child‐Pugh class A. Pooled data from phase 1 studies in healthy adults and in subjects with mixed tumor types, and from study 202 in subjects with HCC, were analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic approach. The relationship between treatment‐emergent adverse events leading to withdrawal or dose reduction during cycle 1 and lenvatinib exposure was explored by logistic regression analysis. A receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to investigate the best cutoff values of lenvatinib exposure and body weight to identify a high‐risk group for early dose modification. The final pharmacokinetic model included body‐weight effects on apparent clearance and volume. The relationship between the lenvatinib area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) at steady state and body weight demonstrated an increase in AUC as body weight decreased in subjects with HCC. An exposure–response relationship was observed, with higher lenvatinib AUC and lower body weight resulting in earlier drug withdrawal or dose reduction. The best cutoff values for body weight and lenvatinib AUC were 57.8 kg and 2430 ng·h/mL, respectively, to predict the group at high risk for early drug withdrawal or dose reduction. We therefore recommend 12‐mg and 8‐mg starting doses for subjects ≥60 kg and <60 kg, respectively, in subjects with HCC Child‐Pugh class A. PMID:28561918

  7. Dose Finding of Lenvatinib in Subjects With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Based on Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure-Response Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Toshiyuki; Hayato, Seiichi; Hojo, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Takuya; Okusaka, Takuji; Ikeda, Kenji; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for up to 90% of primary liver cancer occurrences worldwide. Lenvatinib, a multikinase inhibitor, was approved in radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. In this phase 2 study (study 202), we aimed to identify the lenvatinib optimal dose for subjects with advanced HCC Child-Pugh class A. Pooled data from phase 1 studies in healthy adults and in subjects with mixed tumor types, and from study 202 in subjects with HCC, were analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic approach. The relationship between treatment-emergent adverse events leading to withdrawal or dose reduction during cycle 1 and lenvatinib exposure was explored by logistic regression analysis. A receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to investigate the best cutoff values of lenvatinib exposure and body weight to identify a high-risk group for early dose modification. The final pharmacokinetic model included body-weight effects on apparent clearance and volume. The relationship between the lenvatinib area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) at steady state and body weight demonstrated an increase in AUC as body weight decreased in subjects with HCC. An exposure-response relationship was observed, with higher lenvatinib AUC and lower body weight resulting in earlier drug withdrawal or dose reduction. The best cutoff values for body weight and lenvatinib AUC were 57.8 kg and 2430 ng·h/mL, respectively, to predict the group at high risk for early drug withdrawal or dose reduction. We therefore recommend 12-mg and 8-mg starting doses for subjects ≥60 kg and <60 kg, respectively, in subjects with HCC Child-Pugh class A. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Effects of Soil-Structure Interaction on Response of Structures Subjected to Near-Fault Earthquake Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannad, M. Ali; Amiri, Asghar; Ghahari, S. Farid

    2008-07-01

    Near-fault ground motions have notable characteristics such as velocity time histories containing large-amplitude and long-period pulses caused by forward directivity effects and acceleration time histories with high frequency content. These specifications of near-fault earthquake records make structural responses to be different from those expected in far-fault earthquakes. In this paper, using moving average filtering, a set of near-fault earthquake records containing forward directivity pulses are decomposed into two parts having different frequency content: a Pulse-Type Record (PTR) that possesses long period pulses, and a relatively high-frequency Background Record (BGR). Studying the structural response to near-fault records reveals that elastic response spectra for fixed-base systems, in contrast to their response to ordinary earthquakes, show two distinct local peaks related to BGR and PTR parts. Also, the effect of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) on response of structures subjected to this type of excitations is investigated. Generally, the SSI effect on the response of structures is studied through introducing a replacement single-degree-of-freedom system with longer period and usually higher damping. Since this period elongation for the PTR-dominated period range is greater than that of the BGR-dominated one, the spectral peaks become closer in the case of soil-structure systems in comparison to the corresponding fixed-base systems.

  9. Cardiovascular and Thermal Response to Dry-Sauna Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Zalewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry-sauna is a strong thermal stimulus and is commonly used all over the world. The aim of this experiment was to comprehensively analyse cardiovascular and autonomic changes that result from an increase in core body temperature during sauna bath. The study included 9 healthy men with mean age 26.7 ± 3.0 years and comparable anthropomorphical characteristics. Each subject was exposed to one 15-minute session of dry-sauna treatment at 100°C and 30–40% humidity. The autonomic and baseline cardiovascular (i.e., hemodynamic and contractility parameters were measured noninvasively with Task Force Monitor. Cardiovascular autonomic functions were assessed using baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS and spectral analysis of heart rate (HRV and blood pressure (BPV variability. Measurements were performed four times, at the following stages “before sauna,” “after sauna,” “sauna + 3 h,” and “sauna + 6 h.” The first recording constituted a baseline for the subsequent three measurements. The changes in core body temperature were determined with the Vital Sense telemetric measurement system. Results show that exposure to the extreme external environmental conditions of dry-sauna does not compromise homeostasis in healthy persons. The hemodynamic changes induced by heating are efficiently compensated by the cardiovascular system and do not exert negative effects upon its short-term regulatory potential.

  10. Physiological Response of Rice Seedlings (Oryza sativa L. Subjected to Different Periods of Two Night Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Alvarado-Sanabria

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Night temperatures have shown an increase in rice-growing regions due to climate change in Colombia in recent years, causing a reduction in grain yield. The objective of this research was to study the effect of four different periods of exposure to two night temperatures (24°C vs. 30°C on the physiological behavior of an Indica rice cultivar widely grown in Colombia. Fedearroz 60 (ʻF60ʼ were grown under greenhouse conditions for forty-five days. After this period, 12 plants in each treatment was established in a growth chamber at 30°C from 18:00 to 24:00 to carry out the duration of the different periods of heat nighttime stress (4, 8, 12, and 16 days respectively. The control plants were kept in a greenhouse at 24°C. The results showed that leaf photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, and pigment content decreased in rice seedlings subjected to 30°C. Also, dark respiration and intercellular CO2 concentration increased. These reductions in the variables as mentioned above were more severe during the first four days of exposure to 30°C than 24°C. In conclusion, these results suggest that these physiological variables may be useful to assess the tolerance of rice plants to high nighttime temperatures in plant breeding programs.

  11. Experimental studies of food choices and palatability responses in European subjects exposed to the Umami taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France; France, Bellisle

    2008-01-01

    In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability, thus favoring a net decrease in sodium intake. Consumers presented with a novel food often have to get accustomed to the new taste before they acquire a preference for the food. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG, consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. In elderly persons, the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups, vegetables, starches) did induce an increase of intake of MSG-added foods. Total meal size, however, was not affected, since the increased intake of MSG-containing foods was followed by a decreased consumption of foods served later in the meal, such as desserts. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. Again, the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods, with the same total meal energy intake. These two studies suggested that MSG could be used to stimulate appropriate food choices in certain populations.

  12. Substantial Inter-Subject Variability in Blood Pressure Responses to Glucose in a Healthy, Non-obese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathriona R. Monnard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A large inter-subject variability in the blood pressure (BP response to glucose drinks has been reported. However, the underlying factors remain elusive and we hypothesized that accompanying changes in glucose metabolism affect these BP responses.Methods: Cardiovascular and glycemic changes in response to a standard 75 g oral-glucose-tolerance-test were investigated in 30 healthy, non-obese males. Continuous cardiovascular monitoring, including beat-to-beat BP, electrocardiographically deduced heart rate and impedance cardiography, was performed during a 30 min baseline and continued up to 120 min after glucose ingestion. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for the assessment of glucose, insulin and c-peptide. Additionally, we evaluated body composition by using validated bioelectrical impedance techniques.Results: Individual overall changes (i.e., averages over 120 min for systolic BP ranged from −4.9 to +4.7 mmHg, where increases and decreases were equally distributed (50%. Peak changes (i.e., peak averages over 10 min intervals for systolic BP ranged from −1.3 to +9.5 mmHg, where 93% of subjects increased systolic BP above baseline values (similar for diastolic BP whilst 63% of subjects increased peak systolic BP by more than 4 mmHg. Changes in peak systolic BP were negatively associated with the calculated Matsuda-index of insulin sensitivity (r = −0.39, p = 0.04 but with no other evaluated parameter including body composition. Moreover, besides a trend toward an association between overall changes in systolic BP and total fat mass percentage (r = +0.32, p = 0.09, no association was found between other body composition parameters and overall BP changes.Conclusion: Substantial inter-subject variability in BP changes was observed in a healthy, non-obese subpopulation in response to an oral glucose load. In 63% of subjects, peak systolic BP increased by more than a clinically relevant 4 mmHg. Peak systolic

  13. Modeling the Step-like Response in the Upper Limbs of Hemiplegic Subjects for Evaluation of Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Uchida, Ryusei

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new modeling technique for quantitative evaluation of spasticity in the upper limbs of hemiplegic patients. Each subject lay on a bed, and his forearm was supported with a jig to measure the elbow joint angle. The subject was instructed to relax and not to resist the step-like load which was applied to extend the elbow joint. The elbow joint angle and electromyogram (EMG) of the biceps muscle, triceps muscle and brachioradialis muscle were measured. First, the step-like response was approximated with a proposed mathematical model based on musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics by the least square method. The proposed model involved an elastic component depending on both muscle activities and elbow joint angle. The responses were approximated well with the proposed model. Next, the torque generated by the elastic component was estimated. The normalized elastic torque was approximated with a dumped sinusoid by the least square method. The reciprocal of the time constant and the natural frequency of the normalized elastic torque were calculated and they varied depending on the grades of the modified Ashworth scale of the subjects. It was suggested that the proposed modeling technique would provide a good quantitative index of spasticity as shown in the relationship between the reciprocal of the time constant and the natural frequency.

  14. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia, Emilie; Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Kotz, Sonja A; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Pernet, Cyril R; Gross, Joachim; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-encephalography (MEG) was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs) at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of non-verbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure). Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM) on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG). For each participant we estimated "simple" models [including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence)] as well as "combined" models (including acoustical regressors). Results from the "simple" models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset) of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the "combined" models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i) that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii) the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  15. Single-subject analyses of magnetoencephalographic evoked responses to the acoustic properties of affective non-verbal vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eSalvia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-encephalography (MEG was used to examine the cerebral response to affective non-verbal vocalizations (ANVs at the single-subject level. Stimuli consisted of nonverbal affect bursts from the Montreal Affective Voices morphed to parametrically vary acoustical structure and perceived emotional properties. Scalp magnetic fields were recorded in three participants while they performed a 3-alternative forced choice emotion categorization task (Anger, Fear, Pleasure. Each participant performed more than 6000 trials to allow single-subject level statistical analyses using a new toolbox which implements the general linear model (GLM on stimulus-specific responses (LIMO-EEG. For each participant we estimated ‘simple’ models (including just one affective regressor (Arousal or Valence as well as ‘combined’ models (including acoustical regressors. Results from the ‘simple’ models revealed in every participant the significant early effects (as early as ~100 ms after onset of Valence and Arousal already reported at the group-level in previous work. However, the ‘combined’ models showed that few effects of Arousal remained after removing the acoustically-explained variance, whereas significant effects of Valence remained especially at late stages. This study demonstrates (i that single-subject analyses replicate the results observed at early stages by group-level studies and (ii the feasibility of GLM-based analysis of MEG data. It also suggests that early modulation of MEG amplitude by affective stimuli partly reflects their acoustical properties.

  16. The metabolic responses induced by acute dexamethasone predict glucose tolerance and insulin secretion over 10 years in relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durck, Tina Trier; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Egede, Mette Brogaard

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the metabolic and insulin secretory responses to dexamethasone with the metabolic responses observed at 10 years in normoglycaemic relatives of type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects.......This study aimed to compare the metabolic and insulin secretory responses to dexamethasone with the metabolic responses observed at 10 years in normoglycaemic relatives of type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects....

  17. Multi-frequency response of a cylinder subjected to vortex shedding and support motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikestad, Kyrre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with an experimental investigation of vortex induced vibrations of a circular cylinder. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the influence from a controlled disturbance of the cylinder motions on the response caused by vortex shedding. The cylinder investigated is 2 m long and the diameter is 10 cm. The cylinder is elastically mounted in an apparatus using springs, where the foundation of one of the springs can have a harmonic motion. The apparatus is placed on a carriage in a 25 m long towing tank. Towing velocities are varied between 0.140 m/s and 0.655 m/s corresponding to reduced velocity range from 2.8 to 13.2. The still water natural frequency is 0.497 Hz, and the natural frequency in air is 0.634 Hz. The cylinder is only able to oscillate in the cross-flow direction. The support motion frequency was varied between 0.26 Hz and 1.01 Hz, and the force motion amplitude was varied using 2, 4 and 6 cm support amplitudes. Three sets of experiments were carried out: (1) Still water oscillations due to harmonic support motion excitation, support amplitude and frequencies varied, (2) Towing tests with no support motion, the velocity is varied, (3) Combined excitation: Towing tests with support motion. All possible combinations of experiments (1) and (2) are carried out. The two first experiments provide reference values for the combined excitation experiments and for verification purposes. The results reveal the ability of the external disturbance to influence the vortex shedding process both regarding frequency and the resulting response amplitudes. Results for added mass, in-line drag and damping are also obtained. The work may be of use in deep water floating petroleum production. 81 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Sweet taste liking is associated with subjective response to amphetamine in women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Lyon, Nicholas; Hedeker, Donald; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-11-01

    Preference for sweet taste rewards has been linked to the propensity for drug use in both animals and humans. Here, we tested the association between sweet taste liking and sensitivity to amphetamine reward in healthy adults. We hypothesized that sweet likers would report greater euphoria and stimulation following D-amphetamine (20 mg) compared to sweet dislikers. Men (n = 36) and women (n = 34) completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various concentrations of sucrose and filtered water (0.05, 0.10, 0.21, 0.42, and 0.83 M). Participants who preferred the highest concentration were classified as "sweet likers." All others were classified as "sweet dislikers." They then completed four sessions in which they received D-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation on the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) at regular intervals. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine relationships between sweet liking and drug-induced euphoria and stimulation. Sweet likers reported significantly greater amphetamine-induced euphoria than did sweet dislikers among women. By contrast, sweet liking was not associated with amphetamine response in men. No associations with stimulation were observed. The association between sweet preference and amphetamine response in women is consistent with animal studies linking sweet taste preference and drug reward and also fits with observations that individuals who use drugs show a preference for sweet tastes. Whether the sex difference is related to circulating hormones, or other variables, remains to be determined.

  19. Fibrinolytic response during exercise and epinephrine infusion in the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, W L; Veith, R C; Fellingham, G W; Levy, W C; Schwartz, R S; Cerqueira, M D; Kahn, S E; Larson, V G; Cain, K C; Beard, J C

    1992-06-01

    To determine whether exercise-induced increases in tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) were related to plasma epinephrine concentration during exercise, 14 healthy men (aged 24 to 62 years) were studied during epinephrine infusions (10, 25 and 50 ng/kg per min) and graded supine bicycle exercise, beginning at 33 W and increasing in 33-W increments until exhaustion. Plasma epinephrine, active and total t-PA, active plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and t-PA/PAI-1 complex concentrations were measured at each exercise and infusion level. During epinephrine infusion, active and total t-PA levels increased linearly with the plasma epinephrine concentration (respective slopes [+/- SEM] of 0.062 +/- 0.003 and 0.076 +/- 0.003 pmol/ng epinephrine). During exercise, t-PA levels did not increase until plasma epinephrine levels increased, after which both active and total t-PA levels again increased linearly with the plasma epinephrine concentration, but at twice the rate observed with epinephrine infusion (0.131 +/- 0.005 and 0.147 +/- 0.005 pmol/ng, respectively). The t-PA level in blood was directly proportional to the plasma epinephrine concentration during both exercise and epinephrine infusion, suggesting that epinephrine release during exercise stimulates t-PA secretion. In these healthy subjects, active plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and t-PA/PAI-1 complex levels were low (41 +/- 11 and 21 +/- 5 pmol/liter, respectively) and did not change significantly during exercise or epinephrine infusion. It is concluded that approximately 50% of the increase in t-PA during exercise is due to stimulated release of t-PA by epinephrine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. A distinct adipose tissue gene expression response to caloric restriction predicts 6-mo weight maintenance in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutch, D. M.; Pers, Tune Hannes; Temanni, M. R.

    2011-01-01

    AT) gene expression during a low-calorie diet (LCD) could be used to differentiate and predict subjects who experience successful short-term weight maintenance from subjects who experience weight regain. Design: Forty white women followed a dietary protocol consisting of an 8-wk LCD phase followed by a 6...... studied in all individuals before and after the LCD. Energy intake was estimated by using 3-d dietary records. Results: No differences in body weight and fasting insulin were observed between WMs and WRs at baseline or after the LCD period. The LCD resulted in significant decreases in body weight...... and in several plasma variables in both groups. WMs experienced a significant reduction in insulin secretion in response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test after the LCD; in contrast, no changes in insulin secretion were observed in WRs after the LCD. An ANOVA of scAT gene expression showed that genes regulating...

  1. Prediction of the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading using subject-specific finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Forman, Jason; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to predict the structural response of the femoral shaft under dynamic loading conditions using subject-specific finite element (SS-FE) models and to evaluate the prediction accuracy of the models in relation to the model complexity. In total, SS-FE models of 31 femur specimens were developed. Using those models, dynamic three-point bending and combined loading tests (bending with four different levels of axial compression) of bare femurs were simulated, and the prediction capabilities of five different levels of model complexity were evaluated based on the impact force time histories: baseline, mass-based scaled, structure-based scaled, geometric SS-FE, and heterogenized SS-FE models. Among the five levels of model complexity, the geometric SS-FE and the heterogenized SS-FE models showed statistically significant improvement on response prediction capability compared to the other model formulations whereas the difference between two SS-FE models was negligible. This result indicated the geometric SS-FE models, containing detailed geometric information from CT images with homogeneous linear isotropic elastic material properties, would be an optimal model complexity for prediction of structural response of the femoral shafts under the dynamic loading conditions. The average and the standard deviation of the RMS errors of the geometric SS-FE models for all the 31 cases was 0.46 kN and 0.66 kN, respectively. This study highlights the contribution of geometric variability on the structural response variation of the femoral shafts subjected to dynamic loading condition and the potential of geometric SS-FE models to capture the structural response variation of the femoral shafts.

  2. Comparison of pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state responses in subjects with normal hearing and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdek, Ali; Karacay, Mahmut; Saylam, Guleser; Tatar, Emel; Aygener, Nurdan; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare pure tone audiometry and auditory steady-state response (ASSR) thresholds in normal hearing (NH) subjects and subjects with hearing loss. This study involved 23 NH adults and 38 adults with hearing loss (HI). After detection of behavioral thresholds (BHT) with pure tone audiometry, each subject was tested for ASSR responses in the same day. Only one ear was tested for each subject. The mean pure tone average was 9 ± 4 dB for NH group and 57 ± 14 for HI group. There was a very strong correlation between BHT and ASSR measurements in HI group. However, the correlation was weaker in the NH group. The mean differences of pure tone average of four frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) and ASSR threshold average of same frequencies were 13 ± 6 dB in NH group and 7 ± 5 dB in HI group and the difference was significant (P = 0.01). It was found that 86% of threshold difference values were less than 20 dB in NH group and 92% of threshold difference values were less than 20 dB in HI group. In conclusion, ASSR thresholds can be used to predict the configuration of pure tone audiometry. Results are more accurate in HI group than NH group. Although ASSR can be used in cochlear implant decision-making process, findings do not permit the utilization of the test for medico-legal reasons.

  3. Genome-wide association analysis in asthma subjects identifies SPATS2L as a novel bronchodilator response gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Blanca E; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ruoxi; Wu, Ann C; Lasky-Su, Jessica A; Klanderman, Barbara J; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Lima, John J; Irvin, Charles G; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F; Zeiger, Robert S; Strunk, Robert C; Martinez, Fernando D; Hanrahan, John P; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Vonk, Judith M; Panettieri, Reynold A; Markezich, Amy; Israel, Elliot; Carey, Vincent J; Tantisira, Kelan G; Litonjua, Augusto A; Lu, Quan; Weiss, Scott T

    2012-07-01

    Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function (i.e. FEV(1)) before and after the administration of a short-acting β(2)-agonist, the most common rescue medications used for the treatment of asthma. BDR also serves as a test of β(2)-agonist efficacy. BDR is a complex trait that is partly under genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR, quantified as percent change in baseline FEV(1) after administration of a β(2)-agonist, was performed with 1,644 non-Hispanic white asthmatic subjects from six drug clinical trials: CAMP, LOCCS, LODO, a medication trial conducted by Sepracor, CARE, and ACRN. Data for 469,884 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to measure the association of SNPs with BDR using a linear regression model, while adjusting for age, sex, and height. Replication of primary P-values was attempted in 501 white subjects from SARP and 550 white subjects from DAG. Experimental evidence supporting the top gene was obtained via siRNA knockdown and Western blotting analyses. The lowest overall combined P-value was 9.7E-07 for SNP rs295137, near the SPATS2L gene. Among subjects in the primary analysis, those with rs295137 TT genotype had a median BDR of 16.0 (IQR = [6.2, 32.4]), while those with CC or TC genotypes had a median BDR of 10.9 (IQR = [5.0, 22.2]). SPATS2L mRNA knockdown resulted in increased β(2)-adrenergic receptor levels. Our results suggest that SPATS2L may be an important regulator of β(2)-adrenergic receptor down-regulation and that there is promise in gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of differential response to β(2)-agonists through GWAS.

  4. Stress-Induced Dopamine Response in Subjects at Clinical High Risk for Schizophrenia with and without Concurrent Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Romina; Kenk, Miran; Suridjan, Ivonne; Boileau, Isabelle; George, Tony P; McKenzie, Kwame; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Rusjan, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Research on the environmental risk factors for schizophrenia has focused on either psychosocial stress or drug exposure, with limited investigation of their interaction. A heightened dopaminergic stress response in patients with schizophrenia and individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) supports the dopaminergic sensitization hypothesis. Cannabis is believed to contribute to the development of schizophrenia, possibly through a cross-sensitization with stress. Twelve CHR and 12 cannabis-using CHR (CHR-CU, 11 dependent) subjects underwent [11C]-(+)-PHNO positron emission tomography scans, while performing a Sensorimotor Control Task (SMCT) and a stress condition (Montreal Imaging Stress task). The simplified reference tissue model was used to obtain binding potential relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) in the whole striatum, its functional subdivisions (limbic striatum (LST), associative striatum (AST), and sensorimotor striatum (SMST)), globus pallidus (GP), and substantia nigra (SN). Changes in BPND, reflecting alterations in synaptic dopamine (DA) levels, were tested with analysis of variance. SMCT BPND was not significantly different between groups in any brain region (p>0.21). Although stress elicited a significant reduction in BPND in the CHR group, CHR-CU group exhibited an increase in BPND. Stress-induced changes in regional BPND between CHR-CU and CHR were significantly different in AST (p<0.001), LST (p=0.007), SMST (p=0.002), SN (p=0.021), and whole striatum (p=0.001), with trend level in the GP (p=0.099). All subjects experienced an increase in positive (attenuated) psychotic symptoms (p=0.001) following the stress task. Our results suggest altered DA stress reactivity in CHR subjects who concurrently use cannabis, as compared with CHR subjects. Our finding does not support the cross-sensitization hypothesis, which posits greater dopaminergic reactivity to stress in CHR cannabis users, but adds to the growing body of literature showing reduced DA

  5. Stay calm! Regulating emotional responses by implementation intentions: Assessing the impact on physiological and subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel-Jackson, Lena; Butler, Laurie T; Ellis, Judi A; van Reekum, Carien M

    2016-09-01

    Implementation intention (IMP) has recently been highlighted as an effective emotion regulatory strategy. Most studies examining the effectiveness of IMPs to regulate emotion have relied on self-report measures of emotional change. In two studies we employed electrodermal activity (EDA) and heart rate (HR) in addition to arousal ratings (AR) to assess the impact of an IMP on emotional responses. In Study 1, 60 participants viewed neutral and two types of negative pictures (weapon vs. non-weapon) under the IMP "If I see a weapon, then I will stay calm and relaxed!" or no self-regulatory instructions (Control). In Study 2, additionally to the Control and IMP conditions, participants completed the picture rating task either under goal intention (GI) to stay calm and relaxed or warning instructions highlighting that some pictures contain weapons. In both studies, participants showed lower EDA, reduced HR deceleration and lower AR to the weapon pictures compared to the non-weapon pictures. In Study 2, the IMP was associated with lower EDA compared to the GI condition for the weapon pictures, but not compared to the weapon pictures in the Warning condition. ARs were lower for IMP compared to GI and Warning conditions for the weapon pictures.

  6. Response of a circular steel plate with different weld geometries subject to impact loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer L.W.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of clamped circular steel plates was experimentally investigated under impact loading. The experiments were performed using a high energy drop weight machine with a 5 ton drop weight, which falls from a height of 0.8 m and results in a total impact energy of 40 kJ. Target plates of 10 mm thickness and 580 mm diameter were welded in three different geometrical configurations of weld elements on the lower side. The impact process was carried out using a hemispherical punch. The force was registered by strain gages on the punch. A full dynamic strain field measurement was applied on the tension side using two high speed cameras. The evaluation of the strain field was carried out with the speckle photography technique. The effect of cracks and welding on the deformation and failure behavior was studied using pre-cracked disks and plates with welded webs, welded circular discs and also with a weld seam only. The failure of the plates was registered using the high speed cameras and from the force signal. The results are analyzed and discussed regarding the behavior of the material and component under high rate loading.

  7. Responsibility as an essential structure of the subjectivity by Emmanuel Levinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw BARSZCZAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emmanuel Lévinas’ central thesis was that ethics is first philosophy. His work has had a profound impact on a number of fields outside philosophy, such as theology, Jewish studies, literature and cultural theory, and political theory. His thinking is an interpretive, phenomenological description of the repetition of the face-to-face encounter, the intersubjective relation at its precognitive core, being called by another and responding to that other. In a phenomenology it is a taking into account the experience related to free human action. Our goal is to take what is irreducible in man that may be developed thanks to the free acts of individuals. Lévinas’ assertion of the transcendence of the face should be understood as the most telling point of departure to a respect and human responsibility. This struggle for esteem occurs in the context of different spheres of life: at work, the struggle to prevail, to protect one’s rank in the hierarchy of authority; at home, relations of neighborhood and proximity. Basically, the author describes Lévinas’ notions: the transition from ontology to the thinking of transcendence, the time and death, the philosophy of dialogue, ethics and religion, another and the metaphysics of Good. Since attempts to overcome the fundamental ontology, outlining the same time as the concept of an identity with the Other, the author proceeds to present Lévinas’ reflection on the face, which ‘says’ no transcendence, but contact with my neighbor, immanence.

  8. Leaf biochemical responses and fruit oil quality parameters in olive plants subjected to airborne metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential response to gepirone but not to chlordiazepoxide in malnourished rats subjected to learned helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.M Camargo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The learned helplessness (LH paradigm is characterized by learning deficits resulting from inescapable events. The aims of the present study were to determine if protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM alters learning deficits induced by LH and if the neurochemical changes induced by malnutrition alter the reactivity to treatment with GABA-ergic and serotonergic drugs during LH. Well-nourished (W and PCM Wistar rats (61 days old were exposed or not to inescapable shocks (IS and treated with gepirone (GEP, 0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128 or chlordiazepoxide (0.0-7.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, N = 128 72 h later, 30 min before the test session (30 trials of escape learning. The results showed that rats exposed to IS had higher escape latency than non-exposed rats (12.6 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 0.8 s and that malnutrition increased learning impairment produced by LH. GEP increased the escape latency of W animals exposed or non-exposed to IS, but did not affect the response of PCM animals, while chlordiazepoxide reduced the escape deficit of both W and PCM rats. The data suggest that PCM animals were more sensitive to the impairment produced by LH and that PCM led to neurochemical changes in the serotonergic system, resulting in hyporeactivity to the anxiogenic effects of GEP in the LH paradigm.

  10. Viscoelastic damped response of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shells subjected to various impulsive loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahan, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic damped response of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shells is investigated numerically in a transformed Laplace space. In the proposed approach, the governing differential equations of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical shell are derived using the dynamic version of the principle of virtual displacements. Following this, the Laplace transform is employed in the transient analysis of viscoelastic laminated shell problem. Also, damping can be incorporated with ease in the transformed domain. The transformed time-independent equations in spatial coordinate are solved numerically by Gauss elimination. Numerical inverse transformation of the results into the real domain are operated by the modified Durbin transform method. Verification of the presented method is carried out by comparing the results with those obtained by the Newmark method and ANSYS finite element software. Furthermore, the developed solution approach is applied to problems with several impulsive loads. The novelty of the present study lies in the fact that a combination of the Navier method and Laplace transform is employed in the analysis of cross-ply laminated shallow spherical viscoelastic shells. The numerical sample results have proved that the presented method constitutes a highly accurate and efficient solution, which can be easily applied to the laminated viscoelastic shell problems.

  11. Independent and Interactive Effects of OPRM1 and DAT1 Polymorphisms on Alcohol Consumption and Subjective Responses in Social Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerts, Elise M; Wand, Gary S; Maher, Brion; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Stephens, Mary Ann; Yang, Xiaoju; McCaul, Mary E

    2017-06-01

    The current study examined independent and interactive effects of polymorphisms of the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, A118G) and variable number tandem repeats of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) on alcohol consumption and subjective responses to alcohol in 127 young, healthy, social drinkers. Participants completed an in-person assessment, which included self-reported alcohol drinking patterns and blood sampling for DNA, and in a second visit, a cumulative alcohol dosing procedure with subjective ratings across multiple time points and breath alcohol contents (0.03 to 0.1%). DNA was analyzed for OPRM1 AA versus AG/GG (*G) genotypes, DAT1 10-repeat allele (A10) versus 9 or lesser alleles (A9), and ancestral informative markers. There were significant epistatic interactions between OPRM1 and DAT1 genotypes. Subjective High Assessment Scale scores after alcohol consumption were highest in *G and A9 carriers, and lowest in *G and A10 carriers. Negative subjective effects were also highest in *G and A9 carriers. Effects were similar in a sensitivity analysis limited to Caucasian subjects. There were independent and epistatic interactions on drinking. The OPRM1 *G allele was independently associated with fewer heavy drinking days. The A9 allele was associated with a greater number of drinking days, which was attenuated in carriers of the *G allele. These findings highlight the biological importance of interactions between these 2 genes and interactions between brain opioid and dopamine systems. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Modeling thermal responses in human subjects following extended exposure to radiofrequency energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Kenneth R

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines the use of a simple thermoregulatory model for the human body exposed to extended (45 minute exposures to radiofrequency/microwave (RF/MW energy at different frequencies (100, 450, 2450 MHz and under different environmental conditions. The exposure levels were comparable to or above present limits for human exposure to RF energy. Methods We adapted a compartmental model for the human thermoregulatory system developed by Hardy and Stolwijk, adding power to the torso skin, fat, and muscle compartments to simulate exposure to RF energy. The model uses values for parameters for "standard man" that were originally determined by Hardy and Stolwijk, with no additional adjustment. The model predicts changes in core and skin temperatures, sweat rate, and changes in skin blood flow as a result of RF energy exposure. Results The model yielded remarkably good quantitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin and core temperatures, and qualitative agreement between predicted and measured changes in skin blood flow. The model considerably underpredicted the measured sweat rates. Conclusions The model, with previously determined parameter values, was successful in predicting major aspects of human thermoregulatory response to RF energy exposure over a wide frequency range, and at different environmental temperatures. The model was most successful in predicting changes in skin temperature, and it provides insights into the mechanisms by which the heat added to body by RF energy is dissipated to the environment. Several factors are discussed that may have contributed to the failure to account properly for sweat rate. Some features of the data, in particular heating of the legs and ankles during exposure at 100 MHz, would require a more complex model than that considered here.

  13. Laboratory study of biological response of juvenile salmon subjected to turbulent shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Mueller, Robert P.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2005-07-21

    The objective of this study is to establish correlation metrics between Sensor Fish measurements and live fish injuries through well-controlled laboratory studies, and relate the findings of field studies and computational fluid dynamics modeling to the Sensor Fish measurements in the turbine environment. We exposed juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawythscha) and Sensor Fish devices to a laboratory-generated turbulent shear environment to determine whether observed biological responses could be linked to hydraulic conditions. Since its field trials in 1999, the Sensor Fish device has been an important tool to characterize the exposure conditions that fish experience during turbine, spillway, and other hydraulic environments. The live fish and Sensor Fish were introduced into the top portion of a submerged, 6.35-cm diameter water jet at velocities ranging from 12.2 to 19.8 m-s-1, with a control group released at 3 m.s-1. Injuries typical of simulated turbine-exposures include eye damage, opercle damage, bruising, loss of equilibrium, lethargy, and mortality. Digital video images were captured by two high-speed, high-resolution cameras. Advanced motion analysis was performed to obtain three-dimensional trajectories of Sensor Fish and juvenile salmon, from which time series of the velocity, acceleration, jerk, fish body bending, and force magnitudes were calculated. The motion is then correlated with live fish injury and mortality data and related kinematic/dynamic parameters. This study provides improved understanding of the location and dynamics of conditions deleterious to fish passage, and linkage between laboratory, field studies, and computational fluid dynamics simulations.

  14. Auditory middle latency responses differ in right- and left-handed subjects: an evaluation through topographic brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebbi, Mehrnaz; Mahmoudian, Saeid; Alborzi, Marzieh Sharifian; Najafi-Koopaie, Mojtaba; Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Farhadi, Mohammad

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the association of handedness with auditory middle latency responses (AMLRs) using topographic brain mapping by comparing amplitudes and latencies in frontocentral and hemispheric regions of interest (ROIs). The study included 44 healthy subjects with normal hearing (22 left handed and 22 right handed). AMLRs were recorded from 29 scalp electrodes in response to binaural 4-kHz tone bursts. Frontocentral ROI comparisons revealed that Pa and Pb amplitudes were significantly larger in the left-handed than the right-handed group. Topographic brain maps showed different distributions in AMLR components between the two groups. In hemispheric comparisons, Pa amplitude differed significantly across groups. A left-hemisphere emphasis of Pa was found in the right-handed group but not in the left-handed group. This study provides evidence that handedness is associated with AMLR components in frontocentral and hemispheric ROI. Handedness should be considered an essential factor in the clinical or experimental use of AMLRs.

  15. Dysbiosis, inflammation, and response to treatment: a longitudinal study of pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kelly A; Bertha, Madeline; Hofmekler, Tatyana; Chopra, Pankaj; Vatanen, Tommi; Srivatsa, Abhiram; Prince, Jarod; Kumar, Archana; Sauer, Cary; Zwick, Michael E; Satten, Glen A; Kostic, Aleksandar D; Mulle, Jennifer G; Xavier, Ramnik J; Kugathasan, Subra

    2016-07-13

    Gut microbiome dysbiosis has been demonstrated in subjects with newly diagnosed and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study we sought to explore longitudinal changes in dysbiosis and ascertain associations between dysbiosis and markers of disease activity and treatment outcome. We performed a prospective cohort study of 19 treatment-naïve pediatric IBD subjects and 10 healthy controls, measuring fecal calprotectin and assessing the gut microbiome via repeated stool samples. Associations between clinical characteristics and the microbiome were tested using generalized estimating equations. Random forest classification was used to predict ultimate treatment response (presence of mucosal healing at follow-up colonoscopy) or non-response using patients' pretreatment samples. Patients with Crohn's disease had increased markers of inflammation and dysbiosis compared to controls. Patients with ulcerative colitis had even higher inflammation and dysbiosis compared to those with Crohn's disease. For all cases, the gut microbial dysbiosis index associated significantly with clinical and biological measures of disease severity, but did not associate with treatment response. We found differences in specific gut microbiome genera between cases/controls and responders/non-responders including Akkermansia, Coprococcus, Fusobacterium, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, and Adlercreutzia. Using pretreatment microbiome data in a weighted random forest classifier, we were able to obtain 76.5 % accuracy for prediction of responder status. Patient dysbiosis improved over time but persisted even among those who responded to treatment and achieved mucosal healing. Although dysbiosis index was not significantly different between responders and non-responders, we found specific genus-level differences. We found that pretreatment microbiome signatures are a promising avenue for prediction of remission and response to treatment.

  16. Decrease in heart rate variability response to task is related to anxiety and depressiveness in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinba, Toshikazu; Kariya, Nobutoshi; Matsui, Yasue; Ozawa, Nobuyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiki; Yamamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that heart rate variability (HRV) measurement is useful in investigating the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. The present study further examined its usefulness in evaluating the mental health of normal subjects with respect to anxiety and depressiveness. Heart rate (HR) and HRV were measured tonometrically at the wrist in 43 normal subjects not only in the resting condition but also during a task (random number generation) to assess the responsiveness. For HRV measurement, high-frequency (HF; 0.15-0.4 Hz) and low-frequency (LF; 0.04-0.15 Hz) components of HRV were obtained using MemCalc, a time series analysis technique that combines a non-linear least square method with maximum entropy method. For psychological evaluation of anxiety and depressiveness, two self-report questionnaires were used: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). No significant relation was observed between HR and HRV indices, and the psychological scores both in the resting and task conditions. By task application, HF decreased, and LF/HF and HR increased, and significant correlation with psychological scores was found in the responsiveness to task measured by the ratio of HRV and HR indices during the task to that at rest (task/rest ratio). A positive relationship was found between task/rest ratio for HF, and STAI and SDS scores. Task/rest ratio of HR was negatively correlated with STAI-state score. Decreased HRV response to task application is related to anxiety and depressiveness. Decreased autonomic responsiveness could serve as a sign of psychological dysfunction.

  17. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H

    2016-04-01

    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. A estrutura de capital das maiores empresas brasileiras: análise empírica das teorias de pecking order e trade-off, usando panel data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Correa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sobre estrutura de capital das empresas são consideradas dentre as mais relevantes na área de finanças. Diversas abordagens teóricas têm sido discutidas e testadas na literatura financeira. Este estudo buscou analisar o nível de endividamento das maiores empresas brasileiras, à luz das duas principais teorias que versam sobre o assunto, a teoria de Pecking Order e a teoria de trade--off, testando seus determinantes. A teoria do Pecking Order sugere a existência de uma hierarquia no uso de fontes de recursos, enquanto a teoria de trade-off considera a existência de uma estrutura meta de capital que seria perseguida pela empresa. O estudo é uma adaptação do artigo de Gaud et al. (2005, cujo trabalho serviu como base e principal referência para a escolha das principais variáveis e dos testes econométricos realizados. Tal como Gaud et al. (2005, desenvolvemos as análises estatísticas utilizando a metodologia de Panel Data, que considera os dados da amostra em corte transversal e longitudinal. Além de testes estáticos, foram feitos testes dinâmicos, com o objetivo de analisar o processo de ajuste da estrutura de capital ao longo do tempo, em direção a um suposto nível-alvo ótimo. Os resultados demonstraram relação negativa entre o nível de endividamento das empresas e o grau de tangibilidade dos ativos e a rentabilidade, bem como relação positiva do endividamento com o risco. Demonstraram ainda que empresas de capital estrangeiro são mais endividadas que empresas nacionais. De um modo geral, os resultados sugerem que a teoria de Pecking Order é mais consistente do que a teoria de trade-off para explicar a estrutura de capital das companhias abertas brasileiras. Em especial, destacamos a relação negativa entre endividamento e rentabilidade, confirmando vários outros resultados de pesquisa obtidos na realidade brasileira. A análise dinâmica demonstrou baixa velocidade do processo de ajuste da estrutura de

  19. Effect of fatigue induced by strength training on blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluísio Henrique Rodrigues Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on blood pressure response after strength training in hypertensive subjects, trying to identify the effect of failure in this response. We performed a literature search in SciELO, LILACS, PubMed / MedLine databases. Out of 9377 studies, only six met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Five studies (83.3% reported a reduction in systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Regarding failure, 66.7% (n = 4 of the studies performed the sets until failure while 33.3% (n = 2 interrupted exercise before failure. Out of the four studies that used protocols until failure, 75% (n=3 observed a reduction in blood pressure, and the two studies who discontinued before the series also showed a reduction of failure. The magnitude of blood pressure reduction was similar among studies that employed both protocols. Thus, the results indicated that the reduction in blood pressure after strength training in subjects with hypertension is independent of the occurrence of failure.

  20. Refining the multisystem view of the stress response: coordination among cortisol, alpha-amylase, and subjective stress in response to relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Powers, Sally I; Granger, Douglas A

    2013-07-02

    This study investigated associations among young adults' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, autonomic nervous system activity, and subjective stress in response to interpersonal conflict to better characterize coordination across stress systems. Seven saliva samples were collected from 199 young adult opposite-sex couples before, during, and after they discussed an unresolved relationship conflict. Samples were later assayed for cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA). Couples rated anticipatory stress prior to the conflict and perceived stress immediately following the task. Growth curve modeling was used to examine two possible levels of within-person coordination across physiological systems: alignment between cortisol and sAA responses throughout the sampling period ("matched phase coordination"), and association between overall levels of cortisol and sAA in response to conflict ("average level coordination"). Whereas both partners showed the former type of coordination, only women showed the latter type. Positive anticipation of the stressor predicted stronger cortisol-sAA matched phase coordination for women. Pre-task ratings related to women's sAA, and post-task ratings related to both partners' cortisol responses. Implications for a multisystem interpretation of normal and pathological responses to daily stress are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Roselinde K; Snyder, Hannah R; Gupta, Tina; Banich, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual's response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low) responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that (1) learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that (2) this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective) responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n = 109). People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n = 90), we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest Stroop

  2. Effects of oral ingestion of sucralose on gut hormone response and appetite in healthy normal-weight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, H E; Peters, V; Martin, N M; Sleeth, M L; Ghatei, M A; Frost, G S; Bloom, S R

    2011-04-01

    The sweet-taste receptor (T1r2+T1r3) is expressed by enteroendocrine L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Application of sucralose (a non-calorific, non-metabolisable sweetener) to L-cells in vitro stimulates glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 secretion, an effect that is inhibited with co-administration of a T1r2+T1r3 inhibitor. We conducted a randomised, single-blinded, crossover study in eight healthy subjects to investigate whether oral ingestion of sucralose could stimulate L-cell-derived GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) release in vivo. Fasted subjects were studied on 4 study days in random order. Subjects consumed 50 ml of either water, sucralose (0.083% w/v), a non-sweet, glucose-polymer matched for sweetness with sucralose addition (50% w/v maltodextrin+0.083% sucralose) or a modified sham-feeding protocol (MSF=oral stimulation) of sucralose (0.083% w/v). Appetite ratings and plasma GLP-1, PYY, insulin and glucose were measured at regular time points for 120 min. At 120 min, energy intake at a buffet meal was measured. Sucralose ingestion did not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY. MSF of sucralose did not elicit a cephalic phase response for insulin or GLP-1. Maltodextrin ingestion significantly increased insulin and glucose compared with water (Psucralose does not increase plasma GLP-1 or PYY concentrations and hence, does not reduce appetite in healthy subjects. Oral stimulation with sucralose had no effect on GLP-1, insulin or appetite. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

  3. Substance use, trait measures, and subjective response to nicotine in never-smokers stratified on parental smoking history and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Ovide F; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Finkenauer, Raphaela; Mehringer, Ann M; Langenecker, Scott A; Sirevaag, Erik J

    2009-09-01

    Male and female never-smokers stratified on parental history of smoking were tested for possible differences in susceptibility to the hedonic effects of nicotine. We recruited nicotine-exposed never-smokers with two never-smoking biological parents (PH-) or two ever-smoking biological parents (PH+). After completing a baseline assessment battery focusing on conditions or behaviors associated with smoking, participants were tested for subjective and hedonic effects in response to administration of three different nicotine doses (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg) via nasal spray. Physiological and biochemical reactivity also was monitored. PH+ were significantly more likely to report having experienced a "buzz" upon early smoking experimentation and to have histories of alcohol abuse and alcoholism; they also scored higher on disordered eating. In response to nicotine dosing, PH+ reported an increase in depressed mood, compared with a minimal response in PH-, in keeping with our expectation that nicotine would have more pronounced effects in PH+. Regardless of parental history, women reported experiencing greater anxiety in response to the highest nicotine dose, compared with men. Further exploration in larger samples, using more stringent selection criteria, a wider range of measures, and a less aversive dosing method, may provide a full test of the possible utility of the parental history model for illuminating biobehavioral mechanisms underlying response to nicotine. Also important would be broadening the scope of inquiry to include comparisons with ever-smokers to determine what protected PH+ from becoming smokers, despite the presence of factors that might be expected to decrease resilience and increase susceptibility.

  4. Recent Research and Applications of Numerical Simulation for Dynamic Response of Long-Span Bridges Subjected to Multiple Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many long-span bridges have been built throughout the world in recent years but they are often subject to multiple types of dynamic loads, especially those located in wind-prone regions and carrying both trains and road vehicles. To ensure the safety and functionality of these bridges, dynamic responses of long-span bridges are often required for bridge assessment. Given that there are several limitations for the assessment based on field measurement of dynamic responses, a promising approach is based on numerical simulation technologies. This paper provides a detailed review of key issues involved in dynamic response analysis of long-span multiload bridges based on numerical simulation technologies, including dynamic interactions between running trains and bridge, between running road vehicles and bridge, and between wind and bridge, and in the wind-vehicle-bridge coupled system. Then a comprehensive review is conducted for engineering applications of newly developed numerical simulation technologies to safety assessment of long-span bridges, such as assessment of fatigue damage and assessment under extreme events. Finally, the existing problems and promising research efforts for the numerical simulation technologies and their applications to assessment of long-span multiload bridges are explored.

  5. Impact of ghosts on the viscoelastic response of gelatinized corn starch dispersions subjected to small strain deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Avila-de la Rosa, G; Gómez-Luría, D; Meraz, M; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2014-09-22

    Corn starch dispersions (5.0% w/w) were gelatinized by heating at 90°C for 20 min using gentle stirring. Under these conditions, ghosts, which are insoluble material with high amylopectin content, were detected by optical microscopy. Strain sweep tests showed that the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD) exhibited a loss modulus (G″) overshoot at relatively low strains (∼1%). In order to achieve a greater understanding as to the mechanisms giving rise to this uncharacteristic nonlinear response at low strains, very small constant torques (from 0.05 to 0.5 μN m) were applied in the bulk of the GSD with a rotating biconical disc. This resulted in small deformations exhibiting torque-dependent inertio-elastic damped oscillations which were subjected to phenomenological modelling. Inertial effects played an important role in the starch mechanical response. The model parameters varied with the magnitude of constant small applied torque and could be related to microstructural changes of ghosts and to the viscoelastic response of GSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the Response of a Controlled Building Structure Subjected to Seismic Load by Using Nonlinear System Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, are used to model the behavior of an experimentally scaled three-story building incorporated with a tuned mass damper (TMD subjected to seismic loads. The experimental study is performed to generate the input and output data sets for training and testing the designed models. The parameters of root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient statistics are used to compare the performance of the aforementioned models. A TMD controller system works efficiently to mitigate the structural vibration. The results revealed that the NARX and ANFIS models could be used to identify the response of a controlled structure. The parameters of both two time-delays of the structure response and the seismic load were proven to be effective tools in identifying the performance of the models. A comparison based on the parametric evaluation of the two methods showed that the NARX model outperforms the ANFIS model in identifying structures response.

  7. Divergent muscle sympathetic responses to dynamic leg exercise in heart failure and age-matched healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarius, Catherine F; Millar, Philip J; Murai, Hisayoshi; Morris, Beverley L; Marzolini, Susan; Oh, Paul; Floras, John S

    2015-02-01

    People with diminished ventricular contraction who develop heart failure have higher sympathetic nerve firing rates at rest compared with healthy individuals of a similar age and this is associated with less exercise capacity. During handgrip exercise, sympathetic nerve activity to muscle is higher in patients with heart failure but the response to leg exercise is unknown because its recording requires stillness. We measured sympathetic activity from one leg while the other leg cycled at a moderate level and observed a decrease in nerve firing rate in healthy subjects but an increase in subjects with heart failure. Because these nerves release noradrenaline, which can restrict muscle blood flow, this observation helps explain the limited exercise capacity of patients with heart failure. Lower nerve traffic during exercise was associated with greater peak oxygen uptake, suggesting that if exercise training attenuated sympathetic outflow functional capacity in heart failure would improve. The reflex fibular muscle sympathetic nerve (MSNA) response to dynamic handgrip exercise is elicited at a lower threshold in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The present aim was to test the hypothesis that the contralateral MSNA response to mild to moderate dynamic one-legged exercise is augmented in HFrEF relative to age- and sex-matched controls. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and MSNA were recorded in 16 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction = 31 ± 2%; age 62 ± 3 years, mean ± SE) and 13 healthy control subjects (56 ± 2 years) before and during 2 min of upright one-legged unloaded cycling followed by 2 min at 50% of peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2,peak). Resting HR and blood pressure were similar between groups whereas MSNA burst frequency was higher (50.0 ± 2.0 vs. 42.3 ± 2.7 bursts min(-1), P = 0.03) and V̇O2,peak lower (18.0 ± 2.0 vs. 32.6 ± 2.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1), P Exercise increased HR (P group difference (P = 0.1). MSNA burst

  8. Teoría del Pecking Order versus teoría del Trade off para la empresa Coservicios S.A. E.S.P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Milena Zambrano Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende analizar el grado de aplicación de dos teorías de estructura de capital que han sido contradictorias y extensamente comparadas. Para la aplicación de la teoría del Trade Off se utilizan dos modelos, el primero propuesto por López y de Luna (2002 y el segundo es el propuesto por Cruz et al., (2003. Para la aplicación de la teoría del Pecking Order se analiza la forma como han sido manejadas las reservas, la deuda a largo plazo, el crecimiento de los activos operacionales netos, la tendencia que ha tenido la rentabilidad operacional de los activos y el EBITDA. Al final se encuentra que en los períodos analizados la teoría más usada ha sido la de Pecking Order la cual ha tenido más evidencia empírica en otras organizaciones, y de la teoría del Trade Off no se encontró aplicación.

  9. Using light scattering to measure the response of individual ultrasound contrast microbubbles subjected to pulsed ultrasound in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jingfeng; Matula, Thomas J.

    2004-11-01

    Light scattering was used to measure the radial pulsations of individual ultrasound contrast microbubbles subjected to pulsed ultrasound. Highly diluted Optison® or Sonazoid® microbubbles were injected into either a water bath or an aqueous solution containing small quantities of xanthan gum. Individual microbubbles were insonified by ultrasound pulses from either a commercial diagnostic ultrasound machine or a single element transducer. The instantaneous response curves of the microbubbles were measured. Linear and nonlinear microbubble oscillations were observed. Good agreement was obtained by fitting a bubble dynamics model to the data. The pulse-to-pulse evolution of individual microbubbles was investigated, the results of which suggest that the shell can be semipermeable, and possibly weaken with subsequent pulses. There is a high potential that light scattering can be used to optimize diagnostic ultrasound techniques, understand microbubble evolution, and obtain specific information about shell parameters. .

  10. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  11. Weight loss and blood pressure reduction in obese subjects in response to nutritional guidance using information communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Kanako; Sakurai, Nozomi; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome caused by visceral-fat obesity is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. This study used a new information communication technology (ICT) to investigate body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) changes in response to nutritional guidance. Obese subjects with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or impaired glucose tolerance received guidance with the ICT method (n = 13) or face-to-face according to conventional methods (n = 39). The effects of the methods were compared. After 12 weeks, significant weight loss and BP reduction were observed in the ICT group. Also, significant higher improvements were observed in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and HbA(1c) in the ICT-group compared with those groups using the conventional method. The effectiveness of the ICT method in reducing BW, BP, total and LDL cholesterol, and HbA(1c) was demonstrated.

  12. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  13. Aripiprazole Improves Depressive Symptoms and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in an HIV-Infected Subject with Resistant Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Cecchelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole is the first medication approved by the FDA as an add-on treatment for MDD. The impact of aripiprazole on the response to HIV is unknown. The patient we report on was diagnosed HIV-positive in 1997 and has been treated with antiretroviral therapy since then. In 2008, we diagnosed resistant major depression, hypochondria, and panic disorder. On that occasion, blood tests showed a significantly reduced CD4 count and a positive viral load. We treated this patient with aripiprazole and citalopram. Mood, somatic symptoms, and occupational functioning progressively improved. The last blood examination showed an increase in the CD4 count and a negative viral load. On the basis of the present case study and the review of the literature concerning the effects of psychotropic agents on viral replication, we suggest that the use of aripiprazole in HIV-infected subjects warrants further research.

  14. Numerical Analysis of Dynamic Response of Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels Subjected to Near-Field Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional fully coupled simulation is conducted to analyze the dynamic response of sandwich panels comprising equal thicknesses face sheets sandwiching a corrugated core when subjected to localized impulse created by the detonation of cylindrical explosive. A large number of computational cases have been calculated to comprehensively investigate the performance of sandwich panels under near-field air blast loading. Results show that the deformation/failure modes of panels depend strongly on stand-off distance. The beneficial FSI effect can be enhanced by decreasing the thickness of front face sheet. The core configuration has a negligible influence on the peak reflected pressure, but it has an effect on the deflection of a panel. It is found that the benefits of a sandwich panel over an equivalent weight solid plate to withstand near-field air blast loading are more evident at lower stand-off distance.

  15. Reduced Sympathetic Response to Head-Up Tilt in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Mild Alzheimer's Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Rognstad Mellingsæter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemodynamic control was compared in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI or mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD as well as in healthy elderly subjects. Methods: Noninvasive, continuous hemodynamic recordings were obtained from 14 patients and 48 controls during supine rest (tilt of 30 and 70°. Cardiac output, end-diastolic volume, total peripheral resistance, heart rate variability (HRV, systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV, and baroreceptor sensitivity were calculated. Results: At 70° tilt, the HRV indices differed significantly, with higher high-frequency (HF variability as well as lower low-frequency (LF variability and LF/HF ratios in the patients. The patients had significantly lower SBPV in the LF range at 30° tilt. Conclusions: The results indicate a poorer sympathetic response to orthostatic stress in MCI and mild AD.

  16. When does stress help or harm? The effects of stress controllability and subjective stress response on Stroop performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinde Kaiser Henderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite exposure to stress is critical to resilience. Questions of how stress can impair or improve behavioral functioning are important in diverse settings, from athletic competitions to academic testing to clinical therapy. Previous research suggests that controllability is a key factor in the impact of stress on behavior: learning how to control stressors buffers people from the negative effects of stress on subsequent cognitively demanding tasks. In addition, research suggests that the impact of stress on cognitive functioning depends on an individual’s response to stressors: moderate responses to stress can lead to improved performance while extreme (high or low responses can lead to impaired performance. The present studies tested the hypothesis that 1 learning to behaviorally control stressors leads to improved performance on a test of general executive functioning, the color-word Stroop, and that 2 this improvement emerges specifically for people who report moderate (subjective responses to stress. Experiment 1: Stroop performance, measured before and after a stress manipulation, was compared across groups of undergraduate participants (n=109. People who learned to control a noise stressor and received accurate performance feedback demonstrated reduced Stroop interference compared with people exposed to uncontrollable noise stress and feedback indicating an exaggerated rate of failure. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress showed the greatest reduction in Stroop interference. In contrast, in the group exposed to uncontrollable events, self-reported stress failed to predict performance. Experiment 2: In a second sample (n=90, we specifically investigated the role of controllability by keeping the rate of failure feedback constant across groups. In the group who learned behavioral control, those who reported moderate levels of stress

  17. Inter-subject correlation of brain hemodynamic responses during watching a movie: localization in space and frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Kauppi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinema is a promising naturalistic stimulus that enables, for instance, elicitation of robust emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Inter-subject correlation (ISC has been used as a model-free analysis method to map the highly complex hemodynamic responses that are evoked during watching a movie. Here, we extended the ISC analysis to frequency domain using wavelet analysis combined with non-parametric permutation methods for making voxel-wise statistical inferences about frequency-band specific ISC. We applied these novel analysis methods to a dataset collected in our previous study where 12 subjects watched an emotionally engaging movie “Crash” during fMRI scanning. Our results suggest that several regions within the frontal and temporal lobes show ISC predominantly at low frequency bands, whereas visual cortical areas exhibit ISC also at higher frequencies. It is possible that these findings relate to recent observations of a cortical hierarchy of temporal receptive windows, or that the types of events processed in temporal and prefrontal cortical areas (e.g., social interactions occur over longer time periods than the stimulus features processed in the visual areas. Software tools to perform frequency-specific ISC analysis, together with a visualization application, are available as open source Matlab code.

  18. DIFFERENT CIRCULATING BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR RESPONSES TO ACUTE EXERCISE BETWEEN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Nofuji

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF level is affected by both acute and chronic physical activity, the interaction of acute and chronic physical activity was still unclear. In this study, we compared the serum and plasma BDNF responses to maximal and submaximal acute exercises between physically active and sedentary subjects. Eight active and 8 sedentary female subjects participated in the present study. Both groups performed 3 exercise tests with different intensities, i.e. 100% (maximal, 60% (moderate and 40% (low of their peak oxygen uptake. In each exercise test, blood samples were taken at the baseline and immediately, 30 and 60 min after the test. The serum BDNF concentration was found to significantly increase immediately after maximal and moderate exercise tests in both groups. In maximal exercise test, the pattern of change in the serum BDNF concentration was different between the groups. While the serum BDNF level for the sedentary group returned to the baseline level during the recovery phase, the BDNF levels for the active group decreased below the baseline level after the maximal exercise test. No group differences were observed in the pattern of plasma BDNF change for all exercise tests. These findings suggest that regular exercise facilitates the utilization of circulating BDNF during and/or after acute exercise with maximal intensity

  19. Intra-arterial blood pressure response in hypertensive subjects during low- and high-intensity resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra de Souza Nery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe blood pressure responses during resistance exercise in hypertensive subjects and to determine whether an exercise protocol alters these responses. INTRODUCTION: Resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement for aerobic exercise for hypertensive patients. However, blood pressure changes during this kind of exercise have been poorly investigated in hypertensives, despite multiple studies of normotensives demonstrating significant increases in blood pressure. METHODS: Ten hypertensive and ten normotensive subjects performed, in random order, two different exercise protocols, composed by three sets of the knee extension exercise conducted to exhaustion: 40% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM with a 45-s rest between sets, and 80% of 1RM with a 90-s rest between sets. Radial intra-arterial blood pressure was measured before and throughout each protocol. RESULTS: Compared with normotensives, hypertensives displayed greater increases in systolic BP during exercise at 80% (+80±3 vs. +62±2 mmHg, P<0.05 and at 40% of 1RM (+75±3 vs. +67±3 mmHg, P<0.05. In both exercise protocols, systolic blood pressure returned to baseline during the rest periods between sets in the normotensives; however, in the hypertensives, BP remained slightly elevated at 40% of 1RM. During rest periods, diastolic blood pressure returned to baseline in hypertensives and dropped below baseline in normotensives. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise increased systolic blood pressure considerably more in hypertensives than in normotensives, and this increase was greater when lower-intensity exercise was performed to the point of exhaustion.

  20. The responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact sound: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seok Hyeon Yun; Sang Jin Park; Chang Sun Sim; Joo Hyun Sung; Ahra Kim; Jang Myeong Lee; Sang Hyun Lee; Jiho Lee

    2017-01-01

    ...) may have the different effects on the human’s body and mind. The purpose of this study is to assess the responses of subjective feeling, task performance ability, cortisol and HRV for the various types of floor impact...

  1. Metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkum, Arjan J. T.; de Groot, Sonja; Onderwater, Mark Q.; de Jong, Jelle; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory response during hybrid cycling versus handcycling at equal subjective exercise intensity levels in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre vertical bar Reade,

  2. Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Response and Deformation of Aluminium Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Underwater Impulsive Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Lin Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of aluminium sandwich panels with three thicknesses’ core subjected to different underwater loading levels has been studied in the fluid-structure interaction (FSI experiments. The transient response of the panels is measured using a three-dimensional (3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC system, along with high-speed photography. The full-field shape and displacement profiles of dry face sheets were recorded in real time compared with those of monolithic plate. The out-of-plane deflection and in-plane strain were quantified and analyzed. Three typical deformation modes of sandwich panel were identified. The results show that the core structure is crushed resulting in an initial large circular shape of deformation in the center area of panels. From this moment on, the panel is starting to act as a free vibration beam with initial velocities. The deformation modes consisted of homogeneous large deformation for both face sheets, obvious deformation border on wet face sheet, core node imprinting, remarkable wrinkled skin of deformation border, and a partial delamination and partial tear failure of the dry face. The blast-resistance of sandwich panel can be highly efficiently improved by increasing the thickness of core structure.

  3. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2017-11-03

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  5. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  6. In-situ quasi-static and dynamic behavioural response of steel tubular frames subjected to lateral impact loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeinoddini

    Full Text Available Steel tubular members are widely used as primary and secondary structural framing members in offshore oil and gas platforms. A platform is inherently liable to collisions from ships which can create severe structural damages in the rig. The effect of this damage has been studied by a number of researchers through investigating the impact behaviour isolated tubular members. This is while, the in-situ response of a member located in a structural frame, to lateral impact loads, is not necessarily the same as the response of an individual isolated impacted member. In this paper the behaviour of a chord member forming part of a tubular frame, subjected to impact loads, has been investigated. The tubular frame was tested experimentally by other researchers and reported in the literature. The non-linear numerical models of the frame presented by the authors have been validated against the experimental results. These validated models have been examined under both quasi-static and dynamic impact loads with operational pre-loading applied. It has been found that, in a pre-loaded frame, quasi-static impact loading results in the failure of the impacted member. Interestingly, dynamic modelling of the impact results in the dynamic instability of an adjacent bracing member. It has been noticed that, under a dynamic impact, the impacted in-situ member (located in the frame behaves rather similarly to a pin ended isolated member. With a quasi-static impact, the impacted in-situ member follows fairly closely the response obtained for a fixed ended isolated member.

  7. Postural responses to dynamic perturbations in amputee fallers versus nonfallers: a comparative study with able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanicek, Natalie; Strike, Siobhan; McNaughton, Lars; Polman, Remco

    2009-06-01

    To quantify postural responses in amputee fallers versus nonfallers by using computerized dynamic posturography. All participants completed standard protocols on the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) and Motor Control Test (MCT) of the NeuroCom Equitest. Human performance laboratory in a university in the United Kingdom. Transtibial amputees (n=9) and able-bodied subjects (n=9) (all categorized into fallers and nonfallers according to their falls history in the previous 9 mo). Not applicable. Equilibrium and strategy scores on the SOT. Postural response latency and weight distribution on the MCT. Equilibrium scores were highest when somatosensory information was accurate, but there were no differences between the groups. Strategy scores were lower when visual cues and somatosensory information were inaccurate, and the fallers and nonfallers used a combination of ankle and hip strategies to prevent a loss of balance. The amputee nonfallers indicated they had a greater reliance on visual input even when it was inaccurate compared with the amputee fallers, whereas the control fallers used the hip strategy significantly more compared with the control nonfallers (SOT condition 6: 56+/-22 vs 72+/-10, P=.01). Weight distribution symmetry showed that the amputee nonfallers bore significantly more weight through their intact limb compared with the amputee fallers during backward and forward translations (Pamputees or distinguish between community-dwelling control fallers and nonfallers. Amputee and control fallers can prevent a fall during challenging static and dynamic conditions by adapting their neuromuscular responses. The results from this study have important implications for amputee gait rehabilitation, falls prevention, and treatment programs.

  8. The cerebro-cardiovascular response to periodic squat-stand maneuvers in healthy subjects: a time-domain analysis.

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    Barnes, Sam C; Ball, Naomi; Haunton, Victoria Joanna; Robinson, Thompson G; Panerai, Ronney B

    2017-09-08

    Squat-stand maneuvers (SSMs) have been used to improve the coherence of transfer function analysis (TFA) estimates during the assessment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA). There is a need to understand the influence of peripheral changes resulting from SSMs on cerebral blood flow, which might confound estimates of dCA. 29 healthy subjects underwent recordings at rest (5 min standing) and 15 SSMs (0.05Hz). Heart rate (3-lead ECG), end-tidal CO2 (capnography), blood pressure (Finometer), cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, MCA) and the angle of the thigh (tilt sensor) were measured continuously. The response of CBV to SSMs was decomposed into the relative contributions of mean arterial pressure (MAP), resistance area product (RAP) and critical closing pressure (CrCP). Upon squatting, a rise in MAP (83.6 ± 21.1 % contribution) is followed by increased CBV. A dCA response can be detected, determined by adjustments in RAP and CrCP (left hemisphere) with peak contributions of 24.8 ± 12.7 % and 27.4 ± 22.8 %, respectively, at different times during SSMs. No interhemispheric differences were detected. During standing, the contributions of MAP, RAP and CrCP change considerably. The changes of CBV subcomponents during repeated SSMs indicate a complex response of CBVms. to SSMs that can only be partially explained by myogenic mechanis More work is needed to clarify the potential contribution of other co-factors, such as breath-to-breath changes in pCO2, HR, stroke volume and the neurogenic component of dynamic CA. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  9. Wheal-and-flare responses to intradermally injected adenosine 5'-monophosphate, hypertonic saline, and histamine: comparison of atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanovic, R; Finnerty, J P; Holgate, S T

    1989-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in increasing concentrations, and saline solutions of corresponding tonicity, were injected intradermally in seven atopic and seven normal subjects. Skin wheal-and-flare responses were elicited in a dose-dependent fashion in all subjects, and no difference was found between responses produced by AMP and responses produced by saline of corresponding tonicity. Also, no difference in response to AMP and saline was found between atopic and nonatopic subjects. We further investigated, in seven atopic subjects, whether the skin wheal-and-flare response to the single, highest dose of AMP, saline, and histamine could be inhibited by preadministration of 180 mg of terfenadine, a potent H1 antagonist. A significant inhibition of the wheal-and-flare response to histamine and no significant inhibition to AMP were found. There was a significant inhibition of the flare response caused by hypertonic saline but no inhibition of the wheal response. We interpret these findings as indicating that AMP does not specifically lead to mast cell degranulation in the skin and that there are functional differences between cutaneous and lung mast cells. The observation that terfenadine significantly inhibited the flare response to hypertonic saline suggests that this stimulus produced histamine release.

  10. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino; Doody, Alison; Rehfeld, Jens F; Drewe, Juergen; Peterli, Ralph; Beglinger, Christoph; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity and a possible association with increasing sucrose consumption, nonnutritive sweeteners are gaining popularity. Given that some studies indicate that artificial sweeteners might have adverse effects, alternative solutions are sought. Xylitol and erythritol have been known for a long time and their beneficial effects on caries prevention and potential health benefits in diabetic patients have been demonstrated in several studies. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the gut in response to food intake, promote satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake compared with placebo. In conclusion, acute ingestion of erythritol and xylitol stimulates gut hormone release and slows down gastric emptying, whereas there is no or only little effect on insulin release. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Comparison of the perceived subjective exertion and total load lifted response in resistance exercises performed on stable and unstable platforms

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    Liliane Cunha Aranda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the perceived subjective exertion (PSE and total load lifted in resistance exercises performed on stable platforms (SP and unstable platforms (UP. Participants were 20 men (24.6 ± 3.4 years, 179 ± 0.1 cm, 80.6 ± 9.1 kg and 11.8 ± 3.4% fat. Each subject performed a 15 maximum repetition test in half squat exercises (soil and balance discs, pronated barbell row (soil and bosu and biceps curl (soil and balance discs in both conditions. PSE was measured using the OMNI-RES scale and the load lifted value (kg. To verify the normality of data, the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Possible differences related to loads and PSE on the platforms were performed by the paired t test. Significance level of p <0.05 was adopted. No significant differences between PSE values on SP and UP were respectively observed in the half squat (8.2 and 8.5 / p = 0.8, pronated barbell row (8.4 and 8.4 / p = 0.7 and biceps curl (8.6 and 8.7 / p = 1.0. Higher load values on SP and UP were respectively found in half squat (83.9kg and 70.3kg / p <0.001 and pronated barbell row exercises (53.2kg and 48.6kg / p = 0.01 on SP. However, biceps curl showed dissimilar behavior (48.2kg and 47.4kg / p = 0.5. It was concluded that UP does not promote differences in PSE responses even working with smaller load or similar load.

  12. Autonomic nervous system responses during perception of masked speech may reflect constructs other than subjective listening effort

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    Alexander L. Francis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically, understanding speech seems effortless and automatic. However, a variety of factors may, independently or interactively, make listening more effortful. Physiological measures may help to distinguish between the application of different cognitive mechanisms whose operation is perceived as effortful. In the present study, physiological and behavioral measures associated with task demand were collected along with behavioral measures of performance while participants listened to and repeated sentences. The goal was to measure psychophysiological reactivity associated with three degraded listening conditions, each of which differed in terms of the source of the difficulty (distortion, energetic masking, and informational masking, and therefore were expected to engage different cognitive mechanisms. These conditions were chosen to be matched for overall performance (keywords correct, and were compared to listening to unmasked speech produced by a natural voice. The three degraded conditions were: (1 Unmasked speech produced by a computer speech synthesizer, (2 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by speech-shaped noise and (3 Speech produced by a natural voice and masked by two-talker babble. Masked conditions were both presented at a -8 dB signal to noise ratio (SNR, a level shown in previous research to result in comparable levels of performance for these stimuli and maskers. Performance was measured in terms of proportion of key words identified correctly, and task demand or effort was quantified subjectively by self-report. Measures of psychophysiological reactivity included electrodermal (skin conductance response frequency and amplitude, blood pulse amplitude and pulse rate. Results suggest that the two masked conditions evoked stronger psychophysiological reactivity than did the two unmasked conditions even when behavioral measures of listening performance and listeners’ subjective perception of task demand were comparable

  13. Inter-examiner reproducibility of Ocular Response Analyzer using the waveform score quality index in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalos, Achilleas; Anastasopoulos, Eleftherios; Makris, Leonidas; Dervenis, Nikolaos; Kilintzis, Vasilis; Topouzis, Fotis

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the inter-examiner reproducibility of Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) parameters in healthy subjects using the waveform score (WS) for quality control of acquisition. Fifteen healthy subjects had their intraocular pressure (IOP) measured with ORA by 2 masked examiners. An acquisition protocol that aimed at obtaining 4 reliable measurements in each eye with WS≥6 and with as few repeated measurements as possible was employed, whereas a maximum of 8 measurements per eye was allowed. Additional good quality criteria included symmetrical force-in and force-out applanation signal peaks on the ORA waveform and few or no distortions of the applanation signal curve. Only the right eyes were included in the analysis. Examiners were trained but not experienced. The inter-examiner reproducibility of ORA parameters was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean values of the best 4 measurements were considered in analysis. ICC including the best 4 measurements per eye was high for all ORA parameters. Specifically, ICC for Goldmann-correlated IOP was 0.961, for corneal-compensated IOP was 0.962, for corneal resistance factor was 0.987, and for corneal hysteresis was 0.988. Similar reproducibility was found when only the 3 best measurements per eye were included in the analysis. The protocol for IOP measurement with ORA using the WS ≥6 as quality index achieved high inter-examiner reproducibility for all ORA parameters. High reproducibility was obtained even by inexperienced examiners when considering the mean of the best 3 measurements per eye.

  14. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossa, Ricard; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; López-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2015-04-01

    The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus acclimation to long-term summer drought followed by re-watering in Mediterranean field conditions. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of drought resistance in these plants, a proteomic study using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS was performed on leaves from these shrubs. The analysis identified 57 differentially expressed proteins in water-stressed plants when contrasted to well watered. Water-stressed plants showed an increase, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in HSPs, and downregulation of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism enzymes. Under drought conditions, there was considerable upregulation of enzymes related to redox homeostasis, DHA reductase, Glyoxalase, SOD and isoflavone reductase. However, upregulation of catalase was not observed until after re-watering was carried out. Drought treatment caused an enhancement in antioxidant defense responses that can be modulated by ABA, and its catabolites, ABA-GE, as well as JA. Furthermore, quantification of protein carbonylation was shown to be a useful marker of the relationship between water and oxidative stress, and showed that there was only moderate oxidative stress in C. albidus plants subjected to water stress. After re-watering plants recovered although the levels of ABA-GE and antioxidant enzymes still remain higher than in well-watered plants. We expect that our results will provide new data on summer acclimation to drought stress in Mediterranean shrubs.

  15. The effects of extended nap periods on cognitive, physiological and subjective responses under simulated night shift conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias

    2017-11-16

    Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition. The fixed night condition worked from 22h00 to 06h00, while the nap early group worked from 20h00 to 08h00 and napped between 00h00 and 03h20. The nap late group worked from 00h00 to 12h00 and napped between 04h00 and 07h20. Nap length was limited to 3 hours and 20 minutes. Participants performed a simple beading task during each shift, while also completing six to eight test batteries roughly every 2 h. During each shift, six test batteries were completed, in which the following measures were taken. Performance indicators included beading output, eye accommodation time, choice reaction time, visual vigilance, simple reaction time, processing speed and object recognition, working memory, motor response time and tracking performance. Physiological measures included heart rate and tympanic temperature, whereas subjective sleepiness and reported sleep length and quality while outside the laboratory constituted the self reported measures. Both naps reduced subjective sleepiness but did not alter the circadian and homeostatic-related changes in cognitive and physiological measures, relative to the fixed night condition. Additionally, there was evidence of sleep inertia following each nap, which resulted in transient reductions in certain perceptual cognitive performance measures. The present study suggested that there were some benefits associated with including an extended nap during 8-h night shifts. However, the effects of sleep inertia

  16. fMRI differences between subjects with low and high responses to alcohol during a stop signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckit, Marc A; Tapert, Susan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Tolentino, Neil J; Smith, Tom L; Trim, Ryan S; Hall, Shana; Simmons, Alan

    2012-01-01

    A low level of response (i.e., a low LR) to alcohol is a genetically influenced phenotype that predicts later alcoholism. While the low LR reflects, at least in part, a low brain response to alcohol, the physiological underpinnings of the low LR have only recently been addressed. Forty-nine drinking but not yet alcoholic matched pairs of 18- to 25-year-old subjects (N = 98; 53% women) with low and high LRs as established in separate alcohol challenges were evaluated in 2 event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions (placebo and approximately 0.7 ml/kg of alcohol) while performing a validated stop signal task. The high and low LR groups had identical blood alcohol levels during the alcohol session. Significant high versus low LR group and LR group × condition effects were observed in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during error and inhibitory processing, despite similar LR group performance on the task. In most clusters with significant (corrected p 1,344 μl) LR group × alcohol/placebo condition interactions, the low LR group demonstrated relatively less, whereas the high LR group demonstrated more, error and inhibition-related activation after alcohol compared with placebo. This is one of the first fMRI studies to demonstrate significant differences between healthy groups with different risks of a future life-threatening disorder. The results may suggest a brain mechanism that contributes to how a low LR might enhance the risk of future heavy drinking and alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Water ingestion affects orthostatic challenge-induced blood pressure and heart rate responses in young healthy subjects: gender implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, L A; Aaron, A O; Micheal, O S; Oyeyipo, I P

    2011-11-23

    Evidence exists that women have lower orthostatic tolerance than men during quiescent standing. Water ingestion has been demonstrated to improve orthostatic tolerance in patients with severe autonomic dysfunction. We therefore sought to test the hypothesis that water ingestion would improve orthostatic tolerance in healthy young women more than in aged-matched men. Thirty seven (22 men and 15 women) healthy subjects aged 22.5± 1.7 and 21.5±1.4 (means±SD) respectively, ingested 50ml (control) and 500ml of water 40min before orthostatic challenge on two separate days of appointment in a randomized controlled, cross-over design. Seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate were determined. Orthostatic tolerance was assessed as the time to presyncope during standing. Ingesting 500ml of water significantly improves orthostatic tolerance by 22% (32.0 ± 5.2 vs 26.2 ± 2.4min; pwater, seated systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure rose significantly in men while only systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure rose significantly in women. However ingesting 500ml of water did not have significant effect on seated heart rate in both men and women. Ingestion of 500ml of water significantly attenuated both the orthostatic challenge-induced increased heart rate and decreased pulse pressure responses especially in women. Diastolic blood pressure tended to be positively correlated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in men than in women. Pulse pressure correlated positively while heart rate correlated negatively to orthostatic tolerance in women but not in men independent of other correlates. Water ingestion is associated with orthostatic tolerance strongly in women but weakly in men independent of other correlates. In conclusion, the findings in the present study demonstrated that water ingestion caused improvement strongly in young women than in young men. This improvement is associated with increased pulse pressure

  18. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

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    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  19. Effects of Traumeel (Tr14 on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Response in Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind RCT

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    Kerstin Muders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial intended to test whether ingestion of a natural combination medicine (Tr14 tablets affects serum muscle damage and inflammatory immune response after downhill running. 96 male subjects received Tr14 tablets, which consist of 14 diluted biological and mineral components, or a placebo for 72 h after the exercise test, respectively. Changes in postexercise levels of various serum muscle damage and immunological markers were investigated. The area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCi of perceived pain score and creatine kinase (CK were defined as primary outcome measures. While for CK the p value of the difference between the two groups is borderline, the pain score and muscle strength were not statistically significant. However, a trend towards lower levels of muscle damage (CK, p=0.05; LDH, p=0.06 in the Tr14 group was shown. Less pronounced lymphopenia (p=0.02, a trend towards a lower expression of CD69 count (p=0.07, and antigen-stimulated ICAM-1 (p=0.01 were found in the verum group. The Tr14 group showed a tendentially lower increase of neutrophils (p=0.10, BDNF (p=0.03, stem cell factor (p=0.09, and GM-CSF (p=0.09 to higher levels. The results of the current study indicate that Tr14 seems to limit exercise-induced muscle damage most likely via attenuation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01912469.

  20. Experimental validation of wavelet based solution for dynamic response of railway track subjected to a moving train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    New approaches allowing effective analysis of railway structures dynamic behaviour are needed for appropriate modelling and understanding of phenomena associated with train transportation. The literature highlights the fact that nonlinear assumptions are of importance in dynamic analysis of railway tracks. This paper presents wavelet based semi-analytical solution for the infinite Euler-Bernoulli beam resting on a nonlinear foundation and subjected to a set of moving forces, being representation of railway track with moving train, along with its preliminary experimental validation. It is shown that this model, although very simplified, with an assumption of viscous damping of foundation, can be considered as a good enough approximation of realistic structures behaviour. The steady-state response of the beam is obtained by applying the Galilean co-ordinate system and the Adomian's decomposition method combined with coiflet based approximation, leading to analytical estimation of transverse displacements. The applied approach, using parameters taken from real measurements carried out on the Polish Railways network for fast train Pendolino EMU-250, shows ability of the proposed method to analyse parametrically dynamic systems associated with transportation. The obtained results are in accordance with measurement data in wide range of physical parameters, which can be treated as a validation of the developed wavelet based approach. The conducted investigation is supplemented by several numerical examples.

  1. An experimental study of changes in the impulse response of a wood plate that is subject to vibrational stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Jared; Braunstein, Michael; Piacsek, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    It is a well-known dictum among players of stringed instruments that the tone of a new instrument improves with playing and that a fine instrument needs to be played if it is to maintain its optimum sound quality. This process is sometimes referred to as ``playing in'' an instrument. There is scant mention in the scientific literature, however, of a quantitative analysis of this phenomenon. As a first step in rigorously testing this hypothesis, measurements were made of tap tones of rectangular pieces of thin spruce before and after they were subjected to vibrational stimulus. Four spruce rectangles (20x28 cm) were cut from a single sheet obtained from a luthier supplier; three of these were stimulated at different amplitudes, while the fourth was a control plate. The stimulus (provided by a harmonically driven guitar string connected to the plate via a bridge) lasted approximately 10 weeks, during which time tap tones of all four plates were periodically recorded. Spectrograms of the tap tones are compared among the plates and over time. A preliminary analysis of the data does not reveal any significant changes in the acoustic response of the plates.

  2. Distraction and task engagement: How interesting and boring information impact driving performance and subjective and physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Lesch, Mary F; Garabet, Angela; Simmons, Lucinda; Maikala, Rammohan

    2017-01-01

    As more devices and services are integrated into vehicles, drivers face new opportunities to perform additional tasks while driving. While many studies have explored the detrimental effects of varying task demands on driving performance, there has been little attention devoted to tasks that vary in terms of personal interest or investment-a quality we liken to the concept of task engagement. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of task engagement on driving performance, subjective appraisals of performance and workload, and various physiological measurements. In this study, 31 participants (M = 37 yrs) completed three driving conditions in a driving simulator: listening to boring auditory material; listening to interesting material; and driving with no auditory material. Drivers were simultaneously monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, heart monitoring and eye tracking systems. Drivers exhibited less variability in lane keeping and headway maintenance for both auditory conditions; however, response times to critical braking events were longer in the interesting audio condition. Drivers also perceived the interesting material to be less demanding and less complex, although the material was objectively matched for difficulty. Drivers showed a reduced concentration of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin when listening to interesting material, compared to baseline and boring conditions, yet they exhibited superior recognition for this material. The practical implications, from a safety standpoint, are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Numerical and Theoretical Analysis of Plastic Response of 5A06 Aluminum Circular Plates Subjected to Underwater Explosion Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Peng; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Dynamic response analysis of structures subjected to underwater explosion loading has been always an interesting field for researchers. Understanding the deformation and failure mechanism of simple structures plays an important role in an actual project under this kind of loading. In this paper, the deformation and failure characteristics of 5A06 aluminum circular plates were investigated computationally and theoretically. The computational study was based on a Johnson-cook material parameter mode which was obtained from several previous studies provides a good description of deformation and failure of 5A06 aluminum circular plates under underwater explosion loading. The deformation history of the clamped circular plate is recorded; the maximum deflection and the thickness reduction measurements of target plates at different radii were conducted. The computational approach provided insight into the relationship between the failure mechanism and the strength of impact wave, and a computing formulae for strain field of the specimen was derived based on the same volume principle and rigid-plastic assumption. The simulation and theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experiments results. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO:11272057).

  4. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with chronic fatigue syndrome and matched control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whistler, Toni; Jones, James F; Unger, Elizabeth R; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2005-03-24

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  5. Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and matched control subjects

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    Unger Elizabeth R

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is defined by debilitating fatigue that is exacerbated by physical or mental exertion. To search for markers of CFS-associated post-exertional fatigue, we measured peripheral blood gene expression profiles of women with CFS and matched controls before and after exercise challenge. Results Women with CFS and healthy, age-matched, sedentary controls were exercised on a stationary bicycle at 70% of their predicted maximum workload. Blood was obtained before and after the challenge, total RNA was extracted from mononuclear cells, and signal intensity of the labeled cDNA hybridized to a 3800-gene oligonucleotide microarray was measured. We identified differences in gene expression among and between subject groups before and after exercise challenge and evaluated differences in terms of Gene Ontology categories. Exercise-responsive genes differed between CFS patients and controls. These were in genes classified in chromatin and nucleosome assembly, cytoplasmic vesicles, membrane transport, and G protein-coupled receptor ontologies. Differences in ion transport and ion channel activity were evident at baseline and were exaggerated after exercise, as evidenced by greater numbers of differentially expressed genes in these molecular functions. Conclusion These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated with CFS.

  6. Comparative study of microscopic, spectroscopic and magneto-optic response of ferrofluids subjected to γ-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, M.; Mohanta, D.; Saha, A.

    2015-02-01

    Present work reports a comparative study of spectroscopic and magneto-optic properties of Fe3O4 based ferrofluids prepared with two different carrier fluid namely milli-Q-water and kerosene. The ferrofluids are labelled as FFW and FFK respectively. Both ferrofluids are subjected to γ-irradiation of dose: 2,635 Gy. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies reveal that γ-photon interaction could lead to substantial growth of the dispersed nanoparticles of ferrofluids. In case of FFW, particle sizes are 9 nm (pristine) and 48 nm (irradiated) whereas, in FFK unirradiated particles of size 9 nm show growth to 18 nm after the irradiation. The role of different physical parameters (viz. viscosity, density) of carrier fluid on the growth process is considered in this regard. Viscosity of the carrier fluid is found noteworthy in the measurement of Faraday rotation response of the ferrofluids. In addition to low viscosity of water, irradiation induced particle growth as well as improved size distribution with larger particles leads to a comparatively larger enhancement of Faraday rotation of FFW than that of FFK. Consequently, as a result of γ-irradiation, Verdet constant is modified by 70 % in the former case and by 60 % in the latter case.

  7. Trade-off-theory vs. pecking order theory and the determinants of corporate leverage: Evidence from a panel data analysis upon French SMEs (2002–2010

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    Philippe Adair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We test the assumptions of trade-off theory (TOT and pecking order theory (POT regarding corporate leverage. The dependent variable being the debt ratio, we apply a linear model upon a balanced panel data-set of 2,370 French SMEs over the period 2002–2010. In accordance to TOT, trade credit acts as a signal to creditors who have no private information about the firm and access to credit relies on guarantees. The relationship between corporate leverage and the profitability of SMEs as well as growth opportunities support POT. However, the relationship between corporate leverage and the age of SMEs, as well as their size, remains inconclusive with respect to both theories.

  8. Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in healthy tuberculin skin test (TST-positive human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the variation of IFN-γ and IL-17 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens in healthy TST+ humans. METHODS: We isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 21 TST+ healthy adults, stimulated them with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, PPD, Ag85B, ESAT-6, and live M. bovis BCG, and assayed IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by ELISA in supernatants after 24 or 72 hours of incubation respectively. RESULTS: As in other studies, we found a wide range of IFN-γ responses to M. tuberculosis antigens; the variation significantly exceeded that observed in the same donors to the polyclonal T cell stimulus, phytohemagglutinin (PHA. In addition, we assayed IL-17 secretion in response to the same stimuli, and found less subject-to-subject variation. Analysis of the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-17 secretion on a subject-to-subject basis also revealed a wide range, with the majority of results distributed in a narrow range, and a minority with extreme results all of which were greater than that in the majority of subjects. The data suggest that study of exceptional responses to M. tuberculosis antigens may reveal immunologic correlates with specific outcomes of M. tuberculosis infection. CONCLUSION: Variation of IFNγ and IFN-γ/IL-17 responses to mycobacterial antigens exceeds that of responses to the polyclonal stimulus, PHA, in TST positive healthy humans. This indicates a quantitative spectrum of human immune responses to infection with M. tuberculosis. Since the outcome of human infection with M. tuberculosis varies greatly, systematic study of multiple immune responses to multiple antigens is likely to reveal correlations between selected immune responses and the outcomes of infection.

  9. Association of genetic variations with pharmacokinetics and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin in healthy Korean subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo HI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hye In Woo,1 Suk Ran Kim,2 Wooseong Huh,3,4 Jae-Wook Ko,4 Soo-Youn Lee4,5 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Changwon, Korea; 2Clinical Research and Development, Hanmi Pharm. Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea; 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Background: Statins are effective agents in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but treatment response to statins varies among individuals. We analyzed multiple genetic polymorphisms and assessed pharmacokinetic and lipid-lowering responses after atorvastatin 80 mg treatment in healthy Korean individuals.Methods: Atorvastatin 80 mg was given to 50 healthy Korean male volunteers. Blood samples were collected to measure plasma atorvastatin and lipid concentrations up to 48 hours after atorvastatin administration. Subjects were genotyped for 1,936 drug metabolism and transporter genetic polymorphisms using the Affymetrix DMET plus array.Results: The pharmacokinetics and lipid-lowering effect of atorvastatin showed remarkable interindividual variation. Three polymorphisms in the SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3, and ABCC2 genes were associated with either the maximum concentration (Cmax of atorvastatin or changes in total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. Minor homozygotes (76.5 ng/mL of SLCO1B1 c.-910G>A showed higher Cmax than heterozygotes (34.0 ng/mL and major homozygotes (33.5 ng/mL, false discovery rate P=0.040. Cmax and the area under the plasma concentration curve from hour 0 to infinity (AUC∞ were higher in carriers of the SLCO1B1*17 haplotype that included c.-910G>A than in noncarriers (46.1 vs 32.8 ng/mL for Cmax; 221.5 vs 154.2 ng/mL for AUC∞. SLCO1B3 c.334G>T homozygotes (63.0 ng/mL also showed higher Cmax than

  10. Abnormal auditory mismatch response in tinnitus sufferers with high-frequency hearing loss is associated with subjective distress level

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    Berg Patrick

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tinnitus is an auditory sensation frequently following hearing loss. After cochlear injury, deafferented neurons become sensitive to neighbouring intact edge-frequencies, guiding an enhanced central representation of these frequencies. As psychoacoustical data 123 indicate enhanced frequency discrimination ability for edge-frequencies that may be related to a reorganization within the auditory cortex, the aim of the present study was twofold: 1 to search for abnormal auditory mismatch responses in tinnitus sufferers and 2 relate these to subjective indicators of tinnitus. Results Using EEG-mismatch negativity, we demonstrate abnormalities (N = 15 in tinnitus sufferers that are specific to frequencies located at the audiometrically normal lesion-edge as compared to normal hearing controls (N = 15. Groups also differed with respect to the cortical locations of mismatch responsiveness. Sources in the 90–135 ms latency window were generated in more anterior brain regions in the tinnitus group. Both measures of abnormality correlated with emotional-cognitive distress related to tinnitus (r ~ .76. While these two physiological variables were uncorrelated in the control group, they were correlated in the tinnitus group (r = .72. Concerning relationships with parameters of hearing loss (depth and slope, slope turned out to be an important variable. Generally, the steeper the hearing loss is the less distress related to tinnitus was reported. The associations between slope and the relevant neurophysiological variables are in agreement with this finding. Conclusions The present study is the first to show near-to-complete separation of tinnitus sufferers from a normal hearing control group based on neurophysiological variables. The finding of lesion-edge specific effects and associations with slope of hearing loss corroborates the assumption that hearing loss is the basis for tinnitus development. It is likely that some central

  11. The Energy Cost and Heart Rate Response of Trained and Untrained Subjects Walking and Running in Shoes and Boots,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    footwear , athletic shoes of the S subjects’ choice (average weight per pair = 616g), and leather military boots 1 (average weight per pair = 17 76g) at 3...V O2) measured while walking and running on a treadmill. They wore each type of footwear , athletic shoes of the subjects’ choice (average weight per...Also, both these studies demonstrated trends toward increasing energy costs for subjects walking (3.9 km * h- I or more) in footwear of increasing

  12. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

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    Schulze Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  13. Increased Postprandial GIP and Glucagon Responses, But Unaltered GLP-1 Response after Intervention with Steroid Hormone, Relative Physical Inactivity, And High-Calorie Diet in Healthy Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Katrine B; Vilsbøll, Tina; Bagger, Jonatan I

    2011-01-01

    is unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of insulin resistance and reduced glucose tolerance on postprandial GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon responses in healthy subjects. Research Design and Methods:A 4-h 2200 KJ-liquid meal test was performed in 10 healthy Caucasian males without family history of diabetes...... [age, 24 ± 3 yr (mean ± sd); body mass index, 24 ± 2 kg/m2; fasting plasma glucose, 4.9 ± 0.3 mm; hemoglobin A1c, 5.4 ± 0.1%] before and after intervention using high-calorie diet, relative physical inactivity, and administration of prednisolone (37.5 mg/d) for 12 d. Results:The intervention resulted...... in insulin resistance according to the homeostatic model assessment [1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 2.3 (mean ± sem) ± 1.3; P = 0.02] and increased postprandial glucose excursions [area under curve (AUC), 51 ± 28 vs. 161 ± 32 mm · 4 h; P = 0.045], fasting plasma insulin (36 ± 3 vs. 61 ± 6 pm; P = 0.02), and postprandial...

  14. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Coín-Aragüez, Leticia; Lhamyani, Said; Alcaide Torres, Juan; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Vendrell, Joan; Camargo, Antonio; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs) from normal-weight subjects (Nw) and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS). Methods This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients) participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated. Results Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox

  15. Different response to hypoxia of adipose-derived multipotent cells from obese subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera

    Full Text Available Multiple studies suggest that hypoxia, together with inflammation, could be one of the phenomena involved in the onset and progression of obesity-related insulin resistance. In addition, dysfunction of adipose tissue in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome is associated with decreased angiogenesis. However, some subjects with a high body mass index do not develop metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity. The aim of the current study was to examine the neovascular properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal cells subjected to hypoxia (hypox-visASCs from normal-weight subjects (Nw and obese patients with metabolic syndrome (MS and without metabolic syndrome (NonMS.This was a 2-year study to enroll subjects who underwent bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy. Eight patients who underwent either bariatric surgery or cholecystectomy (27 patients participated in the study. Visceral adipose tissue samples from Nw, MS and NonMS subjects were processed by enzymatic digestion. VisASCs cultured under hypoxic conditions were characterized by tubule formation assay, ELISA, flow cytometry, migration rate, and qRT-PCR, and the effects of visASCs-conditioned medium on survival and endothelial cell tubule formation were evaluated.Hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects showed a greater capacity for tubule formation than hypox-visASCs from Nw and MS subjects. The lower percentage of CD140b+/CD44+ and CD140b+/CD184+ cells observed in hypox-visASCs from NonMS subjects compared to MS subjects was accompanied not only by a lower migration rate from the chemotactic effects of stromal cell derived factor 1α, but also by lower levels of NOX5 mRNA expression. While the levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 mRNA expressed by hypox-visASCs correlated positively with the body mass index and waist circumference of the subjects, the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor present in hypox-visASC-conditioned culture medium

  16. Persistent effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerfald, K; Eberle, C; Grau, M; Kinsperger, A; Zimmermann, A; Ehlert, U; Gaab, J

    2006-04-01

    Psychosocial stress leads to a release of cortisol. While this psychoneuroendocrine response helps to maintain physiological as well as psychological equilibrium under stress, exaggerated secretion of cortisol has been shown to have negative effects on somatic health and cognitive functioning. The study set out to examine the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on cortisol stress responses in healthy men and women. Eighty-three healthy subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) training or a control condition. Four months after the CBSM, 76 subjects underwent a standardized psychosocial stress test. Salivary cortisol responses were assessed repeatedly before and after the stress test. Subjects in the CBSM group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress responses. With regard to gender, this effect was observed in both men and women. However, the magnitude of the CBSM effect on cortisol responses was smaller in women than in men. Use of oral contraceptives in women influenced the cortisol response, but did not have an impact on the CBSM effect on cortisol. The results show that the previously reported attenuation of cortisol stress responses through CBSM persists and are observable in both men and women. Since stress-induced alterations of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis functioning are discussed to be involved in the onset and maintenance of both somatic and psychiatric conditions, similar interventions could be used for prevention and therapy of these detrimental stress effects.

  17. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  18. Chronic inhibition of the respiratory chain in human fibroblast cultures: differential responses related to subject chronological and biological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Pim; van Baalen, Laurens M; Dirks, Roeland W; Slagboom, P Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Tanke, Hans J; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2012-05-01

    Respiratory chain function becomes less efficient with age resulting in increased levels of damaging reactive oxygen species. We compared rotenone-exposed fibroblast strains from young and old subjects and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and the partners of the offspring. Rotenone increased reactive oxygen species levels, inhibited growth rate, and increased telomere shortening (all p < .05). Non-stressed strains from young subjects showed lower reactive oxygen species levels (p = .031) and higher growth rates (p = .002) than strains from old subjects. Stressed strains from young subjects showed smaller increases in reactive oxygen species levels (p = .014) and larger decreases in growth rate (p < .001) than strains from old subjects. Telomere-shortening rates were not different between groups. Stress-induced decreases in growth rate were larger in strains from offspring than from partners (p = .05). Strains from young and old subjects are differentially affected by chronic inhibition of the respiratory chain. Changed growth rates in strains from offspring resemble those from strains from young subjects.

  19. A Multilevel Structural Equation Model of Within- and Between-Person Associations among Subjective Responses to Alcohol, Craving, and Laboratory Alcohol Self-Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Subjective responses to alcohol are important determinants of drinking behavior and have been linked with risk for alcohol use disorders. However, few attempts have been made to examine proximal within-person associations among state changes in subjective responses and ongoing alcohol self-administration in the laboratory. This study disaggregated within- and between-person associations among subjective responses and alcohol self-administration, while also examining the mediating role of craving and the moderating role of trait impaired control over alcohol. Sixty young heavy drinkers (mean age=19.90, SD=0.86) completed self-report measures including the Impaired Control Scale, then participated in a 2-hour intravenous alcohol self-administration session using the Computer-Assisted Self-infusion of Ethanol (CASE) paradigm. Repeated assessments of subjective stimulation, subjective sedation, and craving were examined in relation to ongoing in-session self-administration, as indexed by breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) assessed 15 minutes later. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to disentangle within-person and between-person associations. The results showed few significant associations at the between-person level, except for a direct negative association between sedation and BrAC. At the within-person level, state fluctuations in stimulation were positively associated with both craving and subsequent BrAC, whereas state changes in sedation were negatively associated with craving and positively associated with BrAC. Within-person indirect associations from subjective stimulation and sedation to subsequent BrAC mediated via craving were statistically significant. Also, participants higher on impaired control showed stronger within-person associations between craving and greater subsequent BrAC. The results suggest that subjective responses to alcohol and craving have proximal associations with self-administration behavior, the strength of which is

  20. Effects of Acute Ingestion of Native Banana Starch on Glycemic Response Evaluated by Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Obese and Lean Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Jiménez-Domínguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal glycemic profile, including postprandial glycemia and acute glucose spikes, precedes the onset of overt diabetes in obese subjects. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of chronic native banana starch (NBS supplementation. In this study, we examined the effects of acute ingestion of NBS on glycemic profiles by means of continuous glucose monitoring in obese and lean subjects. In a crossover study, obese and lean subjects consumed beverages containing either 38.3 g of NBS or 38.3 g of digestible corn starch (DCS twice daily during 4 days. On day 5, a 3-h meal tolerance test (MTT was performed to evaluate glucose and insulin responses. After 1 week of washout period, treatments were inverted. NBS supplementation reduced the 48-h glycemia AUC in lean, obese, and in the combined group of lean and obese subjects in comparison with DCS. Postprandial glucose and insulin responses at MTT were reduced after NBS in comparison with DCS in all groups. However, no changes were observed in glycemic variability (GV indexes between groups. In conclusion, acute NBS supplementation improved postprandial glucose and insulin responses in obese and lean subjects during 48 h of everyday life and at MTT. Further research to elucidate the mechanism behind these changes is required.

  1. Neural responses in songbird forebrain reflect learning rates, acquired salience, and stimulus novelty after auditory discrimination training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mimi L.; Vicario, David S.

    2014-01-01

    How do social interactions form and modulate the neural representations of specific complex signals? This question can be addressed in the songbird auditory system. Like humans, songbirds learn to vocalize by imitating tutors heard during development. These learned vocalizations are important in reproductive and social interactions and in individual recognition. As a model for the social reinforcement of particular songs, male zebra finches were trained to peck for a food reward in response to one song stimulus (GO) and to withhold responding for another (NoGO). After performance reached criterion, single and multiunit neural responses to both trained and novel stimuli were obtained from multiple electrodes inserted bilaterally into two songbird auditory processing areas [caudomedial mesopallium (CMM) and caudomedial nidopallium (NCM)] of awake, restrained birds. Neurons in these areas undergo stimulus-specific adaptation to repeated song stimuli, and responses to familiar stimuli adapt more slowly than to novel stimuli. The results show that auditory responses differed in NCM and CMM for trained (GO and NoGO) stimuli vs. novel song stimuli. When subjects were grouped by the number of training days required to reach criterion, fast learners showed larger neural responses and faster stimulus-specific adaptation to all stimuli than slow learners in both areas. Furthermore, responses in NCM of fast learners were more strongly left-lateralized than in slow learners. Thus auditory responses in these sensory areas not only encode stimulus familiarity, but also reflect behavioral reinforcement in our paradigm, and can potentially be modulated by social interactions. PMID:25475353

  2. Evaluation of T-cell response to CD3 plus CD28 monoclonal antibodies in HIV-1 infected subjects treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, M; Bernardi, M L; Mattiacci, G; Pierdominici, M; Ferrara, R; Donnanno, S; Alario, C; Aiuti, F

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could improve CD28 molecule expression and CD28-costimulation pathway function we tested the effect of CD28-costimulation on T cell receptor/CD3 induced proliferative responses in a group of HIV-1-infected subjects with CD4+ cells>200/mmc before and after HAART. CD3-mediated responses are recovered or improved after HAART. However the ability of potentiating the responses through CD28-costimulation seemed conserved before therapy and decreased in parallel with increase of response to CD3 alone. These results confirm the integrity of CD28-pathway of costimulation in patients with CD4+ cells>200/mmc and suggest an inverse correlation between magnitude of response to CD3 alone and increase of CD3 response due to anti-CD28 addition.

  3. Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in The Netherlands: a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the subjective responses of stakeholders and technology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.C. Aries; J. van Hoof; J. Straathof; M.P.J. Aarts

    2014-01-01

    Aarts, M.P.J., Aries, M.B.C., Straathof, J., van Hoof, J. (2014) Dynamic lighting systems in psychogeriatric care facilities in The Netherlands: a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the subjective responses of stakeholders and technology. Indoor and Built Environment doi:

  4. Innocence, Protection and Failure: Bringing the Child Subject to the Centre of the Politics of the Family. A Response to Cristyn Davies and Kerry Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    In response to Davies and Robinson's article looking at how queer families are positioned and position themselves in relation to neoliberalism, this article brings the child to the centre of the debate to examine how reading the child subject in terms of discourses of innocence and protection might work to maintain the hegemony of the…

  5. The effects of a nucleotide supplement on the immune and metabolic response to short term, high intensity exercise performance in trained male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Naughton, L; Bentley, D; Koeppel, P

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ergogenic effects of a nucleotide supplement on the metabolic and immune responses to short term high intensity exercise in volunteer, trained, male subjects. Thirty moderately trained male subjects were randomly divided into 3 equal sized groups, control (C), placebo (P) or experimental (E). Each subject undertook a 2 min maximal exercise test prior to, and after 60 days, on either a nucleotide (E) or placebo supplement. Prior to exercise testing unstimulated saliva samples and blood samples were taken. Saliva was analysed for cortisol and IgA, while blood was analysed for lactate, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase. The postexercise C value was significantly higher than the pre-exercise concentration (Pchanges in blood lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, or creatine kinase concentrations post supplementation. We concluded that a chronically ingested nucleotide supplement blunts the response of the hormones associated with physiological stress.

  6. [Vaccination against hepatitis B on the Ivory Coast: study of the anti-HBs response in healthy adult subjects carrying only anti-HBc antibodies before vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y

    1986-01-01

    A total of 103 volunteers, from 18 to 55 years of age, have received the hevac B Pasteur 5 micrograms vaccine subcutane on sly; one injection a month during three months and one booster injection after one year. The study of the anti-HBs reaction of the subjects, with regard to the serological status to the hepatite B virus before inoculation, has shown that only 78.8% of the subjects, who are only positive towards the anti-HBc antibody, will develop an anti-HBs response of primary type with a relatively low value. In contrast, all anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs subjects, who are positive before inoculation, react with relatively high anti-HBs values right after the first injection, of the seronegative subjects before inoculation. 93.3% will develop an anti-HBs seroconversion after the complete inoculation procedure.

  7. Correlations between subjective treatment responses and plantar pressure parameters of metatarsal pad treatment in metatarsalgia patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi Wei-Li

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metatarsalgia is related to repetitive high-pressure loading under the metatarsal head (MH that causes pain. The high pressure under the MH can be reduced by adequately applying metatarsal pads (MPs. Plantar pressure measurements may provide a method to objectively evaluate pressure loading under the MH. However, it is still unclear if the decrease in plantar pressure under the MH after MP treatment is associated with subjective improvement. This study aims to explore the correlations between subjective pain improvement and outcome rating, and the plantar pressure parameters in metatarsalgia patients treated using MPs. Methods Thirteen patients (a total of 18 feet with secondary metatarsalgia were included in this study. Teardrop-shaped MPs made of polyurethane foam were applied just proximal to the second MH by an experienced physiatrist. Insole plantar pressure was measured under the second MH before and after MP application. Visual analog scale (VAS scores of pain were obtained from all subjects before and after 2 weeks of MP treatment. The subjects rated using four-point subjective outcome scales. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze the difference between the plantar pressure parameters and VAS scores before and after treatment. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare the plantar pressure parameters in each outcome group. Pearson's correlation was applied to analyze the correlation between the changes in plantar pressure parameters and VAS scores. Statistical significance was set as p Results MP application decreased the maximal peak pressure (MPP and pressure-time integral (PTI under the second MH and also statistically improved subjective pain scores. However, neither the pre-treatment values of the MPP and PTI shift in the position of the MPP after treatment, nor the age, gender and body mass index (BMI of the subjects were statistically correlated with subjective improvement. Declines in the PTI

  8. Cerebral autoregulation in response to posture change in elderly subjects-assessment by wavelet phase coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanjin; Zhang, Ming; Han, Qingyu; Li, Wenhao; Xin, Qing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in response to posture change using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 16 healthy elderly subjects (age: 68.9±7.1 years) and 19 young subjects (age: 24.9±3.2 years). The phase coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.6 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.0095-0.02 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using WPCO. The sit-to-stand posture change induces significantly lower WPCO in interval III (F=5.50 p=0.025) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. However, the stand-to-sit posture change induces higher WPCO in intervals II (F=5.25 p=0.028) and V (F=6.22 p=0.018) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. The difference of WPCO in response to posture change between the elderly and the young subjects indicates an altered CA due to aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of CA and may be useful in identifying the risk for dCA processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  10. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehse, Frauke; Trautmann, Michael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: First-phase insulin secretion (within 10 min after a sudden rise in plasma glucose) is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The incretin mimetic exenatide has glucoregulatory activities in DM2, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of the study was to determine whether exenatide can restore a more normal pattern of insulin secretion in subjects with DM2. DESIGN: Fasted subjects received iv insulin infusion to reach plasma glucose 4.4-5.6 mmol/liter. Subjects received iv exenatide (DM2) or saline (DM2 and healthy volunteers), followed...... by iv glucose challenge. PATIENTS: Thirteen evaluable DM2 subjects were included in the study: 11 males, two females; age, 56 +/- 7 yr; body mass index, 31.7 +/- 2.4 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 6.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- sd) treated with diet/exercise (n = 1), metformin (n = 10), or acarbose (n = 2). Controls...

  11. Adolescents' Cortisol Reactivity and Subjective Distress in Response to Family Conflict: The Moderating Role of Internalizing Symptoms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spies, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla; Susman, Elizabeth J; Gordis, Elana B

    2011-01-01

    ... in the youths' daily activities [1,6] . The present study examines adolescents' HPA activity surrounding the social stress of conflictual parent–child discussions. We also examine adolescents' internalizing symptoms and subjective distress as putative influences on HPA activity. Because internalizing disorders include experiences of socia...

  12. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high ...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....... glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  13. Anticipatory and Compensatory Postural Adjustments in Response to External Lateral Shoulder Perturbations in Subjects with Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Kretzer E Castro de Azevedo

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticipatory (APA and compensatory (CPA postural adjustments in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD during lateral instability of posture. Twenty-six subjects (13 individuals with PD and 13 healthy matched controls were exposed to predictable lateral postural perturbations. The electromyographic (EMG activity of the lateral muscles and the displacement of the center of pressure (COP were recorded during four time intervals that are typical for postural adjustments, i.e., immediately before (APA1, APA2 and after (CPA1 and CPA2 the postural disturbances. The magnitude of the activity of the lateral muscles in the group with PD was lower only during the CPA time intervals and not during the anticipatory adjustments (APAs. Despite this finding, subjects with PD exhibit smaller COP excursions before and after the disturbance, probably due to lack of flexibility and proprioceptive impairments. The results of this study suggest that postural instability in subjects with PD can be partially explained by decreased postural sway, before and after perturbations, and reduced muscular activity after body disturbances. Our findings can motivate new studies to investigate therapeutic interventions that optimize the use of postural adjustment strategies in subjects with PD.

  14. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Karstoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectivesAmbiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR, and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR.MethodsData from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14 completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT, interval-walking training (IWT] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak and fast (89% VO2peak walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23 were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session. Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed.ResultsNo overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM, fat-free mass (FFM, and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR.ConclusionNeither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D

  15. Resting Metabolic Rate Does Not Change in Response to Different Types of Training in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Brinkløv, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Ambiguous results have been reported regarding the effects of training on resting metabolic rate (RMR), and the importance of training type and intensity is unclear. Moreover, studies in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are sparse. In this study, we evaluated the effects of interval and continuous training on RMR in subjects with T2D. Furthermore, we explored the determinants for training-induced alterations in RMR. Data from two studies, both including T2D subjects, were encompassed in this manuscript. Study 1 was a randomized, crossover study where subjects (n = 14) completed three, 2-week interventions [control, continuous walking training (CWT), interval-walking training (IWT)] separated by washout periods. Training included 10 supervised treadmill sessions, 60 min/session. CWT was performed at moderate walking speed [aiming for 73% of walking peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak)], while IWT was performed as alternating 3-min repetitions at slow (54% VO2peak) and fast (89% VO2peak) walking speed. Study 2 was a single-arm training intervention study where subjects (n = 23) were prescribed 12 weeks of free-living IWT (at least 3 sessions/week, 30 min/session). Before and after interventions, RMR, physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control parameters were assessed. No overall intervention-induced changes in RMR were seen across the studies, but considerable inter-individual differences in RMR changes were seen in Study 2. At baseline, total body mass (TBM), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass were all associated with RMR. Changes in RMR were associated with changes in TBM and fat mass, and subjects who decreased body mass and fat mass also decreased their RMR. No associations were seen between changes in physical fitness, glycemic control, or FFM and changes in RMR. Neither short-term continuous or interval-type training, nor longer term interval training affects RMR in subjects with T2D when no overall changes in body composition are seen

  16. Dynamic Response of Cable-Supported Façades Subjected to High-Level Air Blast Loads: Numerical Simulations and Mitigation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Amadio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A glazing façade subjected to blast loads has a structural behaviour that strongly differs from the typical response of a glazing system subjected to ordinary loads. Consequently, sophisticated modelling techniques are required to identify correctly its criticalities. The paper investigates the behaviour of a cable-supported façade subjected to high-level blast loading. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed in ABAQUS/Explicit using a sophisticated FE-model (M01, calibrated to dynamic experimental and numerical results. The structural effects of the total design blast impulse, as well as only its positive phase, are analyzed. At the same time, the possible cracking of glass panels is taken into account, since this phenomenon could modify the response of the entire façade. Finally, deep investigations are dedicated to the bearing cables, since subjecting them to elevated axial forces and their collapse could compromise the integrity of the cladding wall. Based on results of previous studies, frictional devices differently applied at their ends are presented to improve the response of the façade under the impact of a high-level explosion. Structural effects of various solutions are highlighted through dynamic simulations. Single vertical devices, if appropriately calibrated, allow reducing significantly the axial forces in cables, and lightly the tensile stresses in glass panes.

  17. Long-Term Monitoring of Physical Behavior Reveals Different Cardiac Responses to Physical Activity among Subjects with and without Chronic Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Hallman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We determined the extent to which heart rate variability (HRV responses to daily physical activity differ between subjects with and without chronic neck pain. Method. Twenty-nine subjects (13 women with chronic neck pain and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated. Physical activity (accelerometry, HRV (heart rate monitor, and spatial location (Global Positioning System (GPS were recorded for 74 hours. GPS data were combined with a diary to identify periods of work and of leisure at home and elsewhere. Time- and frequency-domain HRV indices were calculated and stratified by period and activity type (lying/sitting, standing, or walking. ANCOVAs with multiple adjustments were used to disclose possible group differences in HRV. Results. The pain group showed a reduced HRV response to physical activity compared with controls (p=.001, according to the sympathetic-baroreceptor HRV index (LF/HF, ratio between low- and high-frequency power, even after adjustment for leisure time physical activity, work stress, sleep quality, mental health, and aerobic capacity (p=.02. The parasympathetic response to physical activity did not differ between groups. Conclusions. Relying on long-term monitoring of physical behavior and heart rate variability, we found an aberrant sympathetic-baroreceptor response to daily physical activity among subjects with chronic neck pain.

  18. Genital and Subjective Sexual Response in Women After Restorative Proctocolectomy with Ileal Pouch Anal Anastomosis-A Prospective Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlug, Malaika S.; Laan, Ellen T.; van Lunsen, Rik H. W.; van Koperen, Paul J.; Polle, Sebastiaan W.; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Sexual dysfunction after ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is common. The most systematic physical reaction to sexual stimulation is an increase in vaginal vasocongestion. Genital response can be assessed by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography. Aim. To

  19. Biomechanical response of two fast-growing tropical seagrass species subjected to in situ shading and sediment fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Nafie, Y.A.; de los Santos, C.B.; Brun, F.G.; Mashoreng, S.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Bouma, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Although seagrasses experience strong hydrodynamic forces, little is known about their biomechanical response in spite of the potential importance for their ecological success. We investigated how light reduction and sediment-nutrient enrichment affect biomechanical and morphological properties of

  20. Genetic variation of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) influences the acute subjective responses to cocaine in volunteers with cocaine use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Alex J; Nielsen, David A; Spellicy, Catherine J; Hamon, Sara C; Gingrich, Justin; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Nielsen, Ellen M; Mahoney, James J; Kosten, Thomas R; Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gene variants of DAT1 (SLC6A3) that modulate subjective responses to acute cocaine exposure. Non-treatment-seeking volunteers (n=66) with cocaine use disorders received a single bolus infusion of saline and cocaine (40 mg, intravenous) in a randomized order. Subjective effects were assessed with visual analog scales administered before (-15 min) and up to 20 min after infusion. Ratings of subjective effects were normalized to baseline, and saline infusion values were subtracted. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. DNA from the participants was genotyped for the DAT1 intron 8 (rs3836790) and 3'-untranslated region (rs28363170) variable number of tandem repeats. Participants were mostly male (∼80%) and African American (∼70%). No differences were found among drug use variables between groups for either polymorphism. Carriers of the 9-allele of the DAT1 3'-untranslated region (9,9 and 9,10) exhibited greater responses to cocaine for 'high', 'any drug effect', 'anxious', and 'stimulated' (all P-values<0.001) compared with individuals homozygous for the 10-allele. For the intron 8 polymorphism, individuals homozygous for the 6-allele exhibited greater responses for 'anxious' compared with carriers of the 5-allele (P<0.001). Individuals possessing the genotype pattern of 10,10 and at least one 5-allele reported lower responses to 'good effects', 'bad effects', 'depressed', and 'anxious' (all P-values<0.01). The data presented here show for the first time support for the hypothesis that genetic differences in DAT1 contribute to the variation in subjective responses to cocaine among participants with cocaine use disorders.

  1. COMT Val158Met genotype selectively alters prefrontal [18F]fallypride displacement and subjective feelings of stress in response to a psychosocial stress challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hernaus

    Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT plays an essential role in degradation of extracellular dopamine in prefrontal regions of the brain. Although a polymorphism in this gene, COMT Val(158Met, affects human behavior in response to stress little is known about its effect on dopaminergic activity associated with the human stress response, which may be of interest for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as psychosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of variations in COMT genotype on in vivo measures of stress-induced prefrontal cortex (PFC dopaminergic processing and subjective stress responses. A combined sample of healthy controls and healthy first-degree relatives of psychosis patients (n = 26 were subjected to an [(18F]fallypride Positron Emission Tomography scan. Psychosocial stress during the scan was induced using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task and subjective stress was assessed every 12 minutes. Parametric t-maps, generated using the linear extension of the simplified reference region model, revealed an effect of COMT genotype on the spatial extent of [(18F]fallypride displacement. Detected effects of exposure to psychosocial stress were unilateral and remained restricted to the left superior and right inferior frontal gyrus, with Met-hetero- and homozygotes showing less [(18F]fallypride displacement than Val-homozygotes. Additionally, Met-hetero- and homozygotes experienced larger subjective stress responses than Val-homozygotes. The direction of the effects remained the same when the data was analyzed separately for controls and first-degree relatives. The human stress response may be mediated in part by COMT-dependent dopaminergic PFC activity, providing speculation for the neurobiology underlying COMT-dependent differences in human behaviour following stress. Implications of these results for stress-related psychopathology and models of dopaminergic functioning are discussed.

  2. Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölnerhanssen, Bettina K; Cajacob, Lucian; Keller, Nino

    2016-01-01

    were given 75 g of glucose, 50 g of xylitol, or 75 g of erythritol in 300 ml of water or placebo (water) by a nasogastric tube. We examined plasma glucose, insulin, active GLP-1, CCK, and GE with a [(13)C]sodium acetate breath test and assessed subjective feelings of satiation. Xylitol and erythritol...... satiation, reduce gastric emptying (GE), and modulate glucose homeostasis. Although glucose ingestion stimulates sweet taste receptors in the gut and leads to incretin and gastrointestinal hormone release, the effects of xylitol and erythritol have not been well studied. Ten lean and 10 obese volunteers...... led to a marked increase in CCK and GLP-1, whereas insulin and plasma glucose were not (erythritol) or only slightly (xylitol) affected. Both xylitol and erythritol induced a significant retardation in GE. Subjective feelings of appetite were not significantly different after carbohydrate intake...

  3. Physiological and Subjective Responses to Wearing the A/P22P-9(V) helicopter Aircrewman Chemical, Biological Protection Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-21

    2. The assembly consists of eight basic components. MK-i Undercoverall 14. The MK-i is a one-piece coverall constructed of a nonwoven nylon fabric...constructed of a nonwoven nylon fabric with a small percentage of viscose rayon. The outside of the garment is treated with a fluorochemical to repel liquids...temperatures was known to produce heat stress. subjects were well-trained on heat-related injuries, their symptoms and remedies . An explanation of heat

  4. X-ray and finite element analysis of deformation response of closed-cell metal foam subjected to compressive loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroušek, Ondřej; Doktor, Tomáš; Kytýř, Daniel; Zlámal, Petr; Fíla, Tomáš; Koudelka_ml., Petr; Jandejsek, Ivan; Vavřík, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2013), s. 2012-2016 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/12/0824 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : X-ray radiography and digital radiography * computerized tomography and computed radiography * pixelated detectors and associated VLSI electronics Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.526, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-0221/8/02/C02012

  5. Redox proteomics and physiological responses in Cistus albidus shrubs subjected to long-term summer drought followed by recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Brossa, Ricard; Pint?-Marijuan, Marta; Francisco, Rita; L?pez-Carbonell, Marta; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Alegre, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Main conclusion The interaction between enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, endogenous levels of ABA and ABA-GE, the rapid recuperation of photosynthetic proteins under re-watering as well the high level of antioxidant proteins in previously drought-stressed plants under re-watering conditions, will contribute to drought resistance in plants subjected to a long-term drought stress under Mediterranean field conditions. This work provides an overview of the mechanisms of Cistus albidus ac...

  6. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  7. Subjective alcohol responses in a cross-sectional, field-based study of adolescents and young adults: Effects of age, drinking level, and dependence/consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Hayley; Celio, Mark A; Lisman, Stephen A; Miranda, Robert; Spear, Linda P

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are physically, cognitively, socially, and emotionally different than adults in ways that may partially explain why alcohol misuse typically develops during this period. Ample animal-science evidence and nascent ecological evidence points toward developmentally limited differences in sensitivity to alcohol's stimulatory and sedative effects. Field-based research methods were used to test for such age-related differences in a sample of adolescents through young adults. Potential moderating influences of estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), as well as typical consumption and level of dependence/consequences were explored. Subjective alcohol responses were collected from 1,364 participants, aged 17 to 32 years, recruited outside of venues where drinking takes place in a small metropolitan bar district. Self-reports of stimulatory response to alcohol were age-related, such that younger participants reported increased subjective stimulation at the time of data collection relative to older participants. Age-related differences in stimulatory responses were more pronounced at lower eBACs and among younger participants who typically drank more heavily. Stimulatory responses generally diminished among older than younger participants, although individuals with greater dependence/consequences consistently reported greater stimulation from drinking. Contrastingly, age, typical consumption, and dependence/consequences were not related to sedation in this sample. This research provides cross-sectional evidence to support age-, consumption-, and dependence/consequences-related differences in stimulatory alcohol responses among adolescents and young adults assessed within a bar-area context. While cross-sectional, the results of this field-based study provide support for the theory that addiction liability is developmentally linked and associated, in part, with age-related differences in subjective alcohol responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  8. The principal components of response strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  9. Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Farzad; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohd Ali, Siti Zubaidah; Ismail, Patimah; Etemad, Ali; Pishva, Seyyed Reza; Othman, Fauziah; Abu Bakar, Suhaili

    2015-12-01

    Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D polymorphism was carried out using a standard PCR method. Statistically significant association of the D allele of the ACE gene was observed between the case and control subjects (p ACE gene. Patients carrying the DD genotype had higher blood pressure-lowering response when treated with ACE inhibitors enalapril or lisinopril than those carrying ID and II genotypes, suggesting that the D allele may be a possible genetic marker for essential hypertension among Malay male subjects. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. DEVELOPING ‘STANDARD NOVEL ‘VAD’ TECHNIQUE’ AND ‘NOISE FREE SIGNALS’ FOR SPEECH AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSES FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganadh Narayanam

    2016-01-01

    In this research as a first step we have concentrated on collecting non-intra cortical EEG data of Brainstem Speech Evoked Potentials from human subjects in an Audiology Lab in University of Ottawa. The problems we have considered are the most advanced and most essential problems of interest in Auditory Neural Signal Processing area in the world: The first problem is the Voice Activity Detection (VAD) in Speech Auditory Brainstem Responses (ABR); The second problem is to identify the best De-...

  11. Cardiovascular responses to an exercise test in subjects with intermittent claudication. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n3p208

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grizzo Cucato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest that patients with intermittent claudication (IC present abnormal cardiovascular responses during treadmill exercise. However, it remains unclear whether this response is influenced by the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of IC severity on cardiovascular responses to an exercise test in subjects with peripheral arterial obstructive disease. Forty-seven men and women with IC, with a mean age of 65±9 years, participated in the study. The subjects underwent an exercise test on a treadmill using a specific protocol for this population. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the distance walked in the test: 1st tertile, walked from 210 to 420 m; 2nd tertile, walked from 450 to 700 m, and 3rd tertile, walked from 740 to 1060 m. Systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and rate-pressure product (RPP were measured at rest, in the first stage of the treadmill test, and during peak exercise. SBP and DBP increased along the exercise test in the three tertiles. HR and RPP increased along the test in the three tertiles, and these increases were higher in the 1st tertile than in the other tertiles in the first stage. However, similar HR and RPP were observed for the three tertiles during peak exercise. In conclusion, the severity of IC did not affect blood pressure responses during treadmill exercise. However, HR and RPP were higher during submaximal exercise in subjects with more severe IC.

  12. Hypothalamic BOLD response to glucose intake and hypothalamic volume are similar in anorexia nervosa and healthy control subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Van Opstal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inconsistent findings about the neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa (AN hinder the development of effective treatments for this severe mental disorder. Therefore the need arises for elucidation of neurobiological factors involved in the pathophysiology of AN. The hypothalamus plays a key role in the neurobiological processes that govern food intake and energy homeostasis, processes that are disturbed in anorexia nervosa (AN. The present study will assess the hypothalamic response to energy intake and the hypothalamic structure in patients with AN and healthy controls. Methods. 10 women aged 18-30 years diagnosed with AN and 11 healthy, lean (BMI <23 kg/m2 women in the same age range were recruited. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to determine function of the hypothalamus in response to glucose. Structural MRI was used to determine differences in hypothalamic volume and local grey volume using manual segmentation and voxel-based morphometry.Results. No differences were found in hypothalamic volume and neuronal activity in response to a glucose load between the patients and controls. Whole brain structural analysis showed a significant decrease in grey matter volume in the cingulate cortex in the AN patients, bilaterally.Conclusions. We argue that in spite of various known changes in the hypothalamus the direct hypothalamic response to glucose intake is similar in AN patients and healthy controls.

  13. Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy D. Schowalter; Michael R. Willig; Steven J. Presley

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed responses of canopy arthropods on seven representative early and late successional overstory and understory tree species to a canopy trimming experiment designed to separate effects of canopy opening and debris pulse (resulting from hurricane disturbance) in a tropical rainforest ecosystem at the Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (...

  14. Association between brain natriuretic peptide, markers of inflammation and the objective and subjective response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Versteeg, Henneke; Meine, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Studies suggest that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can induce a decrease in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and systemic inflammation, which may be associated with CRT-response. However, the evidence is inconclusive. We examined levels of BNP and inflammatory markers from...

  15. Modification of concentration-response curves to inhaled methacholine after the pollen season in subjects with pollen induced rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L.; López, M.; Bertó, J. M.; Peris, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The effect of cessation of exposure to pollen on the concentration-response curves to inhaled methacholine was investigated. METHODS--Methacholine inhalation challenges (up to 200 mg/ml) were performed in 13 non-asthmatic patients with grass and/or Parietaria pollen-induced rhinitis during the pollen season, and one and four months after it. Concentration-response curves were characterised by their PC20, position, and plateau. RESULTS--Geometric mean methacholine PC20 increased from 6.4 mg/ml during the pollen season to 28.2 mg/ml and 54.9 mg/ml one and four months after the end of season, respectively. The mean (SE) level of the plateau decreased from 30.5 (4.3%) in the pollen season to 23.3 (3.7)% and 20.1 (3.3)% one and four months after the end of pollen season, respectively. Although the methacholine concentration that produced 50% of the maximal response increased from 2.9 mg/ml to 4.3 mg/ml and 6.0 mg/ml, the differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS--In non-asthmatic patients with pollen-induced rhinitis cessation of exposure to pollen is associated with significant modifications in the methacholine threshold value and level of plateau, and with a small shift in the concentration-response curves to the right. PMID:8066569

  16. A Response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting Subjectivity: An Anti-Neoliberal Reformulation of Science Education for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically…

  17. Multivariate analysis of subjective responses to d-amphetamine in healthy volunteers finds novel genetic pathway associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarosh, Haley L; Meda, Shashwath A; de Wit, Harriet; Hart, Amy B; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-08-01

    Researchers studying behavioral and physiologic effects of d-amphetamine have explored individual response differences to the drug. Concurrently, genome-wide analyses have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with these traits. Univariate methods can identify SNPs associated with behavioral and physiological traits, but multivariate analyses allow identification of clusters of related biologically relevant SNPs and behavioral components. The aim of the study was to identify clusters of related biologically relevant SNPs and behavioral components in the responses of healthy individuals to d-amphetamine using multivariate analysis. Individuals (N = 375) without substance abuse histories completed surveys and detailed cardiovascular monitoring during randomized, blinded sessions: d-amphetamine (10 and 20 mg) and placebo. We applied parallel independent component analysis (Para-ICA) to data previously analyzed with univariate approaches, revealing new associations between genes and behavioral responses to d-amphetamine. Three significantly associated (p amphetamine addiction appear to mediate common behavioral and cardiovascular responses to d-amphetamine.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Analysis in Asthma Subjects Identifies SPATS2L as a Novel Bronchodilator Response Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Himes, Blanca E.; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ruoxi; Wu, Ann C.; Lasky-Su, Jessica A.; Klanderman, Barbara J.; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Peters, Stephen P.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Szefler, Stanley J.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Strunk, Robert C.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Hanrahan, John P.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A. E.; Vonk, Judith M.; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Markezich, Amy; Israel, Elliot; Carey, Vincent J.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Lu, Quan; Weiss, Scott T.

    Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function (i.e. FEV1) before and after the administration of a short-acting beta(2)-agonist, the most common rescue medications used for the treatment of asthma. BDR also

  19. In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IFN-γ release assay enhances T cell responses in subjects with latent tuberculosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv L Gaur

    Full Text Available Activation of innate immunity via pathogen recognition receptors (PRR modulates adaptive immune responses. PRR ligands are being exploited as vaccine adjuvants and as therapeutics, but their utility in diagnostics has not been explored. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs are functional T cell assays used to diagnose latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI; however, novel approaches are needed to improve their sensitivity.In vitro immunomodulation of a whole blood IGRA (QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD In-Tube with Toll-like receptor agonists poly(I:C, LPS, and imiquimod was performed on blood from subjects with LTBI and negative controls.In vitro immunomodulation significantly enhanced the response of T cells stimulated with M. tuberculosis antigens from subjects with LTBI but not from uninfected controls. Immunomodulation of IGRA revealed T cell responses in subjects with LTBI whose T cells otherwise do not respond to in vitro stimulation with antigens alone. Similar to their in vivo functions, addition of poly(I:C and LPS to whole blood induced secretion of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-α and enhanced the surface expression of antigen presenting and costimulatory molecules on antigen presenting cells.In vitro immunomodulation of whole blood IGRA may be an effective strategy for enhancing the sensitivity of T cells for diagnosis of LTBI.

  20. 'Because I've been extremely careful': HIV seroconversion, responsibility, citizenship and the neo-liberal drug-using subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsi, Andrea; McNeil, Ryan; Moore, David; Small, Will

    2017-01-01

    In this article we examine how injection drug users who do not attribute their HIV infection to engaging in HIV risk behaviours take up and critique discourses of individual responsibility and citizenship relating to HIV risk and HIV prevention. We draw on data from a study in Vancouver, Canada (2006 - 2009) in which we interviewed individuals living with HIV who had a history of injection drug use. In this paper we focus on 6 cases studies of participants who did not attribute their HIV infection to engaging in HIV risk behaviours. We found that in striving to present themselves as responsible HIV citizens who did not engage in HIV risk behaviours, these participants drew on individually-focused HIV prevention discourses. By identifying themselves in these ways, they were able to present themselves as 'deserving' HIV citizens and avoid the blame associated with being HIV positive. However, in rejecting the view that they and their risk behaviours were to blame for their HIV infection and by developing an explanation that drew on broader social, structural and historical factors, these individuals were developing a tentative critique of the importance of individual responsibility in HIV transmission as opposed to dangers of infection from the socio-economic environment. By framing the risk of infection in environmental rather than individual risk-behaviour terms these individuals redistributed responsibility to reflect the social-structural realities of their lives. In this article we reflect on the implications of these findings for public health measures such as risk prevention messages. We note that it is important that such messages are not restricted to individual risk prevention but also include a focus of broader shared responsibilities of HIV.

  1. Targeting Fel d 1 to FcgammaRI induces a novel variation of the T(H)2 response in subjects with cat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Kathryn E; Reefer, Amanda J; Engelhard, Victor H; Satinover, Shama M; Patrie, James T; Chapman, Martin D; Woodfolk, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    Induction of CD4+ T cells that produce IL-10 or IFN-gamma is central to the protective effects of conventional allergen immunotherapy. We examined the T-cell modulatory capacity of a fusion protein (H22-Fel d 1) that targets Fel d 1 to the high-affinity IgG receptor (FcgammaRI) on antigen-presenting cells. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with H22-Fel d 1 were analyzed for surface phenotype and cytokine secretion by flow cytometry and cytometric bead assay, respectively. CD4+ T cells generated after coculture with H22-Fel d 1-pulsed dendritic cells were analyzed at the single-cell level by flow cytometry after intracellular cytokine staining. The T-cell repertoire was compared for subjects with (IgE+) and without cat allergy (IgE(neg)IgG(neg)), including subjects with a modified T(H)2 response (IgE(neg)IgG+). H22-Fel d 1 induced a semimature phenotype in dendritic cells in conjunction with a selective increase in IL-5+ and IL-10+ CD4+ T cells compared with nonreceptor-targeted Fel d 1. Amplified T cells included diverse subtypes characteristic of T(H)0 (IL-5+IFN-gamma+), regulatory T(H)1 (IL-10+IFN-gamma+) and regulatory T(H)2 (IL-10+IL-5+ cells. T-cell qualitative changes were restricted to subjects with allergy and were distinct from a modified T(H)2 response. Blocking IL-10 induced by H22-Fel d 1 selectively increased IL-5+ CD4+ T cells, suggesting that T(H)2 responses were controlled. Targeting Fel d 1 to FcgammaRI induces a novel variation of the T(H)2 response that incorporates major elements of a protective T-cell response.

  2. Differentiating the contribution of pharmacological from alcohol expectancy effects to changes in subjective response and priming over successive drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Abigail K; Hobbs, Malcolm; Drummond, Colin

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption can prime motivation to continue drinking and may contribute to excessive drinking. Most alcohol administration research assesses the effect of a single alcohol dose on outcome measures; however, this differs from typical drinking occasions in which several drinks are consumed over time. This research tracks priming measures (alcohol urge, latency to first sip, and consumption time) and subjective effects (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) across consumption of 5 drinks, over a period of 2.5 hours. Alcohol, placebo, and no-alcohol (i.e., soft drink) conditions are compared with isolate the effects of alcohol expectancies and differentiate these from alcohol's pharmacological effects. Alcohol urge and subjective state were measured before and after an initial drink was consumed (preload: alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol). Four additional drinking phases followed whereby participants had access to 2 drinks (alcohol/no-alcohol, or placebo/no-alcohol). Experimental priming (urge, latency to first sip, consumption time) and subjective effect (intoxication, stimulation, and sedation) outcomes were recorded after each drink. The pattern of alcohol urge following placebo drinks differed compared with alcohol and no-alcohol consumption, Fs(1, 90) > 4.10, ps alcohol condition, while in the alcohol condition urge increased after the first few drinks before decreasing. Urge ratings showed the opposite pattern in the placebo condition (a decrease followed by an increase). Alcohol produced the highest ratings of lightheadedness, F(5, 440) = 2.8, p alcohol and placebo produced increased sedated feelings, Fs ≥ 19.05, ps ≤ 0.001. After placebo, urge was positively related to liking and enjoying the "alcoholic" drinks and feeling more stimulated (rs ≥ 0.31, ps ≤ 0.01). In social drinkers, different factors may affect priming during different stages of a drinking episode. For example, the pharmacological effects of alcohol appear

  3. A response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting subjectivity: an anti-neoliberal reformulation of science education for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-11-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically subversive activity and a means of moving from the neoliberal dominance of science education towards a science one steeped in social justice.

  4. A response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting subjectivity: an anti-neoliberal reformulation of science education for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-12-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically subversive activity and a means of moving from the neoliberal dominance of science education towards a science one steeped in social justice.

  5. Analyzing the effect of large rotations on the seismic response of structures subjected to foundation local uplift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Abbas N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with seismic analysis of structures by taking into account soil-structure interaction where the structure is modeled by an equivalent flexible beam mounted on a rigid foundation that is supported by a Winkler like soil. The foundation is assumed to undergo local uplift and the rotations are considered to be large. The coupling of the system is represented by a series of springs and damping elements that are distributed over the entire width of the foundation. The non-linear equations of motion of the system were derived by taking into account the equilibrium of the coupled foundation-structure system where the structure was idealized as a single-degree-of-freedom. The seismic response of the structure was calculated under the occurrence of foundation uplift for both large and small rotations. The non-linear differential system of equations was integrated by using the Matlab command ode15s. The maximum response has been determined as function of the intensity of the earthquake, the slenderness of the structure and the damping ratio. It was found that considering local uplift with small rotations of foundation under seismic loading leads to unfavorable structural response in comparison with the case of large rotations.

  6. Low Glucose Concentrations Induce a Similar Inflammatory Response in Monocytes from Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Piarulli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the proinflammatory interleukin 1β (IL-1β and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production by monocytes from 38 patients with type 2 diabetes and 31 controls in different glucose concentrations. Monocytes were incubated in low (2.5 mmol/L-, normal (5.0 mmol/L-, and high (20 mmol/L-glucose conditions in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Monocytes from both patients and controls only produced a significant increase in IL-1β in low-glucose conditions (p<0.01, and this phenomenon was amplified in the presence of LPS, while it was not seen in normal- or high-glucose conditions, not even in the presence of LPS stimulation. There was no increase in IL-10 production by monocytes from either diabetic patients or controls using whatever glucose concentrations, except when treated with LPS in normal-glucose conditions. These findings seem to suggest that low-glucose conditions induce an inflammatory response in monocytes in all individuals, as an intrinsic capacity of this cell line. On the other hand, monocytes only retain their anti-inflammatory ability in response to known inflammatory stimuli such as LPS, under normal-glucose concentrations. In conclusion, human monocytes express an inflammatory pattern in low-glucose conditions in vitro. This response could contribute to explaining the higher cardiovascular risk induced by hypoglycemia in diabetic patients.

  7. Dynamic response of porous functionally graded material nanobeams subjected to moving nanoparticle based on nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    Up to now, nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) is broadly applied to examine free vibration, static bending and buckling of nanobeams. This theory captures nonlocal stress field effects together with the microstructure-dependent strain gradient effects. In this study, forced vibrations of NSGT nanobeams on elastic substrate subjected to moving loads are examined. The nanobeam is made of functionally graded material (FGM) with even and uneven porosity distributions inside the material structure. The graded material properties with porosities are described by a modified power-law model. Dynamic deflection of the nanobeam is obtained via Galerkin and inverse Laplace transform methods. The importance of nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, moving load velocity, porosity volume fraction, type of porosity distribution and elastic foundation on forced vibration behavior of nanobeams are discussed.

  8. Analysis of host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in a multi-site study of subjects with different TB and HIV infection states in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne S Sutherland

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a global health threat with 9 million new cases and 1.4 million deaths per year. In order to develop a protective vaccine, we need to define the antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, which are relevant to protective immunity in high-endemic areas.We analysed responses to 23 Mtb antigens in a total of 1247 subjects with different HIV and TB status across 5 geographically diverse sites in Africa (South Africa, The Gambia, Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda. We used a 7-day whole blood assay followed by IFN-γ ELISA on the supernatants. Antigens included PPD, ESAT-6 and Ag85B (dominant antigens together with novel resuscitation-promoting factors (rpf, reactivation proteins, latency (Mtb DosR regulon-encoded antigens, starvation-induced antigens and secreted antigens.There was variation between sites in responses to the antigens, presumably due to underlying genetic and environmental differences. When results from all sites were combined, HIV- subjects with active TB showed significantly lower responses compared to both TST(- and TST(+ contacts to latency antigens (Rv0569, Rv1733, Rv1735, Rv1737 and the rpf Rv0867; whilst responses to ESAT-6/CFP-10 fusion protein (EC, PPD, Rv2029, TB10.3, and TB10.4 were significantly higher in TST(+ contacts (LTBI compared to TB and TST(- contacts fewer differences were seen in subjects with HIV co-infection, with responses to the mitogen PHA significantly lower in subjects with active TB compared to those with LTBI and no difference with any antigen.Our multi-site study design for testing novel Mtb antigens revealed promising antigens for future vaccine development. The IFN-γ ELISA is a cheap and useful tool for screening potential antigenicity in subjects with different ethnic backgrounds and across a spectrum of TB and HIV infection states. Analysis of cytokines other than IFN-γ is currently on-going to determine correlates of protection, which may be useful for vaccine

  9. Dietary fat alters the expression of cortistatin and ghrelin systems in the PBMCs of elderly subjects: putative implications in the postprandial inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahete, Manuel D; Luque, Raúl M; Yubero-Serrano, Elena M; Cruz-Teno, Cristina; Ibañez-Costa, Alejandro; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P; Lopez-Miranda, José

    2014-09-01

    Dietary fat influences systemic inflammatory status, which determines the progression of age-associated diseases. Since somatostatin (SST), cortistatin (CORT), and ghrelin systems modulate inflammatory response, we aim to comprehensively characterize the presence and regulation of the components of these systems in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs), a subset of white blood cells placed at the crossroad between diet and inflammation, in response to diets with different fat composition, and during the postprandial phase in elderly subjects. The applied nutrigenomic, inflammation-related PBMC-based approach revealed that the majority of components of SST/CORT and ghrelin systems are present in the human PBMCs. Particularly, CORT, SST/CORT receptors (sst2, sst3, sst5, and sst5TMD4), ghrelin, its acylating enzyme (GOAT), In1-ghrelin variant, and GHSR1b were detected in PBMCs. Their expression was altered in the long-term by diet composition, and in the short-term, during the postprandial phase. Of particular relevance is the postprandial elevation of CORT, sst2, and sst5 expression in PBMCs of subjects under n-3 PUFAs-enriched diet. Our results suggest a potential relevant role of CORT/ssts and ghrelin systems in regulating PBMCs response to nutrient intake, which could help to explain the positive effects of n-3 PUFAs-enriched diets in reducing the inflammatory response. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sensitivity of primary phasic heart rate deceleration to stimulus repetition in an habituation procedure: influence of a subjective measure of activation/arousal on the evoked cardiac response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Marek; Barry, Robert J; Kaiser, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The post-stimulus primary bradycardia--sometimes labelled as the first evoked cardiac response, ECR1--is regarded as a response which is independent of the stimulus novelty factor. Despite this however, in our previous research we have observed a noticeable variation of this response, which made us suspect that there could be some additional factor influencing it. To test this, we designed a habituation procedure to measure susceptibility of the ECR1 to stimulus repetition. In our experimental design, we also included a measure of the level of activation (arousal) as a possible additional factor influencing the time-course of the cardiac response. The level of arousal over the study was measured by the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL). Our results show that mere stimulus repetition does not influence the time-course of ECR1. However, another pattern of results appeared when one of the dimensions of AD ACL, namely Tense Arousal, was taken into account. We observed different ECR time-courses during the initial stimulus presentations for subjects with high and low levels of Tense Arousal. These results are interpreted within the framework of Preliminary Process Theory in terms of the different attentional patterns in subjects with high and low levels of Tense Arousal.

  11. Awakening responses and diurnal fluctuations of salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Cozma-Dima, Corina Lucia; Pasquali, Vittorio; Renzi, Paolo; Simeoni, Simona; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-01-01

    Because the cortisol awakening response (CAR) has received increasing attention as a useful index of adrenocortical activity, the primary objective of this study was to investigate the presence of an awakening response for various salivary biomarkers of adrenocortical activity, including dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), which acts as a cortisol antagonist, and α-amylase, which is a predictor of circulating catecholamine activity. Salivary biological indicators are considered to be valuable markers of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis diurnal activity. In an attempt to overcome problems associated with non-adherence to the requested sampling protocol, only young, healthy males with a physiological CAR value (defined as a 50% increase in salivary cortisol within 30 min after waking) were included in the study (67 out of 102 who initially enrolled met this criterion). Our results suggested that, as is already known for cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase have significant awakening responses. In addition, daily profile of salivary cortisol, α-amylase and DHEA-S fluctuations were analysed. Significant correlations were found between salivary cortisol, DHEA-S and α-amylase levels. The results showed that cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations were inversely correlated with α-amylase levels. This correlation confirmed the distinctiveness of the two regulatory systems: salivary cortisol and DHEA-S concentrations reflect the activity of the HPA axis, whereas α-amylase activity is more closely related to sympathetic activity. In addition, the present study emphasizes the potential value of saliva collection (which is both easy and stress-free) in monitoring changes of adrenal function, confirming that multiple sampling (especially within 1 h after awakening) is necessary to reliably characterise biomarker activity when investigating neuroendocrine changes under various conditions.

  12. GLP-1 and peptide YY secretory response after fat load is impaired by insulin resistance, impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, José C; Murri, Mora; Coin-Aragüez, Leticia; Alcaide, Juan; El Bekay, Rajaa; Tinahones, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are gut hormones involved in energy homoeostasis. Obesity, insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia are significant confounders when GLP-1 and PYY secretion is assessed. Thus, we evaluated GLP-1 and PYY response after fat load in morbidly obese patients with different degrees of insulin resistance and glycemic status. We studied 40 morbidly obese subjects (mean age, 40·6 ± 1·3 years; mean BMI, 53·1 ± 1·2 kg/m(2) ) divided into groups according to their glycemic status: normal fasting glucose (NFG) group, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) group. NFG patients were additionally subclassified, according to the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR ), into a low insulin-resistance (LIR) group (HOMAIR response to fat load. The implications of this attenuated enteroendocrine response should be elucidated by further studies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ATTRIBUTION OF CONDUCT TO A STATE-THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OT THE STATE FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA MAXIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish responsibility of states for internationally wrongful act, two elements are identified. First, the conduct in question must be attributable to the State under international law. Secondly, for responsibility to attach to the act of the State, the conduct must constitute a breach of an international legal obligation in force for that State at that time. For particular conduct to be characterized as an internationally wrongful act, it must first be attributable to the State. The State is a real organized entity, a legal person with full authority to act under international law. But to recognize this is not to deny the elementary fact that the State cannot act of itself. States can act only by and through their agents and representatives. In determining what constitutes an organ of a State for the purposes of responsibility, the internal law and practice of each State are of prime importance. The structure of the State and the functions of its organs are not, in general, governed by international law. It is a matter for each State to decide how its administration is to be structured and which functions are to be assumed by government. But while the State remains free to determine its internal structure and functions through its own law and practice, international law has a distinct role. Conduct is thereby attributed to the State as a subject of international law and not as a subject of internal law. The State as a subject of international law is held responsible for the conduct of all the organs, instrumentalities and officials which form part of its organization and act in that capacity, whether or not they have separate legal personality under its internal law.

  14. Responsiveness and Minimal Important Changes of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index in Subjects Undergoing Rehabilitation Following Hip Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Ambrosini, Emilia; Secci, Claudio; Rocca, Barbara; Ferrante, Simona; Capone, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the responsiveness and minimal important changes (MICs) for the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and its subscales in subjects with hip fractures. At the beginning and end of a 2-month rehabilitation program, 106 patients completed the WOMAC. After the program, the global perceived effect (GPE) was analyzed to produce a dichotomous outcome (improved vs. stable). Responsiveness for the WOMAC and its subscales were calculated by distribution (effect size; standardized response mean) and anchor-based methods (receiver operating characteristic curves; correlations between change scores of the WOMAC and its subscales and GPE). Receiver operating characteristic curves were also used in order to compute the best cutoff levels between improved and stable subjects (MICs). The effect size ranged from 0.64 to 11.10 and the standardized response mean from 0.79 to 2.65. The receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed an MIC value (area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity) for the WOMAC of 29 (0.817, 92, 78); values of 35 (0.820, 77, 76) 44 (0.625, 25, 95), and 24 (0.707, 100, 76) were found for pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, respectively. Correlations between change scores of the WOMAC and its subscales and GPE were low (0.240, for stiffness subscale) to moderate (0.438-0.570 for the other subscales and the WOMAC). The WOMAC and its subscales (all but stiffness) were sensitive in detecting clinical changes in subjects with hip fracture undergoing rehabilitation. We recommend taking the MICs provided into account when assessing patients' improvement or planning studies in this clinical context.

  15. Cortisol response and desire to binge following psychological stress: comparison between obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noa; Bloch, Miki; Ben Avi, Irit; Rouach, Vanessa; Schreiber, Shaul; Stern, Naftali; Greenman, Yona

    2013-07-30

    While stress and negative affect are known to precede "emotional eating", this relationship is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between induced psychological stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, and eating behavior in binge eating disorder (BED). The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was applied in obese participants with (n=8) and without BED (n=8), and normal weight controls (n=8). Psychological characteristics, eating-related symptoms, and cortisol secretion were assessed. Baseline stress, anxiety and cortisol measures were similar in all groups. At baseline desire to binge was significantly higher among the BED group. While the TSST induced an increase in cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed in the BED group. In the BED group, a positive correlation was found between cortisol (area under the curve) levels during the TSST and the change in VAS scores for desire to binge. Post-TSST desire to binge and sweet craving were significantly higher in the BED group and correlated positively with stress, anxiety, and cortisol response in the BED group only. These results suggest chronic down-regulation of the HPA axis in participants with BED, and a relationship between psychological stress, the acute activation of the HPA axis, and food craving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Diploid and Tetraploid Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. Subjected to Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanjuan Meng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploid black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L. is adaptable to salt stress. Here, we compared morphological, physiological, ultrastructural, and proteomic traits of leaves in tetraploid black locust and its diploid relatives under salt stress. The results showed that diploid (2× plants suffered from greater negative effects than those of tetraploid (4× plants. After salt treatment, plant growth was inhibited, photosynthesis was reduced, reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde content, and relative electrolyte leakage increased, and defense-related enzyme activities decreased in 2× compared to those in 4×. In addition, salt stress resulted in distorted chloroplasts, swollen thylakoid membranes, accumulation of plastoglobules, and increased starch grains in 2× compared to those in 4×. However, 4× developed diverse responses under salt stress. A comparative proteomic analysis revealed that 41 and 37 proteins were differentially expressed in 2× and 4×, respectively. These proteins were mainly involved in photosynthesis, stress and defense, energy, metabolism, transcription/translation, and transportation. Distinct patterns of protein changes between 2× and 4× were analyzed. Collectively, our results suggest that the plants showed significantly different responses to salt stress based on ploidy level of the plant. The 4× possessed a better salt protection mechanism than that of 2×, suggesting salt tolerance in the polyploid plant.

  17. A low-rank multivariate general linear model for multi-subject fMRI data and a non-convex optimization algorithm for brain response comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Pham, Minh; Sun, Jianhui; Yan, Guofen; Li, Huazhang; Sun, Yinge; Gonzalez, Marlen Z; Coan, James A

    2017-12-26

    The focus of this paper is on evaluating brain responses to different stimuli and identifying brain regions with different responses using multi-subject, stimulus-evoked functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. To jointly model many brain voxels' responses to designed stimuli, we present a new low-rank multivariate general linear model (LRMGLM) for stimulus-evoked fMRI data. The new model not only is flexible to characterize variation in hemodynamic response functions (HRFs) across different regions and stimulus types, but also enables information "borrowing" across voxels and uses much fewer parameters than typical nonparametric models for HRFs. To estimate the proposed LRMGLM, we introduce a new penalized optimization function, which leads to temporally and spatially smooth HRF estimates. We develop an efficient optimization algorithm to minimize the optimization function and identify the voxels with different responses to stimuli. We show that the proposed method can outperform several existing voxel-wise methods by achieving both high sensitivity and specificity. We apply the proposed method to the fMRI data collected in an emotion study, and identify anterior dACC to have different responses to a designed threat and control stimuli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Output Response of PVDF Sensor Attached on a Cantilever Beam Subjected to Impact Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Cao Vu; Sasaki, Eiichi

    2016-04-27

    Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF) is a film-type polymer that has been used as sensors and actuators in various applications due to its mechanical toughness, flexibility, and low density. A PVDF sensor typically covers an area of the host structure over which mechanical stress/strain is averaged and converted to electrical energy. This study investigates the fundamental "stress-averaging" mechanism for dynamic strain sensing in the in-plane mode. A numerical simulation was conducted to simulate the "stress-averaging" mechanism of a PVDF sensor attached on a cantilever beam subjected to an impact loading, taking into account the contribution of piezoelectricity, the cantilever beam's modal properties, and electronic signal conditioning. Impact tests and FEM analysis were also carried out to verify the numerical simulation results. The results of impact tests indicate the excellent capability of the attached PVDF sensor in capturing the fundamental natural frequencies of the cantilever beam. There is a good agreement between the PVDF sensor's output voltage predicted by the numerical simulation and that obtained in the impact tests. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of sensor size and sensor position and it is shown that a larger sensor tends to generate higher output voltage than a smaller one at the same location. However, the effect of sensor location seems to be more significant for larger sensors due to the cancelling problem. Overall, PVDF sensors exhibit excellent sensing capability for in-plane dynamic strain induced by impact loading.

  19. Serum and macular response to carotenoid-enriched egg supplementation in human subjects: the Egg Xanthophyll Intervention clinical Trial (EXIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Nolan, John M; Howard, Alan N; Stack, Jim; Akuffo, Kwadwo O; Moran, Rachel; Thurnham, David I; Dennison, Jessica; Meagher, Katherine A; Beatty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the macula, where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). Augmentation of this pigment, typically achieved through diet and supplementation, enhances visual function and protects against progression of age-related macular degeneration. However, it is known that eggs are a rich dietary source of L and Z, in a highly bioavailable matrix. In this single-blind placebo-controlled study, L- and MZ-enriched eggs and control non-enriched eggs were fed to human subjects (mean age 41 and 35 years, respectively) over an 8-week period, and outcome measures included MP, visual function and serum concentrations of carotenoids and cholesterol. Serum carotenoid concentrations increased significantly in control and enriched egg groups, but to a significantly greater extent in the enriched egg group (Peggs may represent an effective dietary source of L, Z and MZ, reflected in significantly raised serum concentrations of these carotenoids, and consequentially improved bioavailability for capture by target tissues. However, benefits in terms of MP augmentation and /or improved visual performance were not realised over the 8-week study period, and a study of greater duration will be required to address these questions.

  20. Effects of a Bioavailable Arabinoxylan-enriched White Bread Flour on Postprandial Glucose Response in Normoglycemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulia Falchi, Anna; Grecchi, Ilaria; Muggia, Chiara; Palladini, Giuseppina; Perlini, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The beneficial effects of soluble fibers on carbohydrate metabolism are well documented. In this regard, we tested an arabinoxylan-enriched white bread flour, obtained by a patented process by which the bran extracted from the milling process is enzymatically hydrolyzed in order to separate the soluble fraction fiber from the insoluble fiber. We recruited 24 healthy normoglycemic volunteers [Age 34-61 ± 12.5 y; Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.1 ± 2.5 kg/m(2); Waist circumference (WC) 84.43 ± 8.0 cm; Fat Mass (FM) 22.7 ± 8.0%] attending the Dietetics Outpatient Clinic of the Internal Medicine Department at IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy. Subjects acutely consumed arabinoxylan-enriched white bread (weight: 100 g) or isoenergetic control breads, in a double-blind crossover study design. Plasma glucose levels were measured just before bread administration and 30 minutes afterwards. The 30-minute peak postprandial glucose concentrations after arabinoxylan-enriched meals were significantly lower than after the control meal (107±4.6 mg/dL vs. 121 ± 5.2 mg/dL; p bread will benefit patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Glycemic response to carob (ceratonia siliqua L) in healthy subjects and with the in vitro hydrolysis index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek Dos Santos, Luciana; Tomzack Tulio, Lindamir; Fuganti Campos, Leticia; Ramos Dorneles, Marcelo; Carneiro Hecke Krüger, Claudia

    2014-09-12

    The purpose of this study was to determine the in vivo glycemic index of carob tablets with healthy subjects and to determine the in vitro glycemic index of carob tablets and carob flour by the hydrolysis index. Seven healthy volunteers consumed portions of carob tablets containing 26g of available carbohydrate. Their capillary blood was taken at intervals after carob or glucose consumption. The glycemic hydrolysis index by an in vitro technique was based in the release of glucose after enzymatic treatment of carob tablets and carob flour. The determination of the fiber content was performed using the enzymatic- gravimetric method. By the in vivo determination, the estimated glycemic index of carob tablets could be considered low (≤ 55). By the in vitro determination, the estimated glycemic index ranged from 40.1+0.02 of carob tablets to 40.6+0.05 of carob flour. The total fiber values obtained for carob flour samples were from 42.6% ± 0.49 to 42.9% ± 0.68 with no statistical significant differences between samples. Carob tablets and carob flour could be classified as low glycemic index food and low glycemic load food. Carob flour is a high fiber food, containing mainly high levels of insoluble fiber. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. A mixed diet supplemented with l-arabinose does not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses in healthy human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halschou-Jensen, Kia; Knudsen, Knud E Bach; Nielsen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    In addition to a yet-to-be published study showing arabinose to have an inhibiting effect on maltase, in vitro studies have shown L-arabinose to exert an inhibiting effect on small-intestinal sucrase and maltase and the consumption of a sucrose-rich drink containing L-arabinose to exert positive...... effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding L-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of L-arabinose added to a sugar drink...... of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of L-arabinose added to sucrose drinks...

  3. Biochemical responses and ultrastructural changes in ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis thialiana subjected to bisphenol A exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Jan, Mehmood; Wakeel, Abdul; Azizullah, Azizullah; Liu, Bohan; Islam, Faisal; Ali, Abid; Daud, M K; Liu, Yihua; Gan, Yinbo

    2017-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an important raw material in plastic industry, has become a serious environmental contaminant due to its wide spread use in different products and increasing release into the environment. BPA is known to cause adverse effects in living organisms including plants. Several studies reported that BPA affects growth and development in plants, mainly through oxidative stress. Plants are known to generally cope with stress mainly through hormonal regulation and adaptation, but little is known about the role of plant hormones in plants under BPA stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the role of ethylene in BPA induced oxidative stress in plants using Arabidopsis thaliana as a test plant. The response of ethylene insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis (ein2-1 and etr1-3) to BPA exposure was studied in comparison to the wild type Arabidopsis (WT). In all three genotypes, exposure to BPA adversely affected cellular structures, stomata and light-harvesting pigments. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) lipid peroxidation and other oxidative stress markers indicated that BPA induced toxicity through oxidative stress. However, the overall results revealed that WT Arabidopsis had more pronounced BPA induced damages while ein2-1 and etr1-3 mutants withstood the BPA induced stress more efficiently. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and expression of antioxidants related genes revealed that the antioxidant defense system in both mutants was more efficiently activated than in WT against BPA induced oxidative stress, which further evidenced the involvement of ethylene in regulating BPA induced oxidative stress. It is concluded that ethylene perception and signaling may be involved in BPA induced oxidative stress responses in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Output Response of PVDF Sensor Attached on a Cantilever Beam Subjected to Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Vu Dung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinylidene Flouride (PVDF is a film-type polymer that has been used as sensors and actuators in various applications due to its mechanical toughness, flexibility, and low density. A PVDF sensor typically covers an area of the host structure over which mechanical stress/strain is averaged and converted to electrical energy. This study investigates the fundamental “stress-averaging” mechanism for dynamic strain sensing in the in-plane mode. A numerical simulation was conducted to simulate the “stress-averaging” mechanism of a PVDF sensor attached on a cantilever beam subjected to an impact loading, taking into account the contribution of piezoelectricity, the cantilever beam’s modal properties, and electronic signal conditioning. Impact tests and FEM analysis were also carried out to verify the numerical simulation results. The results of impact tests indicate the excellent capability of the attached PVDF sensor in capturing the fundamental natural frequencies of the cantilever beam. There is a good agreement between the PVDF sensor’s output voltage predicted by the numerical simulation and that obtained in the impact tests. Parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of sensor size and sensor position and it is shown that a larger sensor tends to generate higher output voltage than a smaller one at the same location. However, the effect of sensor location seems to be more significant for larger sensors due to the cancelling problem. Overall, PVDF sensors exhibit excellent sensing capability for in-plane dynamic strain induced by impact loading.

  5. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2001-11-01

    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  6. Context-sensitive neural responses to conflict resolution: electrophysiological evidence from subject-object ambiguities in language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel, Ina

    2006-07-07

    Reanalysis in language comprehension provides a window on how superficially similar processes of conflict resolution may differ depending on the context in which they are initiated. Thus, previous ERP studies have shown that reanalyses towards object-initial orders in German sentences with dative-active verbs (e.g., folgen, 'to follow') engender N400 effects, while reanalyses with accusative verbs (e.g., besuchen, 'to visit') elicit P600 effects. This difference appears surprising since these two verb classes are both associated with a subject-initial base order. The present paper reports two ERP experiments designed to shed further light on the nature of the conflict resolution processes involved in each case by examining structures in which word order disambiguation is separated from verb class disambiguation. Experiment 1 contrasted dative-active verbs with accusative verbs, while Experiment 2 compared dative-active and dative object-experiencer verbs (which are associated with an object-initial base order). Our results show that the reanalysis pattern for dative-active constructions is context-dependent: when verb class disambiguation precedes word order disambiguation, an N400-P600 pattern results. By contrast, the reanalysis patterns for the other two verb types are context independent: object-experiencer verbs invariably show an N400 and accusative verbs invariably show a P600. We argue that (a) the N400 is a general marker of reanalysis in dative sentences, reflecting an argument reindexation, while (b) the P600 in accusative sentences reflects a structural recomputation. The variable pattern for dative-active sentences reflects the (in)applicability of "good-enough" representations during conflict resolution in garden path sentences.

  7. Development of the Complex General Linear Model in the Fourier Domain: Application to fMRI Multiple Input-Output Evoked Responses for Single Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Rio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A linear time-invariant model based on statistical time series analysis in the Fourier domain for single subjects is further developed and applied to functional MRI (fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD multivariate data. This methodology was originally developed to analyze multiple stimulus input evoked response BOLD data. However, to analyze clinical data generated using a repeated measures experimental design, the model has been extended to handle multivariate time series data and demonstrated on control and alcoholic subjects taken from data previously analyzed in the temporal domain. Analysis of BOLD data is typically carried out in the time domain where the data has a high temporal correlation. These analyses generally employ parametric models of the hemodynamic response function (HRF where prewhitening of the data is attempted using autoregressive (AR models for the noise. However, this data can be analyzed in the Fourier domain. Here, assumptions made on the noise structure are less restrictive, and hypothesis tests can be constructed based on voxel-specific nonparametric estimates of the hemodynamic transfer function (HRF in the Fourier domain. This is especially important for experimental designs involving multiple states (either stimulus or drug induced that may alter the form of the response function.

  8. Physiological Responses and Ovarian Development of Female Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis Subjected to Different Salinity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Long

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role affecting ovarian development, osmoregulation and metabolism of female Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis during reproductive migration. In this study, female E. sinensis after their puberty molt were subjected to four salinities of 0, 6, 12, and 18‰ for 40 days to investigate the salinity effects on their ovarian development as well as a range of important physiological parameters. Elevated salinity accelerated the ovarian development with ovigerous crabs found at salinity treatments of 12 and 18‰ despite no copulation had occurred. Meanwhile the survival rate of female crabs showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity. Higher salinity also led to increased hemolymph Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl−, and Mg2+ concentrations. The 6‰ treatment had the highest contents of hemolymph total and major free amino acids while the Na+/K+ -ATPase activity in the posterior gills was the lowest among treatments. Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (∑n-3PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in the anterior gills showed a decreasing trend with salinity while 18‰ had the highest ∑PUFA and ∑n-6PUFA. The ∑n-3PUFA content and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio of the posterior gills showed a fluctuating pattern and the highest value was detected at 0‰, while an increasing trend was found for the ∑n-6PUFA with increasing salinity. The hemolymph glucose showed a decreasing trend with increasing salinity and the highest total cholesterol in hemolymph was detected at 12‰. The 18‰ treatment had the highest levels of hemolymph γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, as well as glucose, urea and acid phosphatase in hepatopancreas while the highest hemolymph superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were detected at 0‰. Overall, the results showed that salinity increase from freshwater to brackish conditions led to lower metabolism, accelerated ovarian development, and the appearance of ovigerous crabs without

  9. AP1000 Shield Building Dynamic Response for Different Water Levels of PCCWST Subjected to Seismic Loading considering FSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge water storage tank on the top of many buildings may affect the safety of the structure caused by fluid-structure interaction (FSI under the earthquake. AP1000 passive containment cooling system water storage tank (PCCWST placed at the top of shield building is a key component to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities. Under seismic loading, water will impact the wall of PCCWST, which may pose a threat to the integrity of the shield building. In the present study, an FE model of AP1000 shield building is built for the modal and transient seismic analysis considering the FSI. Six different water levels in PCCWST were discussed by comparing the modal frequency, seismic acceleration response, and von Mises stress distribution. The results show the maximum von Mises stress emerges at the joint of shield building roof and water around the air inlet. However, the maximum von Mises stress is below the yield strength of reinforced concrete. The results may provide a reference for design of the AP1000 and CAP1400 in the future.

  10. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  11. Thirty days of resveratrol supplementation does not affect postprandial incretin hormone responses, but suppresses postprandial glucagon in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, F K; Konings, E; Timmers, S

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol-induced secret......AIMS: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic compound produced by various plants (e.g. red grapes) and found in red wine, has glucose-lowering effects in humans and rodent models of obesity and/or diabetes. The mechanisms behind these effects have been suggested to include resveratrol....../day) or placebo for 30 days in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design with a 4-week washout period. At the end of each intervention period a standardized meal test (without co-administration of resveratrol) was performed. RESULTS: Resveratrol supplementation had no impact on fasting plasma concentrations...... supplementation does not affect fasting or postprandial incretin hormone plasma levels in obese humans, but suppresses postprandial glucagon responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  12. Sustained noradrenaline sulphate response in long-distance runners and untrained subjects up to 2 h after exhausting exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, G; Hack, V; Kinscherf, R; Weicker, H

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the response of plasma and platelet:free catecholamine ([CA]) and sulphated catecholamine ([CA-S]) concentrations after an incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and during recovery. In triathletes (n = 9) plasma and platelet [CA] and [CA-S] were measured before, immediately after and 0.5 and 24 h after exercise. In long-distance runners (n = 9) and in controls (n = 10) plasma [CA] and [CA-S] were determined 2 h instead of 24 h after exercise. Platelet [CA] and [CA-S] remained unchanged throughout the study. Plasma [CA] increased after exercise in all groups (P runners and in controls [9.96 (SEM 0.84) nmol.l-1, 11.8 (SEM 1.19) nmol.l-1, 9.53 (SEM 1.10) nmol.l-1, respectively; P runners and controls plasma [NA-S] remained elevated during 2 h of recovery [9.96 (SEM 0.76) nmol.l-1, 9.03 (SEM 0.88) nmol.l-1, respectively]. These results would indicate that plasma [NA-S] increases after sympathetic nervous system activation by an exhausting incremental exercise test and remain elevated up to 2 h after exercise.

  13. Event-related potential responses to beloved and familiar faces in different marriage styles: evidence from Mosuo subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eWu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime. In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity.

  14. Event-Related Potential Responses to Beloved and Familiar Faces in Different Marriage Styles: Evidence from Mosuo Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Luo, Li; Dai, Junqiang; Yang, Suyong; Wang, Naiyi; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    Research on familiar face recognition has largely focused on the neural correlates of recognizing a beloved partner or family member. However, no research has explored the effect of marriage style on the recognition of a beloved partner’s face, especially in matriarchal societies. Here, we examined the time course of event-related potentials (ERP) in response to the face of a beloved partner, sibling, or unknown person in a sample of individuals from the matriarchal Mosuo tribe. Two groups were assessed: intermarriage and walking marriage groups (i.e., couples in a committed relationship who do not cohabitate during the daytime). In agreement with previous reports, ERP results revealed more positive VPP, N250, and P300 waveforms for beloved faces than sibling faces in both groups. Moreover, P300 was more positive for beloved partner versus sibling faces; however, this difference emerged at fronto-central sites for the walking marriage group and at posterior sites for the intermarriage group. Overall, we observed that marriage style affects the later stage processing of a beloved partner’s face, and this may be associated with greater affective arousal and familiarity. PMID:26925002

  15. Timing is everything: neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Corby L; Findlay, Anne M; Adcock, R Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is

  16. Hypothalamic-pituitary axis and peripheral tissue responses to TRH stimulation and liothyronine suppression tests in normal subjects evaluated by current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Gustavo Leopoldo Rodrigues; de Castro, Margaret; Maciel, Lea Maria Zanini

    2008-04-01

    To reevaluate the responses of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test in baseline condition as well as after the administration of graded supraphysiological doses of liothyronine (L-T(3)) in normal subjects. To assess various parameters related to the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and peripheral tissue responses to L-T(3) in 22 normal individuals (median age: 30.5 years). Subjects were submitted to an intravenous TRH test at baseline condition and also to the oral administration of sequential and graded doses of L-T(3) (50, 100, and 200 microg/day), each given over 3 days, at an outpatient clinic. Blood samples were obtained for thyrotropin (TSH) and prolactin (PRL) at basal and then 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the TRH injection. Effects of L-T(3) administration on cholesterol, creatine kinase, retinol, ferritin, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were also measured at basal and after the oral administration of L-T(3). TRH administration resulted in an increase of 4- to 14-fold rise in serum TSH (8.3 +/- 2.5-fold), and in a slight rise in serum PRL concentrations (3.8 +/- 1.5-fold). Administration of graded doses of triiodothyronine (T(3)) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of TSH and PRL. Basal thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and cholesterol levels decreased, and ferritin and SHBG increased after L-T(3) administration, while creatine kinase and retinol did not change throughout the study. There was a positive correlation between basal TSH and TSH peak response to TRH at basal condition and after each sequential L-T(3) doses. On the other hand, TSH peak response to the TRH test did not predict cholesterol, TBG, ferritin, or SHBG values. Using the current methods on hormone and biochemical analysis, we standardized the response of many parameters to TRH stimulation test after sequential and graded T(3) suppression test in normal subjects. Our data suggest that the evaluation of the responses of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis to TRH test as

  17. Hemodynamic mechanisms of the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Neves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the hemodynamic mechanisms responsible for the attenuated blood pressure response to mental stress after exercise, 26 healthy sedentary individuals (age 29 ± 8 years underwent the Stroop color-word test before and 60 min after a bout of maximal dynamic exercise on a treadmill. A subgroup (N = 11 underwent a time-control experiment without exercise. Blood pressure was continuously and noninvasively recorded by infrared finger photoplethysmography. Stroke volume was derived from pressure signals, and cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance were calculated. Perceived mental stress scores were comparable between mental stress tests both in the exercise (P = 0.96 and control (P = 0.24 experiments. After exercise, the blood pressure response to mental stress was attenuated (pre: 10 ± 13 vs post: 6 ± 7 mmHg; P 0.05. In conclusion, a single bout of maximal dynamic exercise attenuates the blood pressure response to mental stress in healthy subjects, along with lower stroke volume and cardiac output, denoting an acute modulatory action of exercise on the central hemodynamic response to mental stress.

  18. Effects of three-day bed rest on metabolic, hormonal and circulatory responses to an oral glucose load in endurance or strength trained athletes and untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorawiński, J; Kaciuba-Uściłko, H; Nazar, K; Kubala, P; Kamińska, E; Ziemba, A W; Adrian, J; Greenleaf, J E

    2000-06-01

    The study was designed to find out (1) whether the effect of 3-day bed rest on blood glucose (BG) and plasma insulin (IRI) responses to glucose ingestion depends on preceding physical activity and (2) whether plasma adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and cardiovascular changes following a glucose load are modified by bed rest. Eleven sedentary students (22.5+/-0.3 yrs), 8 long distance runners (18.6+/-0.3 yrs) and 10 strength trained athletes (21.2+/-2.1 yrs) were examined before and after bed rest. Plasma IRI, BG, NA, A, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were measured during 2 hrs following glucose (75 g) ingestion. The responses of BG and IRI to glucose load were calculated as incremental areas under the curves (auc). Both in athletes and untrained subjects bed rest markedly increased IRIauc, while BGauc was elevated only in sedentary subjects (p<0.05). The greatest increases in IRIauc and IRI/BG ratios were found in the endurance athletes. The data from all subjects (n = 29) revealed that the initial plasma NA and glucose-induced increases in NA and A were lowered after bed rest (p < 0.01). These effects were most pronounced in the endurance athletes. Bed rest did not influence HR or BP in any group. It is concluded that (1) the athletes have more adequate compensation for the bed-rest-induced decrement in insulin sensitivity than sedentary men; (2) three-day bed rest diminishes basal sympathetic activity and attenuates sympathoadrenal response to oral glucose; (3) endurance athletes have greater sympathetic inhibition than strength athletes or sedentary men.

  19. Lateral-torsional response of base-isolated buildings with curved surface sliding system subjected to near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    The curved surface sliding (CSS) system is one of the most in-demand techniques for the seismic isolation of buildings; yet there are still important aspects of its behaviour that need further attention. The CSS system presents variation of friction coefficient, depending on the sliding velocity of the CSS bearings, while friction force and lateral stiffness during the sliding phase are proportional to the axial load. Lateral-torsional response needs to be better understood for base-isolated structures located in near-fault areas, where fling-step and forward-directivity effects can produce long-period (horizontal) velocity pulses. To analyse these aspects, a six-storey reinforced concrete (r.c.) office framed building, with an L-shaped plan and setbacks in elevation, is designed assuming three values of the radius of curvature for the CSS system. Seven in-plan distributions of dynamic-fast friction coefficient for the CSS bearings, ranging from a constant value for all isolators to a different value for each, are considered in the case of low- and medium-type friction properties. The seismic analysis of the test structures is carried out considering an elastic-linear behaviour of the superstructure, while a nonlinear force-displacement law of the CSS bearings is considered in the horizontal direction, depending on sliding velocity and axial load. Given the lack of knowledge of the horizontal direction at which near-fault ground motions occur, the maximum torsional effects and residual displacements are evaluated with reference to different incidence angles, while the orientation of the strongest observed pulses is considered to obtain average values.

  20. Hemodynamic response after injection of local anesthetics with or without adrenaline in adult Nigerian subjects undergoing simple tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to determine the changes in the blood pressure (BP and the pulse rate (PR of normotensive patients having dental extraction under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic with or without adrenaline. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 325 consecutive normotensive patients who presented at the exodontia clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH, Lagos, Yoruba State, Nigeria from December 2004 to August 2005 for simple tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups according to the type of anesthetic solution employed. Group A had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 while group B had tooth extraction done under the administration of 2% lignocaine local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (plain lignocaine. Each patient had single tooth extracted. The following parameters were monitored in each of the surgical interventions: systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and PR. Measurements were taken in the waiting room before surgery, during the surgery after local anesthesia, during tooth extraction, and 15 min after tooth extraction. Results: The sample consisted of 176 females and 149 males. Age range of the patients was 18-89 years with the mean age of 35.08 ± 15.60 years. The hemodynamic responses to lignocaine with adrenaline (1:80,000 and plain lignocaine essentially follow the same pattern in the study. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured parameters in the two groups after the administration of local anesthetics. Conclusion: This study, therefore, shows that there was no difference in the hemodynamic changes observed with the use of lignocaine with adrenaline or plain lignocaine during a simple tooth extraction in healthy adults.

  1. HIV-1-Specific Antibody Response and Function after DNA Prime and Recombinant Adenovirus 5 Boost HIV Vaccine in HIV-Infected Subjects.

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    Johannes S Gach

    Full Text Available Little is known about the humoral immune response against DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus 5 (rAd5 boost HIV vaccine among HIV-infected patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART. Previous studies emphasized cellular immune responses; however, current research suggests both cellular and humoral responses are likely required for a successful therapeutic vaccine. Thus, we aimed to understand antibody response and function induced by vaccination of ART-treated HIV-1-infected patients with immune recovery. All subjects participated in EraMune 02, an open-label randomized clinical trial of ART intensification followed by a six plasmid DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB and rAd5 boost HIV vaccine with matching inserts. Antibody binding levels were determined with a recently developed microarray approach. We also analyzed neutralization efficiency and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC. We found that the DNA prime-rAd5 boost vaccine induced a significant cross-clade HIV-specific antibody response, which correlated with antibody neutralization efficiency. However, despite the increase in antibody binding levels, the vaccine did not significantly stimulate neutralization or ADCC responses. This finding was also reflected by a lack of change in total CD4+ cell associated HIV DNA in those who received the vaccine. Our results have important implications for further therapeutic vaccine design and administration, especially in HIV-1 infected patients, as boosting of preexisting antibody responses are unlikely to lead to clearance of latent proviruses in the HIV reservoir.

  2. The Pecking Order Theory and sme s Financing: Insight into the Mediterranean Area and a Study in the Moroccan Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Aabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs are the necessary force of the socio-economic development in the Mediterranean. Their role as providers of employment and as key players of economic growth is essential. Indeed, the issues relating to the starting up, financing and operation of sme s provoke a crucial interest, growing internationally. However, the financing of SMEs breaks in the momentum of economic growth. It is often said that SMEs access to credit is difficult and a major constraint is related to credit institution’s features in the Mediterranean, i. e. Morocco. Thus, the paper’s subject is closely related to the identification of the hierarchical funding of sme s, introduced at the Casablanca stock exchange. To this end, we adopted a dynamic approach and we used a Data analysis of panel. They are particularly suited to analyze dynamic effects, because they allow a better understanding of the dynamic adjustment of the sme’s financial structure.

  3. Aftereffects of the surprising presentation and omission of appetitive reinforcers on key-pecking performance in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Steven C; Muzio, Rubén N; Boughner, Robert L; Papini, Mauricio R

    2002-07-01

    The reinforcement-omission effect (ROE), also known as frustration effect, refers to greater response strength immediately after nonreinforcement (N) than reinforcement (R). The ROE was traditionally interpreted as transient invigoration after N induced by primary frustration. Pigeons demonstrate similar ROEs whether outcomes are surprising (partial R) or expected (discrimination training) in runway (Experiment 1) and Skinner box situations (Experiments 2-3). Variations in the interval between N and the opportunity to respond indicate that the ROE results from an aftereffect of food consumption (Experiment 4). Increasing reinforcer magnitude increased the after-R effect, without modifying the after-N function (Experiment 5). These results are reviewed in the context of comparative research on spaced-trial successive negative contrast and related phenomena that have failed to appear in experiments involving nonmammalian vertebrates.

  4. Effects of sex, gender role identification, and gender relevance of two types of stressors on cardiovascular and subjective responses: sex and gender match and mismatch effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Well, Sonja; Kolk, Annemarie M; Klugkist, Irene G

    2008-07-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one's sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the n-back task. Stressor relevance was manipulated to be masculine or feminine relevant or gender neutral. Data were analyzed using a Bayesian model selection procedure. The results showed stronger cardiovascular responses for the CPT in the case of a gender match effect. In contrast, results for the n-back task revealed stronger cardiovascular responses for sex and gender mismatch effects. These discrepant match and mismatch effects are discussed in terms of differential task appraisal (i.e., threat vs. challenge). Additional results (a) support the success of measuring gender role identification indirectly by means of the Gender Implicit Association Test, (b) do not show that the effect of stressor relevance is more pronounced on those hemodynamic parameters typically increased by the stressor, and (c) reveal differential effects of stressor relevance for subjective and cardiovascular stress responses. Taken together, it can be concluded that the process of the cognitive appraisal of stressor relevance outlines individual variability in cardiovascular responding to acute stress.

  5. Frequency response of rectangular plates with free-edge openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced displacement at boundaries

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    Dae Seung Cho

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical procedure for the natural vibration analysis of plates with openings and carlings based on the assumed mode method is extended to assess their forced response. Firstly, natural response of plates with openings and carlings is calculated from the eigenvalue equation derived by using Lagrange's equation of motion. Secondly, the mode superposition method is applied to determine frequency response. Mindlin theory is adopted for plate modelling and the effect of openings is taken into account by subtracting their potential and kinetic energies from the corresponding plate energies. Natural and frequency response of plates with openings and carlings subjected to point excitation force and enforced acceleration at boundaries, respectively, is analysed by using developed in-house code. For the validation of the developed method and the code, extensive numerical results, related to plates with different opening shape, carlings and boundary conditions, are compared with numerical data from the relevant literature and with finite element solutions obtained by general finite element tool.

  6. Analytical and Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Fiber Metal Laminates (FMLs subjected to low-velocity impact via combined response surface regression and zero-One programming

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    Faramarz Ashenai Ghasemi

    Full Text Available This paper presents analytical and mathematical modeling and optimization of the dynamic behavior of the fiber metal laminates (FMLs subjected to low-velocity impact. The deflection to thickness (w/h ratio has been identified through the governing equations of the plate that are solved using the first-order shear deformation theory as well as the Fourier series method. With the help of a two degrees-of-freedom system, consisting of springs-masses, and the Choi's linearized Hertzian contact model the interaction between the impactor and the plate is modeled. Thirty-one experiments are conducted on samples of different layer sequences and volume fractions of Al plies in the composite Structures. A reliable fitness function in the form of a strict linear mathematical function constructed. Using an ordinary least square method, response regression coefficients estimated and a zero-one programming technique proposed to optimize the FML plate behavior subjected to any technological or cost restrictions. The results indicated that FML plate behavior is highly affected by layer sequences and volume fractions of Al plies. The results also showed that, embedding Al plies at outer layers of the structure significantly results in a better response of the structure under low-velocity impact, instead of embedding them in the middle or middle and outer layers of the structure.

  7. Association of HLA-DR3 with human immune response to Lol p I and Lol p II allergens in allergic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Ansari, A A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1988-04-01

    Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responses to two well-characterized, antigenetically non-crossreactive components of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen extract, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II) were studied in two groups of skin-test positive (ST+) Caucasoid adults. By both nonparametric and parametric statistical methods, significant associations were found between Ab responses to both Lol I and Lol II and the possession of HLA-DR3. In view of the well-known associations of both DR3 and B8 (which are in linkage disequilibrium) with many autoimmune diseases, differences in anti-Lol I and anti-Lol II mean log[Ab] levels between B8+, DR3- vs B8-, DR3- subjects and B8+, DR3+ vs B8-, DR3+ subjects were investigated. No differences were found. Our data, along with recent RFLP and DNA sequence studies, suggest that an Ia molecule involved in immune recognition of a similar major Ia recognition site of both the Lol molecules may consist of a DR3 alpha-beta I pair. Abbreviations used: Ab: Antibody. HLA: Human leukocyte antigen. Lol p I, Lol I: Group I allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye I). Lol p II, Lol II: Group II allergen from Lolium perenne pollen (Rye II). Mr: Relative molecular mass. Rx: Immunotherapy with grass pollen extracts. ST: Skin test.

  8. A note on the periodic and chaotic responses of an SDOF system with piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic- and flow-induced excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang; Qiao, Ni

    2008-03-01

    In this note, the periodic and chaotic responses of two single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) models are investigated and some interesting results obtained. The first model (original model) has been developed by Narayanan and Sekar [Periodic and chaotic responses of an SDOF system with piecewise linear stiffness subjected to combined harmonic and flow induced excitations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 184 (2) (1997) 281-298] and the second one corresponds to a modified system. The original model, involving a one-sided clearance ( y0) between the mass and the linear spring, is subjected to combined harmonic ( F cos ωt) and flow-induced excitations. Narayanan and Sekar (1997) has shown that periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions of this original model may occur in a range of flow velocities for the case: y0=0 and F≠0. In the present work, numerical calculations are carried out for several other important cases of the original system, showing some interesting, and sometimes unexpected results. The modified model, in particular, involving both-sided clearances, is analyzed numerically subsequently. The effect of flow velocity, clearances on the global dynamics of this modified system is discussed finally.

  9. Predictive value of pharmacokinetics-adjusted phenotypic susceptibility on response to ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs) in human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects failing prior PI therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J; Park, Jeong-Gun; Haubrich, Richard; Aweeka, Francesca; Bastow, Barbara; Pakes, Gary E; Yu, Song; Wu, Hulin; Richman, Douglas D

    2009-06-01

    The activities of protease inhibitors in vivo may depend on plasma concentrations and viral susceptibility. This nonrandomized, open-label study evaluated the relationship of the inhibitory quotient (IQ [the ratio of drug exposure to viral phenotypic susceptibility]) to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load (VL) change for ritonavir-enhanced protease inhibitors (PIs). Subjects on PI-based regimens replaced their PIs with ritonavir-enhanced indinavir (IDV/r) 800/200 mg, fosamprenavir (FPV/r) 700/100 mg, or lopinavir (LPV/r) 400/200 mg twice daily. Pharmacokinetics were assessed at day 14; follow-up lasted 24 weeks. Associations between IQ and VL changes were examined. Fifty-three subjects enrolled, 12 on IDV/r, 33 on FPV/r, and 8 on LPV/r. Median changes (n-fold) (FC) of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) to the study PI were high. Median 2-week VL changes were -0.7, -0.1, and -1.0 log(10) for IDV/r, FPV/r, and LPV/r. With FPV/r, correlations between the IQ and the 2-week change in VL were significant (Spearman's r range, -0.39 to -0.50; P PI-experienced subjects with highly resistant HIV-1, short-term VL responses to RTV-enhanced FPV/r correlated best with baseline susceptibility. The IQ improved correlation in analyses of all arms where a greater range of virologic responses was observed.

  10. Factor structure and measurement invariance of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire: Does the subjectivity of the response perspective threaten the contextual validity of inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, Gerald R; Nolte, Sandra; Osborne, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    On-going evidence is required to support the validity of inferences about change and group differences in the evaluation of health programs, particularly when self-report scales requiring substantial subjectivity in response generation are used as outcome measures. Following this reasoning, the aim of this study was to replicate the factor structure and investigate the measurement invariance of the latest version of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, a widely used health program evaluation measure. An archived dataset of responses to the most recent version of the English-language Health Education Impact Questionnaire that uses four rather than six response options (N = 3221) was analysed using exploratory structural equation modelling and confirmatory factor analysis appropriate for ordered categorical data. Metric and scalar invariance were studied following recent recommendations in the literature to apply fully invariant unconditional models with minimum constraints necessary for model identification. The original eight-factor structure was replicated and all but one of the scales (Self Monitoring and Insight) was found to consist of unifactorial items with reliability of ⩾0.8 and satisfactory discriminant validity. Configural, metric and scalar invariance were established across pre-test to post-test and population sub-groups (sex, age, education, ethnic background). The results support the high level of interest in the Health Education Impact Questionnaire, particularly for use as a pre-test/post-test measure in experimental studies, other pre-post evaluation designs and system-level monitoring and evaluation.

  11. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  12. A Comparison of Thresholds in Auditory Steady - State Response with Pure Tone Audiometry in Subjects with Normal Hearing and Those with Mild and Moderate Sensorineural Hearing los

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    Sadegh Jafarzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Among all auditory assessment tools, auditory steady state response (ASSR is a modern test. Modulation frequency for this test is usually 80 Hz. The purpose of this study, was to examined adult subjects with 40 Hz and 80 Hz ASSR and compare the results.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult (60 ears were evaluated by ASSR and PTA test, Results were divided into three groups: normal hearing, mild and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Results: In all groups, forty hertz ASSR thresholds were relatively closer to behavioral threshold than those of 80 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Besides, the more severe hearing loss, the lower the difference between those two thresholds. Correlation coefficients were also higher in 40 Hz ASSR(p<0.05. Conclusion: Frequency modulation thresholds with 40 Hz are more likely to be closer to the behavioral thresholds. Moreover, it has better results than the thresholds with 80 Hz.

  13. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  14. The Seismic Response of High-Speed Railway Bridges Subjected to Near-Fault Forward Directivity Ground Motions Using a Vehicle-Track-Bridge Element

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    Chen Ling-kun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA project ground motion library, the finite element model of the high-speed railway vehicle-bridge system is established. The model was specifically developed for such system that is subjected to near-fault ground motions. In addition, it accounted for the influence of the rail irregularities. The vehicle-track-bridge (VTB element is presented to simulate the interaction between train and bridge, in which a train can be modeled as a series of sprung masses concentrated at the axle positions. For the short period railway bridge, the results from the case study demonstrate that directivity pulse effect tends to increase the seismic responses of the bridge compared with far-fault ground motions or nonpulse-like motions and the directivity pulse effect and high values of the vertical acceleration component can notably influence the hysteretic behaviour of piers.

  15. Comparison of the corneal biomechanical properties with the Ocular Response Analyzer® (ORA) in African and Caucasian normal subjects and patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detry-Morel, Michèle; Jamart, Jacques; Hautenauven, Frédéric; Pourjavan, Sayeh

    2012-03-01

    To compare corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer(®) tonometer (ORA) between (i) African normals and treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients and (ii) between normals and treated POAG Caucasians. To analyse the correlation of CH and CRF with visual field (VF) defects in the two groups. This comparative study included 59 African (29 (POAG), 30 normals) and 55 Caucasians (30 POAG and 25 normals) subjects. Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and ORA measurements were performed in a randomized sequence. Visual field was tested with the Swedish interactive threshold algorithms standard strategy of the Humphrey perimeter. Hoddap classification was used to estimate the severity of VF defects. Primary open-angle glaucoma Africans were younger than POAG Caucasians (p glaucoma Africans had higher IOPcc values than Caucasian POAGs (p glaucoma damage in Africans compared with Caucasians at diagnosis. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Effects of setting up of humidifiers on thermal conditions and subjective responses of patients and staff in a hospital during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Hirakawa, Megumi; Tochihara, Yutaka; Kaji, Yumi; Karaki, Chitake

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this survey was to measure the thermal environment in a hospital during winter, and to investigate the subjective responses of patients and staff via a questionnaire. The air temperature and humidity in the sickrooms and nurse stations were measured for 3 months during winter. After 2 months, we introduced humidifiers into about half of the rooms and nurse stations as a method of improving the environment, and evaluated the effects of the installed humidifiers on the thermal conditions. In all, 36 patients and 45 staff members were asked once a week about subjective symptoms (dry and itchy skin, thirst, etc.). Before setting up the humidifiers, the existence of a low-humidity environment in the hospital during winter was confirmed, with the levels of relative humidity and humidity ratio reaching under 50% and 5g/kg DA, respectively, which is known to promote the spread of influenza viruses. However, the introduction of the humidifiers increased the relative humidity in sickrooms from 32.8% to 43.9% on average, and the air humidity in sickrooms thus almost reached the optimum range suggested by the Hospital Engineering Association of Japan (HEAJ). Additionally, complaints of thermal discomfort and dryness of air decreased among the staff, though not among the patients, after the humidifiers were installed. These results suggest that introducing humidifiers into a hospital during winter is an effective method of improving the low-humidity environment and relieving the discomfort of staff members.

  17. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I.; Sauvaget, A.; Granero, R.; Mestre-Bach, G.; Baño, M.; Martín-Romera, V.; Veciana de las Heras, M.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Jansen, A.; Roefs, A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating. PMID:28155875

  18. Subjective craving and event-related brain response to olfactory and visual chocolate cues in binge-eating and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, I; Sauvaget, A; Granero, R; Mestre-Bach, G; Baño, M; Martín-Romera, V; Veciana de Las Heras, M; Jiménez-Murcia, S; Jansen, A; Roefs, A; Fernández-Aranda, F

    2017-02-03

    High-sugar/high-fat foods are related to binge-eating behaviour and especially people with low inhibitory control may encounter elevated difficulties to resist their intake. Incentive sensitization to food-related cues might lead to increased motivated attention towards these stimuli and to cue-induced craving. To investigate the combined influence of olfactory and visual stimuli on craving, inhibitory control and motivated attention, 20 healthy controls and 19 individuals with binge-eating viewed chocolate and neutral pictures, primed by chocolate or neutral odours. Subjective craving and electroencephalogram activity were recorded during the task. N2 and Late Positive Potential (LPP) amplitudes were analysed. Patients reported higher craving than controls. Subjective craving, N2 and LPP amplitudes were higher for chocolate versus neutral pictures. Patients showed a higher relative increase in N2 amplitudes to chocolate versus neutral pictures than controls. Chocolate images induced significant increases in craving, motivated attention and measures of cognitive control. Chocolate odour might potentiate the craving response to visual stimuli, especially in patients with binge-eating.

  19. The impact of immunosenescence on humoral immune response variation after influenza A/H1N1 vaccination in older subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana H Haralambieva

    Full Text Available Although influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly, the factors underlying the reduced vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in this age group are not completely understood. Age and immunosenescence factors, and their impact on humoral immunity after influenza vaccination, are of growing interest for the development of better vaccines for the elderly.We assessed associations between age and immunosenescence markers (T cell receptor rearrangement excision circles - TREC content, peripheral white blood cell telomerase - TERT expression and CD28 expression on T cells and influenza A/H1N1 vaccine-induced measures of humoral immunity in 106 older subjects at baseline and three timepoints post-vaccination.TERT activity (TERT mRNA expression was significantly positively correlated with the observed increase in the influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at Day 28 compared to baseline (p-value=0.025. TREC levels were positively correlated with the baseline and early (Day 3 influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response (p-value=0.042 and p-value=0.035, respectively. The expression and/or expression change of CD28 on CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells at baseline and Day 3 was positively correlated with the influenza A/H1N1-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response at baseline, Day 28 and Day 75 post-vaccination. In a multivariable analysis, the peak antibody response (HAI and/or VNA at Day 28 was negatively associated with age, the percentage of CD8+CD28 low T cells, IgD+CD27- naïve B cells, and percentage overall CD20- B cells and plasmablasts, measured at Day 3 post-vaccination. The early change in influenza-specific memory B cell ELISPOT response was positively correlated with the observed increase in influenza A/H1N1-specific HAI antibodies at Day 28 and Day 75 relative to baseline (p-value=0.007 and p-value=0.005, respectively.Our data suggest that influenza-specific humoral immunity is significantly influenced by

  20. Enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in elderly subjects with COPD is associated with a reduced splanchnic extraction of multiple amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, MPKJ; De Castro, CLN; Rutten, EPA; Wouters, EFM; Schols, AMWJ; Deutz, NEP

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously observed in elderly subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) an enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding, associated with reduced splanchnic extraction (SPE) of phenylalanine. Milk proteins are known for their high Branched-chain Amino Acids (BCAA) content, but no information is present about splanchnic extraction and metabolism of the individual BCAA in COPD. Objective To investigate whether BCAA metabolism and SPE of the individual BCAA are altered in COPD during milk protein sip feeding. Design In elderly subjects with COPD and in healthy age-matched elderly SPE, endogenous rate of appearance (Raendo) of the leucine (LEU), isoleucine (ILE) and valine (VAL) were measured before and during sip feeding of a Whey protein meal. To study the effect of aging, the healthy elderly were compared to a group of healthy young subjects. Stable isotopes of L-[2H3]-LEU, L-[1-13C]-ILE and L-[1-13C]-VAL were given on two separate test days orally or intravenously. Simultaneously, L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine (PHE) and L-[ring-2H2]-tyrosine (TYR) were given to determine the whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS) and NetPS. Results SPE of all BCAA, TYR, and PHE (p<0.01) were lower in the COPD group, and the increase in netPS during feeding was higher in the COPD group (P<0.01) due to higher values for PS (P<0.001). Raendo of all BCAA, PHE and TYR were higher in the COPD than the healthy elderly group (P<0.05) before and during feeding (P<0.001). Sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE, ILE and VAL (P<0.05). Postabsorptive Raendo was not different for any of the measured amino acids between the healthy elderly and young group, while sip feeding resulted in a reduction of Raendo of PHE. Only SPE of TYR was higher in the elderly (P<0.05) and the increase in netPS during sip feeding was independent of aging. Conclusion The enhanced anabolic response to milk protein sip feeding in normal

  1. The response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, T. J.; Bradley, J.; Dwivedi, A.; Casem, D.

    2016-05-01

    This article presents the response of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) subjected to large strains, high strain rates, high pressures, a range in temperatures, and variations in the intermediate principal stress. Laboratory data from the literature, and new test data provided here, are used in the evaluation. The new data include uniaxial stress compression tests (at various strain rates and temperatures) and uniaxial stress tension tests (at low strain rates and ambient temperatures). The compression tests include experiments at ˙ɛ = 13,000 s-1, significantly extending the range of known strain rate data. The observed behavior of PMMA includes the following: it is brittle in compression at high rates, and brittle in tension at all rates; strength is dependent on the pressure, strain, strain rate, temperature, and the intermediate principal stress; the shear modulus increases as the pressure increases; and it is highly compressible. Also presented are novel, high velocity impact tests (using high-speed imaging) that provide insight into the initiation and evolution of damage. Lastly, computational constitutive models for pressure, strength, and failure are presented that provide responses that are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The models are used to compute several ballistic impact events for which experimental data are available.

  2. The effect of cortisol on emotional responses depends on order of cortisol and placebo administration in a within-subjects design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Scherer, Sean M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2010-01-01

    Cortisol does not exhibit a straightforward relationship with mood states; administration of glucocorticoids to human subjects has produced mixed effects on mood and emotional processing. In this study, participants (N=46) received intravenous hydrocortisone (synthetic cortisol; 0.1 mg/kg body weight) and placebo in randomized order over two sessions 48 hours apart. Following the infusion, participants rated neutral and unpleasant pictures. In Session 1, participants reported elevated negative affect (NA) following the picture-rating task, regardless of treatment. In Session 2, however, only participants who received cortisol (and thus who had received placebo in Session 1) reported elevated NA. Arousal ratings for unpleasant pictures followed a similar pattern. These findings suggest that the effects of cortisol on emotion vary based on situational factors, such as drug administration order or familiarity with the tasks and setting. Such factors can influence cortisol’s effects on emotion in two ways: A) cortisol may only potentiate NA and arousal ratings in the absence of other, overwhelming influences on affect, such as the novelty of the setting and tasks in Session 1; and B) cortisol in Session 1 may facilitate learning processes (e.g. habituation to the stimuli and setting; extinction of aversive responses) such that emotional responses to the pictures are lessened in Session 2. This interpretation is compatible with a body of literature on the effects of glucocorticoids on learning and memory processes. PMID:21232874

  3. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected in HIV-1-infected subjects using standard peptide matrix-based screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B. Jones (R. Brad); V.M. John (Vivek); D.V. Hunter (Diana); E. Martin (Eric); S. Mujib (Shariq); V. Mihajlovic (Vesna); P.C. Burgers (Peter); T.M. Luider (Theo); G. Gyenes (Gabor); N.C. Sheppard (Neil); D. SenGupta (Devi); R. Tandon (Ravi); F.-Y. Yue (Feng-Yun); W.S. Benko (William); C. Kovacs (Carrie); R. Nixon; M.A. Ostrowski (Mario)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractT-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific

  4. Neural responses in songbird forebrain reflect learning rates, acquired salience, and stimulus novelty after auditory discrimination training

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brittany A.; Phan, Mimi L.; Vicario, David S.

    2014-01-01

    How do social interactions form and modulate the neural representations of specific complex signals? This question can be addressed in the songbird auditory system. Like humans, songbirds learn to vocalize by imitating tutors heard during development. These learned vocalizations are important in reproductive and social interactions and in individual recognition. As a model for the social reinforcement of particular songs, male zebra finches were trained to peck for a food reward in response t...

  5. APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms influence metabolic responses to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino tea consumption in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeenduang, Nutjaree; Sangkaew, Boonnisa; Chantaracha, Pacharee; Chanchareonsri, Sirada; Plyduang, Thunyaluk; Thitdee, Wanida; Samae, Cathaleeya; Pitumanon, Wacharaporn

    2017-03-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) and Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GP) have been used as traditional medicines to treat diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Nevertheless, there is interindividual variation in the metabolic responses to HS and GP consumption. This may be due to genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HS and GP tea consumption on anthropometric data, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemia subjects with different genotypes of the APOE and CETP TaqIB polymorphisms. Forty-eight subjects with hypercholesterolemia were given either HS or GP tea for 30 days. Anthropometric and biochemical var