Sample records for subject nasa materials

  1. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference (United States)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)


    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  2. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program (United States)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard


    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  3. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program (United States)

    Downey, James Patton


    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  4. Application of Chemistry in Materials Research at NASA GRC (United States)

    Kavandi, Janet L.


    Overview of NASA GRC Materials Development. New materials enabled by new chemistries offering unique properties and chemical processing techniques. Durability of materials in harsh environments requires understanding and modeling of chemical interaction of materials with the environment.

  5. NASA Thesaurus (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) and the NTRS...

  6. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives...

  7. Electrical Materials Research for NASAs Hybrid Electric Commercial Aircraft Program (United States)

    Bowman, Randy


    A high-level description of NASA GRC research in electrical materials is presented with a brief description of the AATTHGEP funding project. To be presented at the Interagency Advanced Power Group Electrical Materials panel session.

  8. Meteorites for K-12 Classrooms: NASA Meteorite Educational Materials (United States)

    Lindstrom, M.; Allen, J.


    The fall of a new meteorite is an event that catches the interest of the public in matters of science. The threat of a huge impact like last year's comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 gives us all reason to evaluate such potential risks. NASA's meteorite educational materials use our natural interest in rocks from space to present classroom activities on planetary science. The meteorite educational package includes a meteorite sample disk, a teachers's guide and a slide set. The sample disk is a lucite disk containing chips of six different kinds of meteorites (3 chondrites, achondrite, iron, stony-iron). EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is a teacher's guide with background information and 19 hands-on or heads-on activities for grades 4-12. It was prepared in a partnership of planetary scientists and teachers. The slide set consists of 48 slides with captions to be used with the activities. The materials will be available in Fall 1995. Teachers may obtain a loan of the whole package from NASA Teacher Resource Centers; researchers may borrow them from the JSC meteorite curator. The booklet is available separately from the same sources, and the slide set will be available from NASA CORE. EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERIES is an interdisciplinary planetary science unit which teaches basic science concepts and techniques together with math, reading, writing and social studies The activities are done in a variety of different teaching styles which emphasize observation, experimentation and critical thinking. The activities are ideal for middle schools where teaming makes interdisciplinary units desireable, but most of the activities can be easily modified for grade levels from upper elementary through high school. Meteorites are a natural subject for interdisciplinary teaching because their study involves all fields of science and offers fascinating historical accounts and possibilities for creative expression. Topics covered in EXPLORING METEORITE MYSTERES are centered around basic

  9. Structures and Materials Competency Vision and Purpose at NASA Langley (United States)

    Shuart, Mark J.


    Vision: The revolutionary materials and structures technologies developed at NASA Langley Research Center meet the needs of the Aerospace Community and benefit the quality of life on Earth Purpose: Develop and deliver useable research and technology results to meet Agency program objectives and to enable the Agency to develop future aerospace materials and structures

  10. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...... to the topic of frost resistance of wet building materials. Three computer algorithms are presented to facilitate the numerical analysis of the phenomenons considered....

  11. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  12. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...... to the topic of frost resistance of wet building materials. Three computer algorithms are presented to facilitate the numerical analysis of the phenomenons considered....

  13. Microanalytical Efforts in Support of NASA's Materials Science Programs (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.


    Following a brief overview of NASA s Microgravity Materials Science programs, specific examples will be given showing electron beam and optical microscopic applications to two-phase glass structures, dendrite tip radii, solid solution semiconductors, undercooled two-phase stainless steels and meteorites.

  14. NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle Technologies: A Composite Materials Overview (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Cook, Steve; Effinger, Mike; Smith, Dennis; Swint, Shayne


    A materials overview of the NASA's Earth-to-Orbit Space Transportation Program is presented. The topics discussed are: Earth-to-Orbit Goals and Challenges; Space Transportation Program Structure; Generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles; Space Transportation Derived Requirements; X 34 Demonstrator; Fastrac Engine System; Airframe Systems; Propulsion Systems; Cryotank Structures; Advanced Materials, Fabrication, Manufacturing, & Assembly; Hot and Cooled Airframe Structures; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Ultra-High Temp Polymer Matrix Composites; Metal Matrix Composites; and PMC Lines Ducts and Valves.

  15. Laser Materials Processing for NASA's Aerospace Structural Materials (United States)

    Nagarathnam, Karthik; Hunyady, Thomas A.


    Lasers are useful for performing operations such as joining, machining, built-up freeform fabrication, and surface treatment. Due to the multifunctional nature of a single tool and the variety of materials that can be processed, these attributes are attractive in order to support long-term missions in space. However, current laser technology also has drawbacks for space-based applications. Specifically, size, power efficiency, lack of robustness, and problems processing highly reflective materials are all concerns. With the advent of recent breakthroughs in solidstate laser (e.g., diode-pumped lasers) and fiber optic technologies, the potential to perform multiple processing techniques in space has increased significantly. A review of the historical development of lasers from their infancy to the present will be used to show how these issues may be addressed. The review will also indicate where further development is necessary to realize a laser-based materials processing capability in space. The broad utility of laser beams in synthesizing various classes of engineering materials will be illustrated using state-of-the art processing maps for select lightweight alloys typically found on spacecraft. Both short- and long-term space missions will benefit from the development of a universal laser-based tool with low power consumption, improved process flexibility, compactness (e.g., miniaturization), robustness, and automation for maximum utility with a minimum of human interaction. The potential advantages of using lasers with suitable wavelength and beam properties for future space missions to the moon, Mars and beyond will be discussed. The laser processing experiments in the present report were performed using a diode pumped, pulsed/continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (50 W max average laser power), with a 1064 nm wavelength. The processed materials included Ti-6AI-4V, Al-2219 and Al-2090. For Phase I of this project, the laser process conditions were varied and optimized

  16. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project - Structures and Materials Discipline (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Johnson, Susan M.


    The Structures & Materials Discipline within the NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project is focused on developing rotorcraft technologies. The technologies being developed are within the task areas of: 5.1.1 Life Prediction Methods for Engine Structures & Components 5.1.2 Erosion Resistant Coatings for Improved Turbine Blade Life 5.2.1 Crashworthiness 5.2.2 Methods for Prediction of Fatigue Damage & Self Healing 5.3.1 Propulsion High Temperature Materials 5.3.2 Lightweight Structures and Noise Integration The presentation will discuss rotorcraft specific technical challenges and needs as well as details of the work being conducted in the six task areas.

  17. Materials and Process Activities for NASA's Composite Crew Module (United States)

    Polis, Daniel L.


    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). The overall goal of the CCM project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project s baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. The materials and process activities were prioritized based on a rapid prototype approach. This approach focused developmental activities on design details with greater risk and uncertainty, such as out-of-autoclave joining, over some of the more traditional lamina and laminate building block levels. While process development and associated building block testing were performed, several anomalies were still observed at the full-scale level due to interactions between process robustness and manufacturing scale-up. This paper describes the process anomalies that were encountered during the CCM development and the subsequent root cause investigations that led to the final design solutions. These investigations highlight the importance of full-scale developmental work early in the schedule of a complex composite design/build project.

  18. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program: A Materials Overview (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.


    The realization of low-cost assess to space is one of NASA's three principal goals or "pillars" under the Office of Aero-Space Technology. In accordance with the goals of this pillar, NASA's primary space transportation technology role is to develop and demonstrate next-generation technologies to enable the commercial launch industry to develop full-scale, low cost, highly reliable space launchers. The approach involves both ground-based technology demonstrations and flight demonstrators, including the X-33, X-34, Bantam, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), and future experimental vehicles. Next generation space transportation vehicles and propulsion systems will require the development and implementation of advanced materials and processes. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced materials efforts which are focused on the needs of next generation space transportation systems. Applications described will include ceramic matrix composite (CMC) integrally bladed turbine disk (blisk); actively cooled CMC nozzle ramp for the aerospike engine; ablative thrust chamber/nozzle; and metal matrix composite turbomachinery housings.

  19. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  20. NASA Composite Materials Development: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Pipes, R. Byron; Johnston, Norman


    Composite materials have emerged as the materials of choice for increasing the performance and reducing the weight and cost of military, general aviation, and transport aircraft and space launch vehicles. Major advancements have been made in the ability to design, fabricate, and analyze large complex aerospace structures. The recent efforts by Boeing and Airbus to incorporate composite into primary load carrying structures of large commercial transports and to certify the airworthiness of these structures is evidence of the significant advancements made in understanding and use of these materials in real world aircraft. NASA has been engaged in research on composites since the late 1960 s and has worked to address many development issues with these materials in an effort to ensure safety, improve performance, and improve affordability of air travel for the public good. This research has ranged from synthesis of advanced resin chemistries to development of mathematical analyses tools to reliably predict the response of built-up structures under combined load conditions. The lessons learned from this research are highlighted with specific examples to illustrate the problems encountered and solutions to these problems. Examples include specific technologies related to environmental effects, processing science, fabrication technologies, nondestructive inspection, damage tolerance, micromechanics, structural mechanics, and residual life prediction. The current state of the technology is reviewed and key issues requiring additional research identified. Also, grand challenges to be solved for expanded use of composites in aero structures are identified.

  1. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.


    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  2. Historical Evolution of NASA Standard Materials Testing with Hypergolic Propellants and Ammonia (NASA Standard 6001 Test 15) (United States)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.


    The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has performed testing of hazardous and reactive aerospace fluids, including hypergolic propellants, with materials since the 1960s with the Apollo program. Amongst other test activities, Test 15 is a NASA standard test for evaluating the reactivity of materials with selected aerospace fluids, in particular hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, uns-dimethylhydrazine, Aerozine 50, dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizers, and ammonia. This manuscript provides an overview of the history of Test 15 over a timeline ranging from prior to its development and first implementation as a NASA standard test in 1974 to its current refinement. Precursor documents to NASA standard tests, as they are currently known, are reviewed. A related supplementary test, international standardization, and enhancements to Test 15 are also discussed. Because WSTF was instrumental in the development and implementation of Test 15, WSTF experience and practices are referred to in this manuscript.

  3. Status of Thermal NDT of Space Shuttle Materials at NASA (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.; Hodges, Kenneth; Koshti, Ajay; Ryan, Daniel; Reinhardt, Walter W.


    Since the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, NASA has focused on improving advanced NDE techniques for the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels that comprise the orbiter s wing leading edge and nose cap. Various nondestructive inspection techniques have been used in the examination of the RCC, but thermography has emerged as an effective inspection alternative to more traditional methods. Thermography is a non-contact inspection method as compared to ultrasonic techniques which typically require the use of a coupling medium between the transducer and material. Like radiographic techniques, thermography can inspect large areas, but has the advantage of minimal safety concerns and the ability for single-sided measurements. Details of the analysis technique that has been developed to allow insitu inspection of a majority of shuttle RCC components is discussed. Additionally, validation testing, performed to quantify the performance of the system, will be discussed. Finally, the results of applying this technology to the Space Shuttle Discovery after its return from the STS-114 mission in July 2005 are discussed.

  4. Environmentally-driven Materials Obsolescence: Material Replacements and Lessons Learned from NASA's Space Shuttle Program (United States)

    Meinhold, Anne


    The Space Shuttle Program was terminated in 2011 with the last flight of the Shuttle Endeavour. During the 30 years of its operating history, the number of domestic and international environmental regulations increased rapidly and resulted in materials obsolescence risks to the program. Initial replacement efforts focused on ozone depleting substances. As pressure from environmental regulations increased, Shuttle worked on the replacement of heavy metals. volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Near the end of the program. Shuttle identified potential material obsolescence driven by international regulations and the potential for suppliers to reformulate materials. During the Shuttle Program a team focused on environmentally-driven materials obsolescence worked to identify and mitigate these risks. Lessons learned from the Shuttle experience can be applied to new NASA Programs as well as other high reliability applications.

  5. 37 CFR 202.1 - Material not subject to copyright. (United States)


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Material not subject to copyright. 202.1 Section 202.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES PREREGISTRATION AND REGISTRATION OF CLAIMS TO COPYRIGHT § 202.1 Material not...

  6. NASA's Additive Manufacturing Development Materials Science to Technology Infusion - Connecting the Digital Dots (United States)

    Vickers, John


    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  7. Impact Testing for Materials Science at NASA - MSFC (United States)

    Sikapizye, Mitch


    The Impact Testing Facility (ITF) at NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is host to different types of guns used to study the effects of high velocity impacts. The testing facility has been and continues to be utilized for all NASA missions where impact testing is essential. The Facility has also performed tests for the Department of Defense, other corporations, as well as universities across the nation. Current capabilities provided by Marshall include ballistic guns, light gas guns, exploding wire gun, and the Hydrometeor Impact Gun. A new plasma gun has also been developed which would be able to propel particles at velocities of 20km/s. This report includes some of the guns used for impact testing at NASA Marshall and their capabilities.

  8. Subjective evaluation of chosen typographical characteristics in marketing materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Talandová


    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the problems of marketing materials quality evaluation and their formal aspect and also customers’ marketing materials evaluation. This area has not been concentrated on very much and nor in the literature is described. The paper presents the results of our own research which queries how the customers subjectively perceive and evaluate the marketing materials. The emphasis was put on the materials quality i.e. on what materials are considered as quality materials by the customers and which attributes mainly influence the quality. The results were aggregated on the basis of customers’ responses an also on the basis of practical examples evaluation which included intentional mistakes. The subjects of the evaluation were marketing materials quality as a general feature, the attributes influencing the quality and marketing materials quality and company quality relation. Also the exam­ples including mistakes were evaluated. According to the questioning results, the respondents’ answers vary much. It is not possible to find unambiguously right or wrong marketing materials eva­lua­tion. This area will be developed in further research which will be concentrated mainly on the typographical aspects.The aim of this paper is to delimit and to define the present situation through the research result exa­mi­na­tion, to define ‘quality’ and to describe the way how marketing materials are perceived by the customers.

  9. Characterization of candidate solar sail materials subjected to electron radiation (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Hubbs, Whitney S.; Gray, Perry A.; Wertz, George E.; Hoppe, David T.; Nehls, Mary K.; Semmel, Charles L.; Albarado, Tesia L.; Hollerman, William A.


    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion in which a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. Solar sails are not limited by reaction mass and provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the light-weight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Once considered difficult or impossible, solar sailing has left the realm of science fiction for the realm of possibility. Any spacecraft using this method would need to deploy a thin sail that could be as large as many kilometers in extent. The availability of strong, ultra light-weight, and radiation-resistant materials will determine the future of solar sailing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is concentrating research into the use of ultra light-weight materials for spacecraft propulsion. MSFC's Space Environmental Effects Team is actively characterizing candidate solar sail materials to evaluate thermo-optical and mechanical properties after exposure to space environmental effects. This paper describes irradiation of candidate materials with energetic electrons in vacuum to determine the hardness of several candidate sail materials. [Hardness is defined as the amount of electron fluence (electrons/area) required to cause the sail material to fail.] This paper describes the testing procedure and preliminary results of this investigation. Comparisons to approximate the engineering functional lifetimes of candidate sail materials will be shown.

  10. Theorizing the complexities of discursive and material subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Lis; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks and poststructural......This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks...... to a redefinition of the concept of subjectivity that emphasizes the multiplicity of enacting forces including human as well as non-human, material/technological actors; and that underlinesthe importance of a conceptualization of all actors as simultaneously enacting and enacted forces....

  11. Auditors’ Assessments of Materiality Between Professional Judgment and Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Aqel


    Full Text Available Abstract: Materiality has been and continues to be a topic of importance for auditors. It is considered as a significant factor in the planning of the audit procedures, performing the planned audit procedures, evaluating the results of the audit procedures and issuing an audit report. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the concept of materiality motivated by concerns at the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Securities and Exchange Commission and International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board issuance of proposed standards on materiality. The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze comprehensively the concept of audit materiality including how materiality threshold is determined by auditors. Auditing standards settings bodies pointed out that auditor’s determination of materiality threshold is a matter of professional judjment. As a judgmental concept, however, materiality is susceptible to subjectivity. Furthermore, the absence of audting standards on how materiality is determined has highlighted the significance of this issue and indicated that guidance for materiality professional judgments must come from other non-authoritative sources such as empirical researches. A number of new and important areas of materiality are in need of further investigation.

  12. Material resources availability, parent subject perception and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' poor performance in the Yoruba language is being considered a serious problem by researchers and education stakeholders. Despite their efforts, no appreciable improvement is noticeable for hardly are enough researches on the extent to which school material resources availability, parental subject perception ...

  13. NASA's Advanced TPS Materials and Technology Development: Multi-Functional Materials and Systems for Space Exploration (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay; Ellerby, Donald T.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Beck, Robin A S.


    NASA's future missions will be more demanding. They require materials to be mass efficient, robust, multi-functional, scalable and able to be integrated with other subsystems to enable innovative missions to accomplish future science missions. Thermal protection systems and materials (TPSM) are critical for the robotic and human exploration of the solar system when it involves entry. TPSM is a single string system with no back-up. Mass efficiency and robustness are required. Integration of TPSM with the aeroshell is both a challenge and an opportunity. Since 2010, NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate has invested in innovative new materials and systems across a spectrum of game changing technologies. In this keynote address, we plan to highlight and present our successful approaches utilized in developing four different materials and system technologies that use innovative new manufacturing techniques to meet mission needs. 3-D weaving and felt manufacturing allowed us to successfully propose new ways of addressing TPSM challenges. In the 3-D MAT project, we developed and delivered a multi-functional TPS materials solution, in under three years that is an enabler for Lunar Capable Orion Spacecraft. Under the HEEET project, we are developing a robust heat-shield that can withstand extreme entry conditions, both thermally and mechanically, for entry at Venus, Saturn or higher speed sample return missions. The improved efficiency of HEEET allows science missions entry at much reduced G'loads enabling delicate science instruments to be used. The ADEPT concept is a foldable and deployable entry system and the critical component is a multi-functional fabric that is foldable and deployable and also functions as a mechanical aeroshell and a TPS. The fourth technology we will highlight involves felt to address integration challenges of rigid ablative system such as PICA that was used on MSL. The felt technology allows us to develop a compliant TPS for easy

  14. Shock enhancement of cellular materials subjected to intensive pulse loading (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.


    Cellular materials can dissipate a large amount of energy due to their considerable stress plateau, which contributes to their extensive applications in structural design for crashworthiness. However, in some experiments with specimens subjected to intense impact loads, transmitted stress enhancement has been observed, leading to severe damage to the objects protected. Transmitted stress through two-dimensional Voronoi cellular materials as a protective device is qualitatively studied in this paper. Dimensionless parameters of material properties and loading parameters are defined to give critical conditions for shock enhancement and clarify the correlation between the deformations and stress enhancement. The effect of relative density on this amplifying phenomenon is investigated as well. In addition, local strain fields are calculated by using the optimal local deformation gradient, which gives a clear presentation of deformations and possible local non-uniformity in the crushing process. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of cellular materials as protective structures.

  15. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This report documents the outcome of the assessment.

  16. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading: Appendices (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approx. 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approx. 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  17. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. [Appendices (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  18. Theorizing the complexities of discursive and material subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Lis; Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks and poststructural......This article seeks to address the theoretical foundations of subjectivity as co-constituted by discursive and material/technological forces. Our ambition is to develop a conceptual framework that draws from Science and Technology Studies and related “new materialist” frameworks...... and poststructuralist analyses in order to develop analytics that embrace the complexities we face in our empirical work. We discuss the potentialities and weaknesses of the two theoretical frameworks at a conceptual level as well as through an empirical case on peer bullying in schools. The discussion leads us...

  19. Uses of Computed Tomography in the NASA Materials Science Program (United States)

    Engel, H. Peter; Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Computed Tomography (CT) has proved to be of inestimable use in providing a rapid evaluation of a variety of samples from Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) to electronic materials (Ge-Si alloys) to space grown materials such as meteorites. The system at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), because of its convenient geographical location, is ideal for examining samples immediately after returning to Earth. It also has the advantage of the choice of fluxes, and in particular the use of a radioactive cobalt source, which is basically monochromatic. This permits a reasonable measurement of density to be made from which chemical composition can be determined. Due to the current dearth of long duration space grown materials, the CT instrument has been used to characterize materials in preparation for flight, to determine thermal expansion values, and to examine long duration space grown materials, i.e. meteorites. The work will first describe the establishment of the protocol for obtaining the optimum density readings for any material. This will include both the effects of the hardware or instrumental parameters that can be controlled, and the techniques used to process the CT data. Examples will be given of the compositional variation along single crystals of germanium-silicon alloys. Density variation with temperature has been measured in preparation for future materials science experiments; this involved the fabrication and installation of a single zone furnace incorporating a heat pipe to ensure of high temperature uniformity. At the time of writing the thermal expansion of lead has been measured from room temperature to 900 C. Three methods are available. Digital radiography enable length changes to be determined. Prior to melting the sample is small than the container and the diameter change can be measured. Most critical, however, is the density change in solid, through the melting region, and in the liquid state. These data are needed for engineering purposes to aid

  20. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team


    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  1. Polymeric Materials for Aerospace Power and Propulsion: Overview of Polymer Research at NASA Glenn (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.


    Weight, durability and performance are all major concerns for any NASA mission. Use of lightweight materials, such as fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites can lead to significant reductions in vehicle weight and improvements in vehicle performance. Research in the Polymeric Materials Branch at NASA Glenn is focused on improving the durability, properties, processability and performance of polymeric materials by utilizing both conventional polymer science and engineering as well as nanotechnology and bioinspired approaches. This presentation will provide an overview of these efforts and highlight recent progress.

  2. NASA-STD-6016 Standard Materials and Processes Requirements for Spacecraft (United States)

    Hirsch, David B.


    The standards for materials and processes surrounding spacecraft are discussed. Presentation focused on minimum requirements for Materials and Processes (M&P) used in design, fabrication, and testing of flight components for NASA manned, unmanned, robotic, launch vehicle, lander, in-space and surface systems, and spacecraft program/project hardware elements.Included is information on flammability, offgassing, compatibility requirements, and processes; both metallic and non-metallic materials are mentioned.

  3. The NASA Materials Science Research Program - It's New Strategic Goals and Plans (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.


    In 2001, the NASA created a separate science enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to perform strategical and fundamental research bringing together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to solve problems needed for future agency mission goals. The Materials Science Program is one of basic research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program participates to utilize effective use of International Space Station (ISS) experimental facilities, target new scientific and technology questions, and transfer results for Earth benefits. The program has recently pursued new investigative research in areas necessary to expand NASA knowledge base for exploration of the universe, some of which will need access to the microgravity of space. The program has a wide variety of traditional ground and flight based research related types of basic science related to materials crystallization, fundamental processing, and properties characterization in order to obtain basic understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. A summary of the types and sources for this research is presented and those experiments planned for the space. Areas to help expand the science basis for NASA future missions are described. An overview of the program is given including the scope of the current and future NASA Research Announcements with emphasis on new materials science initiatives. A description of the planned flight experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station program along with the planned facility class Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) and Microgravity Glovebox (MSG) type investigations.

  4. NASA/First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) Module Inserts Development for the International Space Station (United States)

    Crouch, Myscha; Carswell, Bill; Farmer, Jeff; Rose, Fred; Tidwell, Paul


    The Material Science Research Rack 1 (MSRR-1) of the Material Science Research Facility (MSRF) contains an Experiment Module (EM) being developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). This NASA/ESA EM will accommodate several different removable and replaceable Module Inserts (MIs) which are installed on orbit. Two of the NASA MIs being developed for specific material science investigations are described herein.

  5. Materials and Structures Research for Gas Turbine Applications Within the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing Project (United States)

    Hurst, Janet


    A brief overview is presented of the current materials and structures research geared toward propulsion applications for NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project one of four projects within the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project has selected challenging goals which anticipate an increasing emphasis on aviation s impact upon the global issue of environmental responsibility. These goals are greatly reduced noise, reduced emissions and reduced fuel consumption and address 25 to 30 years of technology development. Successful implementation of these demanding goals will require development of new materials and structural approaches within gas turbine propulsion technology. The Materials and Structures discipline, within the SFW project, comprise cross-cutting technologies ranging from basic investigations to component validation in laboratory environments. Material advances are teamed with innovative designs in a multidisciplinary approach with the resulting technology advances directed to promote the goals of reduced noise and emissions along with improved performance.

  6. X-Ray Micro-Tomography Applied to Nasa's Materials Research: Heat Shields, Parachutes and Asteroids (United States)

    Panerai, Francesco; Borner, Arnaud; Ferguson, Joseph C.; Mansour, Nagi N.; Stern, Eric C.; Barnard, Harold S.; Macdowell, Alastair A.; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.


    X-ray micro-tomography is used to support the research on materials carried out at NASA Ames Research Center. The technique is applied to a variety of applications, including the ability to characterize heat shield materials for planetary entry, to study the Earth- impacting asteroids, and to improve broadcloths of spacecraft parachutes. From micro-tomography images, relevant morphological and transport properties are determined and validated against experimental data.

  7. The NASA Materials Science Research Program: It's New Strategic Goals and Opportunities (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stagg, Elizabeth


    In the past year, the NASA s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has formulated a long term plan to perform strategical and fundamental research bringing together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to solve problems needed for current and future agency mission goals. Materials Science is one of basic disciplines within the Enterprise s Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program participates to utilize effective use of International Space Station (ISS) and various world class ground laboratory facilities to solve new scientific and technology questions and transfer these results for public and agency benefits. The program has recently targeted new investigative research in strategic areas necessary to expand NASA knowledge base for exploration of the universe and some of these experiments will need access to the microgravity of space. The program is implementing a wide variety of traditional ground and flight based research related types of fundamental science related to materials crystallization, fundamental processing, and properties characterization in order to obtain basic understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. , In addition new initiatives in radiation protection, materials for propulsion and In-space fabrication and repair focus on research helping the agency solve problems needed for future transportation into the solar system. A summary of the types and sources for this research is presented including those experiments planned for a low gravity environment. Areas to help expand the science basis for NASA future missions are described. An overview of the program is given including the scope of the current and future NASA Research Announcements with emphasis on new materials science initiatives. A description of the planned flight experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station program along with the planned

  8. NASA Thesaurus Data File (United States)


    The NASA Thesaurus contains the authorized NASA subject terms used to index and retrieve materials in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database (NA&SD) and NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). The scope of this controlled vocabulary includes not only aerospace engineering, but all supporting areas of engineering and physics, the natural space sciences (astronomy, astrophysics, planetary science), Earth sciences, and the biological sciences. The NASA Thesaurus Data File contains all valid terms and hierarchical relationships, USE references, and related terms in machine-readable form. The Data File is available in the following formats: RDF/SKOS, RDF/OWL, ZThes-1.0, and CSV/TXT.

  9. Predicting the Reliability of Brittle Material Structures Subjected to Transient Proof Test and Service Loading (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    Brittle materials today are being used, or considered, for a wide variety of high tech applications that operate in harsh environments, including static and rotating turbine parts, thermal protection systems, dental prosthetics, fuel cells, oxygen transport membranes, radomes, and MEMS. Designing brittle material components to sustain repeated load without fracturing while using the minimum amount of material requires the use of a probabilistic design methodology. The NASA CARES/Life 1 (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structure/Life) code provides a general-purpose analysis tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. This capability includes predicting the time-dependent failure probability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The developed methodology allows for changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e. changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). For this article an overview of the transient reliability methodology and how this methodology is extended to account for proof testing is described. The CARES/Life code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  10. Development of Web Based Learning Material in Physics Subject for Kalor and Temperature Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatwa Aji Kurniawan


    Full Text Available It has been done, the research which aims to develop a web-based teaching materials on the subjects of physics subject with subject mater of temperature and heat. This study using a modified model of the 4D development by eliminating the deployment phase. The validation of product development conducted by validator media experts and experts matter of physics, whereas small-scale trials conducted by physics teacher and 10 students. Validator review results stating that the quality of the product development were included in the category very well with the average percentage rating of 83.93%. The percentage value assigned by media expert by 75% in the good category and the percentage of the value provided by a matter expert 92.85% were in the very good category. Experiments by physics teacher to obtain result of equal to 94.44% were in the very good category and the average percentage of the test results by the students of 90.5% were in the very good category. The characteristics of the products developed include material composition using the curriculum in 2013, there was a recording facility and the results of evaluation of students' activities, there were feedback evaluation results were immediately known by the students and there were some links related to the material either youtube or other learning website.

  11. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.


    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  12. NASA-STD-(I)-6016, Standard Materials and Processes Requirements for Spacecraft (United States)

    Pedley, Michael; Griffin, Dennis


    This document is directed toward Materials and Processes (M&P) used in the design, fabrication, and testing of flight components for all NASA manned, unmanned, robotic, launch vehicle, lander, in-space and surface systems, and spacecraft program/project hardware elements. All flight hardware is covered by the M&P requirements of this document, including vendor designed, off-the-shelf, and vendor furnished items. Materials and processes used in interfacing ground support equipment (GSE); test equipment; hardware processing equipment; hardware packaging; and hardware shipment shall be controlled to prevent damage to or contamination of flight hardware.

  13. Implementation Plan for the NASA Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials (United States)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)


    This report presents the implementation plans of the Center of Excellence (COE) for Structures and Materials. The plan documented herein is the result of an Agencywide planning activity led by the Office of the Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The COE Leadership Team, with a representative from each NASA Field Center, was established to assist LaRC in fulfilling the responsibilities of the COE. The Leadership Team developed the plan presented in this report.

  14. The Problem of Subject Access to Visual Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather P. Jespersen


    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of giving subject access to works of art. We survey both concept-based and content-based access by computers and by indexers/catalogers respectively, as well as issues of interoperability, database and indexer consistency, and cataloging standards. The authors, both of whom are trained art historians, question attempts to mystify fine art subject matter by the creation of clever library science systems that are executed by the naive. Only when trained art historians and knowledgeable catalogers are finally responsible for providing subject access to works of art, will true interoperability and consistency happen.

  15. Planning for long-duration space exploration: Interviews with NASA subject matter experts (United States)

    McIntosh, Tristan; Mulhearn, Tyler; Gibson, Carter; Mumford, Michael D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Connelly, Shane; Day, Eric A.; Vessey, William B.


    Planning is critical to organizations, especially for those involved in pursuing technologic, scientific, and innovative ventures. Examination of planning processes is particularly important in high-stake and high-risk environments. In the present study, to highlight the significance of planning in the context of long-duration space missions, 11 current and former National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel were interviewed to gain a better understanding of astronaut and Mission Control leadership in preparing for and carrying out space missions. Interviewees focused their responses on perceptions of leadership and thoughts on how long-duration spaceflight leadership should be different from current and short-term spaceflight. Notes from these interviews were content coded and qualitatively analyzed. We found that cognitive planning skills and case-based reasoning were among the variables that were most highly rated for being critical to the success of long-duration space missions. Moreover, qualitative analyses revealed new considerations for long-duration space missions, such as granting greater autonomy to crewmembers and the need for more near-term forecasting. The implications of these findings for understanding the planning processes and necessary characteristics of individuals tasked with planning are discussed.

  16. Materials in NASA's Space Launch System: The Stuff Dreams are Made of (United States)

    May, Todd A.


    Mr. Todd May, Program Manager for NASA's Space Launch System, will showcase plans and progress the nation s new super-heavy-lift launch vehicle, which is on track for a first flight to launch an Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle around the Moon in 2017. Mr. May s keynote address will share NASA's vision for future human and scientific space exploration and how SLS will advance those plans. Using new, in-development, and existing assets from the Space Shuttle and other programs, SLS will provide safe, affordable, and sustainable space launch capabilities for exploration payloads starting at 70 metric tons (t) and evolving through 130 t for entirely new deep-space missions. Mr. May will also highlight the impact of material selection, development, and manufacturing as they contribute to reducing risk and cost while simultaneously supporting the nation s exploration goals.

  17. A High Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data Base for Selected Materials Tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (United States)

    Barrett, Charles A.


    The cyclic oxidation test results for some 1000 high temperature commercial and experimental alloys have been collected in an EXCEL database. This database represents over thirty years of research at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The data is in the form of a series of runs of specific weight change versus time values for a set of samples tested at a given temperature, cycle time, and exposure time. Included on each run is a set of embedded plots of the critical data. The nature of the data is discussed along with analysis of the cyclic oxidation process. In addition examples are given as to how a set of results can be analyzed. The data is assembled on a read-only compact disk which is available on request from Materials Durability Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  18. A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)


    In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human

  19. Ecological performance of construction materials subject to ocean climate change. (United States)

    Davis, Kay L; Coleman, Melinda A; Connell, Sean D; Russell, Bayden D; Gillanders, Bronwyn M; Kelaher, Brendan P


    Artificial structures will be increasingly utilized to protect coastal infrastructure from sea-level rise and storms associated with climate change. Although it is well documented that the materials comprising artificial structures influence the composition of organisms that use them as habitat, little is known about how these materials may chemically react with changing seawater conditions, and what effects this will have on associated biota. We investigated the effects of ocean warming, acidification, and type of coastal infrastructure material on algal turfs. Seawater acidification resulted in greater covers of turf, though this effect was counteracted by elevated temperatures. Concrete supported a greater cover of turf than granite or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) under all temperature and pH treatments, with the greatest covers occurring under simulated ocean acidification. Furthermore, photosynthetic efficiency under acidification was greater on concrete substratum compared to all other materials and treatment combinations. These results demonstrate the capacity to maximise ecological benefits whilst still meeting local management objectives when engineering coastal defense structures by selecting materials that are appropriate in an ocean change context. Therefore, mitigation efforts to offset impacts from sea-level rise and storms can also be engineered to alter, or even reduce, the effects of climatic change on biological assemblages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Direction for NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Trach, Brian; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)


    NASA recently created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer scientific and technology results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. Accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on nanomaterials and biomaterials type research. Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for this research. Discussion will be

  1. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.


    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  2. Accounting for Material Reality in the Analytic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin McCoy Brooks


    Full Text Available Scientific advances made in the 21st century contend that the forces of nature and nurture work together through an ongoing series of complex correspondences between brain and mental activity in our daily activities with others. Jung’s cosmological model of the psyche minimizes the fundamental corporeal condition of human nature and as such is critiqued and amended, influenced by the transcendental materialist theories of subjectivity inspired by Žižek, Johnston and Laplanche.

  3. NASA-JSC Protocol for the Characterization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Material Quality (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pasha; Gorelik, Olga; Hadjiev, Victor; Holmes, William; Devivar, Rodrigo; Files, Bradley; Yowell, Leonard


    It is well known that the raw as well as purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material always contain certain amount of impurities of varying composition (mostly metal catalyst and non-tubular carbon). Particular purification method also creates defects and/or functional groups in the SWCNT material and therefore affects the its dispersability in solvents (important to subsequent application development). A number of analytical characterization tools have been used successfully in the past years to assess various properties of nanotube materials, but lack of standards makes it difficult to compare these measurements across the board. In this work we report the protocol developed at NASA-JSC which standardizes measurements using TEM, SEM, TGA, Raman and UV-Vis-NIR absorption techniques. Numerical measures are established for parameters such as metal content, homogeneity, thermal stability and dispersability, to allow easy comparison of SWCNT materials. We will also report on the recent progress in quantitative measurement of non-tubular carbon impurities and a possible purity standard for SWCNT materials.

  4. NASA International Environmental Partnerships (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie; Valek, Susan


    For nearly five decades, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been preeminent in space exploration. NASA has landed Americans on the moon, robotic rovers on Mars, and led cooperative scientific endeavors among nations aboard the International Space Station. But as Earth's population increases, the environment is subject to increasing challenges and requires more efficient use of resources. International partnerships give NASA the opportunity to share its scientific and engineering expertise. They also enable NASA to stay aware of continually changing international environmental regulations and global markets for materials that NASA uses to accomplish its mission. Through international partnerships, NASA and this nation have taken the opportunity to look globally for solutions to challenges we face here on Earth. Working with other nations provides NASA with collaborative opportunities with the global science/engineering community to explore ways in which to protect our natural resources, conserve energy, reduce the use of hazardous materials in space and earthly applications, and reduce greenhouse gases that potentially affect all of Earth's inhabitants. NASA is working with an ever-expanding list of international partners including the European Union, the European Space Agency and, especially, the nation of Portugal. Our common goal is to foster a sustainable future in which partners continue to explore the universe while protecting our home planet's resources for future generations. This brochure highlights past, current, and future initiatives in several important areas of international collaboration that can bring environmental, economic, and other benefits to NASA and the wider international space community.

  5. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions (United States)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.


    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  6. Lunar In Situ Materials-Based Habitat Technology Development Efforts at NASA/MSFC (United States)

    Bodiford, Melanie P.; Burks, K. H.; Perry M. R.; Cooper, R. W.; Fiske, M. R.


    For long duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the structures to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. The use of in situ materials will significantly offset required launch upmass and volume issues. Under the auspices of the In Situ Fabrication & Repair (ISFR) Program at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Habitat Structures project has been developing materials and construction technologies to support development of these in situ structures. This paper will report on the development of several of these technologies at MSFC's Prototype Development Laboratory (PDL). These technologies include, but are not limited to, development of extruded concrete and inflatable concrete dome technologies based on waterless and water-based concretes, development of regolith-based blocks with potential radiation shielding binders including polyurethane and polyethylene, pressure regulation systems for inflatable structures, production of glass fibers and rebar derived from molten lunar regolith simulant, development of regolithbag structures, and others, including automation design issues. Results to date and planned efforts for FY06 will also be presented.

  7. Lunar In Situ Materials-Based Surface Structure Technology Development Efforts at NASA/MSFC (United States)

    Fiske, M. R.; McGregor, W.; Pope, R.; McLemore, C. A.; Kaul, R.; Smithers, G.; Ethridge, E.; Toutanji, H.


    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the structures to accommodate them, including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. The use of in situ materials will significantly offset required launch upmass and volume issues. Under the auspices of the In Situ Fabrication & Repair (ISFR) Program at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Surface Structures project has been developing materials and construction technologies to support development of these in situ structures. This paper will report on the development of several of these technologies at MSFC's Prototype Development Laboratory (PDL). These technologies include, but are not limited to, development of extruded concrete and inflatable concrete dome technologies based on waterless and water-based concretes, development of regolith-based blocks with potential radiation shielding binders including polyurethane and polyethylene, pressure regulation systems for inflatable structures, production of glass fibers and rebar derived from molten lunar regolith simulant, development of regolithbag structures, and others, including automation design issues. Results to date and lessons learned will be presented, along with recommendations for future activities.

  8. Update on N2O4 Molecular Sieving with 3A Material at NASA/KSC (United States)

    Davis, Chuck; Dorn, Claudia


    During its operational life, the Shuttle Program has experienced numerous failures in the Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4) portion of Reaction Control System (RCS), many of which were attributed to iron-nitrate contamination. Since the mid-1980's, N2O4 has been processed through a molecular sieve at the N2O4 manufacturer's facility which results in an iron content typically less than 0.5 parts-per-million-by-weight (ppmw). In February 1995, a Tiger Team was formed to attempt to resolve the iron nitrate problem. Eighteen specific actions were recommended as possibly reducing system failures. Those recommended actions include additional N2O4 molecular sieving at the Shuttle launch site. Testing at NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) determined an alternative molecular sieve material could also reduce the water-equivalent content (free water and HNO3) and thereby further reduce the natural production of iron nitrate in N2O4 while stored in iron-alloy storage tanks. Since April '96, NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has been processing N2O4 through the alternative molecular sieve material prior to delivery to Shuttle launch pad N2O4 storage tanks. A new, much larger capacity molecular sieve unit has also been used. This paper will evaluate the effectiveness of N2O4 molecular sieving on a large-scale basis and attempt to determine if the resultant lower-iron and lower-water content N2O4 maintains this new purity level in pad storage tanks and shuttle flight systems.

  9. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo


    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  10. NASA's In-Space Manufacturing Project: Materials and Manufacturing Process Development Update (United States)

    Prater, Tracie; Bean, Quincy; Werkheiser, Niki; Ledbetter, Frank


    The mission of NASA's In-Space Manufacturing (ISM) project is to identify, design, and implement on-demand, sustainable manufacturing solutions for fabrication, maintenance and repair during exploration missions. ISM has undertaken a phased strategy of incrementally increasing manufacturing capabilities to achieve this goal. The ISM project began with the development of the first 3D printer for the International Space Station. To date, the printer has completed two phases of flight operations. Results from phase I specimens indicated some differences in material properties between ground-processed and ISS-processed specimens, but results of follow-on analyses of these parts and a ground-based study with an equivalent printer strongly indicate that this variability is likely attributable to differences in manufacturing process settings between the ground and flight prints rather than microgravity effects on the fused deposition modeling (FDM) process. Analysis of phase II specimens from the 3D Printing in Zero G tech demo, which shed further light on the sources of material variability, will be presented. The ISM project has also developed a materials characterization plan for the Additive Manufacturing Facility, the follow-on commercial multimaterial 3D printing facility developed for ISS by Made in Space. This work will yield a suite of characteristic property values that can inform use of AMF by space system designers. Other project activities include development of an integrated 3D printer and recycler, known as the Refabricator, by Tethers Unlimited, which will be operational on ISS in 2018. The project also recently issued a broad area announcement for a multimaterial fabrication laboratory, which may include in-space manufacturing capabilities for metals, electronics, and polymeric materials, to be deployed on ISS in the 2022 timeframe.

  11. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals (United States)


    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  12. NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities (United States)

    Robinson, R. Craig


    The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in controlled ratios, simulating combustion gas chemistries and temperatures that are realistic to those in gas turbine engines. In addition, the test section is capable of simulating the pressures and gas velocities representative of today's aircraft. The HPBR provides a relatively inexpensive. yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials. The facility has the unique capability of operating under both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. using a fume incinerator to eliminate any harmful byproduct emissions (CO, H2S) of rich-burn operation. Test samples are easily accessible for ongoing inspection and documentation of weight change, thickness, cracking, and other metrics. Temperature measurement is available in the form of both thermocouples and optical pyrometery. and the facility is equipped with quartz windows for observation and video taping. Operating conditions include: (1) 1.0 kg/sec (2.0 lbm/sec) combustion and secondary cooling airflow capability: (2) Equivalence ratios of 0.5- 1.0 (lean) to 1.5-2.0 (rich), with typically 10% H2O vapor pressure: (3) Gas temperatures ranging 700-1650 C (1300-3000 F): (4) Test pressures ranging 4-12 atmospheres: (5) Gas flow velocities ranging 10-30 m/s (50-100) ft/sec.: and (6) Cyclic and steady-state exposure capabilities. The facility has historically been used to test coupon-size materials. including metals and ceramics. However complex-shaped components have also been tested including cylinders, airfoils, and film-cooled end walls. The facility has also been used to develop thin-film temperature measurement sensors.

  13. How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary Material Science Analog Studies on Lunar Basalts and Breccias with Industrial Materials of Steels and Ceramics (United States)

    Berczi, S.; Cech, V.; Jozsa, S.; Szakmany, G.; Fabriczy, A.; Foldi, T.; Varga, T.


    Analog studies play important role in space materials education. Various aspects of analogies are used in our courses. In this year two main rock types of NASA Lunar Set were used in analog studies in respect of processes and textures with selected industrial material samples. For breccias and basalts on the lunar side, ceramics and steels were found as analogs on the industrial side. Their processing steps were identified on the basis of their textures both in lunar and in industrial groups of materials.

  14. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review


    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.


    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  15. Particle LET spectra from microelectronics packaging materials subjected to neutron and proton irradiation (United States)

    Browning, J. S.; Holtkamp, D. B.


    Cumulative fractions for LET spectra were measured for particles ejected from microelectronics packaging materials subjected to neutron and proton irradiation. The measurements for the neutron irradiation compare well with Monte Carlo theoretical calculations. The spectra can be used to access microelectronics vulnerabilities in strategic-nuclear- weapon, space-trapped, and neutral-beam directed-energy particle environments.

  16. Structural Framework for Flight: NASA's Role in Development of Advanced Composite Materials for Aircraft and Space Structures (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.; Davis, John G., Jr.; Johnston, Norman J.; Pipes, R. Byron; McGuire, Jack F.


    This serves as a source of collated information on Composite Research over the past four decades at NASA Langley Research Center, and is a key reference for readers wishing to grasp the underlying principles and challenges associated with developing and applying advanced composite materials to new aerospace vehicle concepts. Second, it identifies the major obstacles encountered in developing and applying composites on advanced flight vehicles, as well as lessons learned in overcoming these obstacles. Third, it points out current barriers and challenges to further application of composites on future vehicles. This is extremely valuable for steering research in the future, when new breakthroughs in materials or processing science may eliminate/minimize some of the barriers that have traditionally blocked the expanded application of composite to new structural or revolutionary vehicle concepts. Finally, a review of past work and identification of future challenges will hopefully inspire new research opportunities and development of revolutionary materials and structural concepts to revolutionize future flight vehicles.

  17. Materiality, Language and the Production of Knowledge: Art, Subjectivity and Indigenous Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Barrett


    Full Text Available Since all theories of knowing deal with the being of subjects, objects, instruments and environments, they can be viewed as onto-epistemological.  This chapter examines key ideas that emerge from the work of Julia Kristeva – 'the speaking subject', 'materiality of language' and 'heterogeneity' – to demonstrate how ontology and epistemology are inextricably entwined in knowledge production. Kristeva also affirms both the agency of matter and  the dimension of human/subjective agency implicated in cultural production. This is contrasted with Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari’s account creative practice. The article also draws on the artistic work of researcher-practitioner Brian Martin, and his account of the relationship between Indigenous Australian art and culture to demonstrate that in an Indigenous world view, the real, the immaterial, the imaginary and the representational occur concurrently.

  18. NASA Vision (United States)

    Fenton, Mary (Editor); Wood, Jennifer (Editor)


    This newsletter contains several articles, primarily on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and their activities, as well as the activities of NASA administrators. Other subjects covered in the articles include the investigation of the Space Shuttle Columbia accident, activities at NASA centers, Mars exploration, a collision avoidance test on a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The ISS articles cover landing in a Soyuz capsule, photography from the ISS, and the Expedition Seven crew.

  19. Cytogenetic genotoxic investigation in peripheral blood lymphocytes of subjects with dental composite restorative filling materials. (United States)

    Pettini, F; Savino, M; Corsalini, M; Cantore, S; Ballini, A


    Dental composite resins are biomaterials commonly used to aesthetically restore the structure and function of teeth impaired by caries, erosion, or fracture. Residual monomers released from resin restorations as a result of incomplete polymerization processes interact with living oral tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of a common dental composite material (Enamel Plus-HFO), in subjects with average 13 filled teeth with the same material, compared to a control group (subjects having neither amalgam nor composite resin fillings). Genotoxicity assessment of composite materials was carried out in vitro in human peripheral blood leukocytes using sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) cytogenetic tests. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses confirmed the absence of a relationship between SCE/cell, high frequency of SCE(HFC) or CA frequencies and exposure to dental composite materials. These results indicate that composite resins used for dental restorations differ extensively in vivo in their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential and in their ability to affect chromosomal integrity, cell-cycle progression, DNA replication and repair.

  20. Smart Materials and Structures Applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Horner, Garnett


    This overview of the presentation covers Langley's smart materials infrastructure, materials research, applications, and summary. Langley's infrastructure consists of fabrication and characterization of smart structures. Materials researched include ceramics, polymers, and polymer-ceramic composites. Applications include interior aircraft noise suppression, aircraft engine noise reduction, active flutter damping of aircraft wings for better performance, active shape control of polymeric reflectors, and aircraft wing distortion to eliminate control surfaces.

  1. Suitability of new anode materials in mammography: dose and subject contrast considerations using Monte Carlo simulation. (United States)

    Delis, H; Spyrou, G; Costaridou, L; Tzanakos, G; Panayiotakis, G


    Mammography is the technique with the highest sensitivity and specificity, for the early detection of nonpalpable lesions associated with breast cancer. As screening mammography refers to asymptomatic women, the task of optimization between the image quality and the radiation dose is critical. A way toward optimization could be the introduction of new anode materials. A method for producing the x-ray spectra of different anode/filter combinations is proposed. The performance of several mammographic spectra, produced by both existing and theoretical anode materials, is evaluated, with respect to their dose and subject contrast characteristics, using a Monte Carlo simulation. The mammographic performance is evaluated utilizing a properly designed mathematical phantom with embedded inhomogeneities, irradiated with different spectra, based on combinations of conventional and new (Ru, Ag) anode materials, with several filters (Mo, Rh, Ru, Ag, Nb, Al). An earlier developed and validated Monte Carlo model, for deriving both image and dose characteristics in mammography, was utilized and overall performance results were derived in terms of subject contrast to dose ratio and squared subject contrast to dose ratio. Results demonstrate that soft spectra, mainly produced from Mo, Rh, and Ru anodes and filtered with k-edge filters, provide increased subject contrast for inhomogeneities of both small size, simulating microcalcifications and low density, simulating masses. The harder spectra (W and Ag anode) come short in the discrimination task but demonstrate improved performance when considering the dose delivered to the breast tissue. As far as the overall performance is concerned, new theoretical spectra demonstrate a noticeable good performance that is similar, and in some cases better compared to commonly used systems, stressing the possibility of introducing new materials in mammographic practice as a possible contribution to its optimization task. In the overall

  2. Achilles tendon stress is more sensitive to subject-specific geometry than subject-specific material properties: A finite element analysis. (United States)

    Hansen, Wencke; Shim, Vickie B; Obst, Steven; Lloyd, David G; Newsham-West, Richard; Barrett, Rod S


    This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes. The mean (±SD) lengths, volumes and cross-sectional areas of the tendons at rest were 62±13mm, 3617±984mm3 and 58±11mm2 respectively. The measured tendon strain at 70% MVIC was 5.9±1.3%. Subject-specific material properties were obtained using an optimisation approach that minimised the difference between measured and modelled longitudinal free tendon strain. Generic geometry was represented by the average mesh and generic material properties were taken from the literature. Local stresses were subsequently computed for combinations of subject-specific and generic geometry and material properties. For a given geometry, changing from generic to subject-specific material properties had little effect on the stress distribution in the tendon. In contrast, changing from generic to subject-specific geometry had a 26-fold greater effect on tendon stress distribution. Overall, these findings indicate that the stress distribution experienced by the living free Achilles tendon of a young and healthy population during voluntary loading are more sensitive to variation in tendon geometry than variation in tendon material properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimal Composite Material for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications (United States)

    Lamontia, Mark A.; Gruber, Mark B.; Jensen, Brian J.


    Thermoplastic laminates in situ consolidated via tape or tow placement require full mechanical properties. Realizing full properties requires resin crystallinity to be controlled - partial crystallinity leads to unacceptably low laminate compression properties. There are two approaches: utilize an amorphous matrix resin; or place material made from a semi-crystalline resin featuring kinetics faster than the process. In this paper, a matrix resin evaluation and trade study was completed with commercial and NASA amorphous polyimides on the one hand, and with PEKK mixed with POSS nanoparticles for accelerated crystallinity growth on the other. A new thermoplastic impregnated material, 6 mm wide (0.25-in) AS-4 carbon/LaRC(TradeMark)8515 dry polyimide tow, was fabricated. Since LaRC(TradeMark)8515 is fully amorphous, it attains full properties following in situ consolidation, with no post processing required to build crystallinity. The tow in situ processing was demonstrated via in situ thermoplastic filament winding it into rings.

  4. DNA Damage Response and Radiosensitivity of Immune Cells from Subjects Undergoing Confinement in the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria


    The Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) represents an analog for simulation of isolation, confinement and remote conditions of mission exploration scenarios. HERA aims at investigating team performance and cooperation, reaction to stress, signs of early depression, anxiety and anger and their impact on human health. HERA is a collaborative project involving experts in different fields. Not only psychological but also clinical biomarkers of stress, e.g. adrenaline has been measured. It is known that stress hormones induce DNA strand breaks thus, within this project, my tasks was to determine the level of DNA strand breaks as well as expression of genes involved in DNA damage response in immune cells obtained from HERA subjects. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the cells to ex vivo radiation was also assessed.

  5. Composite Materials With Uncured Epoxy Matrix Exposed in Stratosphere During NASA Stratospheric Balloon Flight (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey; Kondyurina, Irina; Bilek, Marcela; de Groh, Kim K.


    A cassette of uncured composite materials with epoxy resin matrixes was exposed in the stratosphere (40 km altitude) over three days. Temperature variations of -76 to 32.5C and pressure up to 2.1 torr were recorded during flight. An analysis of the chemical structure of the composites showed, that the polymer matrix exposed in the stratosphere becomes crosslinked, while the ground control materials react by way of polymerization reaction of epoxy groups. The space irradiations are considered to be responsible for crosslinking of the uncured polymers exposed in the stratosphere. The composites were cured on Earth after landing. Analysis of the cured composites showed that the polymer matrix remains active under stratospheric conditions. The results can be used for predicting curing processes of polymer composites in a free space environment during an orbital space flight.

  6. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as a subject of flexible foreign language reading in research projects




    The article introduces the academic research work of students within the competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as a means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills. The authors reveal selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in the form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  7. Damage and failure modeling of lotus-type porous material subjected to low-cycle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kramberger


    Full Text Available The investigation of low-cycle fatigue behaviour of lotus-type porous material is presented in this paper. Porous materials exhibit some unique features which are useful for a number of various applications. This paper evaluates a numerical approach for determining of damage initiation and evolution of lotus-type porous material with computational simulations, where the considered computational models have different pore topology patterns. The low-cycle fatigue analysis was performed by using a damage evolution law. The damage state was calculated and updated based on the inelastic hysteresis energy for stabilized cycle. Degradation of the elastic stifness was modeled using scalar damage variable. In order to examine crack propagation path finite elements with severe damage were deleted and removed from the mesh during simulation. The direct cyclic analysis capability in Abaqus/Standard was used for low-cycle fatigue analysis to obtain the stabilized response of a model subjected to the periodic loading. The computational results show a qualitative understanding of pores topology influence on low-cycle fatigue under transversal loading conditions in relation to pore orientation.

  8. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels in Human Subjects Undergoing Head-Down Tilt During 70-Day Bed Rest (United States)

    Vyas, Ruchi J.; Murray, Matthew C.; Predovic, Marina; Lim, Shiyin; Askin, Kayleigh N.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Mason, Sara Stroble; Zanello, Susana B.; Young, Millenia; hide


    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions [1]. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within blood vessels of the retina that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated for two studies in 30deg infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis(Registered Trademark) images with NASA's innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software [2,3]. The retrospective studies include: (1) before, during and after (pre, mid and post) 6º head-down tilt (HDT) in human subjects during 70 days of bed rest, and (2) before and after missions to the International Space Station (ISS) by U.S. crew members. Results for both studies are almost complete. A preliminary example for HDT is described below.

  9. Damage Simulation in Composite Materials: Why It Matters and What Is Happening Currently at NASA in This Area (United States)

    McElroy, Mack; de Carvalho, Nelson; Estes, Ashley; Lin, Shih-yung


    Use of lightweight composite materials in space and aircraft structure designs is often challenging due to high costs associated with structural certification. Of primary concern in the use of composite structures is durability and damage tolerance. This concern is due to the inherent susceptibility of composite materials to both fabrication and service induced flaws. Due to a lack of general industry accepted analysis tools applicable to composites damage simulation, a certification procedure relies almost entirely on testing. It is this reliance on testing, especially compared to structures comprised of legacy metallic materials where damage simulation tools are available, that can drive costs for using composite materials in aerospace structures. The observation that use of composites can be expensive due to testing requirements is not new and as such, research on analysis tools for simulating damage in composite structures has been occurring for several decades. A convenient approach many researchers/model-developers in this area have taken is to select a specific problem relevant to aerospace structural certification and develop a model that is accurate within that scope. Some examples are open hole tension tests, compression after impact tests, low-velocity impact, damage tolerance of an embedded flaw, and fatigue crack growth to name a few. Based on the premise that running analyses is cheaper than running tests, one motivation that many researchers in this area have is that if generally applicable and reliable damage simulation tools were available the dependence on certification testing could be lessened thereby reducing overall design cost. It is generally accepted that simulation tools if applied in this manner would still need to be thoroughly validated and that composite testing will never be completely replaced by analysis. Research and development is currently occurring at NASA to create numerical damage simulation tools applicable to damage in

  10. Mechanical design engineering. NASA/university advanced design program: Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (United States)

    Daugherty, Paul; Griner, Stewart; Hendrix, Alan; Makarov, Chris; Martiny, Stephen; Meyhoefer, Douglas Ralph; Platt, Cody Claxton; Sivak, John; Wheeler, Elizabeth Fitch


    The design of a Lunar Bulk Material Transport Vehicle (LBMTV) is discussed. Goals set in the project include a payload of 50 cubic feet of lunar soil with a lunar of approximately 800 moon-pounds, a speed of 15 mph, and the ability to handle a grade of 20 percent. Thermal control, an articulated steering mechanism, a dump mechanism, a self-righting mechanism, viable power sources, and a probable control panel are analyzed. The thermal control system involves the use of small strip heaters to heat the housing of electronic equipment in the absence of sufficient solar radiation and multi-layer insulation during periods of intense solar radiation. The entire system uses only 10 W and weighs about 60 pounds, or 10 moon-pounds. The steering mechanism is an articulated steering joint at the center of the vehicle. It utilizes two actuators and yields a turning radius of 10.3 feet. The dump mechanism rotates the bulk material container through an angle of 100 degree using one actuator. The self-righting mechanism consists of two four bar linkages, each of which is powered by the same size actuator as the other linkages. The LBMTV is powered by rechargeable batteries. A running time of at least two hours is attained under a worst case analysis. The weight of the batteries is 100 pounds. A control panel consisting of feedback and control instruments is described. The panel includes all critical information necessary to control the vehicle remotely. The LBMTV is capable of handling many types of cargo. It is able to interface with many types of removable bulk material containers. These containers are made to interface with the three-legged walker, SKITTER. The overall vehicle is about 15 feet in length and has a weight of about 1000 pounds, or 170 lunar pounds.

  11. Investigation of Deuterium Loaded Materials Subject to X-Ray Exposure (United States)

    Benyo, Theresa L.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Martin, Richard E.; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Chait, Arnon; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Penney, Nicholas; hide


    Results are presented from an exploratory study involving x-ray irradiation of select deuterated materials. Titanium deuteride plus deuterated polyethylene, deuterated polyethylene alone, and for control, hydrogen-based polyethylene samples and nondeuterated titanium samples were exposed to x-ray irradiation. These samples were exposed to various energy levels from 65 to 280 kV with prescribed electron flux from 500 to 9000 µA impinging on a tungsten braking target, with total exposure times ranging from 55 to 280 min. Gamma activity was measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, and for all samples no gamma activity above background was detected. Alpha and beta activities were measured using a gas proportional counter, and for select samples beta activity was measured with a liquid scintillator spectrometer. The majority of the deuterated materials subjected to the microfocus x-ray irradiation exhibited postexposure beta activity above background and several showed short-lived alpha activity. The HPE and nondeuterated titanium control samples exposed to the x-ray irradiation showed no postexposure alpha or beta activities above background. Several of the samples (SL10A, SL16, SL17A) showed beta activity above background with a greater than 4s confidence level, months after exposure. Portions of SL10A, SL16, and SL17A samples were also scanned using a beta scintillator and found to have beta activity in the tritium energy band, continuing without noticeable decay for over 12 months. Beta scintillation investigation of as-received materials (before x-ray exposure) showed no beta activity in the tritium energy band, indicating the beta emitters were not in the starting materials.

  12. Aeroelastic Tailoring of the NASA Common Research Model via Novel Material and Structural Configurations (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Moore, James B.


    This work explores the use of tow steered composite laminates, functionally graded metals (FGM), thickness distributions, and curvilinear rib/spar/stringer topologies for aeroelastic tailoring. Parameterized models of the Common Research Model (CRM) wing box have been developed for passive aeroelastic tailoring trade studies. Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Compared to a baseline structure, the lowest aggregate static wing stresses could be obtained with tow steered skins (47% improvement), and many of these designs could reduce weight as well (up to 14%). For these structures, the trade-off between flutter speed and weight is generally strong, although one case showed both a 100% flutter improvement and a 3.5% weight reduction. Material grading showed no benefit in the skins, but moderate flutter speed improvements (with no weight or stress increase) could be obtained by grading the spars (4.8%) or ribs (3.2%), where the best flutter results were obtained by grading both thickness and material. For the topology work, large weight reductions were obtained by removing an inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straightrotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. These results will guide the development of a future design optimization scheme established to exploit and combine the individual attributes of these technologies.

  13. NASA's Plans for Materials Science on ISS: Cooperative Utilization of the MSRR-MSL (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Szofran, Frank


    The ISS Research Project draws Life (non-human) and Physical Sciences investigations on the ISS, free flyer and ground-based into one coordinated project. The project has two categories: I. Exploration Research Program: a) Utilizes the ISS as a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test bed for technology development, demonstration and problem resolution in the areas of life support, fire safety, power, propulsion, thermal management, materials technology, habitat design, etc.; b) Will include endorsement letters from other ETDP projects to show relevancy. II. Non-Exploration Research Program; a) Not directly related to supporting the human exploration program. Research conducted in the life (non-human) and physical sciences; b) The program will sustain, to the maximum extent practicable, the United States scientific expertise and research capability in fundamental microgravity research. Physical Sciences has about 44 grants, and Life Sciences has approximately 32 grants, mostly with universities, to conduct low TRL research; this includes grants to be awarded from the 2008 Fluid Physics and Life Science NRA's.

  14. NASA-UVa light aerospace alloy and structure technology program supplement: Aluminum-based materials for high speed aircraft (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr.


    This report on the NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structure Technology Program Supplement: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft covers the period from January 1, 1992 to June 30, 1992. The objective of the research is to develop aluminum alloys and aluminum matrix composites for the airframe which can efficiently perform in the HSCT environment for periods as long as 60,000 hours (certification for 120,000 hours) and, at the same time, meet the cost and weight requirements for an economically viable aircraft. Current industry baselines focus on flight at Mach 2.4. The research covers four major materials systems: (1) ingot metallurgy 2XXX, 6XXX, and 8XXX alloys, (2) powder metallurgy 2XXX alloys, (3) rapidly solidified, dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-X alloys, and (4) discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites. There are ten major tasks in the program which also include evaluation and trade-off studies by Boeing and Douglas aircraft companies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Rif’ati


    Full Text Available In the advanced and modern era, technological sophistication led to learning which initially runs, in which teachers and students meet each other and communicate in the classroom, can be implemented through of information technology. Along with the development of information, where books and teachers who initially as a primary source of learning, are now beginning to experience growth from the internet. Mobile learning defined as mobile devices that are used in the learning process. The wave course is one of subject that must be taken by students of physics education in the third semester. This course emphasizes the concepts of wave were reviewed mathematically and the phenomenon that occurs in everyday life. Mobile learning developed in this study in the form of electronic teaching materials on subjects of waves. The aim of this study was to develop electronic teaching material in the form of mobile learning. The sample of this study is 80 students in the third semester students who are taking waves courses. The results show that mobile learning that has been developed has score 3.8 and included valid criteria. Pada era yang serba maju dan modern, kecanggihan teknologi menyebabkan pembelajaran yang awalnya berjalan satu arah, dimana guru dan siswa saling bertemu dan berkomunikasi di dalam kelas, dapat dilaksanakan melalui bantuan teknologi.informasi. Seiring dengan perkembangan informasi, buku dan guru yang awalnya sebagai sumber belajar utama, saat ini sudah mulai mengalami perkembangan dimana sumber belajar yang berasal dari internet sudah mulai sering dimanfaatkan dalam proses pembelajaran. Mobile larning didefinisikan sebagai perangkat mobile yang dipergunakan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Mata kuliah gelombang sendiri merupakan salah satu mata kuliah yang wajib ditempuh oleh mahasiswa program studi pendidikan fisika semester 3. Mata kuliah ini menekankan pada konsep gelombang yang ditinjau secara matematis dan fenomenanya yang terjadi

  16. From Gender-segregated Subjects to Multi-material Craft: Craft Student Teachers’Views on the Future of the Craft Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Lepistö


    Full Text Available This paper describes the views of student teachers of craft about the future of craft as a school subject. The study was conducted at the University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education, in Rauma in 2014. The literature review revealed that the subject of craft in Finnish basic education is understood as a dialog between the maker and the materials. However, teaching and learning craft in schools and in teacher education has a strong gender-based tradition. The aim of this study is to investigate student teachers’ understanding of craft as a school subject in the future and their solutions to teaching craft in basic education. The data were collected from essays (N = 20 written by student teachers of craft. The essays were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis. The results showed that the student teachers of craft viewed holistic craft, reflective action readiness, entrepreneurial behaviour, multiple skills, the use of versatile materials, and craft as sources of pleasure and the main solutions for the future of craft as a subject.

  17. A Subjective Assessment of Alternative Mission Architecture Operations Concepts for the Human Exploration of Mars at NASA Using a Three-Dimensional Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid


    The primary driver for developing missions to send humans to other planets is to generate significant scientific return. NASA plans human planetary explorations with an acceptable level of risk consistent with other manned operations. Space exploration risks can not be completely eliminated. Therefore, an acceptable level of cost, technical, safety, schedule, and political risks and benefits must be established for exploratory missions. This study uses a three-dimensional multi-criteria decision making model to identify the risks and benefits associated with three alternative mission architecture operations concepts for the human exploration of Mars identified by the Mission Operations Directorate at Johnson Space Center. The three alternatives considered in this study include split, combo lander, and dual scenarios. The model considers the seven phases of the mission including: 1) Earth Vicinity/Departure; 2) Mars Transfer; 3) Mars Arrival; 4) Planetary Surface; 5) Mars Vicinity/Departure; 6) Earth Transfer; and 7) Earth Arrival. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and subjective probability estimation are used to captures the experts belief concerning the risks and benefits of the three alternative scenarios through a series of sequential, rational, and analytical processes.

  18. An analytical solution describing the shape of a yield stress material subjected to an overpressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Spangenberg, Jon; Larsen, P.


    Many fluids and granular materials are able to withstand a limited shear stress without flowing. These materials are known as yields stress materials. Previously, an analytical solution was presented to quantify the yield stress for such materials. The yields stress is obtained based on the density...... as well as the spread length and height of the material when deformed in a box due to gravity. In the present work, the analytical solution is extended with the addition of an overpressure that acts over the entire body of the material. This extension enables finding the shape of a yield stress material...

  19. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.


    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  20. Effects of Motivation, Subject Activity, and Readability on the Retention of Prose Materials. (United States)

    Fass, Warren; Schumacher, Gary M.


    Undergraduates read a prose passage and were tested on its contents. Difficulty, permission to underline key phrases, and financial motivation were varied. Non-highly motivated subjects performed better on the easy version; underlining aided highly motivated subjects and those reading the difficult version. (Author/RD)

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of polymeric materials subjected to non-isothermal flows: Experiment, theory and simulation (United States)

    Ionescu, Tudor Constantin

    Frictional or viscous heating phenomena are found in virtually every industrial operation dealing with processing of polymeric materials. This work is aimed at addressing some of the existing shortcomings in modeling non-isothermal polymer flowing processes. Specifically, existing theories suggest that when a polymer melt is subjected to deformation, its internal energy changes very little compared to its conformational entropy. This statement forms the definition of the Theory of Purely Entropic Elasticity (PEE) applied to polymer melts. Under the auspices of this theory, the temperature evolution equation for modeling the polymer melt under an applied deformation is greatly simplified. In this study, using a combination of experimental measurements, continuum-based computer modeling and molecular simulation techniques, the validity of this theory is tested for a wide range of processing conditions. First, we present experimental evidence that this theory is only valid for low deformation regimes. Furthermore, using molecular theory, a direct correlation is found between the relaxation characteristics of the polymer and the flow regime where this theory stops being valid. We present a new and improved form of the temperature equation containing an extra term previously neglected under the PEE assumption, followed by a recipe for evaluating the extra term. The corrected temperature equation is found to give more accurate predictions for the temperature profiles in the high flow rate regimes, in excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. Next, in order to gain a molecular-level understanding of our experimental findings, a series of polydisperse linear alkane systems with average chain lengths between 24 and 78 carbon atoms are modeled with an applied "orienting field" using a highly efficient non-equilibrium Monte Carlo scheme. Our simulation results appear to substantiate our experimental findings. The internal energy change of the oriented

  2. On strength design using free material subjected to multiple load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...

  3. Subject Specific Optimisation of the Stiffness of Footwear Material for Maximum Plantar Pressure Reduction. (United States)

    Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Naemi, Roozbeh; Healy, Aoife; Gerth, Peter; Chockalingam, Nachiappan


    Current selection of cushioning materials for therapeutic footwear and orthoses is based on empirical and anecdotal evidence. The aim of this investigation is to assess the biomechanical properties of carefully selected cushioning materials and to establish the basis for patient-specific material optimisation. For this purpose, bespoke cushioning materials with qualitatively similar mechanical behaviour but different stiffness were produced. Healthy volunteers were asked to stand and walk on materials with varying stiffness and their capacity for pressure reduction was assessed. Mechanical testing using a surrogate heel model was employed to investigate the effect of loading on optimum stiffness. Results indicated that optimising the stiffness of cushioning materials improved pressure reduction during standing and walking by at least 16 and 19% respectively. Moreover, the optimum stiffness was strongly correlated to body mass (BM) and body mass index (BMI), with stiffer materials needed in the case of people with higher BM or BMI. Mechanical testing confirmed that optimum stiffness increases with the magnitude of compressive loading. For the first time, this study provides quantitative data to support the importance of stiffness optimisation in cushioning materials and sets the basis for methods to inform optimum material selection in the clinic.

  4. Research Project "Subject Developing Environment of Preschool Education" for Russian Preschool Bilinguals (By the Example of Textile Educational Materials) (United States)

    Latipova, Liliya A.; Krapotkina, Irene E.; Koudrjavtseva, Ekaterina L.


    The problem's relevance stated in the article is determined by the following: forming preschool bilinguals' subject developing environment is connected with their active education and development, as well as with flexible preparation for studying at school. The purpose of this article is to develop methodology of textile developing materials' use…

  5. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  6. An International Teacher Training Project: Integrating Subject Content, Communicative and Digital Competences in Didactic Materials (United States)

    Sierra, Lina; Martin, Piedad


    The European intTT project "An Integral Teacher Training for Developing Digital and Communicative Competences and Subject Content Learning at Schools" deals with initial teacher training in primary and secondary School. The general objective of the project is to train future school teachers in order to improve the development of…

  7. Experimental Observations of Nuclear Activity in Deuterated Materials Subjected to a Low-Energy Photon Beam (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Benyo, Theresa L.; Pines, Vladimir; Pines, Marianna; Forsley, Lawrence P.; Westmeyer, Paul A.; Chait, Arnon; Becks, Michael D.; Martin, Richard E.; Hendricks, Robert C.; hide


    Exposure of highly deuterated materials to a low-energy (nom. 2 MeV) photon beam resulted in nuclear activity of both the parent metals of hafnium and erbium and a witness material (molybdenum) mixed with the reactants. Gamma spectral analysis of all deuterated materials, ErD2.8+C36D74+Mo and HfD2+C36D74+Mo, showed that nuclear processes had occurred as shown by unique gamma signatures. For the deuterated erbium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of erbium ((163)Er and (171)Er) and of molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo) and by beta decay, technetium (99mTc and 101Tc). For the deuterated hafnium specimens, posttest gamma spectra showed evidence of radioisotopes of hafnium (180mHf and 181Hf) and molybdenum ((99)Mo and (101)Mo), and by beta decay, technetium ((99m)Tc and (101)Tc). In contrast, when either the hydrogenated or non-gas-loaded erbium or hafnium materials were exposed to the gamma flux, the gamma spectra revealed no new isotopes. Neutron activation materials showed evidence of thermal and epithermal neutrons. CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors showed evidence of fast neutrons with energies between 1.4 and 2.5 MeV and several instances of triple tracks, indicating (is) greater than 10 MeV neutrons. Further study is required to determine the mechanism causing the nuclear activity.

  8. The Surface Layer States in Metallic Materials Subjected to Dry Sliding and Electric Current (United States)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Potekaev, A. I.; Kulikova, O. A.


    The structure and properties of surface layers of metallic materials undergoing structural-phase changes as a result of their contact interactions in the form of dry sliding friction on steel in combination with exposure to electric currents are investigated. This impact results in the formation of a composite surface layer whose structural constituents are the particles of FeO oxide, FCC- and BCC-iron, and quasi-amorphous initial material. Sliding of materials at the contact current density higher than 150 A/cm2 gives rise to the formation of local, low-stability structures which, as a result of phase transformations, are observed as sectors of quasiliquid plastic flow on the sliding surface. It is shown that the average temperatures of the Cu - steel material contact do not exceed 300°C, i.e., none of the surface-layer constituents reaches its melting temperature. It is shown that quasi-liquid plastic flow favors stress relaxation and maintains the strength of the surface layer, which ensures its lower wear.

  9. NASA Engineering Network (NEN) (United States)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson


    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  10. Control of geochemical mobility of arsenic by liming in materials subjected to acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, R.P. de; Figueiredo, B.R. [Geoscience Inst., UNICAMP, SP (Brazil); Mello, J.W.V. de; Santos, J.C.Z.; Zandonadi, L.U. [Soil Dept., Federal Univ. of Vicosa, MG (Brazil)


    Background. Acid mine drainage (AMD) results from the exposure of sulfide materials to atmospheric water and oxygen. In addition to AMD, oxidation of arsenopyrite and other As-bearing sulfides can release arsenic (As) into the environment. In view of the risk to living organisms due to contamination of ground and surface water sources with As, this work was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of lime (CaCO{sub 3}) in controlling the dispersion of this metalloid in the environment. Methods. Partially oxidized samples of sulfide bearing materials from gold mines in Brazil were used to evaluate the arsenic mobilization by leaching tests. Columns containing ground samples, with and without liming treatments, were leached with distilled water every two weeks over a 156-day period. Results and discussion. The acid-base accounting (ABA) static tests classified the samples as potential acid forming materials. In the treatments without liming, As, Fe and S concentrations in the leachates were higher than after treatment with carbonate. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of liming and As mobilization were lower in the sample containing goethite. A high correlation between Fe and As concentrations in the leachates (r=0.749) suggests that iron (hydr)oxides retained arsenic in the solid phase. Oxidation rates of As bearing sulfides were increased at low pH (2.0-3.9), probably due to the enhanced activity of bacteria (Acidithiobacillus) and decreased rate of Fe precipitation, thus reinforcing generation of acid water, and consequently releasing As. Conclusions and perspectives. Our results corroborate the use of lime to control the dispersion of As in AMD-affected environments. However, the effectiveness of the liming treatment seems to be dependent on the presence of iron (hydr)oxides in the sample. These findings can be useful to remediate areas affected by acid mine drainage and arsenic mobilization in partially oxidized sulfide materials. (orig.)

  11. Materialism, Subjectivity and the Outcome of French Philosophy: Interview with Adrian Johnston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Neill Burns


    Full Text Available Adrian Johnston is well known for his work at the intersection of Lacanian psychoanalysis, German idealism, contemporary French philosophy and most recently cognitive neuroscience. In the context of the current issue, Johnston represents the most complete development of a contemporary theory of Transcendental Materialism. In the following interview we explore both the implications of Johnston’s previous work, as well as the directions his most recent projects are taking.

  12. Characterizing and Modeling Brittle Bi-material Interfaces Subjected to Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Berggreen, Christian


    This work is based on the investigation, both experimentally and numerically, of the Mode II fracture process and bond strength of bondlines formed in co-cured composite/metal joints. To this end, GFRP-to-steel double strap joints were tested in tension, so that the bimaterial interface was subje......This work is based on the investigation, both experimentally and numerically, of the Mode II fracture process and bond strength of bondlines formed in co-cured composite/metal joints. To this end, GFRP-to-steel double strap joints were tested in tension, so that the bimaterial interface...... which characterize the bi-material interface, by considering the joint’s failure load, geometry and involved materials. The derived stress and toughness magnitudes were further utilized as the parameters of an extrinsic cohesive law, applied in connection with the modeling the bi-material interface...... was identified and utilized as a characterization test for measuring the Mode II fracture toughness of brittle bimaterial interfaces....

  13. Socio-material assemblies, the subjectivity of pain and work identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    Based on science and technology studies (STS) and actor-network theory (ANT) a roleplay from a production hall, is discussed in relation to the notions of subjectivity and work identity. The article argues that an instance of arthralgia (pain) may both be seen as an effect and a driver of human–machine...... identities.. It is argued that pain should not simply be seen as illness, or as resistance against the dominant engineering practice and general increase of speed, but also as an important actor in mobilizing a machine operator network. The strength of the analytical approach is that it elucidates...

  14. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.


    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  15. NASA-UVa Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program: Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft (United States)

    Starke, E. A., Jr. (Editor)


    This report is concerned with 'Aluminum-Based Materials for High Speed Aircraft' which was initiated to identify the technology needs associated with advanced, low-cost aluminum base materials for use as primary structural materials. Using a reference baseline aircraft, these materials concept will be further developed and evaluated both technically and economically to determine the most attractive combinations of designs, materials, and manufacturing techniques for major structural sections of an HSCT. Once this has been accomplished, the baseline aircraft will be resized, if applicable, and performance objectives and economic evaluations made to determine aircraft operating costs. The two primary objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the most promising aluminum-based materials with respect to major structural use on the HSCT and to further develop those materials, and (2) to assess these materials through detailed trade and evaluation studies with respect to their structural efficiency on the HSCT.

  16. Dynamic response of porous functionally graded material nanobeams subjected to moving nanoparticle based on nonlocal strain gradient theory (United States)

    Barati, Mohammad Reza


    Up to now, nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT) is broadly applied to examine free vibration, static bending and buckling of nanobeams. This theory captures nonlocal stress field effects together with the microstructure-dependent strain gradient effects. In this study, forced vibrations of NSGT nanobeams on elastic substrate subjected to moving loads are examined. The nanobeam is made of functionally graded material (FGM) with even and uneven porosity distributions inside the material structure. The graded material properties with porosities are described by a modified power-law model. Dynamic deflection of the nanobeam is obtained via Galerkin and inverse Laplace transform methods. The importance of nonlocal parameter, strain gradient parameter, moving load velocity, porosity volume fraction, type of porosity distribution and elastic foundation on forced vibration behavior of nanobeams are discussed.

  17. Modelling critical degrees of saturation of porous building materials subjected to freezing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place


    Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR, and the actual degree of saturation, SACT. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction o...... involved will be unnecessary, making the model more useful in practice.Keywords: Brick tile, concrete, critical degree of saturation, eigenstrain, fracture mechanics, frost resistance, pore size distribution, pore structure, stress development, theoretical model.......Frost resistance of porous materials can be characterized by the critical degree of saturation, SCR, and the actual degree of saturation, SACT. An experimental determination of SCR is very laborious and therefore only seldom used when testing frost resistance. A theoretical model for prediction.......The model has been tested on various concretes without air-entrainment and on brick tiles with different porosities. Results agree qualitatively with values of the critical degree of saturation determined by measuring resonance frequencies and length change of sealed specimens during freezing...

  18. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials (United States)

    Sharma, A. V.


    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  19. Analysis of different materials subjected to open-air explosions in search of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    Post-explosion scenes offer such chaos and destruction that evidence recovery and detection of post-blast residues from the explosive in the surrounding materials is highly challenging and difficult. The suitability of materials to retain explosives residues and their subsequent analysis has been scarcely investigated. Particularly, the use of explosive mixtures containing inorganic oxidizing salts to make improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a current security concern due to their wide availability and lax control. In this work, a wide variety of materials such as glass, steel, plywood, plastic bag, brick, cardboard or cotton subjected to open-air explosions were examined using confocal Raman microscopy, aiming to detect the inorganic oxidizing salts contained in explosives as black powder, chloratite, dynamite, ammonium nitrate fuel oil and ammonal. Post-blast residues were detected through microscopic examination of materials surfaces. In general, the more homogeneous and smoother the surface was, the less difficulties and better results in terms of identification were obtained. However, those highly irregular surfaces were the most unsuitable collectors for the posterior identification of explosive traces by Raman microscopy. The findings, difficulties and some recommendations related to the identification of post-blast particles in the different materials studied are thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Subject-specific left ventricular dysfunction modeling using composite material mechanics approach (United States)

    Haddad, Seyed Mohammad Hassan; Karami, Elham; Samani, Abbas


    Diverse cardiac conditions such as myocardial infarction and hypertension can lead to diastolic dysfunction as a prevalent cardiac condition. Diastolic dysfunctions can be diagnosed through different adverse mechanisms such as abnormal left ventricle (LV) relaxation, filling, and diastolic stiffness. This paper is geared towards evaluating diastolic stiffness and measuring the LV blood pressure non-invasively. Diastolic stiffness is an important parameter which can be exploited for more accurate diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction. For this purpose, a finite element (FE) LV mechanical model, which works based on a novel composite material model of the cardiac tissue, was utilized. Here, this model was tested for inversion-based applications where it was applied for estimating the cardiac tissue passive stiffness mechanical properties as well as diastolic LV blood pressure. To this end, the model was applied to simulate diastolic inflation of the human LV. The start-diastolic LV geometry was obtained from MR image data segmentation of a healthy human volunteer. The obtained LV geometry was discretized into a FE mesh before FE simulation was conducted. The LV tissue stiffness and diastolic LV blood pressure were adjusted through optimization to achieve the best match between the calculated LV geometry and the one obtained from imaging data. The performance of the LV mechanical simulations using the optimal values of tissue stiffness and blood pressure was validated by comparing the geometrical parameters of the dilated LV model as well as the stress and strain distributions through the LV model with available measurements reported on the LV dilation.

  1. Simulation of expansion in cement based materials subjected to external sulfate attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Hodhod


    Full Text Available The standard test for length change in hydraulic-cement mortars exposed to sulfate solution, ASTM C1012-95, has been widely used by researchers to study the sulfate resistance of cement based materials. However, there are deficiencies in this test method including lengthy measuring period, insensitivity of the measurement tool to sulfate attack, effect of curing and pH change. So, in this study, a model will be built by artificial neural networks (ANNs to simulate this test and overcome these defects. This model will deal with different types of cement in the presence of blast-furnace slag (GGBFS or fly ash (PFA. From the results of simulations, it is possible to understand the impact of cement chemistry and these two types of additions on resistance of sulfate attack more readily, faster, and accurately. Such an understanding improves the decision making process in every stage of construction and maintenance and will help in better administration of resources.

  2. Determination of material emission signatures by PTR-MS and their correlations with odor assessments by human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K H, Han; J S, Zhang; Wargocki, Pawel


    The objectives of this study were to determine volatile organic compound (VOC) emission signatures of nine typical building materials by using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and to explore the correlation between the PTR-MS measurements and the measurements of acceptability...... by human subjects. VOC emissions from each material were measured in a 50-l small-scale chamber. Chamber air was sampled by PTR-MS to determine emission signatures. Sorbent tube sampling and TD-GC/MS analysis were also performed to identify the major VOCs emitted and to compare the resulting data...... VOC odor indices was used to represent the emission level measured by PTR-MS....

  3. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Todd O [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  4. Effect of nonlinear material behavior of laminated composite plates with central rectangular hole subjected to out -of- plane loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Farsakh Ghazi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of nonlinear material behavior on four layered, symmetric; angle-ply laminated composite plate with various fiber-orientation angles; (θ = 30°, 45° and 60°. The plate has a central square-hole and subjected to out-of-plane uniformly distributed load. The effect of Stress Concentration Factor (SCF resulting from redistribution of in-plane stresses (σx, σy, τxy around the hole was taken into consideration. Square plates with simply supported boundary conditions were considered in the present study. The analysis was carried out utilizing the ANSYS-computer program. The presence of a central hole was found to concentrate the maximum stresses at the corners of the hole. The nonlinear material behavior was found to redistribute the in-plane stresses more reasonably and smoothly around the hole-perimeter and hence resulting in smaller SCF-values.

  5. Optimal Composite Materials using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reduced mass composite materials are crucial to the success of aerospace systems, but their adoption is inhibited because they require autoclave consolidation, a...

  6. A pulse-shaping technique to investigate the behaviour of brittle materials subjected to plate-impact tests. (United States)

    Forquin, Pascal; Zinszner, Jean-Luc


    Owing to their significant hardness and compressive strengths, ceramic materials are widely employed for use with protective systems subjected to high-velocity impact loadings. Therefore, their mechanical behaviour along with damage mechanisms need to be significantly investigated as a function of loading rates. However, the classical plate-impact testing procedures produce shock loadings in the brittle sample material which cause unrealistic levels of loading rates. Additionally, high-pulsed power techniques and/or functionally graded materials used as flyer plates to smooth the loading pulse remain costly, and are generally difficult to implement. In this study, a shockless plate-impact technique based on the use of either a wavy-machined flyer plate or buffer plate that can be produced by chip-forming is proposed. A series of numerical simulations using an explicit transient dynamic finite-element code have been performed to design and validate the experimental testing configuration. The calculations, conducted in two-dimensional (2D) plane-strain or in 2D axisymmetric modes, prove that the 'wavy' contact surface will produce a pulse-shaping effect, whereas the buffer plate will produce a homogenizing effect of the stress field along the transverse direction of the sample. In addition, 'wavy-shape' geometries of different sizes provide an easy way to change the level of loading rate and rise time in an experimentally tested ceramic specimen. Finally, when a shockless compression loading method is applied to the sample, a Lagrangian analysis of data is made possible by considering an assemblage of ceramic plates of different thicknesses in the target, so the axial stress-strain response of the brittle sample material can be provided.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Materialism. (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew


    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Fracture Toughness, Mechanical Property, And Chemical Characterization Of A Critical Modification To The NASA SLS Solid Booster Internal Material System (United States)

    Pancoast, Justin; Garrett, William; Moe, Gulia


    A modified propellant-liner-insulation (PLI) bondline in the Space Launch System (SLS) solid rocket booster required characterization for flight certification. The chemical changes to the PLI bondline and the required additional processing have been correlated to mechanical responses of the materials across the bondline. Mechanical properties testing and analyses included fracture toughness, tensile, and shear tests. Chemical properties testing and analyses included Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, cross-link density, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and wave dispersion X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The testing identified the presence of the expected new materials and found the functional bondline performance of the new PLI system was not significantly changed from the old system.

  9. Effect of Material Parameters on Steady State Creep in a Thick Composite Cylinder Subjected to Internal Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeet Singh


    Full Text Available The steady state creep in Al- SiCP composite cylinder subjected to internal pressure was investigated. The creep behavior of the material were described by threshold stress based creep law by assuming a stress exponent of 5. The effect of size and content of the reinforcement (SiCP , and operating temperature on the stresses and strain rates in the composite cylinder were investigated. The stresses in the cylinder did not have significant variation with varying size and content of the reinforcement, and operating temperature. However, the tangential as well as radial strain rates in the cylinder could be reduced to a significant extent by decreasing size of SiCP, increasing the content of SiCP and decreasing operating temperature.

  10. [The reproducibility of arrow-point registration in full-dentition subjects depending on the recording material]. (United States)

    Utz, K H; Bernard, N; Hültenschmidt, R; Wegmann, U; Huntebrinker, W


    The reproducibility of the intraoral central bearing point method was measured in 46 dentate subjects with a healthy stomatognathic system. Nine complete registrations were carried out on each volunteer, while three different materials were used for fixing the upper to the lower jaw. The occlusal records were examined in the condylar area on a specially designed articulator. Two therapists took part in this study. The shifts of the condylar spheres in all three spatial directions were found as follows: Ramitec 0.14 +/- 0.16 mm, Super-Bite 0.15 +/- 0.14 mm and Bite Compound 0.15 +/- 0.16 mm. The movements of the condylar spheres in space were calculated. They amounted to 0.28 +/- 0.23 mm when using Ramitec, 0.28 +/- 0.20 mm when using Super Bite and 0.31 +/- 0.23 mm when using Bite Compound. Statistically, the differences between the data of the three materials were not significant. Also, the results of our random sample were independent of the therapist.

  11. Innovation @ NASA (United States)

    Roman, Juan A.


    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  12. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 1, Part 1 (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.


    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This document contains Part 1 - Volume I: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries, and Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop).

  13. Learning Strategy of Role Playing in The Material Submission of The Nuclear Power Application Environmental Physics Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Legowo


    Full Text Available Establishment controversy of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP that is delivered in the Environmental Physics course of Department of Physics of Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science of Sebelas Maret University use the Role Playing strategy. This strategy brings active student playing the role of the government (policy makers, a group of scientists (neutral and community groups who refused. Literature studies and group discussions conducted by its students to summarize back knowledge of nuclear power plants, according to the role that will be presented in lectures. The course made in the form of an open debate, where the lecturer acts as a moderator / facilitator. This strategy encourages students to hone the skills of independent learning (individual or group and can help students to appreciate his knowledge either in small discussion (group as well as the delivery of openly (public debate. How to CiteLegowo, B. (2016. Learning Strategy of Role Playing in The Material Submission of The Nuclear Power Application Environmental Physics Subjects. International Journal of Active Learning, 1(1. 

  14. Fatigue life prediction in a unidirectional glass-epoxy composite material subjected to off-axis cyclic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta, D.


    Full Text Available Most of today s fatigue analysis and design methods for composite laminates were developed primarily on the basis of experience with homogeneous metals. Such methods are subject to serious drawbacks, however, because the failure the modes of failure observed in metals. A theoretical model for predicting the fatigue life of continuous glass-fibre/epoxy composite materials under general loading conditions has been developed on the basis of fundamental fatigue failure modes and local failure criteria.

    La mayoría de los actuales métodos de cálculo y diseño a fatiga de estructuras de materiales compuestos se han desarrollado principalmente a partir de la experiencia previa en materiales metálicos homogéneos. Sin embargo, estos métodos presentan serios inconvenientes debido a que la heterogeneidad y micro estructura orientada características de los materiales compuestos laminados provocan modos de fallo diferentes a los de los metales. Basándose en los modos fundamentales de rotura por fatiga y en criterios de rotura local, se desarrolla un modelo teórico de vida a fatiga para materiales compuestos de matriz epoxi reforzados con fibra de vidrio bajo condiciones generales de carga

  15. Buckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Laminated Composite Materials Subjected to Axial Compression and Shear Loadings (United States)

    Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.


    A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.

  16. Observing With NASA (United States)

    Steel, Simon J.; Dussault, M. E.; Sienkiewicz, F. F.; Deutsch, F. S.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Gould, R. R.


    Observing With NASA (OWN) is a new NASA-funded e-learning project developed by the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in partnership with the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). The project will allow users to make their OWN astronomical observations and compare their images and data with that of NASA's orbiting telescopes and space probes. OWN will provide NASA's education and public outreach audiences with universal access to the CfA's MicroObservatory online network of robotic educational telescopes. Project staff are developing a customized online interface, curricular support materials, and professional development tutorials for both classroom and informal educators. OWN has the capacity to serve hundreds of thousands of student and public users during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy and beyond.

  17. Compulsive buying in university students: its prevalence and relationships with materialism, psychological distress symptoms, and subjective well-being. (United States)

    Villardefrancos, Estíbaliz; Otero-López, José Manuel


    Compulsive buying has become a severe problem among young people. The prominent role that psychological variables play in this phenomenon support their consideration in establishing a risk profile for compulsive buying that serves as a guide for the development of prevention and treatment programs with guarantees of effectiveness. However, there are only a small number of studies in existence which have explored the compulsive buying prevalence among students, and none of them have been conducted in a Mediterranean country. This study aims to estimate the compulsive buying prevalence in a sample of university students from the region of Galicia (Spain). We also intend to determine if statistically significant differences exist between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers in relation with gender, materialistic values, psychological distress symptoms and subjective well-being. Lastly, the clarification of which of the determinants examined represent risk or protection factors for compulsive buying constitutes another important objective of this paper. A total sample of 1448 university students participated in this study. They answered a battery of self-reports assessing gender, compulsive buying propensity, materialism, distress symptomatology, and well-being. Participants were initially classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared for the aforementioned variables through chi-square testing or variance analyses. Then, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants make up a risk profile for compulsive buying. The estimated prevalence of compulsive buying in the sample of university students considered was 7.4%. Statistically significant differences between compulsive buyers and non-compulsive buyers were detected for gender, and each and every one of the psychological variables explored. Specifically, it was confirmed that compulsive buyers obtained significantly

  18. NASA New England Outreach Center (United States)


    The NASA New England Outreach Center in Nashua, New Hampshire was established to serve as a catalyst for heightening regional business awareness of NASA procurement, technology and commercialization opportunities. Emphasis is placed on small business participation, with the highest priority given to small disadvantaged businesses, women-owned businesses, HUBZone businesses, service disabled veteran owned businesses, and historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions. The Center assists firms and organizations to understand NASA requirements and to develop strategies to capture NASA related procurement and technology opportunities. The establishment of the NASA Outreach Center serves to stimulate business in a historically underserved area. NASA direct business awards have traditionally been highly present in the West, Midwest, South, and Southeast areas of the United States. The Center guides and assists businesses and organizations in the northeast to target opportunities within NASA and its prime contractors and capture business and technology opportunities. The Center employs an array of technology access, one-on-one meetings, seminars, site visits, and targeted conferences to acquaint Northeast firms and organizations with representatives from NASA and its prime contractors to learn about and discuss opportunities to do business and access the inventory of NASA technology. This stimulus of interaction also provides firms and organizations the opportunity to propose the use of their developed technology and ideas for current and future requirements at NASA. The Center provides a complement to the NASA Northeast Regional Technology Transfer Center in developing prospects for commercialization of NASA technology. In addition, the Center responds to local requests for assistance and NASA material and documents, and is available to address immediate concerns and needs in assessing opportunities, timely support to interact with NASA Centers on

  19. NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Facts, The Countdown. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet describes the preparations for launching a giant Atlas, Gemini (Titan 11), or Saturn launch vehicle. The material is intended for use in elementary general science. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  1. Research Examination of the Options to Increase the Education Effectiveness in the Technical Subjects at the 7th Grade of Elementary School Using Hypertext Educational Material (United States)

    Žácok, L'ubomir


    The utilization of hypertext educational material is going to be solved in this paper as a source using which the effectiveness of education the technical subjects at the 7th grade of elementary school can be increased. As a comparison between reached results in the control and experimental groups of pupils we used final didactical examination,…

  2. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook (United States)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.


    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  3. The Myth, the Truth, the NASA IRB (United States)

    Covington, M. D.; Flores, M. P.; Neutzler, V. P.; Schlegel, T. T.; Platts, S. H.; Lioyd, C. W.


    The purpose of the NASA Institutional Review Board (IRB) is to review research activities involving human subjects to ensure that ethical standards for the care and protection of human subjects have been met and research activities are in compliance with all pertinent federal, state and local regulations as well as NASA policies. NASA IRB's primary role is the protection of human subjects in research studies. Protection of human subjects is the shared responsibility of NASA, the IRB, and the scientific investigators. Science investigators who plan to conduct NASA-funded human research involving NASA investigators, facilities, or funds must submit and coordinate their research studies for review and approval by the NASA IRB prior to initiation. The IRB has the authority to approve, require changes in, or disapprove research involving human subjects. Better knowledge of the NASA IRB policies, procedures and guidelines should help facilitate research protocol applications and approvals. In this presentation, the myths and truths of NASA IRB policies and procedures will be discussed. We will focus on the policies that guide a protocol through the NASA IRB and the procedures that principal investigators must take to obtain required IRB approvals for their research studies. In addition, tips to help ensure a more efficient IRB review will be provided. By understanding the requirements and processes, investigators will be able to more efficiently prepare their protocols and obtain the required NASA IRB approval in a timely manner.

  4. NASA Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology (United States)

    Globus, Al; Bailey, David; Han, Jie; Jaffe, Richard; Levit, Creon; Merkle, Ralph; Srivastava, Deepak


    Laboratories throughout the world are rapidly gaining atomically precise control over matter. As this control extends to an ever wider variety of materials, processes and devices, opportunities for applications relevant to NASA's missions will be created. This document surveys a number of future molecular nanotechnology capabilities of aerospace interest. Computer applications, launch vehicle improvements, and active materials appear to be of particular interest. We also list a number of applications for each of NASA's enterprises. If advanced molecular nanotechnology can be developed, almost all of NASA's endeavors will be radically improved. In particular, a sufficiently advanced molecular nanotechnology can arguably bring large scale space colonization within our grasp.

  5. NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip


    July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.

  6. Subject oriented and problem based text materials as an object of a flexible foreign language reading in research projects




    The article introduces the academic research work of students within competence based approach, the models of academic problem based research projects taken up as means to develop flexible foreign language reading skills; reveals selection principles and corpus didactic design of text materials in a form of a macrotext, hypertext, and video course.

  7. NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. A generalized constitutive elasticity law for GLPD micromorphic materials, with application to the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Enakoutsa


    Full Text Available In this work we propose to replace the GLPD hypo-elasticity law by a more rigorous generalized Hooke's law based on classical material symmetry characterization assumptions. This law introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's moduli, five constitutive constants. An analytical solution is derived for the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions to illustrate the potential of the proposed generalized Hooke's law.

  9. A generalized constitutive elasticity law for GLPD micromorphic materials, with application to the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions


    Enakoutsa, Koffi


    In this work we propose to replace the GLPD hypo-elasticity law by a more rigorous generalized Hooke's law based on classical material symmetry characterization assumptions. This law introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's moduli, five constitutive constants. An analytical solution is derived for the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions to illustrate the potential of the proposed generalized Hooke's law.

  10. Influence of the average stress in a unidirectional glass-epoxi composite material subjected to off-axis cyclic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revuelta, D.


    Full Text Available A fatigue theoretical model for continuous glass-fibrereinforced epoxy composite material under general loadconditions was developed in previous works based onthe principal fatigue failure modes and on local failurecriteria. It was demonstrated that fatigue life dependedon the cyclic shear stress and the maximum stress transverseto the crack growth direction. Following the previousmodel, this work analyzes the influence of the averageapplied stress on the fatigue life of the material.En trabajos anteriores del autor desarrollo un modeloteorico de vida a fatiga para materiales compuestos unidireccionalesde matriz epoxi reforzados con fibra devidrio bajo condiciones generales de carga basado en losmodos fundamentales de rotura por fatiga y en criteriosde rotura local. Se comprobo que la vida de fatigadependia de la tension ciclica de cortadura y de la maximatension transversal a la direccion de crecimiento delas grietas. Siguiendo el modelo previo, este trabajo analizala influencia que tiene la tension media aplicada enla vida a fatiga de estos materiales.

  11. Microstructure Evolution and Texture Development in a Cu-8.5%AT. AL Material Subjected to Hydrostatic Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowska D.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to investigate microstructure and texture evolution of two single crystals and polycrystal of Cu-8.5%at.Al material. All of mentioned samples were deformed by HE to achieve true strain ε = 1.17. For microstructure analyzes observations by transmission electron microscope (STEM were done. Crystalline size for samples after SPD were determine using XRD method. The global texture measurements were done using Bruker D8 Discover diffractometer equipped in Cr radiation. Microstructure investigations revealed nanocrystalline structure in single crystals with initial orientations and and polycrystalline Cu-8.5%at.Al material after SPD. The global texture measurements have shown the stability of initial orientation of Cu-8.5%at.Al single crystal after HE, whereas the same SPD process strongly brakes up the orientation Cu-8.5%at. Al single crystal.

  12. Comparisons of node-based and element-based approaches of assigning bone material properties onto subject-specific finite element models. (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, F Y; Liu, Z C; Yang, K; Cui, F


    Subject-specific finite element (FE) models can be generated from computed tomography (CT) datasets of a bone. A key step is assigning material properties automatically onto finite element models, which remains a great challenge. This paper proposes a node-based assignment approach and also compares it with the element-based approach in the literature. Both approaches were implemented using ABAQUS. The assignment procedure is divided into two steps: generating the data file of the image intensity of a bone in a MATLAB program and reading the data file into ABAQUS via user subroutines. The node-based approach assigns the material properties to each node of the finite element mesh, while the element-based approach assigns the material properties directly to each integration point of an element. Both approaches are independent from the type of elements. A number of FE meshes are tested and both give accurate solutions; comparatively the node-based approach involves less programming effort. The node-based approach is also independent from the type of analyses; it has been tested on the nonlinear analysis of a Sawbone femur. The node-based approach substantially improves the level of automation of the assignment procedure of bone material properties. It is the simplest and most powerful approach that is applicable to many types of analyses and elements. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between welding fume concentration and systemic inflammation after controlled exposure of human subjects with welding fumes from metal inert gas brazing of zinc-coated materials. (United States)

    Brand, Peter; Bauer, Marcus; Gube, Monika; Lenz, Klaus; Reisgen, Uwe; Spiegel-Ciobanu, Vilia Elena; Kraus, Thomas


    It has been shown that exposure of subjects to emissions from a metal inert gas (MIG) brazing process of zinc-coated material led to an increase of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in the blood. In this study, the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for such emissions was assessed. Twelve healthy subjects were exposed for 6 hours to different concentrations of MIG brazing fumes under controlled conditions. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured in the blood. For welding fumes containing 1.20 and 1.50 mg m zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein was increased the day after exposure. For 0.90 mg m zinc, no increase was detected. These data indicate that the no-observed-effect level for emissions from a MIG brazing process of zinc-coated material in respect to systemic inflammation is found for welding fumes with zinc concentrations between 0.90 and 1.20 mg m.

  14. The NASA Astrophysics Program (United States)

    Zebulum, Ricardo S.


    NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.

  15. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  16. Subject-specific finite element modelling of the human foot complex during walking: sensitivity analysis of material properties, boundary and loading conditions. (United States)

    Akrami, Mohammad; Qian, Zhihui; Zou, Zhemin; Howard, David; Nester, Chris J; Ren, Lei


    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a subject-specific framework for modelling the human foot. This was achieved by integrating medical image-based finite element modelling, individualised multi-body musculoskeletal modelling and 3D gait measurements. A 3D ankle-foot finite element model comprising all major foot structures was constructed based on MRI of one individual. A multi-body musculoskeletal model and 3D gait measurements for the same subject were used to define loading and boundary conditions. Sensitivity analyses were used to investigate the effects of key modelling parameters on model predictions. Prediction errors of average and peak plantar pressures were below 10% in all ten plantar regions at five key gait events with only one exception (lateral heel, in early stance, error of 14.44%). The sensitivity analyses results suggest that predictions of peak plantar pressures are moderately sensitive to material properties, ground reaction forces and muscle forces, and significantly sensitive to foot orientation. The maximum region-specific percentage change ratios (peak stress percentage change over parameter percentage change) were 1.935-2.258 for ground reaction forces, 1.528-2.727 for plantar flexor muscles and 4.84-11.37 for foot orientations. This strongly suggests that loading and boundary conditions need to be very carefully defined based on personalised measurement data.

  17. Overview of NASA Ultracapacitor Technology (United States)

    Hill, Curtis W.


    NASA needed a lower mass, reliable, and safe medium for energy storage for ground-based and space applications. Existing industry electrochemical systems are limited in weight, charge rate, energy density, reliability, and safety. We chose a ceramic perovskite material for development, due to its high inherent dielectric properties, long history of use in the capacitor industry, and the safety of a solid state material.

  18. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report: Development of an Ablative 3D Quartz / Cyanate Ester Composite Multi-Functional Material for the Orion Spacecraft Compression Pad (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    Vehicles re-entering Earth's atmosphere require protection from the heat of atmospheric friction. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) has more demanding thermal protection system (TPS) requirements than the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, especially in regions where the structural load passes through. The use of 2-dimensional laminate materials along with a metal insert, used in EFT1 flight test for the compression pad region, are deemed adequate but cannot be extended for Lunar return missions.

  19. Present status and future subjects of the analytical studies related with application of charged particles and RI to materials science and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The position in the research field of radiation application of Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' which will be set up within fiscal 2003, and the relation between the research that this analytical group will advance in future and the analytical research made so far at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Establishment (JAERI, Takasaki) are summarized. Since the JAERI Takasaki was founded as the center of the research and development on radiation chemistry, a lot of outcomes have been obtained in the research and development of radiation application using large-sized {sup 60}Co gamma ray irradiation facilities and high power electron accelerators, etc. After the ion irradiation research facility (TIARA) started operation, many outstanding outcomes have been obtained in the research of up-to-date science and technologies in the fields of material science and bio-technology, etc., making use of ions in addition to gamma rays and electron beams. Although these results of the research are mainly produced experimentally, theoretical analyses also are thought to be important because these results will be applied and expanded in future. We aim to set up 'Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' in fiscal 2003, and we aim at performing theoretical and engineering analyses about phenomena and things such as radiation chemical reactions, irradiation/implantation effects to semiconductors, model for plant function, etc. The irradiation effects of charged particles to materials are divided into the primary effects like generation of radicals and lattice defects, etc., which occurs immediately after charged particles impinge on materials, and the secondary effects like chemical changes and physical changes caused in materials as a result of the primary effects. The subjects of our analytical research are the analyses of the secondary effects and the systems which utilize the chemical and the physical changes to the radiation application

  20. Materials engineering data base (United States)


    The various types of materials related data that exist at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and compiled into databases which could be accessed by all the NASA centers and by other contractors, are presented.

  1. NASA's unique networking environment (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.


    Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

  2. NASA UAS Integration Efforts (United States)

    Hackenberg, Davis


    This is a benefit to NASA because of all the networking opportunities as well as sharing information about UAS-NAS within the UAS community. NASA has developed, and is executing, a Cohesive Strategy for UAS Integration

  3. NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a NASA funded facility, delivering heavy ion beams to a target area where scientists...

  4. Chemical Engineering at NASA (United States)

    Collins, Jacob


    This viewgraph presentation is a review of the career paths for chemicals engineer at NASA (specifically NASA Johnson Space Center.) The author uses his personal experience and history as an example of the possible career options.

  5. NASA Guided Dropsonde Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exquadrum, Inc. proposes to demonstrate the feasibility of an innovative approach to providing NASA with a Guided Dropsonde (NGD). NASA's desire to use existing...

  6. NASA's educational programs (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.


    The educational programs of NASA's Educational Affairs Division are examined. The problem of declining numbers of science and engineering students is reviewed. The various NASA educational programs are described, including programs at the elementary and secondary school levels, teacher education programs, and undergraduate, graduate, and university faculty programs. The coordination of aerospace education activities and future plans for increasing NASA educational programs are considered.

  7. NASA Biological Specimen Repository (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.


    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  8. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.


    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  9. Curating NASA's Extraterrestrial Samples - Past, Present, and Future (United States)

    Allen, Carlton; Allton, Judith; Lofgren, Gary; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael


    Curation of extraterrestrial samples is the critical interface between sample return missions and the international research community. The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating NASA s extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with ". . . curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach."

  10. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative (United States)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert


    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  11. NASA Innovation Builds Better Nanotubes (United States)


    Nanotailor Inc., based in Austin, Texas, licensed Goddard Space Flight Center's unique single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) fabrication process with plans to make high-quality, low-cost SWCNTs available commercially. Carbon nanotubes are being used in a wide variety of applications, and NASA's improved production method will increase their applicability in medicine, microelectronics, advanced materials, and molecular containment. Nanotailor built and tested a prototype based on Goddard's process, and is using this technique to lower the cost and improve the integrity of nanotubes, offering a better product for use in biomaterials, advanced materials, space exploration, highway and building construction, and many other applications.

  12. Overview of Photocatalysis, Photocatalytic Surface Materials Studies, and Demonstration of Self-Cleaning Materials for Space and Terrestrial Based Applications at the Infinity Science Center at NASA Stennis Space Center (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren W.


    Research into photocatalytic technology has been progressing for over three decades in the early 1990s Japanese and European companies initiate research into photocatalytic technology. In the 1996 specific focus on the technology with the first large-scale application: the construction of a church in Rome (Jubilee Church). And in 2000 Europe and Japan research into the benefits of photocatalytic technology. Currently, photocatalytic technology continues to improve, and with time development is becoming more efficient and effective. What is Photocatalysis? Photo: phenomenon induced by the light, having specifically a wavelength around 320-400 nm (artificial or natural sunlight). Catalyst: a material that induces a reaction but is not consumed or transformed by it. The catalyst remains constantly available. In this case, the catalyst is made with nano-particles of titanium oxide (Ti02).

  13. NASA HUNCH Hardware (United States)

    Hall, Nancy R.; Wagner, James; Phelps, Amanda


    What is NASA HUNCH? High School Students United with NASA to Create Hardware-HUNCH is an instructional partnership between NASA and educational institutions. This partnership benefits both NASA and students. NASA receives cost-effective hardware and soft goods, while students receive real-world hands-on experiences. The 2014-2015 was the 12th year of the HUNCH Program. NASA Glenn Research Center joined the program that already included the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Langley Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center. The program included 76 schools in 24 states and NASA Glenn worked with the following five schools in the HUNCH Build to Print Hardware Program: Medina Career Center, Medina, OH; Cattaraugus Allegheny-BOCES, Olean, NY; Orleans Niagara-BOCES, Medina, NY; Apollo Career Center, Lima, OH; Romeo Engineering and Tech Center, Washington, MI. The schools built various parts of an International Space Station (ISS) middeck stowage locker and learned about manufacturing process and how best to build these components to NASA specifications. For the 2015-2016 school year the schools will be part of a larger group of schools building flight hardware consisting of 20 ISS middeck stowage lockers for the ISS Program. The HUNCH Program consists of: Build to Print Hardware; Build to Print Soft Goods; Design and Prototyping; Culinary Challenge; Implementation: Web Page and Video Production.

  14. NASA Work Experience (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.


    I have had the opportunity to support the analytical laboratories in chemical analysis of unknown samples, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEMEDS), and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). I have assisted in characterizing fibers pulled from a spacecraft, a white fibrous residue discovered in a jet refueler truck, brown residue from a plant habitat slated for delivery to the ISS (International Space Station), corrosion on a pipe from a sprinkler, and air filtration material brought back from the ISS. I also conducted my own fiber study in order to practice techniques and further my understanding of background concepts. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to participate in diverse work assignments, where I was assigned to work with other branches of the engineering department for 1-2 days each. The first was in the Materials Science branch where I participated in the construction of the plant habitat intended for use in research aboard the ISS. The second was in the Testing Design branch where I assisted with tensile and hardness testing of over 40 samples. In addition, I have had the privilege to attend multiple tours of the NASA KSC campus, including to the Astronaut Crew Quarters, the VAB (the main area, the Columbia room, and the catwalk), the Visitor Center housing the shuttle Atlantis, the Saturn-V exhibit, the Prototype laboratory, SWAMP WORKS, the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Crawler, and the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF). Lastly, much of my coursework prepared me for this experience, including numerous laboratory courses with topics diverse as chemistry, physics, and biology.

  15. NASA@Work (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.


    NASA@work is an agency-wide website designed to increase innovation and access to ideas and knowledge from within the NASA community. Individuals (challenge owners) post their specific problem or "challenge." Anyone in the community (solvers) can contribute to the interactive discussions and submit proposed solutions with the opportunity to win an award.

  16. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen


    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  17. Energy Exchange NASA Opening Plenary (United States)

    Marrs, Rick


    Rick Marrs, Deputy Assistant Administrator Office of Strategic Infrastructure NASA Headquarters will be speaking during the 2017 Energy Exchange opening plenary. His presentation showcases the NASA mission, sustainability at NASA, NASA's strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, Existing PV Partnerships, and NASA funded Solar Initiatives at KSC.

  18. The Crucial Role of Additive Manufacturing at NASA (United States)

    Vickers, John


    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  19. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  20. NASA Airline Operations Research Center (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.


    This is a PowerPoint presentation NASA airline operations center (AOC) research. It includes information on using IBM Watson in the AOC. It also reviews a dispatcher decision support tool call the Flight Awareness Collaboration Tool (FACT). FACT gathers information about winter weather onto one screen and includes predictive abilities. It should prove to be useful for airline dispatchers and airport personnel when they manage winter storms and their effect on air traffic. This material is very similar to other previously approved presentations with the same title.

  1. The NASA Exobiology Programme (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)


    NASA will indeed conduct a more active search for life beyond Earth. Research on the Martian meteorites will be augmented by $2 million to be contributed equally by NASA and NSF (National Science Foundation). The science strategy for the NASA Mars Surveyor Program now places a much higher priority on the search for life, particularly fossil evidence. This program features two launches per opportunity (every two years, starting this November). The focus on Exobiology emphasizes high resolution multispectral orbital mapping to locate key aqueous sedimentary minerals, the exploration of ancient terrains by capable rovers, and the need for multiple sample return missions. Additional information is contained within the original extended abstract.

  2. Curating NASA's Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections: How Do We Achieve Maximum Proficiency? (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Evans, Cynthia; Zeigler, Ryan; Allton, Judith; Fries, Marc; Righter, Kevin; Zolensky, Michael


    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "... documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the ongoing efforts to ensure that the future activities of the NASA Curation Office are working towards a state of maximum proficiency.

  3. Materials Genome Initiative Element (United States)

    Vickers, John


    NASA is committed to developing new materials and manufacturing methods that can enable new missions with ever increasing mission demands. Typically, the development and certification of new materials and manufacturing methods in the aerospace industry has required more than 20 years of development time with a costly testing and certification program. To reduce the cost and time to mature these emerging technologies, NASA is developing computational materials tools to improve understanding of the material and guide the certification process.

  4. Analysis of Steel-With-Composite Material Substitution in Military Vehicle Hull Floors Subjected to Shallow-Buried Landmine-Detonation Loads (United States)


    performance of alumina/S-2 glass-reinforced polymer-matrix composite hybrid lightweight armor against armor piercing (AP) and Non-AP projectiles...road performance of an up-armored high- mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV)”, Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 223 No. 3, pp. 301...reduction of a prototypical high-mobility multi-purpose wheeled vehicle subjected to mine-blast”, Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 223 No. 7

  5. My NASA Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MY NASA DATA (MND) is a tool that allows anyone to make use of satellite data that was previously unavailable.Through the use of MND’s Live Access Server (LAS) a...

  6. NASA Image Exchange (NIX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) provides access to aerospace-related citations, full-text online documents, and images and videos. The types of information...

  7. NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) represents a new platform for the Earth science community that provides a mechanism for scientific collaboration and knowledge sharing....

  8. NASA Space Sounds API (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  9. NASA Water Resources Program (United States)

    Toll, David L.


    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its

  10. NASA's Technology Utilization Program. (United States)

    Farley, C. F.


    NASA's Technology Utilization Program is described, illustrating how it can be useful in achieving improved productivity, providing more jobs, solving public sector challenges, and strengthening the international competitive situation. Underlying the program is the fact that research and development conducted in NASA's aeronautics and space programs have generated much technical information concerning processes, products, or techniques which may be useful to engineers, doctors, or to others. The program is based on acquisition and publication, working with the user, and applications engineering.

  11. NASA thesaurus: Astronomy vocabulary (United States)

    A terminology of descriptors used by the NASA Scientific and Technical information effort to index documents in the area of astronomy is presented. The terms are listed in hierarchical format derived from the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus Volume 1 -- Hierarchical Listing. Over 1600 terms are included. In addition to astronomy, space sciences covered include astrophysics, cosmology, lunar flight and exploration, meteors and meteorites, celestial mechanics, planetary flight and exploration, and planetary science.

  12. NASA CPAS Drogue Textile Riser Feasibility Study (United States)

    Hennings, Elsa J.; Petersen, Michael L.; Anderson, Brian; Johnson, Brian


    Steel cable was chosen for the lower end of the drogue and main parachute risers on NASA's Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) to protect the risers from extreme temperatures and abrasion should they contact the crew module during deployment, as was done for Apollo. Due to the weight and deployment complexity inherent in steel, there was significant interest in the possibility of substituting textile for steel for the drogue and main parachute risers. However, textile risers could be damaged when subjected to high temperature and abrasion. Investigations were consequently performed by a subset of the authors to determine whether sacrificial, non-load-bearing textile riser covers could be developed to mitigate the thermal and abrasion concerns. Multiple material combinations were tested, resulting in a cover design capable of protecting the riser against severe riser/crew module contact interactions. A feasibility study was then conducted to evaluate the performance of the textile drogue riser cover in relevant abrasive environments. This paper describes the testing performed and documents the results of this feasibility study.

  13. NASA's Optical Measurement Program 2014 (United States)

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Stansbery, G.; Seitzer, P.; Buckalew, B.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.


    The Optical Measurements Group (OMG) within the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) addresses U.S. National Space Policy goals by monitoring and characterizing debris. Since 2001, the OMG has used the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST) at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile for general orbital debris survey. The 0.6-m Schmidt MODEST provides calibrated astronomical data of GEO targets, both catalogued and uncatalogued debris, with excellent image quality. The data are utilized by the ODPO modeling group and are included in the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v. 3.0. MODEST and the CTIO/SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) 0.9 m both acquire filter photometric data, as well as synchronously observing targets in selected optical filters. This information provides data used in material composition studies as well as longer orbital arc data on the same target, without time delay or bias from a rotating, tumbling, or spinning target. NASA, in collaboration with the University of Michigan, began using the twin 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile for deep imaging (Baade) and spectroscopic data (Clay) in 2011. Through the data acquired on Baade, debris have been detected that are 3 magnitudes fainter than detections with MODEST, while the data from Clay provide better resolved information used in material characterization analyses via selected bandpasses. To better characterize and model optical data, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC has been in operation since 2005, resulting in a database of comparison laboratory data. The OMC is designed to emulate illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. Lastly, the OMG is building the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) at Ascension Island. The 1.3-m telescope is designed to observe GEO and LEO targets, using a

  14. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.


    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and /sup 60/Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed.

  15. NASA research on refractory compounds. (United States)

    Gangler, J. J.


    The behavior and properties of the refractory carbides, nitrides, and borides are being investigated by NASA as part of its research aimed at developing superior heat resistant materials for aerospace applications. Fundamental studies on the electronic and defect structures of the carbides indicate that there is promise for improving the strength and ductility of these materials. Studies of the zirconium-carbon-oxygen system show that zirconium oxycarbides of different compositions and lattice parameters can be formed between 1500 and 1900 C and are stable below 1500 C. More applied studies show that hot working generally improves the microstructure and therefore the strength of TiC and NbC. Sintering studies on UN indicate that very high densities can be achieved. Hot pressing of cermets of HfN and HfC produces good mechanical properties for high temperature bearing applications.

  16. NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Program: Generic Safety, Handling and Qualification Guidelines for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Availability of Source Materials for Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Batteries; Maintaining Technical Communications Related to Aerospace Batteries (NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop). Volume 2, Part 1 (United States)

    Manzo, Michelle A.; Brewer, Jeffrey C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Darcy, Eric C.; Jeevarajan, Judith A.; McKissock, Barbara I.; Schmitz, Paul C.


    This NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Working Group was chartered within the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). The Battery Working Group was tasked to complete tasks and to propose proactive work to address battery related, agency-wide issues on an annual basis. In its first year of operation, this proactive program addressed various aspects of the validation and verification of aerospace battery systems for NASA missions. Studies were performed, issues were discussed and in many cases, test programs were executed to generate recommendations and guidelines to reduce risk associated with various aspects of implementing battery technology in the aerospace industry. This report contains the Appendices to the findings from the first year of the program's operations.

  17. NASA Technologies that Benefit Society (United States)

    Griffin, Amanda


    . Aerodynamics centers on two majors forces-lift and drag. Lift enables the plane to fly and drag is the resistance encountered while moving through the air. The air coming off the end of a standard wing, in a vortex, causes significant drag and turbulence, forcing the spacing between takeoffs. A Langley engineer for NASA published finding in 1976 and verified by test in 1977 that winglets produce a 7 percent increase in lift-drag ratio with a 20 percent decrease in drag. This configuration reduces emissions, allows for greater range and carry more payload and the planes fly more quietly. Winglet technology has saved 2 billion gallons of jet fuel worldwide in 2010. Aerogel represents what technology experts believe to be the best insulation material ever invented. It is very light, flexible and can withstand temperatures of minus 3000 deg F. Aerogel products will be found in everything from clothing, to building insulation to space vehicles. Corpo Nove incorporated the Spaceloft version of the NASA-developed aerogel material into this jacket which was test during an Antarctic expedition.

  18. 2008 NASA Range Safety Annual Report (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Richard W.


    Welcome to the 2008 edition of the NASA Range Safety Annual Report. Funded by NASA Headquarters, this report provides a NASA Range Safety overview for current and potential range users. This year, along with full length articles concerning various subject areas, we have provided updates to standard subjects with links back to the 2007 original article. Additionally, we present summaries from the various NASA Range Safety Program activities that took place throughout the year, as well as information on several special projects that may have a profound impact on the way we will do business in the future. The sections include a program overview and 2008 highlights of Range Safety Training; Range Safety Policy; Independent Assessments and Common Risk Analysis Tools Development; Support to Program Operations at all ranges conducting NASA launch operations; a continuing overview of emerging Range Safety-related technologies; Special Interests Items that include recent changes in the ELV Payload Safety Program and the VAS explosive siting study; and status reports from all of the NASA Centers that have Range Safety responsibilities. As is the case each year, contributors to this report are too numerous to mention, but we thank individuals from the NASA Centers, the Department of Defense, and civilian organizations for their contributions. We have made a great effort to include the most current information available. We recommend that this report be used only for guidance and that the validity and accuracy of all articles be verified for updates. This is the third year we have utilized this web-based format for the annual report. We continually receive positive feedback on the web-based edition, and we hope you enjoy this year's product as well. It has been a very busy and productive year on many fronts as you will note as you review this report. Thank you to everyone who contributed to make this year a successful one, and I look forward to working with all of you in the

  19. Material selection and evaluation aimed at resolving deficiencies of a space technology material (United States)

    Ray, Asit K.; Bryan, Coleman J.


    NASA-Kennedy Space Center propellant handlers' visors are undergoing conversion from Plexiglass G to a Surlyn 8920-based material; various Surlyn compositions are here subjected to a battery of environmental and mechanical-properties tests under the relevant conditions. Specially-molded Surlyn samples have exhibited much higher impact strengths than either Plexiglass G or Lexan, and passed the ANSI weight-drop test. DSC results show that Surlyn and Plexiglass G exhibit strikingly different thermal transitions.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  1. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System (United States)


    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  2. Kepler's Third Law and NASA's "Kepler Mission" (United States)

    Gould, Alan; Komatsu, Toshi; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Koch, David


    NASA's "Kepler Mission" has been wildly successful in discovering exoplanets. This paper summarizes the mission goals, briefly explains the transit method of finding exoplanets and design of the mission, provides some key findings, and describes useful education materials available at the "Kepler" website.

  3. An Evaluation of the Adherence of Candida albicans on the Surface of Heat Cure Denture Base Material Subjected to Different Stages of Polishing. (United States)

    Satpathy, Ashish; M R, Dhakshaini; Gujjari, Anil Kumar


    Candidiasis is common in denture wearers. Rough surfaces of dentures promote denture plaque formation and maturation, thus justifying the need for smooth surfaces. Proper finishing and polishing of dentures provide smooth surfaces. Thus, this study was done to assess the adherence of Candida to heat polymerized acrylic resin surfaces which were subjected to different stipulated polishing methods. A total of 48 acrylic resin specimens of dimension 10x10x3 mm(3) were fabricated and divided into four groups, A, B,C and D, with 12 specimens in each group, according to method of polishing step which was employed. Subsequently, they were subjected to an adherence assay. All the data was statistically analyzed by using One-way ANOVA and differences within the groups were analyzed by using independent sample t-test. RESULTS revealed that group A which was unpolished had a mean adherence of 2.92 and it was finished by using sand papers. Group B had a mean adherence of 0.5 and it was finished by using sand papers, followed by polishing with pumice. Group C had a mean adherence of 2.92 and finishing was done by using sandpaper which was followed by polishing with the use of pumice and rouge. Group D had a mean adherence of 37.1667. Finishing specimens of heat cure denture base resin with sand paper of progressive grits alone exhibited minimum Candidal adherence. Specimens which were finished by using sand papers of progressive grits, followed by polishing with pumice reduced Candidal adherence marginally as compared to that in control group. Finishing specimens of heat cure denture base resin by using above steps, followed by rouge, showed maximum Candidal adherence.

  4. A molecular dynamics investigation into the mechanisms of subsurface damage and material removal of monocrystalline copper subjected to nanoscale high speed grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); Fang, Qihong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); Liu, Youwen [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410082 (China); Zhang, Liangchi [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)


    This paper investigates the mechanisms of subsurface damage and material removal of monocrystalline copper when it is under a nanoscale high speed grinding of a diamond tip. The analysis was carried out with the aid of three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations. The key factors that would influence the deformation of the material were carefully explored by analyzing the chip, dislocation movement, and workpiece deformation, which include grinding speed, depth of cut, grid tip radius, crystal orientation and machining angle of copper. An analytical model was also established to predict the emission of partial dislocations during the nanoscale high speed grinding. The investigation showed that a higher grinding velocity, a larger tip radius or a larger depth of cut would result in a larger chipping volume and a greater temperature rise in the copper workpiece. A lower grinding velocity would produce more intrinsic stacking faults. It was also found that the transition of deformation mechanisms depends on the competition between the dislocations and deformation twinning. There is a critical machining angle, at which a higher velocity, a smaller tip radius, or a smaller depth of cut will reduce the subsurface damage and improve the smoothness of a ground surface. The established analytical model showed that the Shockley dislocation emission is most likely to occur with the crystal orientations of (0 0 1)[1 0 0] at 45° angle.

  5. Innovation in NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (United States)

    Hasan, H.; Smith, D.


    New technology and media are being rapidly incorporated in NASA's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach (EPO) portfolio. In addition to web pages that provide basic information on missions and links to educational sites, missions have developed Facebook and Twitter followers. Recent highlights are presented about the innovative techniques used in presenting NASA science to the public, educators and students, together with representative examples. The immense treasure trove of electronic NASA EPO material is available to the public.

  6. NASA science committee appointments (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah


    NASA Administrator Michael Griffin has made three new appointments to the NASA Advisory Council's (NAC' Science Committee, NASA announced on 22 September. Edward David, president of EED, Inc., and science advisor to the President from 1970 to 1973, will serve as the committee-s chair. Also appointed to the committee were Owen Garriott, a retired scientist astronaut, and Alan Stern, executive director of the Space Science and Engineering Division of the Southwest Research Institute (San Antonio, Tex.). David, Garriott, and Stern-who are among nine new members of the full advisory committee that were announced on 22 September-will replace three members of the Science Committee who resigned in August: Science Committee Chair Charles Kennel (Scripps Institution of Oceanography), Wesley Huntress (Carnegie Institution of Washington), and Eugene Levy (Rice University). The NAC's next public meeting will be held on 12 October at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

  7. Technological Innovations from NASA (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.


    The challenge of human space exploration places demands on technology that push concepts and development to the leading edge. In biotechnology and biomedical equipment development, NASA science has been the seed for numerous innovations, many of which are in the commercial arena. The biotechnology effort has led to rational drug design, analytical equipment, and cell culture and tissue engineering strategies. Biomedical research and development has resulted in medical devices that enable diagnosis and treatment advances. NASA Biomedical developments are exemplified in the new laser light scattering analysis for cataracts, the axial flow left ventricular-assist device, non contact electrocardiography, and the guidance system for LASIK surgery. Many more developments are in progress. NASA will continue to advance technologies, incorporating new approaches from basic and applied research, nanotechnology, computational modeling, and database analyses.


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Cyclodextrin. Regioselective photamination of 4-nitrovera- trole upon cyclodextrin complexation. 273. Cyclohexanone. Hydrogen transfer reaction of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol catalysed by CeO2-ZnO materials: Promoting effect of ceria. 561. DFT. Measures to evaluate heteroaromaticity and their limitations: Story of ...

  9. Origins of NASA names (United States)

    Wells, H. T.; Whiteley, S. H.; Karegeannes, C. E.


    Names are selected for NASA spaceflight projects and programs from various sources. Some have their foundations in mythology and astrology or legend and folklore. Some have historic connotations; others are based on a description of their mission, often resulting in an acronym. Included are names of launch vehicles, spacecraft, manned spaceflight programs, sounding rockets, and NASA field installations. This study is limited to names of approved projects through 1974; it does not include names of numerous projects which have been or are being studied or projects that were canceled or postponed before reaching actual flight.

  10. NASA research in aeropropulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.L.; Weber, R.J.


    Future advances in aircraft propulsion systems will be aided by the research performed by NASA and its contractors. This paper gives selected examples of recent accomplishments and current activities relevant to the principal classes of civil and military aircraft. Some instances of new emerging technologies with potential high impact on further progress are discussed. NASA research described includes noise abatement and fuel economy measures for commercial subsonic, supersonic, commuter, and general aviation aircraft, aircraft engines of the jet, turboprop, diesel and rotary types, VTOL, X-wing rotocraft, helicopters, and ''stealth'' aircraft. Applications to military aircraft are also discussed.

  11. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference (United States)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)


    Abstracts are presented from a conference sponsored by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research and hosted by NASA Glenn Research Center and the National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion, held in Cleveland, Ohio, June 22-23, 2004. Topics pertained to the behavior of processes and materials in microgravity as well as physiological-biological studies and microgravity effects.

  12. NASA science communications strategy (United States)


    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  13. My Career at NASA (United States)

    Dibley, Ryan P.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work of the presenter at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. He describes what he does, the projects that he has worked on and the background that led him to his position. The presentation has many pictures of aircraft in flight

  14. NASA trend analysis procedures (United States)


    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  15. NASA Facts, Weightlessness. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Weightlessness and how it can be artificially produced is described in this pamphlet written for junior high school students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review questions, suggested activities, and references are…

  16. NASA Facts, Solar Cells. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  17. NASA NEESPI Data Center (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.; Loboda, T.; Romanov, P.; Gerasimov, I.; Csiszar, I.


    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) is an international program of coordinated research on the state and dynamics of ecosystems in Northern Eurasia and their interactions with the Earth's Climate system. The program is designed to enhance scientific knowledge of these ecosystems as well as to develop predictive capabilities to support informed decision-making and practical applications. The NASA NEESPI Data Center is a multi-sensor, online, easy access data archive and distribution system to provide advanced data management capabilities in support of the NEESPI scientific objectives. Its tools include data analysis and visualization, and other techniques for better science data usage. The NASA NEESPI Data Center portal integrates remote sensing data from MODIS, AIRS, OMI, and other instruments on board polar- orbiting satellites, along with customized data products from climatology data sets and models into a single one-stop-shopping interdisciplinary NASA-NEESPI data center. The presentation will provide status and the most recent achievements of the NASA NEESPI Data Center. In the recent months, the emphasis has been put on analyzing and then preparing steps for the online data analysis by bringing data to common grids while preserving available and statistically important information from the higher resolution inputs. The NESSPI instance of Giovanni, the popular online visualization and analysis tool, features the first batch of atmospheric, fire and snow data products, organized to provide quick and user-friendly exploration means.

  18. NASA Bioreactor Schematic (United States)


    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. The Road to NASA (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie


    This slide presentation describes the career path and projects that the author worked on during her internship at NASA. As a Graduate Student Research Program (GSRP) participant the assignments that were given include: Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Research, Spaceflight toxicology, Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) and a special study at Devon Island.

  20. Materials Genome Initiative (United States)

    Vickers, John


    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  1. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  2. NASA and the National Climate Assessment: Promoting awareness of NASA Earth science (United States)

    Leidner, A. K.


    NASA Earth science observations, models, analyses, and applications made significant contributions to numerous aspects of the Third National Climate Assessment (NCA) report and are contributing to sustained climate assessment activities. The agency's goal in participating in the NCA was to ensure that NASA scientific resources were made available to understand the current state of climate change science and climate change impacts. By working with federal agency partners and stakeholder communities to develop and write the report, the agency was able to raise awareness of NASA climate science with audiences beyond the traditional NASA community. To support assessment activities within the NASA community, the agency sponsored two competitive programs that not only funded research and tools for current and future assessments, but also increased capacity within our community to conduct assessment-relevant science and to participate in writing assessments. Such activities fostered the ability of graduate students, post-docs, and senior researchers to learn about the science needs of climate assessors and end-users, which can guide future research activities. NASA also contributed to developing the Global Change Information System, which deploys information from the NCA to scientists, decision makers, and the public, and thus contributes to climate literacy. Finally, NASA satellite imagery and animations used in the Third NCA helped the pubic and decision makers visualize climate changes and were frequently used in social media to communicate report key findings. These resources are also key for developing educational materials that help teachers and students explore regional climate change impacts and opportunities for responses.

  3. Shearography NDE of NASA COPV (United States)

    Newman, John W.; Santos, Fernando; Saulsbury, Regor; Koshti, Ajay; Russell, Rick; Regez, Brad


    1. 21 Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV) consisting of Kevlar Space Shuttle Fleet Leaders and Graphite COPV were inspected at NASA WSTF, NM from Sept. 12 through Sept 16. 2. The inspection technique was Pressurization Shearography, tests designed to image composite material damage, degradation or design flaws leading to stress concentrations in the axial or hoop strain load path. 3. The defect types detected consisted of the following: a) Intentional impact damage with known energy. b) Un-intentional impact damage. c) Manufacturing defects. 4. COPV design features leading to strain concentrations detected include: a) Strain concentrations at bosses due to fiber closure pattern. b) Strain concentrations in body of COPV due to fiber wrap pattern. c) Strain concentrations at equator due to liner weld/fiber lay-up.

  4. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  5. NASA Weather Support 2017 (United States)

    Carroll, Matt


    In the mid to late 1980's, as NASA was studying ways to improve weather forecasting capabilities to reduce excessive weather launch delays and to reduce excessive weather Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) waivers, the Challenger Accident occurred and the AC-67 Mishap occurred.[1] NASA and USAF weather personnel had advance knowledge of extremely high levels of weather hazards that ultimately caused or contributed to both of these accidents. In both cases, key knowledge of the risks posed by violations of weather LCC was not in the possession of final decision makers on the launch teams. In addition to convening the mishap boards for these two lost missions, NASA convened expert meteorological boards focusing on weather support. These meteorological boards recommended the development of a dedicated organization with the highest levels of weather expertise and influence to support all of American spaceflight. NASA immediately established the Weather Support Office (WSO) in the Office of Space Flight (OSF), and in coordination with the United Stated Air Force (USAF), initiated an overhaul of the organization and an improvement in technology used for weather support as recommended. Soon after, the USAF established a senior civilian Launch Weather Officer (LWO) position to provide meteorological support and continuity of weather expertise and knowledge over time. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was established by NASA, USAF, and the National Weather Service to support initiatives to place new tools and methods into an operational status. At the end of the Shuttle Program, after several weather office reorganizations, the WSO function had been assigned to a weather branch at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This branch was dismantled in steps due to further reorganization, loss of key personnel, and loss of budget line authority. NASA is facing the loss of sufficient expertise and leadership required to provide current levels of weather support. The recommendation proposed

  6. Partnering with NASA: An Overview (United States)

    Martin, Gary


    Partnerships is an important part of doing business at NASA. NASA partners with external organizations to access capabilities under collaborative agreements; enters into agreements for partner access to NASA capabilities; expand overall landscape of space activity; and spurring innovation. NASA partnerships consist of Reimbursable and Non-Reimbursable Space Act Agreements. Partnerships at Ames aligns with Ames' core competencies, and Partners often office in the NASA Research Park, which is an established regional innovation cluster that facilitates commercialization and services as a technology accelerator via onsite collaborations between NASA and its partners.

  7. Requirements management at NASA (United States)

    Rosenburg, L.


    Requirements have always been acknowledged as the backbone of any system. However, in many past development efforts, requirements were paid little heed. At NASA, in recent years, the hue and cry for project development has been "Faster, Better, Cheaper and Safer". This has impacted the way we develop software; it has increased the risks to quality, safety and reliability. At NASA, the Software Assurance Technology Center (SATC) is working with projects to emphasize the criticality of requirements throughout development, not just in the initial phases. This emphasis is on requirements relationship to all aspects of quality, including reliability and safety. In this presentation, we will look at some of these relationships through the eyes of quality.

  8. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles


    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  9. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers (United States)


    This bibliography lists 630 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information System in 1991. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  10. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. (United States)

    Des Marais, David J; Nuth, Joseph A; Allamandola, Louis J; Boss, Alan P; Farmer, Jack D; Hoehler, Tori M; Jakosky, Bruce M; Meadows, Victoria S; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M


    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  11. The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap (United States)

    Des Marais, David J.; Nuth, Joseph A., III.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Boss, Alan P.; Farmer, Jack D.; Hoehler, Tori M.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Pohorille, Andrew; Runnegar, Bruce; Spormann, Alfred M.


    The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides guidance for research and technology development across the NASA enterprises that encompass the space, Earth, and biological sciences. The ongoing development of astrobiology roadmaps embodies the contributions of diverse scientists and technologists from government, universities, and private institutions. The Roadmap addresses three basic questions: how does life begin and evolve, does life exist elsewhere in the universe, and what is the future of life on Earth and beyond? Seven Science Goals outline the following key domains of investigation: understanding the nature and distribution of habitable environments in the universe, exploring for habitable environments and life in our own Solar System, understanding the emergence of life, determining how early life on Earth interacted and evolved with its changing environment, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms and environmental limits of life, determining the principles that will shape life in the future, and recognizing signatures of life on other worlds and on early Earth. For each of these goals, Science Objectives outline more specific high priority efforts for the next three to five years. These eighteen objectives are being integrated with NASA strategic planning.

  12. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture (United States)


    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. Workforce Information Cubes for NASA (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Workforce Information Cubes for NASA, sourced from NASA's personnel/payroll system, gives data about who is working where and on what. Includes records for every...

  14. NASA Engineering Network Lessons Learned (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Lessons Learned system provides access to official, reviewed lessons learned from NASA programs and projects. These lessons have been made available to the...

  15. Material musical como acervo de conocimiento: sujeto, acción e interacción en procesos de improvisación musical = Musical material as stock of knowledge: subject, action and interaction within processes of musical improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Dreher, Silvana K.


    Full Text Available Esta contribuição explora a potencialidade da abordagem subjetiva representada na teoria fenomenonológica de Alfred Schutz para explicar processos de improvisação musical a partir de uma perspectiva sociológica. Isto constitui um desafio para a teoria de Schutz, uma vez que sua ideia de projetos de ação tipificados podem explicar ação improvisatória e interação apenas parcialmente. Contudo, esta mesma teoria abre um novo caminho – ainda menos explorado – para explicar fenômenos de improvisação com a noção de estoque de conhecimento subjetivo e social. A principal contribuição deste artigo é conectar a noção de estoque de conhecimento com o de material musical e, com isso, vincular ação improvisatória e interação

  16. NASA Product Peer Review Process (United States)

    Jenks, Ken


    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  17. Material Resources Availability, Parent Subject Perception and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2348136196731; +2348051303915. E-mail: ... perception and students' students' achievement (r=.244); and positive significant .... consider career for their children based on the job prospect and how the course is ranked.

  18. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  19. NASA Tech Briefs, June 2005 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time; Measuring Humidity in Sealed Glass Encasements; Adaptable System for Vehicle Health and Usage Monitoring; Miniature Focusing Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer; Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer; Wheel Electrometer System; Carbon-Nanotube Conductive Layers for Thin-Film Solar Cells; Patch Antenna Fed via Unequal-Crossed-Arm Aperture; LC Circuits for Diagnosing Embedded Piezoelectric Devices; Nanowire Thermoelectric Devices; Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators; Decision Support for Emergency Operations Centers; NASA Records Database; Real-Time Principal- Component Analysis; Fuzzy/Neural Software Estimates Costs of Rocket- Engine Tests; Multicomponent, Rare-Earth-Doped Thermal-Barrier Coatings; Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins; Improved Gear Shapes for Face Worm Gear Drives; Alternative Way of Shifting Mass to Move a Spherical Robot; Parylene C as a Sacrificial Material for Microfabrication; In Situ Electrochemical Deposition of Microscopic Wires; Improved Method of Manufacturing SiC Devices; Microwave Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia; Ferroelectric Devices Emit Charged Particles and Radiation; Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator; Frozen-Plug Technique for Liquid-Oxygen Plumbing; Shock Waves in a Bose-Einstein Condensate; Progress on a Multichannel, Dual-Mixer Stability Analyzer; Development of Carbon- Nanotube/Polymer Composites; Thermal Imaging of Earth for Accurate Pointing of Deep-Space Antennas; Modifications of a Composite-Material Combustion Chamber; Modeling and Diagnostic Software for Liquefying- Fuel Rockets; and Spacecraft Antenna Clusters for High EIRP.

  20. Occupant Protection at NASA (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey; Granderson, Brad; Scheuring, Rick


    This slide presentation reviews NASA's efforts to arrive at protection of occupants of the ORION space craft on landing. An Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) has been developed, it is an anatomically-based, consensus-derived, global severity scoring system that classifies each injury by body region according to its relative importance on a 6-point ordinal scale. It reviews an Operationmally Relevant Injury Scale (ORIS), a classification methodology, and shows charts that detail the results of applying this ORIS to the injury databases. One chart uses NASCAR injury classification. It discusses providing a context for the level of risk inherent in the Orion landings in terms that people understand and have a sense for. For example is the risk of injury during an Orion landing roughly the same, better or worse than: An aircraft carrier landing, a NASCAR crash, or a helicopter crash, etc? The data for NASCAR and Indy Racing league (IRL) racing crash and injury data was reviewed. The risk from the Air Force, Navy, and Army injury data was also reviewed. Past NASA and the Soyuz programs injury risks are also reviewed. The work is an attempt to formulate a recommendation to the Orion Project for an acceptable level of injury risk associated with Nominal and Off-Nominal landing cases. The presentation also discusses the data mining and use of the data to Validate NASA Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (NORIS) / Military Operationally-Relevant Injury Scale (MORIS), developing injury risk criteria, the types of data that are required, NASCAR modeling techniques and crash data, and comparison with the Brinkley model. The development of injury risk curves for each biodynamic response parameter is discussed. One of the main outcomes of this work is to establish an accurate Automated Test Dummy (ATD) that can be used to measure human tolerances.

  1. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.


    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus:; ArXiv: A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  2. Resources: NASA for entrepreneurs (United States)

    Jannazo, Mary Ann


    The services of NASA's Technology Utilization Program are detailed and highlights of spinoff products in various stages of completion are described. Areas discussed include: Stirling engines for automotive applications, klystron tubes used to reduce power costs at UHF television stations, sports applications of riblet film (e.g., boat racing), reinforced plastic for high-temperature applications, coating technology appropriate for such applications similar to the renovation of the Statue of Liberty, and medical uses of fuel pump technology (e.g., heart pumps).

  3. Quantitative NDE of Composite Structures at NASA (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Leckey, Cara A. C.; Howell, Patricia A.; Johnston, Patrick H.; Burke, Eric R.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Winfree, William P.; Seebo, Jeffery P.


    The use of composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community due to the potential benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and manufacturability. Ongoing work at NASA involves the use of the large-scale composite structures for spacecraft (payload shrouds, cryotanks, crew modules, etc). NASA is also working to enable the use and certification of composites in aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). The rapid, in situ characterization of a wide range of the composite materials and structures has become a critical concern for the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over a long time. The quantitative characterization of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking are of particular interest. The research approaches of NASA's Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch include investigation of conventional, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods, infrared thermography and x-ray computed tomography techniques. The use of simulation tools for optimizing and developing these methods is also an active area of research. This paper will focus on current research activities related to large area NDE for rapidly characterizing aerospace composites.

  4. The NASA Education Enterprise: Inspiring the Next Generation of Explorers (United States)


    On April 12, 2002, NASA Administrator Sean O Keefe opened a new window to the future of space exploration with these words in his Pioneering the Future address. Thus began the conceptual framework for structuring the new Education Enterprise. The Agency s mission is to understand and protect our home planet; to explore the universe in search for life; and to inspire the next generation of explorers as only NASA can. In adopting this mission, education became a core element and is now a vital part of every major NASA research and development mission. NASA s call to inspire the next generation of explorers is now resounding throughout the NASA community and schools of all levels all around the country. The goal is to capture student interest, nurture their natural curiosities, and intrigue their minds with new and exciting scientific research; as well as to provide educators with the creative tools they need to improve America s scientific literacy. The future of NASA begins with America s youngest scholars. According to Administrator O Keefe s address, if NASA does not motivate the youngest generation now, there is little prospect this generation will choose to pursue scientific disciplines later. Since embracing Administrator O Keefe s educational mandate over a year ago, NASA has been fully devoted to broadening its roadmap to motivation. The efforts have generated a whole new showcase of thoughtprovoking and fun learning opportunities, through printed material, Web sites and Webcasts, robotics, rocketry, aerospace design contests, and various other resources as only NASA can.

  5. 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop; Volume 1 (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce, M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert (Editor)


    The 2006 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s new fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn Research Center s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakages as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed seal technologies employed by the Apollo command module that serve as an excellent basis for seals for NASA s new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV).

  6. NASA Classroom Bioreactor (United States)

    Scully, Robert


    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  7. Machine Aided Indexing and the NASA Thesaurus (United States)

    vonOfenheim, Bill


    Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) is a Web-based application program for aiding the indexing of literature in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Database. MAI was designed to be a convenient, fully interactive tool for determining the subject matter of documents and identifying keywords. The heart of MAI is a natural-language processor that accepts, as input, any user-supplied text, including abstracts, full documents, and Web pages. Within seconds, the text is analyzed and a ranked list of terms is generated. The 17,800 terms of the NASA Thesaurus serve as the foundation of the knowledge base used by MAI. The NASA Thesaurus defines a standard vocabulary, the use of which enables MAI to assist in ensuring that STI documents are uniformly and consistently accessible. Of particular interest to traditional users of the NASA Thesaurus, MAI incorporates a fully searchable thesaurus display module that affords word-search and hierarchy- navigation capabilities that make it much easier and less time-consuming to look up terms and browse, relative to lookup and browsing in older print and Portable Document Format (PDF) digital versions of the Thesaurus. In addition, because MAI is centrally hosted, the Thesaurus data are always current.

  8. Materials Science Laboratory (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne


    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  9. Analytic materials. (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W


    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  10. NASA, the Fisherman's Friend (United States)


    Every angler has his secrets, whether it be an old family recipe for stink bait, a midnight worm-hunting ritual, or the most coveted of all, the no-fail fishing hole. Most of these secrets are lore and legend, passed through generations, and coveted more than the family s best tableware. Each of these kernels of wisdom promises the fisherman a bite at the end of the line, but very few are rooted in fact and science. There is one, though.... NASA partnered with a company on the bayous of Mississippi and Louisiana to use satellite data to create a marine information system, a space-age fish finder. This product provides up-to-date information about the location of a variety of fish, including yellowfin tuna, bluefish, blue marlin, white marlin, sailfish, blackfin tuna, little tunny, and swordfish. The system shows peaked catch rates, and may be the only true fish-finding product on the market.

  11. NASA Technology Benefits Orthotics (United States)

    Myers, Neill; Shadoan, Michael


    Engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama have designed a knee brace to aid in the rehabilitation of medical patients. The device, called the Selectively Lockable Knee Brace, was designed for knee injury and stroke patients but may potentially serve in many more patient applications. Individuals with sports related injuries, spinal cord injuries and birth defects, such as spina bifida, may also benefit from the device. The Selectively Lockable Knee Brace is designed to provide secure support to the patient when weight is applied to the leg; however; when the leg is not supporting weight, the device allows free motion of the knee joint. Braces currently on the market lock the knee in a rigid, straight or bent position, or by manually pulling a pin, allow continuous free joint motion.

  12. NASA, Building Tomorrow's Future (United States)

    Mango, Edward


    We, as NASA, continue to Dare Mighty Things. Here we are in October. In my country, the United States of America, we celebrate the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas, which occurred on October 12, 1492. His story, although happening over 500 years ago, is still very valid today. It is a part of the American spirit; part of the international human spirit. Columbus is famous for discovering the new world we now call America, but he probably never envisioned what great discoveries would be revealed many generations later. But in order for Columbus to begin his great adventure, he needed a business plan. Ho would he go about obtaining the funds and support necessary to build, supply, and man the ships required for his travels? He had a lot of obstacles and distractions. He needed a strong, internal drive to achieve his plans and recruit a willing crew of explorers also ready to risk their all for the unknown journey ahead. As Columbus set sail, he said "By prevailing over all obstacles and distractions, one may unfailingly arrive at his chosen goal or destination." Columbus may not have known he was on a journey for all human exploration. Recently, Charlie Bolden, the NASA Administrator, said, "Human exploration is and has always been about making life better for humans on Earth." Today, NASA and the U.S. human spaceflight program hold many of the same attributes as did Columbus and his contemporaries - a willing, can-do spirit. We are on the threshold of exciting new times in space exploration. Like Columbus, we need a business plan to take us into the future. We need to design the best ships and utilize the best designers, with their past knowledge and experience, to build those ships. We need funding and support from governments to achieve these goals of space exploration into the unknown. NASA does have that business plan, and it is an ambitious plan for human spaceflight and exploration. Today, we have a magnificent spaceflight

  13. Configuration Management at NASA (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv


    NASA programs are characterized by complexity, harsh environments and the fact that we usually have one chance to get it right. Programs last decades and need to accept new hardware and technology as it is developed. We have multiple suppliers and international partners Our challenges are many, our costs are high and our failures are highly visible. CM systems need to be scalable, adaptable to new technology and span the life cycle of the program (30+ years). Multiple Systems, Contractors and Countries added major levels of complexity to the ISS program and CM/DM and Requirements management systems center dot CM Systems need to be designed for long design life center dot Space Station Design started in 1984 center dot Assembly Complete in 2012 center dot Systems were developed on a task basis without an overall system perspective center dot Technology moves faster than a large project office, try to make sure you have a system that can adapt

  14. NASA Patent Abstracts October 2006: A Continuing Bibliography. Supplement 67 (United States)


    Several thousand inventions result each year from research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. NASA seeks patent protection on inventions to which it has title if the invention has important use in government programs or significant commercial potential. These inventions cover a broad range of technologies and include many that have useful and valuable commercial application. NASA inventions best serve the interests of the United States when their benefits are available to the public. In many instances, the granting of nonexclusive or exclusive licenses for the practice of these inventions may assist in the accomplishment of this objective. This bibliography is published as a service to companies, firms, and individuals seeking new, licensable products for the commercial market. The NASA Patent Abstracts Bibliography is an annual NASA publication containing comprehensive abstracts of NASA-owned inventions covered by U.S. patents. The citations included were originally published in NASA s Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports (STAR) and cover STAR announcements made since May 1969. The citations published in this issue cover the period July 2005 through September 2006. The range of subjects covered includes the NASA Scope and Subject Category Guide's 10 broad subject divisions separated further into 76 specific categories. However, not all categories contain citations during the dates covered for this issue; therefore, the Table of Contents does not include all divisions and categories. This scheme was devised in 1975 and last revised in 2005 in lieu of the 34 category divisions which were utilized in supplements (01) through (06) covering STAR abstracts from May 1969 through January 1974. Each entry consists of a citation accompanied by an abstract and, when appropriate, a key illustration taken from the patent or application for patent. Entries are arranged by subject category in ascending order. When available, citations contain a

  15. NASA Bluetooth Wireless Communications (United States)

    Miller, Robert D.


    NASA has been interested in wireless communications for many years, especially when the crew size of the International Space Station (ISS) was reduced to two members. NASA began a study to find ways to improve crew efficiency to make sure the ISS could be maintained with limited crew capacity and still be a valuable research testbed in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO). Currently the ISS audio system requires astronauts to be tethered to the audio system, specifically a device called the Audio Terminal Unit (ATU). Wireless communications would remove the tether and allow astronauts to freely float from experiment to experiment without having to worry about moving and reconnecting the associated cabling or finding the space equivalent of an extension cord. A wireless communication system would also improve safety and reduce system susceptibility to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). Safety would be improved because a crewmember could quickly escape a fire while maintaining communications with the ground and other crewmembers at any location. In addition, it would allow the crew to overcome the volume limitations of the ISS ATU. This is especially important to the Portable Breathing Apparatus (PBA). The next generation of space vehicles and habitats also demand wireless attention. Orion will carry up to six crewmembers in a relatively small cabin. Yet, wireless could become a driving factor to reduce launch weight and increase habitable volume. Six crewmembers, each tethered to a panel, could result in a wiring mess even in nominal operations. In addition to Orion, research is being conducted to determine if Bluetooth is appropriate for Lunar Habitat applications.

  16. NASA's Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Roadmap (United States)

    McConnaughey, Paul K.; Femminineo, Mark G.; Koelfgen, Syri J.; Lepsch, Roger A; Ryan, Richard M.; Taylor, Steven A.


    Safe, reliable, and affordable access to low-Earth (LEO) orbit is necessary for all of the United States (US) space endeavors. In 2010, NASA s Office of the Chief Technologist commissioned 14 teams to develop technology roadmaps that could be used to guide the Agency s and US technology investment decisions for the next few decades. The Launch Propulsion Systems Technology Area (LPSTA) team was tasked to address the propulsion technology challenges for access to LEO. The developed LPSTA roadmap addresses technologies that enhance existing solid or liquid propulsion technologies and their related ancillary systems or significantly advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of less mature systems like airbreathing, unconventional, and other launch technologies. In developing this roadmap, the LPSTA team consulted previous NASA, military, and industry studies as well as subject matter experts to develop their assessment of this field, which has fundamental technological and strategic impacts for US space capabilities.

  17. Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (United States)

    White, Margo M.


    Attention is given to the Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN), which was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory of NASA-Marshall. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. The data base is NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team (NOET) to be hazardous to the environment. The data base also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these materials.

  18. NASA's Needs for Biomaterials within the HEDS Initiative (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.


    The part to be played by materials scientists to further NASA's exploration missions cannot be underestimated. To quote Jerome Groopman (New Yorker, February 14, 2000), "The rocket science will be the easy part". The four main risks on the Critical Path Road Map during a three-year sojourn to Mars are osteoporosis, psychological problems, radiation induced cancer and acute medical trauma. NASA's microgravity materials science program has investigations in membrane fabrication, bone growth and materials for radiation protection. These programs will be reviewed in the context of the four main risks, as will other potential uses of biomaterials and applications of biomimetic processing.

  19. NASA and The Semantic Web (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen


    We provide an overview of several ongoing NASA endeavors based on concepts, systems, and technology from the Semantic Web arena. Indeed NASA has been one of the early adopters of Semantic Web Technology and we describe ongoing and completed R&D efforts for several applications ranging from collaborative systems to airspace information management to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and discovery systems at NASA.

  20. NASA Information Technology Implementation Plan (United States)


    NASA's Information Technology (IT) resources and IT support continue to be a growing and integral part of all NASA missions. Furthermore, the growing IT support requirements are becoming more complex and diverse. The following are a few examples of the growing complexity and diversity of NASA's IT environment. NASA is conducting basic IT research in the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) and Intelligent Systems (IS) Initiatives. IT security, infrastructure protection, and privacy of data are requiring more and more management attention and an increasing share of the NASA IT budget. Outsourcing of IT support is becoming a key element of NASA's IT strategy as exemplified by Outsourcing Desktop Initiative for NASA (ODIN) and the outsourcing of NASA Integrated Services Network (NISN) support. Finally, technology refresh is helping to provide improved support at lower cost. Recently the NASA Automated Data Processing (ADP) Consolidation Center (NACC) upgraded its bipolar technology computer systems with Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology systems. This NACC upgrade substantially reduced the hardware maintenance and software licensing costs, significantly increased system speed and capacity, and reduced customer processing costs by 11 percent.

  1. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  2. 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1 (United States)


    The 2004 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (1) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (2) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program; (3) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal program aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (4) Reviews of NASA prime contractor and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (5) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. The NASA UEET overview illustrated for the reader the importance of advanced technologies, including seals, in meeting future turbine engine system efficiency and emission goals. For example, the NASA UEET program goals include an 8- to 15-percent reduction in fuel burn, a 15-percent reduction in CO2, a 70-percent reduction in NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons, and a 30-dB noise reduction relative to program baselines. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle, as part of NASA s new Exploration Initiative. Plans to develop the necessary mechanism and androgynous seal technologies were reviewed. Seal challenges posed by reusable re-entry space vehicles include high-temperature operation, resiliency at temperature to accommodate gap changes during operation, and durability to meet mission requirements.

  3. NASA Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) (United States)

    Backman, D. E.; Harman, P. K.; Clark, C.


    NASA's Airborne Astronomy Ambassadors (AAA) is a three-part professional development (PD) program for high school physics and astronomy teachers. The AAA experience consists of: (1) blended-learning professional development composed of webinars, asynchronous content learning, and a series of hands-on workshops (2) a STEM immersion experience at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's B703 science research aircraft facility in Palmdale, California, and (3) ongoing participation in the AAA community of practice (CoP) connecting participants with astrophysics and planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The SETI Institute (SI) is partnering with school districts in Santa Clara and Los Angeles Counties during the AAA program's "incubation" period, calendar years 2016 through 2018. AAAs will be selected by the school districts based on criteria developed during spring 2016 focus group meetings led by the program's external evaluator, WestEd.. Teachers with 3+ years teaching experience who are assigned to teach at least 2 sections in any combination of the high school courses Physics (non-AP), Physics of the Universe (California integrated model), Astronomy, or Earth & Space Sciences are eligible. Partner districts will select at least 48 eligible applicants with SI oversight. WestEd will randomly assign selected AAAs to group A or group B. Group A will complete PD in January - June of 2017 and then participate in SOFIA science flights during fall 2017 (SOFIA Cycle 5). Group B will act as a control during the 2017-18 school year. Group B will then complete PD in January - June of 2018 and participate in SOFIA science flights in fall 2018 (Cycle 6). Under the current plan, opportunities for additional districts to seek AAA partnerships with SI will be offered in 2018 or 2019. A nominal two-week AAA curriculum component will be developed by SI for classroom delivery that will be aligned with selected California Draft Science Framework Disciplinary Core Ideas

  4. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2005 (United States)


    Topivs include: Diamond-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Field Emission; Improved Anode Coatings for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells; Advanced Ablative Insulators and Methods of Making Them; PETIs as High-Temperature Resin-Transfer-Molding Materials; Stable Polyimides for Terrestrial and Space Uses; Low-Density, Aerogel-Filled Thermal-Insulation Tiles; High-Performance Polymers Having Low Melt Viscosities; Nonflammable, Hydrophobic Aerogel Composites for Insulation; Front-Side Microstrip Line Feeding a Raised Antenna Patch; Medium-Frequency Pseudonoise Georadar; Facilitating Navigation Through Large Archives; Program for Weibull Analysis of Fatigue Data; Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0; Component-Based Visualization System; Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft; LabVIEW Interface for PCI-SpaceWire Interface Card; Path Following with Slip Compensation for a Mars Rover; International Space Station Electric Power System Performance Code-SPACE; Software for Automation of Real-Time Agents, Version 2; Software for Optimizing Plans Involving Interdependent Goals; Computing Gravitational Fields of Finite-Sized Bodies; Custom Sky-Image Mosaics from NASA's Information Power Grid; ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions; Generic Kalman Filter Software; Alignment Stage for a Cryogenic Dilatometer; Rugged Iris Mechanism; Treatments To Produce Stabilized Aluminum Mirrors for Cryogenic Uses; Making AlNx Tunnel Barriers Using a Low-Energy Nitrogen-Ion Beam; Making Wide-IF SIS Mixers with Suspended Metal-Beam Leads; Sol-Gel Glass Holographic Light-Shaping Diffusers; Automated Counting of Particles To Quantify Cleanliness; Phase Correction for GPS Antenna with Nonunique Phase Center; Compact Infrasonic Windscreen; Broadband External-Cavity Diode Laser; High-Efficiency Solar Cells Using Photonic-Bandgap Materials; Generating Solid Models from Topographical Data; Computationally Lightweight Air-Traffic-Control Simulation; Spool Valve for

  5. 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop, Volume 1 (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor)


    The 2005 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Exploration Initiative program aimed at exploring the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of the NASA-sponsored Propulsion 21 Project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts including tip clearance control, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Several organizations presented development efforts aimed at developing faster clearance control systems and associated technology to meet future engine needs. The workshop also covered several programs NASA is funding to develop technologies for the Exploration Initiative and advanced reusable space vehicle technologies. NASA plans on developing an advanced docking and berthing system that would permit any vehicle to dock to any on-orbit station or vehicle. Seal technical challenges (including space environments, temperature variation, and seal-on-seal operation) as well as plans to develop the necessary "androgynous" seal technologies were reviewed. Researchers also reviewed tests completed for the shuttle main landing gear door seals.

  6. Status of Solar Sail Technology Within NASA (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Young, Roy; Montgomery, Edward; Alhorn, Dean


    In the early 2000s, NASA made substantial progress in the development of solar sail propulsion systems for use in robotic science and exploration of the solar system. Two different 20-m solar sail systems were produced and they successfully completed functional vacuum testing in NASA Glenn Research Center's (GRC's) Space Power Facility at Plum Brook Station, Ohio. The sails were designed and developed by ATK Space Systems and L Garde, respectively. The sail systems consist of a central structure with four deployable booms that support the sails. These sail designs are robust enough for deployment in a one-atmosphere, one-gravity environment and were scalable to much larger solar sails perhaps as large as 150 m on a side. Computation modeling and analytical simulations were also performed to assess the scalability of the technology to the large sizes required to implement the first generation of missions using solar sails. Life and space environmental effects testing of sail and component materials were also conducted. NASA terminated funding for solar sails and other advanced space propulsion technologies shortly after these ground demonstrations were completed. In order to capitalize on the $30M investment made in solar sail technology to that point, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) funded the NanoSail-D, a subscale solar sail system designed for possible small spacecraft applications. The NanoSail-D mission flew on board the ill-fated Falcon-1 Rocket launched August 2, 2008, and due to the failure of that rocket, never achieved orbit. The NanoSail-D flight spare will be flown in the Fall of 2010. This paper will summarize NASA's investment in solar sail technology to-date and discuss future opportunities

  7. Avaliação de material didático digital centrada no usuário: uma investigação de instrumentos passíveis de utilização por professores User-centred evaluation of digital learning materials: an investigation of instruments subject to use by teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Alexandra de Godoi


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discute-se a importância da avaliação de materiais didáticos digitais centrada no usuário. Primeiramente, apresentam-se as abordagens de avaliação passíveis de aplicação a esses materiais, assim como suas definições e classificações. Em seguida, revisam-se conceitos de usabilidade em materiais didáticos digitais. Por fim, descreve-se uma série de instrumentos avaliativos passíveis de serem utilizados por professores.In this study, we discuss the importance of user-centered evaluation of digital learning materials. First of all, different evaluation approaches are introduced, as well as their definitions and classifications. Then, concepts of usability in digital learning materials are surveyed. Finally, a range of evaluation tools subject to use by teachers are described.

  8. NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph


    NASA has established 6 Themes for Exploration: 1) USE THE MOON: Reduce risks and cost and increase productivity of future missions by testing technologies, systems, and operations in a planetary environment other than the Earth. 2) PURSUE SCIENTIFIC: Engage in scientific investigations of the Moon (solar system processes), on the Moon (use the unique environment), and from the Moon (to study other celestial phenomena). 3) EXTEND PERMANENT HUMAN PRESENCE: Develop the capabilities and infrastructure required to expand the number of people, the duration, the self-sufficiency, and the degree of non-governmental activity. 4) EXPAND EARTH S ECONOMIC SPHERE: Create new markets based on lunar activity that will return economic, technological, and quality-of-life benefits. 5) ENHANCE GLOBAL SECURTIY: Provide a challenging, shared, and peaceful global vision that unites nations in pursuit of common objectives. 6) ENGAGE, INSPIRE: Excite the public about space, encourage students to pursue careers in high technology fields, ensure that individuals enter the workforce with the scientific and technical knowledge necessary to sustain exploration.

  9. NASA Downscaling Project (United States)

    Ferraro, Robert; Waliser, Duane; Peters-Lidard, Christa


    A team of researchers from NASA Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Marshall Space Flight Center, along with university partners at UCLA, conducted an investigation to explore whether downscaling coarse resolution global climate model (GCM) predictions might provide valid insights into the regional impacts sought by decision makers. Since the computational cost of running global models at high spatial resolution for any useful climate scale period is prohibitive, the hope for downscaling is that a coarse resolution GCM provides sufficiently accurate synoptic scale information for a regional climate model (RCM) to accurately develop fine scale features that represent the regional impacts of a changing climate. As a proxy for a prognostic climate forecast model, and so that ground truth in the form of satellite and in-situ observations could be used for evaluation, the MERRA and MERRA-2 reanalyses were used to drive the NU-WRF regional climate model and a GEOS-5 replay. This was performed at various resolutions that were at factors of 2 to 10 higher than the reanalysis forcing. A number of experiments were conducted that varied resolution, model parameterizations, and intermediate scale nudging, for simulations over the continental US during the period from 2000-2010. The results of these experiments were compared to observational datasets to evaluate the output.

  10. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  11. The future of NASA's missions (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.


    Can the recent Discovery mission selections be used as tea leaves to understand the future directions of NASA? In an age of many programmes being used to advance administrative and programmatic goals, Discovery appears to be driven almost entirely by science and by NASA's goal of cheaper missions.

  12. NASA System Engineering Design Process (United States)

    Roman, Jose


    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  13. Materials inventory management manual (United States)


    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  14. Interfacial Design of Composite Ablative Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project proposes the development of a computational software package to provide NASA with advanced materials...

  15. Extreme Environments: Why NASA? (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.


    Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of extreme environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for

  16. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.


    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  17. Development of K-12 Engineering Outreach Materials (United States)

    Jordan, William


    Six modules were created that can be used in K-12 classes to introduce students to what engineers can do at NASA.The purpose of this project was to create outreach materials for the classroom. To make it appealing to students, many color NASA photographs are used to illustrate NASA applications.Student experiments are described that can be performed to illustrate topics.

  18. Update on NASA Microelectronics Activities (United States)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.; Casey, Megan; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie


    Mission Statement: The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program provides NASA's leadership for developing and maintaining guidance for the screening, qualification, test. and usage of EEE parts by NASA as well as in collaboration with other government Agencies and industry. NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) "STMD rapidly develops, demonstrates, and infuses revolutionary, high-payoff technologies through transparent, collaborative partnerships, expanding the boundaries of the aerospace enterprise." Mission Statement: The Space Environments Testing Management Office (SETMO) will identify, prioritize, and manage a select suite of Agency key capabilities/assets that are deemed to be essential to the future needs of NASA or the nation, including some capabilities that lack an adequate business base over the budget horizon. NESC mission is to perform value-added independent testing, analysis, and assessments of NASA's high-risk projects to ensure safety and mission success. NASA Space Environments and Avionics Fellows as well as Radiation and EEE Parts Community of Practice (CoP) leads.

  19. Materials Test Branch (United States)

    Gordon, Gail


    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  20. NASA SMD STEM Activation: Enabling NASA Science Experts and Content into the Learning Environment (United States)

    Hasan, Hashima; Erickson, Kristen


    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) restructured its efforts to enhance learning in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content areas through a cooperative agreement notice issued in 2015. This effort resulted in the competitive selection of 27 organizations to implement a strategic approach that leverages SMD’s unique assets. Three of these are exclusively directed towards Astrophysics. These unique assets include SMD’s science and engineering content and Science Discipline Subject Matter Experts. Awardees began their work during 2016 and span all areas of Earth and space science and the audiences NASA SMD intends to reach. The goal of the restructured STEM Activation program is to further enable NASA science experts and content into the learning environment more effectively and efficiently with learners of all ages. The objectives are to enable STEM education, improve US scientific literacy, advance national educational goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. This presentation will provide an overview of the NASA SMD STEM Activation landscape and its commitment to meeting user needs.

  1. NASA/JSC ISSLive! (United States)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Khan, Ahmed; Severance, Mark T.


    Just 150 miles above us, the International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting. Each day, the astronauts on board perform a variety of activities from exercise, science experiments, and maintenance. Yet, many on the ground do not know about these daily activities. National Aeronautics Space Agency/ Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) innovation creation ISSLive! - an education project - is working to bridge this knowledge gap with traditional education channels such as schools, but also non-traditional channels with the non-technical everyday public. ISSLive! provides a website that seamlessly integrates planning and telemetry data, video feeds, 3D models, and iOS and android applications. Through the site, users are able to view astronauts daily schedules, in plain English alongside the original data. As an example, when an astronaut is working with a science experiment, a user will be able to read about the activity and for more detailed activities follow provided links to view more information all integrated into the same site. Live telemetry data from a predefined set can also be provided alongside the activities. For users to learn more, 3D models of the external and internal parts of the ISS are available, allowing users to explore the station and even select sensors, such as temperature, and view a real-time chart of the data. Even ground operations are modeled with a 3D mission control center, providing users information on the various flight control disciplines and showing live data that they would be monitoring. Some unique activities are also highlighted and have dedicated spaces to explore in more detail. Education is the focus of ISSLive!, even from the beginning when university students participated in the development process as part of their master s projects. Focus groups at a Houston school showed interest in the project and excitement towards including ISSLive! in their classroom. Through this inclusion, students' knowledge can be assessed with projects

  2. NASA's Meteorologist Center: Online Resources to Promote Climate Literacy (United States)

    Jackson, R.; Tenenbaum, L. F.; Witte, J.


    In a recent survey by George Mason University, a significant number of meteorologists and weathercasters in America cited lack of access to appropriate visuals and graphics as a basic impediment to reporting the reality of anthropogenic climate change. To address this need, NASA's Global Climate Change Website,, has developed an online Meteorologist Center, stocked with high quality graphics and animations, public education materials, and a list of credible online resources. The goal of the project is to provide weathercasters with a "one-stop shop" for broadcast-ready materials that can be used to report on global climate change and to educate audiences.;

  3. NASA Tech Briefs, May 2013 (United States)


    Topics include: Test Waveform Applications for JPL STRS Operating Environment; Pneumatic Proboscis Heat-Flow Probe; Method to Measure Total Noise Temperature of a Wireless Receiver During Operation; Cursor Control Device Test Battery; Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signals Measure Neuronal Activity in the Cortex; ESD Test Apparatus for Soldering Irons; FPGA-Based X-Ray Detection and Measurement for an X-Ray Polarimeter; Sequential Probability Ratio Test for Spacecraft Collision Avoidance Maneuver Decisions; Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water; Advanced Materials and Fabrication Techniques for the Orion Attitude Control Motor; Flight Hardware Packaging Design for Stringent EMC Radiated Emission Requirements; RF Reference Switch for Spaceflight Radiometer Calibration; An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing; Multi-Scale CNT-Based Reinforcing Polymer Matrix Composites for Lightweight Structures; Ceramic Adhesive and Methods for On-Orbit Repair of Re-Entry Vehicles; Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks; Pt-Ni and Pt-Co Catalyst Synthesis Route for Fuel Cell Applications; Aerogel-Based Multilayer Insulation with Micrometeoroid Protection; Manufacturing of Nanocomposite Carbon Fibers and Composite Cylinders; Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments; A Mission Concept: Re-Entry Hopper-Aero-Space-Craft System on-Mars (REARM-Mars); New Class of Flow Batteries for Terrestrial and Aerospace Energy Storage Applications; Reliability of CCGA 1152 and CCGA 1272 Interconnect Packages for Extreme Thermal Environments; Using a Blender to Assess the Microbial Density of Encapsulated Organisms; Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication; Video Altimeter and Obstruction Detector for an Aircraft; Control Software for Piezo Stepping Actuators; Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-Based Risk Model (GERM) Code; Sasquatch Footprint Tool; and Multi-User Space Link Extension (SLE) System.

  4. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission (United States)

    Johnson, Les; McNutt, Leslie; Castillo-Rogez, Julie


    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for a near-term Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m2 solar sail and will weigh less than 14 kilograms. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 3 microns thick. NEA Scout will launch on the Space Launch System (SLS) first mission in 2018 and deploy from the SLS after the Orion spacecraft is separated from the SLS upper stage. The NEA Scout spacecraft will stabilize its orientation after ejection using an onboard cold-gas thruster system. The same system provides the vehicle Delta-V sufficient for a lunar flyby. After its first encounter with the moon, the 86 m2 sail will deploy, and the sail characterization phase will begin. A mechanical Active Mass Translation (AMT) system, combined with the remaining ACS propellant, will be used for sail momentum management. Once the system is checked out, the spacecraft will perform a series of lunar flybys until it achieves optimum departure trajectory to the target asteroid. The spacecraft will then begin its two year-long cruise. About one month before the asteroid flyby, NEA Scout will pause to search for the target and start its approach phase using a combination of radio tracking and optical navigation. The solar sail will provide

  5. Materials Science (United States)


    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  6. NASA's Aeronautics Vision (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.


    Six long-term technology focus areas are: 1. Environmentally Friendly, Clean Burning Engines. Focus: Develop innovative technologies to enable intelligent turbine engines that significantly reduce harmful emissions while maintaining high performance and increasing reliability. 2. New Aircraft Energy Sources and Management. Focus: Discover new energy sources and intelligent management techniques directed towards zero emissions and enable new vehicle concepts for public mobility and new science missions. 3. Quiet Aircraft for Community Friendly Service. Focus: Develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. 4. Aerodynamic Performance for Fuel Efficiency. Focus: Improve aerodynamic efficiency,structures and materials technologies, and design tools and methodologies to reduce fuel burn and minimize environmental impact and enable new vehicle concepts and capabilities for public mobility and new science missions. 5. Aircraft Weight Reduction and Community Access. Focus: Develop ultralight smart materials and structures, aerodynamic concepts, and lightweight subsystems to increase vehicle efficiency, leading to high altitude long endurance vehicles, planetary aircraft, advanced vertical and short takeoff and landing vehicles and beyond. 6. Smart Aircraft and Autonomous Control. Focus: Enable aircraft to fly with reduced or no human intervention, to optimize flight over multiple regimes, and to provide maintenance on demand towards the goal of a feeling, seeing, sensing, sentient air vehicle.

  7. NASA Tech Briefs, June 2014 (United States)


    Topics include: Real-Time Minimization of Tracking Error for Aircraft Systems; Detecting an Extreme Minority Class in Hyperspectral Data Using Machine Learning; KSC Spaceport Weather Data Archive; Visualizing Acquisition, Processing, and Network Statistics Through Database Queries; Simulating Data Flow via Multiple Secure Connections; Systems and Services for Near-Real-Time Web Access to NPP Data; CCSDS Telemetry Decoder VHDL Core; Thermal Response of a High-Power Switch to Short Pulses; Solar Panel and System Design to Reduce Heating and Optimize Corridors for Lower-Risk Planetary Aerobraking; Low-Cost, Very Large Diamond-Turned Metal Mirror; Very-High-Load-Capacity Air Bearing Spindle for Large Diamond Turning Machines; Elevated-Temperature, Highly Emissive Coating for Energy Dissipation of Large Surfaces; Catalyst for Treatment and Control of Post-Combustion Emissions; Thermally Activated Crack Healing Mechanism for Metallic Materials; Subsurface Imaging of Nanocomposites; Self-Healing Glass Sealants for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells and Electrolyzer Cells; Micromachined Thermopile Arrays with Novel Thermo - electric Materials; Low-Cost, High-Performance MMOD Shielding; Head-Mounted Display Latency Measurement Rig; Workspace-Safe Operation of a Force- or Impedance-Controlled Robot; Cryogenic Mixing Pump with No Moving Parts; Seal Design Feature for Redundancy Verification; Dexterous Humanoid Robot; Tethered Vehicle Control and Tracking System; Lunar Organic Waste Reformer; Digital Laser Frequency Stabilization via Cavity Locking Employing Low-Frequency Direct Modulation; Deep UV Discharge Lamps in Capillary Quartz Tubes with Light Output Coupled to an Optical Fiber; Speech Acquisition and Automatic Speech Recognition for Integrated Spacesuit Audio Systems, Version II; Advanced Sensor Technology for Algal Biotechnology; High-Speed Spectral Mapper; "Ascent - Commemorating Shuttle" - A NASA Film and Multimedia Project DVD; High-Pressure, Reduced-Kinetics Mechanism for N

  8. Development of Metal Matrix Composites for NASA's Advanced Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Lee, J.; Elam, S.


    The state-of-the-art development of several Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) for NASA's advanced propulsion systems will be presented. The goal is to provide an overview of NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center's on-going activities in MMC components for advanced liquid rocket engines such as the X-33 vehicle's Aerospike engine and X-34's Fastrac engine. The focus will be on lightweight, low cost, and environmental compatibility with oxygen and hydrogen of key MMC materials, within each of NASA's new propulsion application, that will provide a high payoff for NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicles and space access vehicles. In order to fabricate structures from MMC, effective joining methods must be developed to join MMC to the same or to different monolithic alloys. Therefore, a qualitative assessment of MMC's welding and joining techniques will be outlined.

  9. NASA 3D Models: TRMM (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) designed to monitor and study...

  10. NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NTRS is a valuable resource for researchers, students, educators, and the public to access NASA's current and historical technical literature and engineering...

  11. NASA 3D Models: Aqua (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water...

  12. NASA's computer science research program (United States)

    Larsen, R. L.


    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  13. NASA 3D Models: Aquarius (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aquarius is making NASA's first space-based global observations of ocean surface salinity, flying 657 kilometers (408 miles) above Earth in a sun-synchronous polar...

  14. NASA 3D Models: Cassini (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cassini spacecraft from SPACE rendering package, built by Michael Oberle under NASA contract at JPL. Includes orbiter only, Huygens probe detached. Accurate except...

  15. NASA's Research to Support the Airlines (United States)

    Evans, Cody; Mogford, Richard; Wing, David; Stallmann, Summer L.


    NASA's working with airlines and industry partners to introduce innovative concepts and new technology. This presentation will describe some of the research efforts at NASA Ames and NASA Langley and discuss future projects and research in aviation.

  16. Industrial and Systems Engineering Applications in NASA (United States)

    Shivers, Charles H.


    A viewgraph presentation on the many applications of Industrial and Systems Engineering used for safe NASA missions is shown. The topics include: 1) NASA Information; 2) Industrial Engineering; 3) Systems Engineering; and 4) Major NASA Programs.

  17. NASA's telemedicine testbeds: Commercial benefit (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Whitten, Raymond


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been developing and applying telemedicine to support space flight since the Agency's beginning. Telemetry of physiological parameters from spacecraft to ground controllers is critical to assess the health status of humans in extreme and remote environments. Requisite systems to support medical care and maintain readiness will evolve as mission duration and complexity increase. Developing appropriate protocols and procedures to support multinational, multicultural missions is a key objective of this activity. NASA has created an Agency-wide strategic plan that focuses on the development and integration of technology into the health care delivery systems for space flight to meet these challenges. In order to evaluate technology and systems that can enhance inflight medical care and medical education, NASA has established and conducted several testbeds. Additionally, in June of 1997, NASA established a Commercial Space Center (CSC) for Medical Informatics and Technology Applications at Yale University School of Medicine. These testbeds and the CSC foster the leveraging of technology and resources between government, academia and industry to enhance health care. This commercial endeavor will influence both the delivery of health care in space and on the ground. To date, NASA's activities in telemedicine have provided new ideas in the application of telecommunications and information systems to health care. NASA's Spacebridge to Russia, an Internet-based telemedicine testbed, is one example of how telemedicine and medical education can be conducted using the Internet and its associated tools. Other NASA activities, including the development of a portable telemedicine workstation, which has been demonstrated on the Crow Indian Reservation and in the Texas Prison System, show promise in serving as significant adjuncts to the delivery of health care. As NASA continues to meet the challenges of space flight, the

  18. My Internship at NASA (United States)

    Lopez, Isaac


    My name is Isaac Lopez and I am a junior at the University of Houston majoring in Mechanical Engineering Technology. I will be completing my first tour at the NASA-Johnson Space Center ("JSC") as a Mechanical Engineer within the Human Interfaces Branch. Throughout my tour, I was given the opportunity to work on multiple projects that have expanded my knowledge and interest in acoustics and engineering design. One of the projects I worked on at JSC consisted of doing acoustic simulation of the EVA comm. cap. While working on the comm. cap headset, my main duty consisted of simulating the acoustics of the headset to find a solution to the condensing water that can accumulate and block the acoustic tube, causing attenuation or complete loss of audio in one ear for an astronaut using the EVA. For this project, I had to create a Creo model of the comm. cap so that I would be able to import it into Comsol for acoustic simulation. I also had the opportunity to design a portable and lightweight beam degrader for the EEE Parts and Radiation team. With the help of Creo, I was able to make a CAD design and put together a small working prototype for the radiation team to demonstrate the capabilities that the beam degrader had. In addition to these projects, JSC allowed me to work closely on projects with other interns. I had the opportunity to help another intern with his acoustic diverter, intended to improve the sound quality in Node 1 of the ISS. During this project, I helped with some of the acoustic testing inside the anechoic chamber as well as helping record data during testing at the ISS mock up. During the course of my first tour, I was able to learn and continually improve on my CAD drafting skills. With each project I worked on, I acquired new ways to create and improve various designs with various constraints. Furthermore, I also had the opportunity to work with electrical engineers and learn about the electronic components that would provide control of the beam

  19. The NASA Technical Report Server (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Gottlich, Gretchen L.; Bianco, David J.; Paulson, Sharon S.; Binkley, Robert L.; Kellogg, Yvonne D.; Beaumont, Chris J.; Schmunk, Robert B.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Accomazzi, Alberto


    The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 established NASA and charged it to "provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination of information concerning its activities and the results thereof." The search for innovative methods to distribute NASA's information lead a grass-roots team to create the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS), which uses the World Wide Web and other popular Internet-based information systems as search engines. The NTRS is an inter-center effort which provides uniform access to various distributed publication servers residing on the Internet. Users have immediate desktop access to technical publications from NASA centers and institutes. The NTRS is comprised of several units, some constructed especially for inclusion in NTRS, and others that are existing NASA publication services that NTRS reuses. This paper presents the NTRS architecture, usage metrics, and the lessons learned while implementing and maintaining the service. The NTRS is largely constructed with freely available software running on existing hardware. NTRS builds upon existing hardware and software, and the resulting additional exposure for the body of literature contained ensures that NASA's institutional knowledge base will continue to receive the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination.

  20. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA (United States)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.


    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  1. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller


    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  2. Determination of the relative resistance to ignition of selected turbopump materials in high-pressure, high-temperature, oxygen environments, volume 1 (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Benz, Frank J.


    Advances in the design of the liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen engines for the Space Transportation System call for the use of warm, high-pressure oxygen as the driving gas in the liquid oxygen turbopump. The NASA Lewis Research Center requested the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to design a test program to determine the relative resistance to ignition of nine selected turbopump materials: Hastelloy X, Inconel 600, Invar 36, Monel K-500, nickel 200, silicon carbide, stainless steel 316, and zirconium copper. The materials were subjected to particle impact and to frictional heating in high-pressure oxygen.

  3. Space Debris Modeling at NASA (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.


    Since the Second European Conference on Space Debris in 1997, the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Johnson Space Center has undertaken a major effort to update and improve the principal software tools employed to model the space debris environment and to evaluate mission risks. NASA's orbital debris engineering model, ORDEM, represents the current and near-term Earth orbital debris population from the largest spacecraft to the smallest debris in a manner which permits spacecraft engineers and experimenters to estimate the frequency and velocity with which a satellite may be struck by debris of different sizes. Using expanded databases and a new program design, ORDEM2000 provides a more accurate environment definition combined with a much broader array of output products in comparison with its predecessor, ORDEM96. Studies of the potential long-term space debris environment are now conducted with EVOLVE 4.0, which incorporates significant advances in debris characterization and breakup modeling. An adjunct to EVOLVE 4.0, GEO EVOLVE has been created to examine debris issues near the geosynchronous orbital regime. In support of NASA Safety Standard 1740.14, which establishes debris mitigation guidelines for all NASA space programs, a set of evaluation tools called the Debris Assessment Software (DAS) is specifically designed for program offices to determine whether they are in compliance with NASA debris mitigation guidelines. DAS 1.5 has recently been released with improved WINDOWS compatibility and graphics functions. DAS 2.0 will incorporate guideline changes in a forthcoming revision to NASA Safety Standard 1740.14. Whereas DAS contains a simplified model to calculate possible risks associated with satellite reentries, NASA's higher fidelity Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) has been upgraded to Version 5.0. With the growing awareness of the potential risks posed by uncontrolled satellite reentries to people and property on Earth, the

  4. NASA and Public Libraries: Enhancing STEM Literacy in Underserved Communities (United States)

    Dusenbery, P.; LaConte, K.; Harold, J. B.; Randall, C.


    NASA research programs are helping humanity understand the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, and defining the conditions necessary to support life beyond Earth. The Space Science Institute's (SSI) National Center for Interactive Learning (NCIL) was recently funded by NASA`s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) to develop and implement a project called NASA@ My Library: A National Earth and Space Science Initiative That Connects NASA, Public Libraries and Their Communities. As places that offer their services for free, public libraries have become the "public square" by providing a place where members of a community can gather for information, educational programming, and policy discussions. Libraries are developing new ways to engage their patrons in STEM learning, and NCIL's STAR Library Education Network (STAR_Net) has been supporting their efforts for the last eight years, including through a vibrant community of practice that serves both librarians and STEM professionals. Project stakeholders include public library staff, state libraries, the earth and space science education community at NASA, subject matter experts, and informal science educators. The project will leverage high-impact SMD and library events to catalyze partnerships through dissemination of SMD assets and professional development. It will also develop frameworks for public libraries to increase STEM interest pathways in their communities (with supports for reaching underserved audiences). This presentation will summarize the key activities and expected outcomes of the 5-year project.

  5. NASA Climate Days: Promoting Climate Literacy One Ambassador and One Event at a Time (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Lewis, P. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Millham, R. A.; Richardson, A.


    With so many informal outreach and education venues across the world, leveraging them for climate education allows vast amounts of information to be translated to the public in a familiar setting through trusted local sources. One of the challenges is the development of an effective process for training informal educators and providing them with adequate support materials. The 'NASA Climate Day Kit', and its related training strategy for Earth Ambassadors, is designed to address some of these issues. The purpose of the NASA Climate Day project is to collect existing NASA climate education materials, assemble a cadre of informal educators, and provide professional development on the subject of climate change. This training is accomplished through a series of exercises, games, science talks and place-based training. After their training and immersion in climate-related content, participants develop and implement a climate event at their local informal education venue. Throughout their training the Earth Ambassadors are exposed to a wide array of climate related exercises and background content. Some of these include one-on-one science content talks with NASA scientists who study climate on a daily basis. This allows the Ambassador to have direct access to new cutting edge data and information. To complement the science talks, participants explore activities and games that can engage all ages at their climate event. During their training, they also explore the 'Climate Day Kit'. This Kit is an assemblage of climate-related materials created by various NASA groups. Key components of this Kit include data visualizations, articles, electronic reference material, science talks, NASA Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) climate materials, and examples of Climate Day events that have been conducted in the past. As an on-going resource and to use for their own climate event, each group of Earth Ambassadors has access to a dynamic website that hosts all of the science

  6. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference (United States)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)


    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  7. NASA Tech Briefs, March 2010 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Software Tool Integrating Data Flow Diagrams and Petri Nets; Adaptive Nulling for Interferometric Detection of Planets; Reducing the Volume of NASA Earth-Science Data; Reception of Multiple Telemetry Signals via One Dish Antenna; Space-Qualified Traveling-Wave Tube; Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems; Parallel Processing of Broad-Band PPM Signals; Inexpensive Implementation of Many Strain Gauges; Constant-Differential-Pressure Two-Fluid Accumulator; Inflatable Tubular Structures Rigidized with Foams; Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules; Mechanical Extraction of Power From Ocean Currents and Tides; Nitrous Oxide/Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Engines; Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Containing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents; Probabilistic Multi-Factor Interaction Model for Complex Material Behavior; Foldable Instrumented Bits for Ultrasonic/Sonic Penetrators; Compact Rare Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode; High-Precision Shape Control of In-Space Deployable Large Membrane/Thin-Shell Reflectors; Rapid Active Sampling Package; Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump; Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas; Water-Vapor Raman Lidar System Reaches Higher Altitude; Compact Ku-Band T/R Module for High-Resolution Radar Imaging of Cold Land Processes; Wide-Field-of-View, High-Resolution, Stereoscopic Imager; Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography with High-Contrast Dielectrics; Wavefront Control and Image Restoration with Less Computing; Polarization Imaging Apparatus; Stereoscopic Machine-Vision System Using Projected Circles; Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool; Performance Bounds on Two Concatenated, Interleaved Codes; Parameterizing Coefficients of a POD-Based Dynamical System; Confidence-Based Feature Acquisition; Algorithm for Lossless Compression of Calibrated Hyperspectral Imagery; Universal Decoder for PPM of any Order; Algorithm for Stabilizing a POD-Based Dynamical System; Mission Reliability Estimation for

  8. 48 CFR 1852.232-70 - NASA modification of FAR 52.232-12. (United States)


    ... following modifications: NASA Modification of FAR 52.232-12, (MAR 1998) (a) Basic Clause. (1) In paragraph... accepted accounting principles, subject to any applicable subparts of part 31 of the Federal Acquisition...

  9. 2008 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Editor); Hendricks, Robert C. (Editor); Delgado, Irebert R. (Editor)


    The 2008 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA s new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA s fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA s turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  10. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1 (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert


    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  11. NASA Space Sciences Symposium-1977 (United States)


    The primary objective of the symposium was to motivate American Indians and other minority youths and women to select science and engineering as viable career choices, thereby making them available to the technical work force. Other objectives were: (1) to determine how aerospace technology careers and aerospace activities can be made more relevant to minorities and women; (2) to provide an opportunity for key NASA officials to interact with teachers and counselors of the participating schools; (3) to stimulate a greater interest among American Indian organizations and students in NASA's research and development programs; (4) to help NASA's efforts in the recruiting of minorities and women into its work force; and (5) to provide opportunities for minority aerospace scientists and engineers to interact with the minority community, particularly with youths at the junior high school and high school levels.

  12. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya


    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  13. NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (United States)

    Coletta, Mark P.


    A viewgraph presentation on NASA's acquisition requirements for configuration management (CM) goes over CM requirements for single mission and multi-mission orientations, CM automation and CALS implementation initiatives, NASA implementation of DOD standards and DID's (data item descriptions), impact of traceability in NASA CM support, NASA's CM efforts in modifying/upgrading equipment, and CM control of multi-vendor hardware.

  14. Issues in NASA program and project management (United States)

    Hoban, Francis T. (Editor); Hoffman, Edward J. (Editor); Lawbaugh, William M. (Editor)


    This volume is the ninth in an ongoing series on aerospace project management at NASA. Articles in this volume cover evolution of NASA cost estimating; SAM 2; National Space Science Program: strategies to maximize science return; and human needs, motivation, and results of the NASA culture surveys. A section on resources for NASA managers rounds out the publication.

  15. NASA's Astronant Family Support Office (United States)

    Beven, Gary; Curtis, Kelly D.; Holland, Al W.; Sipes, Walter; VanderArk, Steve


    During the NASA-Mir program of the 1990s and due to the challenges inherent in the International Space Station training schedule and operations tempo, it was clear that a special focus on supporting families was a key to overall mission success for the ISS crewmembers pre-, in- and post-flight. To that end, in January 2001 the first Family Services Coordinator was hired by the Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA JSC and matrixed from Medical Operations into the Astronaut Office's organization. The initial roles and responsibilities were driven by critical needs, including facilitating family communication during training deployments, providing mission-specific and other relevant trainings for spouses, serving as liaison for families with NASA organizations such as Medical Operations, NASA management and the Astronaut Office, and providing assistance to ensure success of an Astronaut Spouses Group. The role of the Family Support Office (FSO) has modified as the ISS Program matured and the needs of families changed. The FSO is currently an integral part of the Astronaut Office's ISS Operations Branch. It still serves the critical function of providing information to families, as well as being the primary contact for US and international partner families with resources at JSC. Since crews launch and return on Russian vehicles, the FSO has the added responsibility for coordinating with Flight Crew Operations, the families, and their guests for Soyuz launches, landings, and Direct Return to Houston post-flight. This presentation will provide a summary of the family support services provided for astronauts, and how they have changed with the Program and families the FSO serves. Considerations for future FSO services will be discussed briefly as NASA proposes one year missions and beyond ISS missions. Learning Objective: 1) Obtain an understanding of the reasons a Family Support Office was important for NASA. 2) Become familiar with the services provided for

  16. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Effort (United States)

    Godfrey, Sally; Rarick, Heather


    Benchmarking was very interesting and provided a wealth of information (1) We did see potential solutions to some of our "top 10" issues (2) We have an assessment of where NASA stands with relation to other aerospace/defense groups We formed new contacts and potential collaborations (1) Several organizations sent us examples of their templates, processes (2) Many of the organizations were interested in future collaboration: sharing of training, metrics, Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) appraisers, instructors, etc. We received feedback from some of our contractors/ partners (1) Desires to participate in our training; provide feedback on procedures (2) Welcomed opportunity to provide feedback on working with NASA

  17. NASA USRP Internship Final Report (United States)

    Black, Jesse A.


    The purpose of this report is to describe the body of work I have produced as a NASA USRP intern in the spring 2010. My mentor during this time was Richard Birr and I assisted him with many tasks in the advanced systems group in the engineering design lab at NASA's Kennedy space center. The main priority was and scenario modeling for the FAA's next generation air traffic control system and also developing next generation range systems for implementation at Kennedy space center. Also of importance was the development of wiring diagrams for the portable communications terminal for the desert rats program.

  18. NASA, Engineering, and Swarming Robots (United States)

    Leucht, Kurt


    This presentation is an introduction to NASA, to science and engineering, to biologically inspired robotics, and to the Swarmie ant-inspired robot project at KSC. This presentation is geared towards elementary school students, middle school students, and also high school students. This presentation is suitable for use in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) outreach events. The first use of this presentation will be on Oct 28, 2015 at Madison Middle School in Titusville, Florida where the author has been asked by the NASA-KSC Speakers Bureau to speak to the students about the Swarmie robots.

  19. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 (United States)


    Topics include: ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence; A System for Measuring the Sway of the Vehicle Assembly Building; Fast, High-Precision Readout Circuit for Detector Arrays; Victim Simulator for Victim Detection Radar; Hydrometeor Size Distribution Measurements by Imaging the Attenuation of a Laser Spot; Quasi-Linear Circuit; High-Speed, High-Resolution Time-to-Digital Conversion; Li-Ion Battery and Supercapacitor Hybrid Design for Long Extravehicular Activities; Ultrasonic Low-Friction Containment Plate for Thermal and Ultrasonic Stir Weld Processes; High-Powered, Ultrasonically Assisted Thermal Stir Welding; Next-Generation MKIII Lightweight HUT/Hatch Assembly; Centrifugal Sieve for Gravity-Level-Independent Size; Segregation of Granular Materials; Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly; Nickel-Graphite Composite Compliant Interface and/or Hot Shoe Material; UltraSail CubeSat Solar Sail Flight Experiment; Mechanism for Deploying a Long, Thin-Film Antenna From a Rover; Counterflow Regolith Heat Exchanger; Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit; Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System; Medicine Delivery Device With Integrated Sterilization and Detection; FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D; Multimode Directional Coupler for Utilization of Harmonic Frequencies from TWTAs; Dual-Polarization, Multi-Frequency Antenna Array for use with Hurricane Imaging Radiometer; Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods; Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors; High-Power, High-Speed Electro-Optic Pockels Cell Modulator; Covariance Analysis Tool (G-CAT) for Computing Ascent, Descent, and Landing Errors; Enigma Version 12; Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program; Spitzer Telemetry Processing System; Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program; Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid

  20. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.


    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  1. NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation, and Research (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.


    A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing -1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

  2. Evaluation of Advanced Composite Structures Technologies for Application to NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (United States)

    Messinger, Ross


    An assessment was performed to identify the applicability of composite material technologies to major structural elements of the NASA Constellation program. A qualitative technology assessment methodology was developed to document the relative benefit of 24 structural systems with respect to 33 major structural elements of Ares I, Orion, Ares V, and Altair. Technology maturity assessments and development plans were obtained from more than 30 Boeing subject matter experts for more than 100 technologies. These assessment results and technology plans were combined to generate a four-level hierarchy of recommendations. An overarching strategy is suggested, followed by a Constellation-wide development plan, three integrated technology demonstrations, and three focused projects for a task order follow-on.

  3. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.


    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  4. NASA Collaborative Approach Mitigates Environmentally-Driven Obsolescence (United States)

    Greene, Brian; Leeney, Bob; Richards, Joni


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions, like Department of Defense (DoD) organizations, require the rigorous testing and qualification of critical materials. Obsolescence supply risks created by environmental requirements can affect the cost, schedule and performance of NASA missions and the resilience of critical infrastructure. The NASA Technology Evaluation for Environmental Risk Mitigation (TEERM) Principal Center helps to identify obsolescence supply risks driven by environmental requirements and works proactively with NASA Centers and Programs, the DoD, the European Space Agency (ESA) and other agencies and partners to identify and evaluate environmentally friendly alternatives. TEERM tracks environmental regulations, identifies the potential loss of material availability and works with NASA programs and Centers to evaluate potential impacts through a risk assessment approach. TEERM collaborative projects identify, demonstrate and evaluate commercially viable alternative technologies and materials. A major focus during the Space Shuttle Program was the need to replace ozone depleting substances that were used in spray foam and cleaning applications. The potential obsolescence of coatings containing hexavalent chromium and the risks associated with lead free solder were also of concern for the Space Shuttle and present ongoing risks to new programs such as the Space Launch System. One current project teams NASA and ESA in the evaluation and testing of individual coatings and coating systems as replacements for hexavalent chromium coatings in aerospace applications. The proactive, collaborative approach used by TEERM helps reduce the cost burden on any one team partner, reduces duplication of effort, and enhances the technical quality and overall applicability of the testing and analysis.

  5. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  6. NASA Software Engineering Benchmarking Study (United States)

    Rarick, Heather L.; Godfrey, Sara H.; Kelly, John C.; Crumbley, Robert T.; Wifl, Joel M.


    To identify best practices for the improvement of software engineering on projects, NASA's Offices of Chief Engineer (OCE) and Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) formed a team led by Heather Rarick and Sally Godfrey to conduct this benchmarking study. The primary goals of the study are to identify best practices that: Improve the management and technical development of software intensive systems; Have a track record of successful deployment by aerospace industries, universities [including research and development (R&D) laboratories], and defense services, as well as NASA's own component Centers; and Identify candidate solutions for NASA's software issues. Beginning in the late fall of 2010, focus topics were chosen and interview questions were developed, based on the NASA top software challenges. Between February 2011 and November 2011, the Benchmark Team interviewed a total of 18 organizations, consisting of five NASA Centers, five industry organizations, four defense services organizations, and four university or university R and D laboratory organizations. A software assurance representative also participated in each of the interviews to focus on assurance and software safety best practices. Interviewees provided a wealth of information on each topic area that included: software policy, software acquisition, software assurance, testing, training, maintaining rigor in small projects, metrics, and use of the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) framework, as well as a number of special topics that came up in the discussions. NASA's software engineering practices compared favorably with the external organizations in most benchmark areas, but in every topic, there were ways in which NASA could improve its practices. Compared to defense services organizations and some of the industry organizations, one of NASA's notable weaknesses involved communication with contractors regarding its policies and requirements for acquired software. One of NASA's strengths

  7. NASA Science Served Family Style (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Mitchell, S.; Drobnes, E.


    Family oriented innovative programs extend the reach of many traditional out-of-school venues to involve the entire family in learning in comfortable and fun environments. Research shows that parental involvement is key to increasing student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Because families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices, we have developed a Family Science program that provides families a venue where they can explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science. NASA Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond. After three years of pilot implementation and assessment, our evaluation data shows that Family Science Night participants have positive change in their attitudes and involvement in science.  Even after a single session, families are more likely to engage in external science-related activities and are increasingly excited about science in their everyday lives.  As we enter our dissemination phase, NASA Family Science Night will be compiling and releasing initial evaluation results, and providing facilitator training and online support resources. Support for NASA Family Science Nights is provided in part through NASA ROSES grant NNH06ZDA001N.

  8. NASA Publications Guide for Authors (United States)


    This document presents guidelines for use by NASA authors in preparation and publication of their scientific and technical information (STI). Section 2 gives an overview. Section 2 describes types of publication. Section 3 discusses technical, data/information, and dissemination reviews. Section 4 provides recommended standards and gives the elements of a typical report. Section 5 presents miscellaneous preparation recommendations.

  9. The NASA Fireball Network Database (United States)

    Moser, Danielle E.


    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

  10. 1997 NASA Academy in Aeronautics (United States)

    Andrisani, Dominick, II


    The NASA Academy in Aeronautics at the Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) was a ten-week summer leadership training program conducted for the first time in the summer of 1997. Funding was provided by a contract between DFRC and Purdue University. Mr. Lee Duke of DFRC was the contract monitor, and Professor Dominick Andrisani was the principal investigator. Five student research associates participated in the program. Biographies of the research associates are given in Appendix 1. Dominick Andrisani served as Dean of the NASA Academy in Aeronautics. NASA Academy in Aeronautics is a unique summer institute of higher learning that endeavors to provide insight into all of the elements that make NASA aeronautical research possible. At the same time the Academy assigns the research associate to be mentored by one of NASA!s best researchers so that they can contribute towards an active flight research program. Aeronautical research and development are an investment in the future, and NASA Academy is an investment in aeronautical leaders of the future. The Academy was run by the Indiana Space Grant Consortium at Purdue in strategic partnership with the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program. Research associates at the Academy were selected with help from the Space Grant Consortium that sponsored the research associate. Research associate stipend and travel to DFRC were paid by the students' Space Grant Consortium. All other student expenses were paid by the Academy. Since the Academy at DFRC had only five students the opportunity for individual growth and attention was unique in the country. About 30% of the working time and most of the social time of the students were be spent as a "group" or "team." This time was devoted to exchange of ideas, on forays into the highest levels of decision making, and in executing aeronautical research. This was done by interviewing leaders throughout the aerospace industry, seminars, working dinners, and informal

  11. The NASA Carbon Monitoring System (United States)

    Hurtt, G. C.


    Greenhouse gas emission inventories, forest carbon sequestration programs (e.g., Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD and REDD+), cap-and-trade systems, self-reporting programs, and their associated monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) frameworks depend upon data that are accurate, systematic, practical, and transparent. A sustained, observationally-driven carbon monitoring system using remote sensing data has the potential to significantly improve the relevant carbon cycle information base for the U.S. and world. Initiated in 2010, NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) project is prototyping and conducting pilot studies to evaluate technological approaches and methodologies to meet carbon monitoring and reporting requirements for multiple users and over multiple scales of interest. NASA's approach emphasizes exploitation of the satellite remote sensing resources, computational capabilities, scientific knowledge, airborne science capabilities, and end-to-end system expertise that are major strengths of the NASA Earth Science program. Through user engagement activities, the NASA CMS project is taking specific actions to be responsive to the needs of stakeholders working to improve carbon MRV frameworks. The first phase of NASA CMS projects focused on developing products for U.S. biomass/carbon stocks and global carbon fluxes, and on scoping studies to identify stakeholders and explore other potential carbon products. The second phase built upon these initial efforts, with a large expansion in prototyping activities across a diversity of systems, scales, and regions, including research focused on prototype MRV systems and utilization of COTS technologies. Priorities for the future include: 1) utilizing future satellite sensors, 2) prototyping with commercial off-the-shelf technology, 3) expanding the range of prototyping activities, 4) rigorous evaluation, uncertainty quantification, and error characterization, 5) stakeholder

  12. The NASA CSTI high capacity power project (United States)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.


    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  13. NASA Langley/CNU Distance Learning Programs (United States)

    Caton, Randall; Pinelli, Thomas E.


    NASA Langley Research Center and Christopher Newport University (CNU) provide, free to the public, distance learning programs that focus on math, science, and/or technology over a spectrum of education levels from K-adult. The effort started in 1997, and we currently have a suite of five distance-learning programs. We have around 450,000 registered educators and 12.5 million registered students in 60 countries. Partners and affiliates include the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the Aerospace Education Coordinating Committee (AECC), the Alliance for Community Media, the National Educational Telecommunications Association, Public Broadcasting System (PBS) affiliates, the NASA Learning Technologies Channel, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), the Council of the Great City Schools, Hampton City Public Schools, Sea World Adventure Parks, Busch Gardens,, and Riverdeep. Our mission is based on the "Horizon of Learning," a vision for inspiring learning across a continuum of educational experiences. The programs form a continuum of educational experiences for elementary youth through adult learners. The strategic plan for the programs will evolve to reflect evolving national educational needs, changes within NASA, and emerging system initiatives. Plans for each program component include goals, objectives, learning outcomes, and rely on sound business models. It is well documented that if technology is used properly it can be a powerful partner in education. Our programs employ both advances in information technology and in effective pedagogy to produce a broad range of materials to complement and enhance other educational efforts. Collectively, the goals of the five programs are to increase educational excellence; enhance and enrich the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology; increase scientific and technological literacy; and communicate the results of NASA discovery, exploration, innovation and research

  14. Replacement of Ablators with Phase-Change Material for Thermal Protection of STS Elements (United States)

    Kaul, Raj K.; Stuckey, Irvin; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)


    As part of the research and development program to develop new Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for aerospace applications at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an experimental study was conducted on a new concept for a non-ablative TPS material. Potential loss of TPS material and ablation by-products from the External Tank (ET) or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) during Shuttle flight with the related Orbiter tile damage necessitates development of a non-ablative thermal protection system. The new Thermal Management Coating (TMC) consists of phase-change material encapsulated in micro spheres and a two-part resin system to adhere the coating to the structure material. The TMC uses a phase-change material to dissipate the heat produced during supersonic flight rather than an ablative material. This new material absorbs energy as it goes through a phase change during the heating portion of the flight profile and then the energy is slowly released as the phase-change material cools and returns to its solid state inside the micro spheres. The coating was subjected to different test conditions simulating design flight environments at the NASA/MSFC Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF) to study its performance.

  15. High Performance Computing at NASA (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)


    The speaker will give an overview of high performance computing in the U.S. in general and within NASA in particular, including a description of the recently signed NASA-IBM cooperative agreement. The latest performance figures of various parallel systems on the NAS Parallel Benchmarks will be presented. The speaker was one of the authors of the NAS (National Aerospace Standards) Parallel Benchmarks, which are now widely cited in the industry as a measure of sustained performance on realistic high-end scientific applications. It will be shown that significant progress has been made by the highly parallel supercomputer industry during the past year or so, with several new systems, based on high-performance RISC processors, that now deliver superior performance per dollar compared to conventional supercomputers. Various pitfalls in reporting performance will be discussed. The speaker will then conclude by assessing the general state of the high performance computing field.

  16. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems - Plans (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Mccallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.


    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan and implement content to enable planetary exploration where such systems could be needed, and to prepare more advanced RPS technology for possible infusion into future power systems. The 2014-2015 period saw significant changes, and strong progress. Achievements of near-term objectives have enabled definition of a clear path forward in which payoffs from research investments and other sustaining efforts can be applied. The future implementation path is expected to yield a higher-performing thermoelectric generator design, a more isotope-fuel efficient system concept design, and a robust RPS infrastructure maintained effectively within both NASA and the Department of Energy. This paper describes recent work with an eye towards the future plans that result from these achievements.

  17. NASA Wingtip Code Validation Grid (United States)

    Zilliac, Greg; Mariani, Jennifer Dacles


    I have been contacted by Alan Celic to request the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grid file for the NASA Wingtip CFD validation case. Alan is currently a Ph.D. student at the University of Stuttgard in Germany and spent a year here at Ames Research Center (ARC) as an Ames Associate. This case is a standard validation case studied by many within the U.S. The case is of the flow around a rectangular wing with a rounded wing tip. The airfoil is a NACA 0012. There is nothing special or unusual about the geometry or the grid file. The grid file is a single-zone grid with 2.5 million points. This geometry is generic and is not similar to any currently flying vehicle. All of the results published by NASA, as part of this study, (completed in 1995) are currently in the public domain.

  18. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan


    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  19. A Bioinformatics Facility for NASA (United States)

    Schweighofer, Karl; Pohorille, Andrew


    Building on an existing prototype, we have fielded a facility with bioinformatics technologies that will help NASA meet its unique requirements for biological research. This facility consists of a cluster of computers capable of performing computationally intensive tasks, software tools, databases and knowledge management systems. Novel computational technologies for analyzing and integrating new biological data and already existing knowledge have been developed. With continued development and support, the facility will fulfill strategic NASA s bioinformatics needs in astrobiology and space exploration. . As a demonstration of these capabilities, we will present a detailed analysis of how spaceflight factors impact gene expression in the liver and kidney for mice flown aboard shuttle flight STS-108. We have found that many genes involved in signal transduction, cell cycle, and development respond to changes in microgravity, but that most metabolic pathways appear unchanged.

  20. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA's Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program has evolved over the last two decades, and currently has several core and community components. Core components provide the basic operational capabilities to process, archive, manage and distribute data from NASA missions. Community components provide a path for peer-reviewed research in Earth Science Informatics to feed into the evolution of the core components. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core component consisting of twelve Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) and eight Science Investigator-led Processing Systems spread across the U.S. The presentation covers how the ESDS Program continues to evolve and benefits from as well as contributes to advances in Earth Science Informatics.

  1. The NASA Bed Rest Project (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice


    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  2. NASA research objectives and roles (United States)

    Gessow, A.


    A chronology of airfoil development is presented in order to put the present NASA airfoil program in perspective. The impact of the NACA series airfoils is considered. Development of advanced analytical and experimental methods for the design and for the determination of the characteristics of not only single element airfoils, but of multielement airfoil combinations used in aerodynamic controls and high lift systems is emphasized along with applications.

  3. The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (United States)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Blackwood, Gary H.; Gagosian, John S.


    The NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) is chartered to implement the NASA space science goals of detecting and characterizing exoplanets and to search for signs of life. The ExEP manages space missions, future studies, technology investments, and ground-based science that either enables future missions or completes mission science. The exoplanet science community is engaged by the Program through Science Definition Teams and through the Exoplanet Program Analysis Group (ExoPAG). The ExEP includes the space science missions of Kepler, K2 , and the proposed WFIRST-AFTA that includes dark energy science, a widefield infrared survey, a microlensing survey for outer-exoplanet demographics, and a coronagraph for direct imaging of cool outer gas- and ice-giants around nearby stars. Studies of probe-scale (medium class) missions for a coronagraph (internal occulter) and starshade (external occulter) explore the trades of cost and science and provide motivation for a technology investment program to enable consideration of missions at the next decadal survey for NASA Astrophysics. Program elements include follow-up observations using the Keck Observatory, which contribute to the science yield of Kepler and K2, and include mid-infrared observations of exo-zodiacal dust by the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer which provide parameters critical to the design and predicted science yield of the next generation of direct imaging missions. ExEP includes the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute which provides archives, tools, and professional education for the exoplanet community. Each of these program elements contribute to the goal of detecting and characterizing earth-like planets orbiting other stars, and seeks to respond to rapid evolution in this discovery-driven field and to ongoing programmatic challenges through engagement of the scientific and technical communities.

  4. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. Management: A bibliography for NASA managers (supplement 21) (United States)


    This bibliography lists 664 reports, articles and other documents introduced into the NASA scientific and technical information system in 1986. Items are selected and grouped according to their usefulness to the manager as manager. Citations are grouped into ten subject categories: human factors and personnel issues; management theory and techniques; industrial management and manufacturing; robotics and expert systems; computers and information management; research and development; economics, costs, and markets; logistics and operations management; reliability and quality control; and legality, legislation, and policy.

  6. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan


    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  7. 14 CFR 1213.108 - Multimedia materials. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multimedia materials. 1213.108 Section 1213... AND INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.108 Multimedia materials. (a) NASA's multimedia material, from all... original or duplicate files of news-oriented imagery and other digital multimedia material generated within...

  8. Technology transfer at NASA - A librarian's view (United States)

    Buchan, Ronald L.


    The NASA programs, publications, and services promoting the transfer and utilization of aerospace technology developed by and for NASA are briefly surveyed. Topics addressed include the corporate sources of NASA technical information and its interest for corporate users of information services; the IAA and STAR abstract journals; NASA/RECON, NTIS, and the AIAA Aerospace Database; the RECON Space Commercialization file; the Computer Software Management and Information Center file; company information in the RECON database; and services to small businesses. Also discussed are the NASA publications Tech Briefs and Spinoff, the Industrial Applications Centers, NASA continuing bibliographies on management and patent abstracts (indexed using the NASA Thesaurus), the Index to NASA News Releases and Speeches, and the Aerospace Research Information Network (ARIN).

  9. NASA Ames Research Center: An Overview (United States)

    Tu, Eugene; Yan, Jerry Chi Yiu


    This overview of NASA Ames Research Center is intended to give the target audience of university students a general understanding of the mission, core competencies, and research goals of NASA and Ames.

  10. Performance Testing of Lidar Components Subjected to Space Exposure in Space via MISSE 7 Mission (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.


    .The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. MISSE missions provide an opportunity for developing space qualifiable materials. Several laser and lidar components were sent by NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) as a part of the MISSE 7 mission. The MISSE 7 module was transported to the international space station (ISS) via STS 129 mission that was launched on Nov 16, 2009. Later, the MISSE 7 module was brought back to the earth via the STS 134 that landed on June 1, 2011. The MISSE 7 module that was subjected to exposure in space environment for more than one and a half year included fiber laser, solid-state laser gain materials, detectors, and semiconductor laser diode. Performance testing of these components is now progressing. In this paper, the current progress on post-flight performance testing of a high-speed photodetector and a balanced receiver is discussed. Preliminary findings show that detector characteristics did not undergo any significant degradation.

  11. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems (United States)

    Sinclair, J. H.


    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  12. Composite fuselage shell structures research at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Shuart, Mark J.


    Fuselage structures for transport aircraft represent a significant percentage of both the weight and the cost of these aircraft primary structures. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing both the weight and the cost of transport fuselage structures, but only limited studies of the response and failure of composite fuselage structures have been conducted for transport aircraft. The behavior of these important primary structures must be understood, and the structural mechanics methodology for analyzing and designing these complex stiffened shell structures must be validated in the laboratory. The effects of local gradients and discontinuities on fuselage shell behavior and the effects of local damage on pressure containment must be thoroughly understood before composite fuselage structures can be used for commercial aircraft. This paper describes the research being conducted and planned at NASA LaRC to help understand the critical behavior or composite fuselage structures and to validate the structural mechanics methodology being developed for stiffened composite fuselage shell structure subjected to combined internal pressure and mechanical loads. Stiffened shell and curved stiffened panel designs are currently being developed and analyzed, and these designs will be fabricated and then tested at Langley to study critical fuselage shell behavior and to validate structural analysis and design methodology. The research includes studies of the effects of combined internal pressure and mechanical loads on nonlinear stiffened panel and shell behavior, the effects of cutouts and other gradient-producing discontinuities on composite shell response, and the effects of local damage on pressure containment and residual strength. Scaling laws are being developed that relate full-scale and subscale behavior of composite fuselage shells. Failure mechanisms are being identified and advanced designs will be developed based on what is learned from early results from

  13. NASA Ames Environmental Sustainability Report 2011 (United States)

    Clarke, Ann H.


    The 2011 Ames Environmental Sustainability Report is the second in a series of reports describing the steps NASA Ames Research Center has taken toward assuring environmental sustainability in NASA Ames programs, projects, and activities. The Report highlights Center contributions toward meeting the Agency-wide goals under the 2011 NASA Strategic Sustainability Performance Program.

  14. NASA Education Implementation Plan 2015-2017 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2015


    The NASA Education Implementation Plan (NEIP) provides an understanding of the role of NASA in advancing the nation's STEM education and workforce pipeline. The document outlines the roles and responsibilities that NASA Education has in approaching and achieving the agency's and administration's strategic goals in STEM Education. The specific…

  15. 75 FR 5629 - NASA Advisory Council; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... NASA Advisory Council. DATES: Thursday, February 18, 2010, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. EST; Friday, February 19, 2010, 9 a.m.-1 p.m., EST. ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20456, James E...

  16. 76 FR 4133 - NASA Advisory Council; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... NASA Advisory Council. DATES: Thursday, February 10, 2011, 8 a.m.-5 p.m., Local Time. Friday, February 11, 2011, 8 a.m.-12 p.m., Local Time. ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters, 300 E Street, SW., Room 9H40...

  17. 48 CFR 1842.271 - NASA clause. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clause. 1842.271 Section 1842.271 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... NASA clause. Insert the clause at 1852.242-70, Technical Direction, when paragraph 3(m) of the NASA...

  18. Nanocomposite Thermolectric Materials by High Pressure Powder Consolidation Manufacturing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to NASA's need to develop advanced nanostructured thermolectric materials, UTRON is proposing an innovative high pressure powder consolidation...

  19. Carbon Dioxide Physiological Training at NASA. (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Young, Millennia; Alexander, David; Mason, Sara S; Wear, Mary L; Méndez, Claudia M; Stanley, David; Ryder, Valerie Meyers; Van Baalen, Mary


    Astronauts undergo CO2 exposure training to recognize their symptoms that can arise acutely both on the ground and in spaceflight. This article describes acute CO2 exposure training at NASA and examines the symptoms reported by astronauts during training. In a controlled training environment, astronauts are exposed to up to 8% CO2 (60 mmHg) by a rebreathing apparatus. Symptoms are reported using a standard form. Symptom documentation forms between April 1994 and February 2012 were obtained for 130 astronauts. The number of symptoms reported per session out of the possible 24 was related to age and sex, with those older slightly more likely to report symptoms. Women reported more symptoms on average than men (men: 3.7, women: 4.7). Respiratory symptoms (90%), flushing sensation/sweating (56%), and dizziness/feeling faint/lightheadedness (43%) were the top symptoms. Only headache reached statistical significance in differences between men (13%) and women (37%) after adjustment for multiple testing. Among those with multiple training sessions, respiratory symptoms were the most consistently reported. CO2 exposure training is an important tool to educate astronauts about their potential acute CO2 symptoms. Wide interindividual and temporal variations were observed in symptoms reported during astronaut CO2 exposure training. Headache could not be relied on as a marker of acute exposure during testing since fewer than half the subjects reported it. Our results support periodic refresher training since symptoms may change over time. Further study is needed to determine the optimal interval of training to maximize symptom recognition and inform operational decisions.Law J, Young M, Alexander D, Mason SS, Wear ML, Méndez CM, Stanley D, Meyers Ryder V, Van Baalen M. Carbon dioxide physiological training at NASA. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):897-902.

  20. Structural materials for space applications (United States)

    Tenney, Darrel R.


    The long-term performance of structural materials in the space environment is a key research activity within NASA. The primary concerns for materials in low Earth orbit (LEO) are atomic oxygen erosion and space debris impact. Atomic oxygen studies have included both laboratory exposures in atomic oxygen facilities and flight exposures using the Shuttle. Characterization of atomic oxygen interaction with materials has included surface recession rates, residual mechanical properties, optical property measurements, and surface analyses to establish chemical changes. The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is scheduled to be retrieved in 1989 and is expected to provide a wealth of data on atomic oxygen erosion in space. Hypervelocity impact studies have been conducted to establish damage mechanisms and changes in mechanical properties. Samples from LDEF will be analyzed to determine the severity of space debris impact on coatings, films, and composites. Spacecraft placed in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) will be subjected to high doses of ionizing radiation which for long term exposures will exceed the damage threshold of many polymeric materials. Radiation interaction with polymers can result in chain scission and/or cross-linking. The formation of low molecular weight products in the epoxy plasticize the matrix at elevated temperatures and embrittle the matrix at low temperatures. This affects both the matrix-dominated mechanical properties and the dimensional stability of the composite. Embrittlement of the matrix at low temperatures results in enhanced matrix microcracking during thermal cycling. Matrix microcracking changes the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composite laminates and produces permanent length changes. Residual stress calculations were performed to estimate the conditions necessary for microcrack development in unirradiated and irradiated composites. The effects of UV and electron exposure on the optical properties of transparent

  1. Modeling Non-Linear Material Properties in Composite Materials (United States)


    Technical Report ARWSB-TR-16013 MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS Michael F. Macri Andrew G...REPORT TYPE Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MODELING NON-LINEAR MATERIAL PROPERTIES IN COMPOSITE MATERIALS are increasingly incorporating composite materials into their design. Many of these systems subject the composites to environmental conditions

  2. NASA's Chandra Finds Youngest Nearby Black Hole (United States)


    Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have found evidence of the youngest black hole known to exist in our cosmic neighborhood. The 30-year-old black hole provides a unique opportunity to watch this type of object develop from infancy. The black hole could help scientists better understand how massive stars explode, which ones leave behind black holes or neutron stars, and the number of black holes in our galaxy and others. The 30-year-old object is a remnant of SN 1979C, a supernova in the galaxy M100 approximately 50 million light-years from Earth. Data from Chandra, NASA's Swift satellite, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and the German ROSAT observatory revealed a bright source of X-rays that has remained steady during observation from 1995 to 2007. This suggests the object is a black hole being fed either by material falling into it from the supernova or a binary companion. "If our interpretation is correct, this is the nearest example where the birth of a black hole has been observed," said Daniel Patnaude of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. The scientists think SN 1979C, first discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1979, formed when a star about 20 times more massive than the Sun collapsed. Many new black holes in the distant universe previously have been detected in the form of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, SN 1979C is different because it is much closer and belongs to a class of supernovas unlikely to be associated with a GRB. Theory predicts most black holes in the universe should form when the core of a star collapses and a GRB is not produced. "This may be the first time the common way of making a black hole has been observed," said co-author Abraham Loeb, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "However, it is very difficult to detect this type of black hole birth because decades of X-ray observations are needed to make the case." The idea of a black hole with

  3. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal... imposed on NASA by law. The renewed Charter is for a one-year period ending September 30, 2012. It is...

  4. NASA TEERM Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Projects (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt R.; Rothgeb, Matthew


    The overall objective of the Hex Chrome Free Coatings for Electronics project is to evaluate and test pretreatment coating systems not containing hexavalent chrome in avionics and electronics housing applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing strong performing coating systems from prior NASA and DoD testing or new coating systems as determined by the stakeholders. The technical stakeholders have agreed that this protocol will focus specifically on Class 3 coatings. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), depots, and support contractors have to be prepared to deal with an electronics supply chain that increasingly provides parts with lead-free finishes, some labeled no differently and intermingled with their SnPb counterparts. Allowance of lead-free components presents one of the greatest risks to the reliability of military and aerospace electronics. The introduction of components with lead-free terminations, termination finishes, or circuit boards presents a host of concerns to customers, suppliers, and maintainers of aerospace and military electronic systems such as: 1. Electrical shorting due to tin whiskers 2. Incompatibility of lead-free processes and parameters (including higher melting points of lead-free alloys) with other materials in the system 3. Unknown material properties and incompatibilities that could reduce solder joint reliability

  5. Risk Management of NASA Projects (United States)

    Sarper, Hueseyin


    Various NASA Langley Research Center and other center projects were attempted for analysis to obtain historical data comparing pre-phase A study and the final outcome for each project. This attempt, however, was abandoned once it became clear that very little documentation was available. Next, extensive literature search was conducted on the role of risk and reliability concepts in project management. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques are being used with increasing regularity both in and outside of NASA. The value and the usage of PRA techniques were reviewed for large projects. It was found that both civilian and military branches of the space industry have traditionally refrained from using PRA, which was developed and expanded by nuclear industry. Although much has changed with the end of the cold war and the Challenger disaster, it was found that ingrained anti-PRA culture is hard to stop. Examples of skepticism against the use of risk management and assessment techniques were found both in the literature and in conversations with some technical staff. Program and project managers need to be convinced that the applicability and use of risk management and risk assessment techniques is much broader than just in the traditional safety-related areas of application. The time has come to begin to uniformly apply these techniques. The whole idea of risk-based system can maximize the 'return on investment' that the public demands. Also, it would be very useful if all project documents of NASA Langley Research Center, pre-phase A through final report, are carefully stored in a central repository preferably in electronic format.

  6. NASA's Support to Flood Response (United States)

    Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Stough, T.


    The extent of flood and inundation, the impacts on people and infrastructure, and generally the situational awareness on all scales for decision making are areas where NASA is mobilizing scientific results, advanced sensing and technologies, experts and partnerships to support response. NASA has targeted mature application science and ready technology for flood and inundation monitoring and assessment. This includes supporting timely data management and product dissemination with users and partners. Requirements are captured in the form of science-area questions, while solutions measure readiness for use by considering standard tools and approaches that make information more accessible, interoperable, understandable and reliable. The program collaborates with capacity building and areas of education and outreach needed to create and leverage non-traditional partnerships in transdisciplinary areas including socio-economic practice, preparedness and resilience assessment, early warning and forecast response, and emergency management, relief and recovery. The program outcomes also seek alignment with and support to global and community priorities related to water resources and food security. This presentation will examine the achievements of individual projects and the challenges and opportunities of more comprehensive and collaborative teams behind NASA's response to global flooding. Examples from recent event mobilization will be reviewed including to the serious of domestic floods across the south and Midwest United States throughout 2015 and 2016. Progress on the combined use of optical, microwave and SAR remote sensing measurements, topographic and geodetic data and mapping, data sharing practices will be reviewed. Other response case studies will examine global flood events monitored, characterized and supported in various boundary regions and nations. Achievements and future plans will be described for capabilities including global flood modeling, near real

  7. NASA Mars Science Laboratory Rover (United States)

    Olson, Tim


    Since August 2012, the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity has been operating on the Martian surface. The primary goal of the MSL mission is to assess whether Mars ever had an environment suitable for life. MSL Science Team member Dr. Tim Olson will provide an overview of the rover's capabilities and the major findings from the mission so far. He will also share some of his experiences of what it is like to operate Curiosity's science cameras and explore Mars as part of a large team of scientists and engineers.

  8. The NASA Quiet Engine Programme. (United States)

    Kramer, J. J.


    Discussion of the experimental Quiet Engine developed under the NASA program to reduce jet aircraft noise levels. The current status of the program is given as follows: Aerodynamic evaluation of the three fans is complete and their acoustic evaluation is partially complete. Tests of fan casing boundary-layer section and of serrated leading edges on the half-scale B fan are complete and are underway on the half-scale C fan. Tests of the first engine with the A fan began in August 1971.

  9. The NASA Fireball Network All-Sky Cameras (United States)

    Suggs, Rob M.


    The construction of small, inexpensive all-sky cameras designed specifically for the NASA Fireball Network is described. The use of off-the-shelf electronics, optics, and plumbing materials results in a robust and easy to duplicate design. Engineering challenges such as weather-proofing and thermal control and their mitigation are described. Field-of-view and gain adjustments to assure uniformity across the network will also be detailed.

  10. Spacesuit Materials Add Comfort to Undergarments (United States)


    Phase change materials (PCMs) were one of the technologies NASA used to help astronauts maintain a "just right" temperature in their space gloves. To incorporate PCMs in spacesuit fabrics, Johnson Space Center collaborated with Outlast Technologies Inc. In 2011, Jockey International, headquartered in Kenosha, Wisconsin, released a line of men's and women's undergarments incorporating the NASA technology

  11. NASA's AVE/VAS program (United States)

    Hill, C. K.; Turner, R. E.


    A discussion is presented concerning the Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE) which was conducted during the spring of 1982 as part of NASA's Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) demonstration. The AVE/VAS Ground Truth Field Experiment is examined in detail, which comprised the obtaining of rawinsonde observations during various meteorological conditions on four different days when VAS data were obtained. These experiments were performed over 24 hr periods in a mesoscale network of 24 National Weather Service rawinsonde sites and 13 NASA and NOAA special sites. The VAS, operating as a part of the GOES satellite system, was employed to provide two-dimensional cloud mapping capability during each of the AVE/VAS experiment periods. Among the goals of this AVE/VAS program, in addition to management of the acquisition and processing of the data, were to perform the research and development needed to produce data products from VAS radiances, to validate the data, and to assess the impact of the data on mesoscale meteorological forecasting and research requirements.

  12. The NASA Beyond Einstein Program (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.


    Einstein's legacy is incomplete, his theory of General relativity raises -- but cannot answer --three profound questions: What powered the big bang? What happens to space, time, and matter at the edge of a black hole? and What is the mysterious dark energy pulling the Universe apart? The Beyond Einstein program within NASA's Office of Space Science aims to answer these questions, employing a series of missions linked by powerful new technologies and complementary approaches towards shared science goals. The Beyond Einstein program has three linked elements which advance science and technology towards two visions; to detect directly gravitational wave signals from the earliest possible moments of the BIg Bang, and to image the event horizon of a black hole. The central element is a pair of Einstein Great Observatories, Constellation-X and LISA. Constellation-X is a powerful new X-ray observatory dedicated to X-Ray Spectroscopy. LISA is the first spaced based gravitational wave detector. These powerful facilities will blaze new paths to the questions about black holes, the Big Bang and dark energy. The second element is a series of competitively selected Einstein Probes, each focused on one of the science questions and includes a mission dedicated resolving the Dark Energy mystery. The third element is a program of technology development, theoretical studies and education. The Beyond Einstein program is a new element in the proposed NASA budget for 2004. This talk will give an overview of the program and the missions contained within it.

  13. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine


    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  14. NSCAT funding left to NASA (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The Eos news article “Conference OKs Science Budgets” (August 23, 1988, p. 801) stated that a House-Senate conference had agreed to fund the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's scatterometer at the requested and Senate-approved Fiscal Year 1989 level of $15.7 million rather than the House-approved level of $5.7 million. However, while the conference report did propose up to $10 million more than the House recommendation, it also said that the money would only be available if “the administrator elects to exercise the option of transferring u p to $30 million of funding from the construction of facilities account” to the research and development account, which includes NSCAT.According to NASA's William F. Townsend, NSCAT Program Manager, because of other stipulations in the conference report the ultimate source of the proposed funds for NSCAT would not be the construction of facilities account, but would be the research and program management account, which pays NASA employee salaries, not the construction of facilities account. Such a shift of funds is highly unlikely, he said, and the scatterometer will probably receive only $5.7 million for FY 1989, 64% less than the budget request.

  15. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov


    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  16. 48 CFR 1827.302 - Policy. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (g), and (i)). (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Policy. (NASA supplements... Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS... monetary award, when referred to the NASA Inventions and Contributions Board, any subject invention...

  17. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  18. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.


    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  19. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  20. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  1. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)


    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  2. NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office at NASA HQ (United States)

    Daou, D.; Johnson, L.; Fast, K. E.; Landis, R.; Friedensen, V. P.; Kelley, M.


    NASA and its partners maintain a watch for near-Earth objects (NEOs), asteroids and comets that pass close to the Earth, as part of an ongoing effort to discover, catalog, and characterize these bodies. The PDCO is responsible for: • Ensuring the early detection of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) - asteroids and comets whose orbit are predicted to bring them within 0.05 Astronomical Units of Earth; and of a size large enough to reach Earth's surface - that is, greater than perhaps 30 to 50 meters; • Tracking and characterizing PHOs and issuing warnings about potential impacts; • Providing timely and accurate communications about PHOs; and • Performing as a lead coordination node in U.S. Government planning for response to an actual impact threat. The PDCO collaborates with other U.S. Government agencies, other national and international agencies, and professional and amateur astronomers around the world. The PDCO also is responsible for facilitating communications between the science community and the public should any potentially hazardous NEO be discovered. In addition, the PDCO works closely with the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs, its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and its Action Team on Near Earth Objects (also known as Action Team 14). The PDCO is a leading member of the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) and the Space Missions Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG), multinational endeavors recommended by the United Nations for an international response to the NEO impact hazard and established and operated by the spacecapable nations. The PDCO also communicates with the scientific community through channels such as NASA's Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG). In this talk, we will provide an update to the office's various efforts and new opportunities for partnerships in the continuous international effort for Planetary Defense.

  3. NASA Research and Technology Objectives and Plans (RTOP) Handbook (United States)


    The NASA Research and Technology Objectives and Plans (RTOP) Handbook sets forth administrative direction and procedures for implementing the NASA RTOP management concept and the RTOP coordination process within NASA Headquarters. It is applicable to NASA Headquarters and field installations.

  4. 78 FR 10213 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... (NASA) announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This.... Rathjen, Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate, NASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546...

  5. Subjective Straight Ahead Orientation in Microgravity (United States)

    Clement, G.; Reschke, M. F.; Wood, S. J.


    This joint ESA NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This study addresses the sensorimotor research gap to "determine the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission and during recovery after landing."

  6. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran


    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  7. Advanced energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Ashutosh


    An essential resource for scientists designing new energy materials for the vast landscape of solar energy conversion as well as materials processing and characterization Based on the new and fundamental research on novel energy materials with tailor-made photonic properties, the role of materials engineering has been to provide much needed support in the development of photovoltaic devices. Advanced Energy Materials offers a unique, state-of-the-art look at the new world of novel energy materials science, shedding light on the subject's vast multi-disciplinary approach The book focuses p


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh


    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  9. Design for reliability: NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R.


    This tutorial summarizes reliability experience from both NASA and industry and reflects engineering practices that support current and future civil space programs. These practices were collected from various NASA field centers and were reviewed by a committee of senior technical representatives from the participating centers (members are listed at the end). The material for this tutorial was taken from the publication issued by the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee (NASA Reliability Preferred Practices for Design and Test. NASA TM-4322, 1991). Reliability must be an integral part of the systems engineering process. Although both disciplines must be weighed equally with other technical and programmatic demands, the application of sound reliability principles will be the key to the effectiveness and affordability of America's space program. Our space programs have shown that reliability efforts must focus on the design characteristics that affect the frequency of failure. Herein, we emphasize that these identified design characteristics must be controlled by applying conservative engineering principles.

  10. NASA's Earth Data Coherent Web (United States)

    Gonzalez, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M. F.


    NASA Earth Science Data Systems are a large and continuing investment in science data management activities. The Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project manages the science systems of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). EOSDIS provides science data to a wide community of users. Websites are the front door to data and services for users (science, programmatic, missions, citizen scientist, etc...), but these are disparate and disharmonious. Earth science is interdisciplinary thus, EOSDIS must enable users to discover and use the information, data and services they need in an easy and coherent manner. Users should be able to interact with each EOSDIS element in a predictable way and see EOSDIS as a program of inter-related but distinct systems each with expertise in a different science and/or information technology domain. Additionally, users should be presented with a general search capability that can be customized for each research discipline. Furthermore, the array of domain specific expertise along with crosscutting capabilities should be harmonized so users are presented with a common language and information framework to efficiently perform science investigations. The Earthdata Coherent Web Project goals are (1) to present NASA's EOSDIS as a coherent yet transparent system of systems that provide a highly functioning, integrated web presence that ties together information content and web services throughout EOSDIS so science users can easily find, access, and use data collected by NASA's Earth science missions. (2) Fresh, engaging and continually updated and coordinated content. (3) Create an active and immersive science user experience leveraging Web Services (e.g. W*S, SOAP, RESTful) from remote and local data centers and projects to reduce barriers to using EOSDIS data. Goals will be reached through a phased approach where functionality and processes are incrementally added. Phase I focused on the following main

  11. NASA's atmospheric variability experiments /AVE/ (United States)

    Hill, K.; Turner, R. E.


    A series of seven mesoscale experiments were conducted under the NASA program, Atmospheric Variability Experiments (AVE). Rawinsonde, satellite, aircraft, and ground observations were recorded during specially selected meteorological periods lasting from 1 to 3 days. Details are presented for each AVE relative to observation times, experiment size and location, and significant weather. Some research results based on the use of these AVE data are referenced. These include contributions to regional numerical prediction; relations between wind shears, instability, and thunderstorm motion and development; relations between moisture and temperature and the probability of convection; retrieval of tropospheric temperature profiles from cloud-contaminated satellite data; variation of convection intensity as a result of atmospheric variability; and effects of cloud rotation on their trajectories.

  12. The NASA radiowave propagation program (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    The objectives of the NASA radiowave Propagation Program are to enable new satellite communication applications and to enhance existing satellite communication networks. These objectives are achieved by supporting radio wave propagation studies and disseminating the study results in a timely fashion. Studies initiated by this program in the 1980s enabled the infant concept of conducting mobile communications via satellite to reach a state of relative maturity in 1990. The program also supported the satellite communications community by publishing and revising two handbooks dealing with radio wave propagation effects for frequencies below and above 10 GHz, respectively. The program has served the international community through its support of the International Telecommunications Union. It supports state of the art work at universities. Currently, the program is focusing on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) and its propagation needs. An overview of the program's involvement in the ACTS project is given.

  13. NASA AETC Test Technology Subproject (United States)

    Bell, James


    Funds directed to improve measurement capabilities (pressure, force, flow, and temperature), test techniques and processes, and develop technologies critical to meeting NASA research needs and applicable to a multitude of facilities. Primarily works by funding small ($40K - $400K) tasks which result in a demonstration or initial capability of a new technology in an AETC facility.TT research and development tasks are generally TRL 3-6; they should be things which work in small scale or lab environments but need further development for use in production facilities.TT differs from CA in its focus on smaller-scale tasks and on instrumentation. Technologies developed by TT may become CA projects in order be fully realized within a facility.

  14. The NASA Radiation Health Program (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Schimmerling, W.


    The NASA program for determining the impact of cosmic radiation on health is described in terms of its long-term goal of reducing the uncertainty of radiation-model prediction to +/- 25 percent by 2010. The Space Radiation Health Program (SRHP) is intended to address fundamental issues for establishing a scientific basis for human radiation protection: (1) the prediction of the probability of biological effects from radiation; (2) the reduction of uncertainty in predicted highly charged energetic particles; and (3) the characterization of background flux from Galactic cosmic rays. Another key objective is to develop related technologies for ground- and space-based solar monitoring to predict events involving solar energetic particles. Although substantial uncertainties are involved in the prediction of such events, the SRHP is essential for determining crucial variables related to launching mass and humans into orbit.

  15. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments (United States)


    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in

  16. Universal Orbital Material Processing Module Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA need for sustainable space operations and full utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) and specifically to advance the "Materials,...

  17. Moisture-resistant TPS Materials Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed NASA Phase I SBIR will generate closed-cell foam thermal protection system materials which do not need waterproofing, and which can be applied as a...

  18. Overview of NASA's Universe of Learning: An Integrated Astrophysics STEM Learning and Literacy Program (United States)

    Smith, Denise; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon; Biferno, Anya A.; Cominsky, Lynn; Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team


    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is the result of a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University, and is one of 27 competitively-selected cooperative agreements within the NASA Science Mission Directorate STEM Activation program. The NASA's Universe of Learning team draws upon cutting-edge science and works closely with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) from across the NASA Astrophysics Physics of the Cosmos, Cosmic Origins, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Together we develop and disseminate data tools and participatory experiences, multimedia and immersive experiences, exhibits and community programs, and professional learning experiences that meet the needs of our audiences, with attention to underserved and underrepresented populations. In doing so, scientists and educators from the partner institutions work together as a collaborative, integrated Astrophysics team to support NASA objectives to enable STEM education, increase scientific literacy, advance national education goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. Robust program evaluation is central to our efforts, and utilizes portfolio analysis, process studies, and studies of reach and impact. This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's Universe of Learning, our direct connection to NASA Astrophysics, and our collaborative work with the NASA Astrophysics science community.

  19. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted


    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  20. Biophysics of NASA radiation quality factors. (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A


    NASA has implemented new radiation quality factors (QFs) for projecting cancer risks from space radiation exposures to astronauts. The NASA QFs are based on particle track structure concepts with parameters derived from available radiobiology data, and NASA introduces distinct QFs for solid cancer and leukaemia risk estimates. The NASA model was reviewed by the US National Research Council and approved for use by NASA for risk assessment for International Space Station missions and trade studies of future exploration missions to Mars and other destinations. A key feature of the NASA QFs is to represent the uncertainty in the QF assessments and evaluate the importance of the QF uncertainty to overall uncertainties in cancer risk projections. In this article, the biophysical basis for the probability distribution functions representing QF uncertainties was reviewed, and approaches needed to reduce uncertainties were discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. 14 CFR 1221.109 - Use of the NASA Seal. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the NASA Seal. 1221.109 Section 1221.109 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program...

  2. 14 CFR 1221.106 - Establishment of the NASA Flag. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Flag. 1221.106 Section 1221.106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA...

  3. 14 CFR 1221.113 - Use of the NASA Flags. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the NASA Flags. 1221.113 Section 1221.113 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA Program...

  4. 14 CFR 1221.102 - Establishment of the NASA Seal. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of the NASA Seal. 1221.102 Section 1221.102 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION THE NASA SEAL AND OTHER DEVICES, AND THE CONGRESSIONAL SPACE MEDAL OF HONOR NASA Seal, NASA Insignia, NASA Logotype, NASA...

  5. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter


    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  6. NASA University Program Management Information System (United States)


    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA:s objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA:s Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.* This report was prepared by the Education Division/FE, Office of Human Resources and Education, using a management information system which was modernized during FY 1993.

  7. NASA High-End Computing Program Website (United States)

    Cohen, Jarrett S.


    If you are a NASA-sponsored scientist or engineer. computing time is available to you at the High-End Computing (HEC) Program's NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Facility and NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). The Science Mission Directorate will select from requests NCCS Portals submitted to the e-Books online system for awards beginning on May 1. Current projects set to explore on April 30 must have a request in e-Books to be considered for renewal

  8. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: Overview and Status (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Brophy, John; Mazanek, Dan; Muirhead, Brian

    A major element of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) new Asteroid Initiative is the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). This concept was first proposed in 2011 during a feasibility study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)[1] and is under consideration for implementation by NASA. The ARM involves sending a high-efficiency (ISP 3000 s), high-power (40 kW) solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic vehicle that leverages technology developed by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and return asteroidal material to a stable lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO)[2]. There are two mission concepts currently under study, one that captures an entire 7 - 10 meter mean diameter NEA[3], and another that retrieves a 1 - 10 meter mean diameter boulder from a 100+ meter class NEA[4]. Once the retrieved asteroidal material is placed into the LDRO, a two person crew would launch aboard an Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic SEP vehicle. After docking, the crew would conduct two extra-vehicular activities (EVA) to collect asteroid samples and deploy instruments prior to Earth return. The crewed portion of the mission is expected to last approximately 25 days and would represent the first human exploration mission beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program. The ARM concept leverages NASA’s activities in Human Exploration, Space Technology, and Planetary Defense to accomplish three primary objectives and several secondary objectives. The primary objective relevant to Human Exploration is to gain operational experience with vehicles, systems, and components that will be utilized for future deep space exploration. In regard to Space Technology, the ARM utilizes advanced SEP technology that has high power and long duration capabilities that enable future missions to deep space destinations, such as the Martian system. With respect to Planetary Defense, the ARM

  9. Storms in Space: Bringing NASA Earth-Sun Science Educational Resources to Hearing- Impaired Students. (United States)

    Lowry, K.; Sindt, M.; Jahn, J.


    Using assistive technology, children with hearing loss can actively participate in the hearing world. However, to develop the necessary skills, hearing-impaired students need to be immersed in a language-rich environment which compensates for the lack of "incidental" learning that typifies the language acquisition of their peers with typical hearing. For any subject matter taught in class, this means that the conceptual and language framework of the topic has to be provided in addition to regular class materials. In a collaboration between the Sunshine Cottage School for Deaf Children and the Southwest Research Institute, we are exploring how NASA-developed educational resources covering Space Science topics can be incorporated successfully in blended classrooms containing children with hearing loss and those with typical hearing in grades 3-5. Utilizing the extensive routine language monitoring performed at Sunshine Cottage, student progress is directly monitored during the year as well as from year to year. This allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of the resources used. Since all instruction at Sunshine Cottage is auditory-oral, our experiences in using those materials can be fed back directly into mainstream classrooms of the same grade levels.

  10. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment (United States)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.


    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  11. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen


    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  12. NASA EEE Parts 2014 Year in Review (United States)

    Lee, Sara-Anne


    The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program continue to support Electrical, Electronic and Electromagnetic Parts for the agency with an eventful year of workshops, innovations, testing and challenges.

  13. NASA Resources for Educators and Public (United States)

    Morales, Lester


    A variety of NASA Classroom Activities, Educator Guides, Lithographs, Posters and more are available to Pre ]service and In ]service Educators through Professional Development Workshops. We are here for you to engage, demonstrate, and facilitate the use of educational technologies, the NASA Website, NASA Education Homepage and more! We are here for you to inspire you by providing in-service and pre- service training utilizing NASA curriculum support products. We are here for you to partner with your local, state, and regional educational organizations to better educate ALL! NASA AESP specialists are experienced professional educators, current on education issues and familiar with the curriculum frameworks, educational standards, and systemic architecture of the states they service. These specialists provide engaging and inspiring student presentations and teacher training right at YOUR school at no cost to you! Experience free out-of-this-world interactive learning with NASA's Digital Learning Network. Students of all ages can participate in LIVE events with NASA Experts and Education Specialists. The Exploration Station provides NASA educational programs that introduce the application of Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics, to students. Students participate in a variety of hands-on activities that compliment related topics taught by the classroom teacher. NASA KSC ERC can create Professional Development Workshops for teachers in groups of fifteen or more. Education/Information Specialists also assist educators in developing lessons to meet Sunshine State and national curriculum standards.

  14. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground (United States)


    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  15. NASA's Agency-wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (United States)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins. Sharon


    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage aPi'iications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  16. Development Of An 80'-Diameter Ribbon Drogue Parachute For The NASA X-38 Vehicle (United States)

    Behr, Vance L.; Wolf, Dean F.; Rutledge, Bruce A.; Hillebrandt, F. David


    The NASA X-38 program required a larger, more robust drogue parachute. A multi-organizational team from NASA, Sandia National Laboratories, United Space Alliance, and Pioneer Aerospace Corporation has developed and tested a new 80-ft.-dia., quarter-spherical, ribbon drogue parachute. The design requirements, design specifics, margin analyses, and results of testing are all discussed herein. Some of the weight advantages of switching from Kevlar to Zylon for radial, line and riser materials are presented.

  17. An Update to the NASA Reference Solar Sail Thrust Model (United States)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra B.


    An optical model of solar sail material originally derived at JPL in 1978 has since served as the de facto standard for NASA and other solar sail researchers. The optical model includes terms for specular and diffuse reflection, thermal emission, and non-Lambertian diffuse reflection. The standard coefficients for these terms are based on tests of 2.5 micrometer Kapton sail material coated with 100 nm of aluminum on the front side and chromium on the back side. The original derivation of these coefficients was documented in an internal JPL technical memorandum that is no longer available. Additionally more recent optical testing has taken place and different materials have been used or are under consideration by various researchers for solar sails. Here, where possible, we re-derive the optical coefficients from the 1978 model and update them to accommodate newer test results and sail material. The source of the commonly used value for the front side non-Lambertian coefficient is not clear, so we investigate that coefficient in detail. Although this research is primarily designed to support the upcoming NASA NEA Scout and Lunar Flashlight solar sail missions, the results are also of interest to the wider solar sail community.

  18. Self-Assembly of Nanocomposite Nonlinear Optical Materials for Photonic Devices Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program targets the development of new highly anisotropic nonlinear optical nanocomposite materials for NASA and non-NASA applications in advanced photonic and...

  19. 75 FR 70951 - NASA Advisory Council; NASA Commercial Space Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... includes a briefing from the NASA Commercial Space Team, a briefing on activities of the Education and... Headquarters building (West Lobby--Visitor Control Center), and must state that they are attending the NASA...

  20. NASA Remote Sensing Applications for Archaeology and Cultural Resources Management (United States)

    Giardino, Marco J.


    NASA's Earth Science Mission Directorate recently completed the deployment of the Earth Observation System (EOS) which is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. One of the many applications derived from EOS is the advancement of archaeological research and applications. Using satellites, manned and unmanned airborne platform, NASA scientists and their partners have conducted archaeological research using both active and passive sensors. The NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) located in south Mississippi, near New Orleans, has been a leader in space archaeology since the mid-1970s. Remote sensing is useful in a wide range of archaeological research applications from landscape classification and predictive modeling to site discovery and mapping. Remote sensing technology and image analysis are currently undergoing a profound shift in emphasis from broad classification to detection, identification and condition of specific materials, both organic and inorganic. In the last few years, remote sensing platforms have grown increasingly capable and sophisticated. Sensors currently in use, including commercial instruments, offer significantly improved spatial and spectral resolutions. Paired with new techniques of image analysis, this technology provides for the direct detection of archaeological sites. As in all archaeological research, the application of remote sensing to archaeology requires a priori development of specific research designs and objectives. Initially targeted at broad archaeological issues, NASA space archaeology has progressed toward developing practical applications for cultural resources management (CRM). These efforts culminated with the Biloxi Workshop held by NASA and the University of Mississippi in 2002. The workshop and resulting publication specifically address the requirements of cultural resource managers through

  1. NASA Presentation to TechAmerica G12 Committee (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.


    This slide presentation reviews some of the actions that NASA is taking to address the issue of counterfeit electronic parts. While the emphasis is on electronic parts, the vision is broad enough to include materials and software. The effort includes coordination with other agencies, to identify and with the Government-Industry Data Exchange Program (GIDEP). An interim GIDEP Policy for suspected counterfeits was instituted. NASA's recommendation to the policy was for identification of the supplier and suggests allowing access to that information by government only. The issues with the General MIL specification, the testing requirements for radiation issues, the continuing development of Class Y standards for electronic equipment, status of package case isolation tests needed for 750 and 883,enhancement of 750 Internal Visual Inspection are reviewed. Further issues with consistent ESD control conditions across commodities, test methods, humidity limits, etc are briefly reviewed. The cost benefit analysis of film versus Real time radiography are also reviewed.

  2. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger


    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  3. Science of the subjective. (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J


    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  4. NASA Tech Briefs, November 2005 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Laser System for Precise, Unambiguous Range Measurements; Flexible Cryogenic Temperature and Liquid-Level Probes; Precision Cryogenic Dilatometer; Stroboscopic Interferometer for Measuring Mirror Vibrations; Some Improvements in H-PDLCs; Multiple-Bit Differential Detection of OQPSK; Absolute Position Encoders With Vertical Image Binning; Flexible, Carbon-Based Ohmic Contacts for Organic Transistors; GaAs QWIP Array Containing More Than a Million Pixels; AutoChem; Virtual Machine Language; Two-Dimensional Ffowcs Williams/Hawkings Equation Solver; Full Multigrid Flow Solver; Doclet To Synthesize UML; Computing Thermal Effects of Cavitation in Cryogenic Liquids; GUI for Computational Simulation of a Propellant Mixer; Control Program for an Optical-Calibration Robot; SQL-RAMS; Distributing Data from Desktop to Hand-Held Computers; Best-Fit Conic Approximation of Spacecraft Trajectory; Improved Charge-Transfer Fluorescent Dyes; Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft; Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint; Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers; Controlling Force and Depth in Friction Stir Welding; Spill-Resistant Alkali-Metal-Vapor Dispenser; A Methodology for Quantifying Certain Design Requirements During the Design Phase; Measuring Two Key Parameters of H3 Color Centers in Diamond; Improved Compression of Wavelet-Transformed Images; NASA Interactive Forms Type Interface - NIFTI; Predicting Numbers of Problems in Development of Software; Hot-Electron Photon Counters for Detecting Terahertz Photons; Magnetic Variations Associated With Solar Flares; and Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft.

  5. NASA's Aerosol Sampling Experiment Summary (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.


    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  6. NASA Downscaling Project: Final Report (United States)

    Ferraro, Robert; Waliser, Duane; Peters-Lidard, Christa


    A team of researchers from NASA Ames Research Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Marshall Space Flight Center, along with university partners at UCLA, conducted an investigation to explore whether downscaling coarse resolution global climate model (GCM) predictions might provide valid insights into the regional impacts sought by decision makers. Since the computational cost of running global models at high spatial resolution for any useful climate scale period is prohibitive, the hope for downscaling is that a coarse resolution GCM provides sufficiently accurate synoptic scale information for a regional climate model (RCM) to accurately develop fine scale features that represent the regional impacts of a changing climate. As a proxy for a prognostic climate forecast model, and so that ground truth in the form of satellite and in-situ observations could be used for evaluation, the MERRA and MERRA - 2 reanalyses were used to drive the NU - WRF regional climate model and a GEOS - 5 replay. This was performed at various resolutions that were at factors of 2 to 10 higher than the reanalysis forcing. A number of experiments were conducted that varied resolution, model parameterizations, and intermediate scale nudging, for simulations over the continental US during the period from 2000 - 2010. The results of these experiments were compared to observational datasets to evaluate the output.

  7. Modeling and Simulation at NASA (United States)

    Steele, Martin J.


    This slide presentation is composed of two topics. The first reviews the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) particularly as it relates to the Constellation program and discrete event simulation (DES). DES is defined as a process and system analysis, through time-based and resource constrained probabilistic simulation models, that provide insight into operation system performance. The DES shows that the cycles for a launch from manufacturing and assembly to launch and recovery is about 45 days and that approximately 4 launches per year are practicable. The second topic reviews a NASA Standard for Modeling and Simulation. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board made some recommendations related to models and simulations. Some of the ideas inherent in the new standard are the documentation of M&S activities, an assessment of the credibility, and reporting to decision makers, which should include the analysis of the results, a statement as to the uncertainty in the results,and the credibility of the results. There is also discussion about verification and validation (V&V) of models. There is also discussion about the different types of models and simulation.

  8. Using NASA's Aura Satellite Data for Inquiry Based Classroom Instruction (United States)

    Carter, B. L.; Stockman, S.; Bojkov, B.


    NASA's Earth Observing Satellite Aura was launched in 2004, and since that time has been collecting a wealth of data that contributes to scientists' understanding of the complexity of air quality issues. The Aura spacecraft monitors five of the six EPA criteria pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, aerosols, and CO). Data from one of the criteria pollutants, NO2, are now available in a format useful to educators and students. The data by itself is not enough for students to engage in the scientific reasoning process. Thus, inquiry-driven supporting material in the form of lessons, project based learning scenarios, and curricular support for online data have all been adapted as part of the scaffolding necessary to help students gain an understanding of issues pertaining to air quality. These materials are delivered online which makes them readily accessible to the education community. Currently, NO2 data are available for manipulation using tools such as GoogleEarth and MY NASA DATA ( These tools are used to investigate common relationships between spatial distribution and variability of NO2 concentrations. Through guided investigations in the Earth Exploration Toolbook ( or MY NASA DATA, students gain an understanding of NO2 variability. Students are then asked to extrapolate their knowledge and understanding to investigate other air quality issues relating to NO2. Within the coming year, the lessons built around Aura data will be introduced in professional development workshops. Feedback from those attending the professional development workshops about how the data and lessons are used in the classroom will be used to help shape future lesson development on new data. Subsequent data on criteria pollutants of SO2, aerosols, and O3 will soon be made available in a similar format to the education community, helping to further student understanding of the complex nature of air quality issues.

  9. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  10. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America (United States)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.


    Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL), better known to our Latin American participants as "Observaciones Estudiantiles de las Nubes", has been influencing the way some Latin American students learn to appreciate the geosciences since 1998. Through a collaborative effort between NASA and thousands of schools across the globe, a mutually beneficial relationship has been created that captures the essence of and serves as a model for programs that leverage opportunities between the scientific and education communities. S'COOL is one of a handful of programs that provides solutions to the needs voiced by Latin American educators for educational resources that stimulate student interest in the geosciences. S'COOL is a hands-on project that involves schools of every grade in collaborative Earth climate research with NASA scientists. Students make ground truth observations and record the type, amount, and features of clouds in the sky at the time a NASA satellite passes over their location. Aside from learning the basic cloud characteristics, students benefit by having access to experts in the field of atmospheric science and also to a database of information that can be utilized in analytical studies. Scientists benefit from tens of thousands of observations sent into the database and used to validate the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on-board the new generation NASA Earth Observing satellites: Terra and Aqua. To observe and send results to NASA, teachers and students go through the following three steps: 1) obtain the satellite overpass schedule, 2) observe the clouds and record the observation on the report form provided, 3) record the observations in the NASA database. To facilitate communication with many countries and to help teachers to prepare introductory lessons on clouds and meteorology, NASA provides educational materials and report forms in a number of languages including Spanish. As a result, schools from 68 countries

  11. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Overview: The Crew Launch Vehicle and the Cargo Launch Vehicle Systems (United States)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Cook, Stephen A.


    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration (January 2004) serves as the foundation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) strategic goals and objectives. As the NASA Administrator outlined during his confirmation hearing in April 2005, these include: 1) Flying the Space Shuttle as safely as possible until its retirement, not later than 2010. 2) Bringing a new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into service as soon as possible after Shuttle retirement. 3) Developing a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics at NASA, consistent with the redirection of the human space flight program to focus on exploration. 4) Completing the International Space Station (ISS) in a manner consistent with international partner commitments and the needs of human exploration. 5) Encouraging the pursuit of appropriate partnerships with the emerging commercial space sector. 6) Establishing a lunar return program having the maximum possible utility for later missions to Mars and other destinations. In spring 2005, the Agency commissioned a team of aerospace subject matter experts to perform the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS). The ESAS team performed in-depth evaluations of a number of space transportation architectures and provided recommendations based on their findings? The ESAS analysis focused on a human-rated Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) for astronaut transport and a heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) to carry equipment, materials, and supplies for lunar missions and, later, the first human journeys to Mars. After several months of intense study utilizing safety and reliability, technical performance, budget, and schedule figures of merit in relation to design reference missions, the ESAS design options were unveiled in summer 2005. As part of NASA's systems engineering approach, these point of departure architectures have been refined through trade studies during the ongoing design phase leading to the development phase that

  12. A Catalog of NASA Special Publications (United States)


    radiation belts, trapped N73-7 1303 133 pp particles, geomagnetic field, cosmic rays, and Avail NTIS 1965 neutrons . NASA SP-97 Significant Achievements...observa- S. V. Caruso tion, advances and benefits of electronics. Current and future requirements tot research NASA CP-20(1 development, manufacturing

  13. The Electrical Engineering Profession at NASA (United States)

    Emerson, Dawn


    Presentation given at the opening ceremony of the Centre of Vocational Excellence in Birmingham, England on October 7, 2004. Presentation highlights examples of work performed by Electrical Engineers at the NASA Glenn Research Center and highlights the demographics of the NASA workforce. Presentation is intended to be inspirational in nature.

  14. Enabling knowledge discovery: taxonomy development for NASA (United States)

    Dutra, J.; Busch, J.


    This white paper provides the background for why it is important to take the next steps with the NASA taxonomy including test and validation, XML schema development, integration with the FirstGov federal search engine, the OneNASA portal and its supporting web content management system.

  15. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984 (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)


    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  16. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G


    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  17. Assessment of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Down's syndrome subjects and systemically healthy subjects: A comparative clinical trial


    Ahmed, Nizar; Parthasarathy, Harinath; Arshad, Mohamed; Victor, Dhayanand John; Mathew, Danny; Sankari, Siva


    Objectives: To compare and quantify the presence of periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aac) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) in Down's syndrome (DS) and systemically healthy subjects with periodontitis and gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine age-matched subjects were categorized into four groups; Group I: DS subjects with gingivitis, Group II: DS subjects with periodontitis, Group III: Systemically healthy subjects with gingivitis and Group IV: Systemicall...

  18. Current and Future Parts Management at NASA (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.


    This presentation provides a high level view of current and future electronic parts management at NASA. It describes a current perspective of the new human space flight direction that NASA is beginning to take and how that could influence parts management in the future. It provides an overview of current NASA electronic parts policy and how that is implemented at the NASA flight Centers. It also describes some of the technical challenges that lie ahead and suggests approaches for their mitigation. These challenges include: advanced packaging, obsolescence and counterfeits, the global supply chain and Commercial Crew, a new direction by which NASA will utilize commercial launch vehicles to get astronauts to the International Space Station.

  19. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A


    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  20. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.


    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  1. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes


    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  2. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert


    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  3. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal


    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  4. The NASA SMD Science Education and Public Outreach Forums: Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach (United States)

    Smith, Denise A.; Peticolas, L.; Schwerin, T.; Shipp, S.


    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program provides a direct return on the public’s investment in NASA’s science missions and research programs through a comprehensive suite of educational resources and opportunities for students, educators, and the public. Four Science Education and Public Outreach Forums work with SMD-funded missions, research programs, and grantees to organize individual E/PO activities into a coordinated, effective, and efficient nationwide effort, with easy entry points for scientists, educators, and the public. We outline the Forums’ role in 1) facilitating communication and collaboration among SMD E/PO programs, scientists, and educators; 2) supporting utilization of best practices and educational research; 3) creating clear paths of involvement for scientists interested in SMD E/PO; and, 4) enabling efficient and effective use of NASA content and education products. Our work includes a cross-Forum collaboration to inventory existing SMD education materials; identify and analyze gaps; and interconnect and organize materials in an accessible manner for multiple audiences. The result is, a one-stop-shop for all NASA SMD education products, including tools to help users identify resources based upon their needs and national education standards. The Forums have also collaborated with the SMD E/PO community to provide a central point of access to metrics, evaluation findings, and impacts for SMD-funded E/PO programs ( We also present opportunities for the astronomy community to participate in collaborations supporting NASA SMD efforts in the K - 12 Formal Education, Informal Education and Outreach, Higher Education and Research Scientist communities. See Bartolone et al., Lawton et al., Meinke et al., and Buxner et al. (this conference), respectively, to learn about Forum resources and opportunities specific to each of these communities.

  5. Materials, processes, and environmental engineering network (United States)

    White, Margo M.


    The Materials, Processes, and Environmental Engineering Network (MPEEN) was developed as a central holding facility for materials testing information generated by the Materials and Processes Laboratory. It contains information from other NASA centers and outside agencies, and also includes the NASA Environmental Information System (NEIS) and Failure Analysis Information System (FAIS) data. Environmental replacement materials information is a newly developed focus of MPEEN. This database is the NASA Environmental Information System, NEIS, which is accessible through MPEEN. Environmental concerns are addressed regarding materials identified by the NASA Operational Environment Team, NOET, to be hazardous to the environment. An environmental replacement technology database is contained within NEIS. Environmental concerns about materials are identified by NOET, and control or replacement strategies are formed. This database also contains the usage and performance characteristics of these hazardous materials. In addition to addressing environmental concerns, MPEEN contains one of the largest materials databases in the world. Over 600 users access this network on a daily basis. There is information available on failure analysis, metals and nonmetals testing, materials properties, standard and commercial parts, foreign alloy cross-reference, Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) data, and Materials and Processes Selection List data.

  6. A Selection of Composites Simulation Practices at NASA Langley Research Center (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.


    One of the major areas of study at NASA Langley Research Center is the development of technologies that support the use of advanced composite materials in aerospace applications. Amongst the supporting technologies are analysis tools used to simulate the behavior of these materials. This presentation will discuss a number of examples of analysis tools and simulation practices conducted at NASA Langley. The presentation will include examples of damage tolerance analyses for both interlaminar and intralaminar failure modes. Tools for modeling interlaminar failure modes include fracture mechanics and cohesive methods, whilst tools for modeling intralaminar failure involve the development of various progressive failure analyses. Other examples of analyses developed at NASA Langley include a thermo-mechanical model of an orthotropic material and the simulation of delamination growth in z-pin reinforced laminates.

  7. NASA Early Career Fellowship Program (United States)

    Smith, H. D.


    the Fellow to be a better job applicant. NASA opportunities from the undergraduate to postdoctoral level are also discussed.

  8. NASA Tech Briefs, February 2007 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker; Wireless Acoustic Measurement System; Spiral Orbit Tribometer; Arrays of Miniature Microphones for Aeroacoustic Testing; Predicting Rocket or Jet Noise in Real Time; Computational Workbench for Multibody Dynamics; High-Power, High-Efficiency Ka-Band Space Traveling-Wave Tube; Gratings and Random Reflectors for Near-Infrared PIN Diodes; Optically Transparent Split-Ring Antennas for 1 to 10 GHz; Ice-Penetrating Robot for Scientific Exploration; Power-Amplifier Module for 145 to 165 GHz; Aerial Videography From Locally Launched Rockets; SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks; Automated Design of Restraint Layer of an Inflatable Vessel; TMS for Instantiating a Knowledge Base With Incomplete Data; Simulating Flights of Future Launch Vehicles and Spacecraft; Control Code for Bearingless Switched- Reluctance Motor; Machine Aided Indexing and the NASA Thesaurus; Arbitrating Control of Control and Display Units; Web-Based Software for Managing Research; Driver Code for Adaptive Optics; Ceramic Paste for Patching High-Temperature Insulation; Fabrication of Polyimide-Matrix/Carbon and Boron-Fiber Tape; Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths; Code Assesses Risks Posed by Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Asymmetric Bulkheads for Cylindrical Pressure Vessels; Self-Regulating Water-Separator System for Fuel Cells; Self-Advancing Step-Tap Drills; Array of Bolometers for Submillimeter- Wavelength Operation; Delta-Doped CCDs as Detector Arrays in Mass Spectrometers; Arrays of Bundles of Carbon Nanotubes as Field Emitters; Staggering Inflation To Stabilize Attitude of a Solar Sail; and Bare Conductive Tether for Decelerating a Spacecraft.

  9. NASA Tech Briefs, March 2006 (United States)


    Topics covered include: Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System; Instruments for Reading Direct-Marked Data-Matrix Symbols; Processing EOS MLS Level-2 Data; Ground Processing of Data From the Mars Exploration Rovers; Estimating Total Electron Content Using 1,000+ GPS Receivers; NASA Solar Array Demonstrates Commercial Potential; Improved Control of Charging Voltage for Li-Ion Battery; Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder; Wavelength-Agile External-Cavity Diode Laser for DWDM; Pattern-Recognition Processor Using Holographic Photopolymer; Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit; Three-Function Logic Gate Controlled by Analog Voltage; Integrated System for Autonomous Science; Montage Version 3.0; Utilizing AI in Temporal, Spatial, and Resource Scheduling; Satellite Image Mosaic Engine; Architecture for Control of the K9 Rover; HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC; Automated Activation and Deactivation of a System Under Test; Cleaning Carbon Nanotubes by Use of Mild Oxygen Plasmas; Generating Aromatics From CO2 on Mars or Natural Gas on Earth; Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping; Heat Treatment of Friction-Stir-Welded 7050 Aluminum Plates; Generating Breathable Air Through Dissociation of N2O; High-Performance Scanning Acousto-Ultrasonic System; Correction for Thermal EMFs in Thermocouple Feedthroughs; Using Quasiparticle Poisoning To Detect Photons; Estimating Resolution Lengths of Hybrid Turbulence Models; Education and Training Module in Alertness Management; Cargo-Positioning System for Next-Generation Spacecraft; Micro-Imagers for Spaceborne Cell-Growth Experiments; Holographic Solar Photon Thrusters; Plasma-Based Detector of Outer-Space Dust Particles; and Generation of Data-Rate Profiles of Ka-Band Deep-Space Links.

  10. NASA historical report. First six years of NASA: A concise chronology (United States)

    Holme, Molly (Compiler); Casper, Jonathan D. (Compiler)


    This chronology was compiled to satisfy numerous requests for highlights of historical information on the activities during the first six years that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has existed as the Federal agency conducting the U.S. program for the scientific exploration of space and the exploitation of space science and technology for peaceful uses. The chronology shows the following: highlights of NASA's administrative, organizational, and policy; NASA milestones in space science and technology; items reflecting contributions of NASA offices, centers, and individuals; major policy statements by the President and NASA administrators; and a summary item reflecting evolution, growth, and accomplishments of NASA.

  11. Mission oriented R and D and the advancement of technology: The impact of NASA contributions, volume 2 (United States)

    Robbins, M. D.; Kelley, J. A.; Elliott, L.


    NASA contributions to the advancement of major developments in twelve selected fields of technology are presented. The twelve fields of technology discussed are: (1) cryogenics, (2) electrochemical energy conversion and storage, (3) high-temperature ceramics, (4) high-temperature metals (5) integrated circuits, (6) internal gas dynamics (7) materials machining and forming, (8) materials joining, (9) microwave systems, (10) nondestructive testing, (11) simulation, and (12) telemetry. These field were selected on the basis of both NASA and nonaerospace interest and activity.

  12. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E


    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  13. Extravehicular Activity Systems Education and Public Outreach in Support of NASA's STEM Initiatives (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.


    The exploration activities associated with NASA?s goals to return to the Moon, travel to Mars, or explore Near Earth Objects (NEOs) will involve the need for human-supported space and surface extravehicular activities (EVAs). The technology development and human element associated with these exploration missions provide fantastic content to promote science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). As NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden remarked on December 9, 2009, "We....need to provide the educational and experiential stepping-stones to inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and leaders in STEM fields." The EVA Systems Project actively supports this initiative by providing subject matter experts and hands-on, interactive presentations to educate students, educators, and the general public about the design challenges encountered as NASA develops EVA hardware for these missions. This paper summarizes these education and public efforts.

  14. The NASA Ames Life Sciences Data Archive: Biobanking for the Final Frontier (United States)

    Rask, Jon; Chakravarty, Kaushik; French, Alison J.; Choi, Sungshin; Stewart, Helen J.


    The NASA Ames Institutional Scientific Collection involves the Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) and a biospecimen repository, which are responsible for archiving information and non-human biospecimens collected from spaceflight and matching ground control experiments. The ALSDA also manages a biospecimen sharing program, performs curation and long-term storage operations, and facilitates distribution of biospecimens for research purposes via a public website ( As part of our best practices, a tissue viability testing plan has been developed for the repository, which will assess the quality of samples subjected to long-term storage. We expect that the test results will confirm usability of the samples, enable broader science community interest, and verify operational efficiency of the archives. This work will also support NASA open science initiatives and guides development of NASA directives and policy for curation of biological collections.

  15. The NASA Severe Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling (NASA STORM) Project (United States)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Lang, Timothy J.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Bailey, Jeffrey; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Jedlovec, Gary J.


    The NASA Severe Storm Thunderstorm Observations and Regional Modeling(NASA STORM) project enhanced NASA’s severe weather research capabilities, building upon existing Earth Science expertise at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During this project, MSFC extended NASA’s ground-based lightning detection capacity to include a readily deployable lightning mapping array (LMA). NASA STORM also enabled NASA’s Short-term Prediction and Research Transition (SPoRT) to add convection allowing ensemble modeling to its portfolio of regional numerical weather prediction (NWP) capabilities. As a part of NASA STORM, MSFC developed new open-source capabilities for analyzing and displaying weather radar observations integrated from both research and operational networks. These accomplishments enabled by NASA STORM are a step towards enhancing NASA’s capabilities for studying severe weather and positions them for any future NASA related severe storm field campaigns.

  16. NASA-STD-6001B Test 1 Upward Flame Propagation; Sample Length Impact on MOC Investigation (United States)

    Harper, Susana Tapia; Juarez, Alfredo; Woods, Brenton L.; Beeson, Harold D.


    Understanding the combustion behavior of materials in the elevated oxygen environments of habitable spacecraft is of utmost importance to crew safety and mission success. Currently, certification for unrestricted flight usage of a material with respect to flammability involves passing the Upward Flame Propagation Test of NASA-STD-6001B (Test 1). This test evaluates materials in a standardized test configuration for two failure criteria: self-extinguishment within 15 cm (6 in.) and the propensity of flame propagation by means of flaming material transfer. By the NASA standard, full-length samples are 30 cm (12 in.) in length; however, factors independent of the test method such as limited material availability or various nonstandard test configurations limit the full pretest sample lengths available for test. This paper characterizes the dependence, if any, of pretest sample length on NASA-STD-6001B Test 1 results. Testing was performed using the Maximum Oxygen Concentration (MOC) Threshold Method to obtain a data set for each sample length tested. In addition, various material types, including cloth (Nomex), foam (TA-301) and solids (Ultem), were tested to investigate potential effects of test specimen types. Though additional data needs to be generated to provide statistical confidence, preliminary findings are that use of variable sample lengths has minimal impact on NASA-STD-6001B flammability performance and MOC determination.

  17. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda


    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  18. NASA's asteroid redirect mission: Robotic boulder capture option (United States)

    Abell, P.; Nuth, J.; Mazanek, D.; Merrill, R.; Reeves, D.; Naasz, B.


    NASA is examining two options for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), which will return asteroid material to a Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (LDRO) using a robotic solar-electric-propulsion spacecraft, called the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). Once the ARV places the asteroid material into the LDRO, a piloted mission will rendezvous and dock with the ARV. After docking, astronauts will conduct two extravehicular activities (EVAs) to inspect and sample the asteroid material before returning to Earth. One option involves capturing an entire small (˜4--10 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA) inside a large inflatable bag. However, NASA is also examining another option that entails retrieving a boulder (˜1--5 m) via robotic manipulators from the surface of a larger (˜100+ m) pre-characterized NEA. The Robotic Boulder Capture (RBC) option can leverage robotic mission data to help ensure success by targeting previously (or soon to be) well-characterized NEAs. For example, the data from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Hayabusa mission has been utilized to develop detailed mission designs that assess options and risks associated with proximity and surface operations. Hayabusa's target NEA, Itokawa, has been identified as a valid target and is known to possess hundreds of appropriately sized boulders on its surface. Further robotic characterization of additional NEAs (e.g., Bennu and 1999 JU_3) by NASA's OSIRIS REx and JAXA's Hayabusa 2 missions is planned to begin in 2018. This ARM option reduces mission risk and provides increased benefits for science, human exploration, resource utilization, and planetary defense.

  19. Batteries at NASA - Today and Beyond (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.


    NASA uses batteries for virtually all of its space missions. Batteries can be bulky and heavy, and some chemistries are more prone to safety issues than others. To meet NASA's needs for safe, lightweight, compact and reliable batteries, scientists and engineers at NASA develop advanced battery technologies that are suitable for space applications and that can satisfy these multiple objectives. Many times, these objectives compete with one another, as the demand for more and more energy in smaller packages dictates that we use higher energy chemistries that are also more energetic by nature. NASA partners with companies and universities, like Xavier University of Louisiana, to pool our collective knowledge and discover innovative technical solutions to these challenges. This talk will discuss a little about NASA's use of batteries and why NASA seeks more advanced chemistries. A short primer on battery chemistries and their chemical reactions is included. Finally, the talk will touch on how the work under the Solid High Energy Lithium Battery (SHELiB) grant to develop solid lithium-ion conducting electrolytes and solid-state batteries can contribute to NASA's mission.

  20. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor (United States)


    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  1. Eclipse 2017: Through the Eyes of NASA (United States)

    Mayo, Louis; NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium


    The August 21, 2017 total solar eclipse across America was, by all accounts, the biggest science education program ever carried out by NASA, significantly larger than the Curiosity Mars landing and the New Horizons Pluto flyby. Initial accounting estimates over two billion people reached and website hits exceeding five billion. The NASA Science Mission Directorate spent over two years planning and developing this enormous public education program, establishing over 30 official NASA sites along the path of totality, providing imagery from 11 NASA space assets, two high altitude aircraft, and over 50 high altitude balloons. In addition, a special four focal plane ground based solar telescope was developed in partnership with Lunt Solar Systems that observed and processed the eclipse in 6K resolution. NASA EDGE and NASA TV broadcasts during the entirity of totality across the country reached hundreds of millions, world wide.This talk will discuss NASA's strategy, results, and lessons learned; and preview some of the big events we plan to feature in the near future.

  2. 14 CFR 1221.103 - Establishment of the NASA Insignia. (United States)


    ... forth in § 1221.110, the NASA Graphics Standards Manual, NASA Insignia Standards Supplement, and any... Establishment of the NASA Insignia. The NASA Insignia was designed by the Army Institute of Heraldry and... aeronautics and space and is established by the NASA Administrator as the signature and design element for...

  3. 14 CFR 1245.302 - Inventions by NASA employees. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inventions by NASA employees. 1245.302... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS NASA Foreign Patent Program § 1245.302 Inventions by NASA employees. (a) The foreign rights of NASA and of the NASA employee making an invention are determinable in accordance with...

  4. 14 CFR 1206.401 - Location of NASA Information Centers. (United States)


    ..., (DFRC), Post Office Box 273, Edwards, CA 93523. (4) NASA Information Center, Glenn Research Center (GRC...://; (3) (DFRC); (4) (GRC); (5) (GSFC)

  5. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles


    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  6. 78 FR 66964 - NASA Advisory Council; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the NASA Advisory Council... NASA Administrator has determined that renewal and amendment of the charter of the NASA Advisory...

  7. 76 FR 67482 - NASA Advisory Council; Charter Renewal (United States)


    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the NASA Advisory Council... NASA Administrator has determined that renewal and amendment of the charter of the NASA Advisory...

  8. Science@NASA: Direct to People! (United States)

    Koczor, Ronald J.; Adams, Mitzi; Gallagher, Dennis; Whitaker, Ann (Technical Monitor)


    Science@NASA is a science communication effort sponsored by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. It is the result of a four year research project between Marshall, the University of Florida College of Journalism and Communications and the internet communications company, Bishop Web Works. The goals of Science@NASA are to inform, inspire, and involve people in the excitement of NASA science by bringing that science directly to them. We stress not only the reporting of the facts of a particular topic, but also the context and importance of the research. Science@NASA involves several levels of activity from academic communications research to production of content for 6 websites, in an integrated process involving all phases of production. A Science Communications Roundtable Process is in place that includes scientists, managers, writers, editors, and Web technical experts. The close connection between the scientists and the writers/editors assures a high level of scientific accuracy in the finished products. The websites each have unique characters and are aimed at different audience segments: 1. (SNG) Carries stories featuring various aspects of NASA science activity. The site carries 2 or 3 new stories each week in written and audio formats for science-attentive adults. 2. Features stories from SNG that are recast for a high school level audience. J-Track and J-Pass applets for tracking satellites are our most popular product. 3. http://kids. This is the Nursemaids site and is aimed at a middle school audience. The NASAKids Club is a new feature at the site. 4. . This site features lesson plans and classroom activities for educators centered around one of the science stories carried on SNG. 5. This site gives the status of solar activity and its interactions with the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  9. First Materials Processing Test in the Science Operation Area (SOA) During STS-47 Spacelab-J Mission (United States)


    The science laboratory, Spacelab-J (SL-J), flown aboard the STS-47 flight was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a manned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Featured together in the Science Operation Area (SOA) are payload specialists' first Materials Processing Test during NASA/NASDA joint ground activities at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.


    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  11. NASA vane alloy boasts high-temperature strength (United States)

    Waters, W. J.; Freche, J. C.


    The higher inlet-gas temperatures in new aircraft turbine engines make it necessary to use improved superalloys in engine design. Such superalloys are provided by WAZ alloys. NASA has explored the Ni-W-Al system in an attempt to find higher-strength nickel-based alloys for use as stator vane materials. Critical performance goals have been met with the new alloy WAZ-16. With suitable protective coatings, WAZ-16 appears to have considerable potential for high-temperature stator vane applications.

  12. Hypersonic engine seal development at NASA Lewis Research Center (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.


    NASA Lewis Research Center is developing advanced seal concepts and sealing technology for advanced combined cycle ramjet/scramjet engines being designed for the National Aerospace Plane (NASP). Technologies are being developed for both the dynamic seals that seal the sliding interfaces between articulating engine panels and sidewalls, and for the static seals that seal the heat exchanger to back-up structure interfaces. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of the candidate engine seal concepts, seal material assessments, and unique test facilities used to assess the leakage and thermal performance of the seal concepts.

  13. Research Activities Within NASA’s Morphing Program (United States)


    757 -864-2846; Fax: 757 -864-8678; e-mail: Abstract aeroelastic control, and other aerospace areas. Smart In the last decade...wind tunnel and model power, fail-safe vibration suppression mechanism. Follow-on coigu ra icoarin o a cone l desstudies are planned to explore...DARPA and the Navy’s Office of Naval References Research (ONR) on a team led by the Boeing Company to demonstrate the application of smart materials

  14. NASA program planning on nuclear electric propulsion (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Miller, Thomas J.


    As part of the focused technology planning for future NASA space science and exploration missions, NASA has initiated a focused technology program to develop the technologies for nuclear electric propulsion and nuclear thermal propulsion. Beginning in 1990, NASA began a series of interagency planning workshops and meetings to identify key technologies and program priorities for nuclear propulsion. The high-priority, near-term technologies that must be developed to make NEP operational for space exploration include scaling thrusters to higher power, developing high-temperature power processing units, and developing high power, low-mass, long-lived nuclear reactors.

  15. NASA CYGNSS Tropical Cyclone Mission (United States)

    Ruf, Chris; Atlas, Robert; Majumdar, Sharan; Ettammal, Suhas; Waliser, Duane


    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) mission consists of a constellation of eight microsatellites that were launched into low-Earth orbit on 15 December 2016. Each observatory carries a four-channel bistatic scatterometer receiver to measure near surface wind speed over the ocean. The transmitter half of the scatterometer is the constellation of GPS satellites. CYGNSS is designed to address the inadequacy in observations of the inner core of tropical cyclones (TCs) that result from two causes: 1) much of the TC inner core is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands; and 2) the rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the TC life cycle are poorly sampled in time by conventional polar-orbiting, wide-swath surface wind imagers. The retrieval of wind speed by CYGNSS in the presence of heavy precipitation is possible due to the long operating wavelength used by GPS (19 cm), at which scattering and attenuation by rain are negligible. Improved temporal sampling by CYGNSS is possible due to the use of eight spacecraft with 4 scatterometer channels on each one. Median and mean revisit times everywhere in the tropics are 3 and 7 hours, respectively. Wind speed referenced to 10m height above the ocean surface is retrieved from CYGNSS measurements of bistatic radar cross section in a manner roughly analogous to that of conventional ocean wind scatterometers. The technique has been demonstrated previously from space by the UK-DMC and UK-TDS missions. Wind speed is retrieved with 25 km spatial resolution and an uncertainty of 2 m/s at low wind speeds and 10% at wind speeds above 20 m/s. Extensive simulation studies conducted prior to launch indicate that there will be a significant positive impact on TC forecast skill for both track and intensity with CYGNSS measurements assimilated into HWRF numerical forecasts. Simulations of CYGNSS spatial and temporal sampling

  16. NASA Nice Climate Change Education (United States)

    Frink, K.; Crocker, S.; Jones, W., III; Marshall, S. S.; Anuradha, D.; Stewart-Gurley, K.; Howard, E. M.; Hill, E.; Merriweather, E.


    Authors: 1 Kaiem Frink, 4 Sherry Crocker, 5 Willie Jones, III, 7 Sophia S.L. Marshall, 6 Anuadha Dujari 3 Ervin Howard 1 Kalota Stewart-Gurley 8 Edwinta Merriweathe Affiliation: 1. Mathematics & Computer Science, Virginia Union University, Richmond, VA, United States. 2. Mathematics & Computer Science, Elizabeth City State Univ, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 3. Education, Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth City, NC, United States. 4. College of Education, Fort Valley State University , Fort Valley, GA, United States. 5. Education, Tougaloo College, Jackson, MS, United States. 6. Mathematics, Delaware State University, Dover, DE, United States. 7. Education, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, United States. 8. Education, Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University, Huntsville, AL, United States. ABSTRACT: In this research initiative, the 2013-2014 NASA NICE workshop participants will present best educational practices for incorporating climate change pedagogy. The presentation will identify strategies to enhance instruction of pre-service teachers to aligned with K-12 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) standards. The presentation of best practices should serve as a direct indicator to address pedagogical needs to include climate education within a K-12 curriculum Some of the strategies will include inquiry, direct instructions, and cooperative learning . At this particular workshop, we have learned about global climate change in regards to how this is going to impact our life. Participants have been charged to increase the scientific understanding of pre-service teachers education programs nationally to incorporate climate education lessons. These recommended practices will provide feasible instructional strategies that can be easily implemented and used to clarify possible misconceptions and ambiguities in scientific knowledge. Additionally, the presentation will promote an awareness to the many facets in which climate

  17. NASA-STD 3001 and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH): Evolution of NASA-STD-3000 (United States)

    Pickett, Lynn; Connolly, Janis; Arch, M.; Tillman, Barry; Russo, Dane


    The Habitability & Environmental Factors and Space Medicine Divisions have developed the Space Flight Human System Standard (SFHSS) (NASA-STD-3001) to replace NASA-STD-3000 as a new NASA standard for all human spaceflight programs. The SFHSS is composed of 2 volumes. Volume 1, Crew Health, contains medical levels of care, permissible exposure limits, and fitness for duty criteria, and permissible outcome limits as a means of defining successful operating criteria for the human system. Volume 2, Habitability and Environmental Health, contains environmental, habitability and human factors standards. Development of the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH), a companion to the standard, is currently under construction and entails the update and revision of NASA-STD-3000 data. This new handbook will, in the fashion of NASA STD-3000, assist engineers and designers in appropriately applying habitability, environmental and human factors principles to spacecraft design. Organized in a chapter-module-element structure, the HIDH will provide the guidance for the development of requirements, design considerations, lessons learned, example solutions, background research, and assist in the identification of gaps and research needs in the disciplines. Subject matter experts have been and continue to be solicited to participate in the update of the chapters. The purpose is to build the HIDH with the best and latest data, and provide a broad representation from experts in industry, academia, the military and the space program. The handbook and the two standards volumes work together in a unique way to achieve the required level of human-system interface. All new NASA programs will be required to meet Volumes 1 and 2. Volume 2 presents human interface goals in broad, non-verifiable standards. Volume 2 also requires that each new development program prepare a set of program-specific human factors requirements. These program-specific human and environmental factors requirements

  18. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.


    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  19. An Interim Report on NASA's Draft Space Technology Roadmaps (United States)


    Ground and Launch Systems Processing B Panel 2: Robotics, Communications, and Navigation TA04 Robotics, TeleRobotics, and Autonomous Systems TA05 Communication and Navigation Systems C Panel 3: Instruments and Computing TA08 Science Instruments, Observatories, and Sensor Systems TA11 Modeling, Simulation, Information Technology, and Data Processing D Panel 4: Human Health and Surface Exploration TA06 Human Health, Life Support, and Habitation Systems TA07 Human Exploration Destination Systems E Panel 5: Materials Panel TA10 Nanotechnology TA12 Materials, Structures, Mechanical Systems, and Manufacturing TA14 Thermal Management Systems F Panel 6: Entry, Descent, and Landing Panel TA09 Entry, Descent, and Landing Systems In addition to drawing on the expertise represented on the steering committee and panels, the committee obtained input from each of 14 public workshops held on each of the 14 roadmaps. At these 1-day workshops, invited speakers, guests, and members of the public engaged in discussions on the different technology areas and their value to NASA. Broad community input was also solicited from a public website, where more than 240 public comments were received on the draft roadmaps in response to application of criteria (such as benefit, risk and reasonableness, and alignment with NASA and national goals) that the steering committee established. This interim report reflects the results of deliberations by the steering committee in light of these public inputs as well as additional inputs from the six panels. The steering committee's final report will be completed early in 2012. That report will prioritize the technologies that span the entire scope of the 14 roadmaps and provide additional guidance on crosscutting themes and other relevant topics.

  20. NASA Subsonic Rotary Wing Project (United States)

    Young, Larry A.


    This slide presentation will outline the rationale for, and the initial results of, a contractor study being performed by a SAIC-led team of Bell Helicopter Textron, Sensis, and Optimal Synthesis. Together, this team represents an extensive body of subject matter expertise as related to rotorcraft technologies and design, airspace demand modeling simulation, and terminal area operations and flight path planning. The initial conceptual design results of a fleet of civil tiltrotor aircraft ranging in size from 10 to 120 passengers is a key highlight of the work to be presented. The intent of this presentation is to begin to provide the general community of rotorcraft researchers, manufacturers, and end-users an appreciation of the criticality of interjecting rotorcraft-specific technology and concepts of operation issues into Next Gen airspace requirements

  1. NASA Tech Briefs, July 2005 (United States)


    Thin-Film Resistance Heat-Flux Sensors Circuit Indicates that Voice-Recording Disks are Nearly Full Optical Sensing of Combustion Instabilities in Gas Turbines Topics include: Crane-Load Contact Sensor; Hexagonal and Pentagonal Fractal Multiband Antennas; Multifunctional Logic Gate Controlled by Temperature; Multifunctional Logic Gate Controlled by Supply Voltage; Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics; SCB Quantum Computers Using iSWAP and 1-Qubit Rotations; CSAM Metrology Software Tool; Update on Rover Sequencing and Visualization Program; Selecting Data from a Star Catalog; Rotating Desk for Collaboration by Two Computer Programmers; Variable-Pressure Washer; Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover; Improvements in Fabrication of Sand/Binder Cores for Casting; Solid Freeform Fabrication of Composite-Material Objects; Efficient Computational Model of Hysteresis; Gauges for Highly Precise Metrology of a Compound Mirror; Improved Electrolytic Hydrogen Peroxide Generator; High-Power Fiber Lasers Using Photonic Band Gap Materials; Ontology-Driven Information Integration; Quantifying Traversability of Terrain for a Mobile Robot; More About Arc-Welding Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes; Controlling Laser Spot Size in Outer Space; or Software-Reconfigurable Processors for Spacecraft.

  2. Studies of Grain Boundaries in Materials Subjected to Diffusional Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbygaard, Thomas

    Grain boundaries in crystalline Cu(2%Ni) creep specimens have been studied by use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to establish the mechanism of deformation. Creep rate measurements and dependencies were found to fit reasonably well with the model for diffusional creep......) with the activity displayed during diffusional creep testing. It was found that boundaries with low deviation from perfect Σ did not contribute macroscopically to the creep strain. A resist deposition procedure was examined to improve the reference surface grid so as to allow determination of the grain boundary...... plane by use of simple stereomicroscopy directly on the surface. The etched pattern deteriorated heav-ily during creep testing, supposedly because of dislocation creep, due to exces-sive creep stress. Grain boundaries have been studied and characterised by TEM providing an insight into the diversity...

  3. A Subject Index to Comic Books and Related Material. (United States)

    Scott, Randall W.

    The original problem of the Special Collections division of the Michigan State University Library (MSU) was to establish a direction for the comic book section of the popular culture collection, and to state the holdings in the chosen area. The comics chosen as the target collection were the superhero comics of the 1960's through 1975, as this was…

  4. Designing Cartoon as a Supplementary Material for English Structure Subject (United States)

    Mina, Nurawati; Putranti, Sulistini Dwi


    Cartoon comes from an Italian word "Cartone" meaning a large paper. It is designed not only as the media to describe daily activities, but also to entertain, criticize, provoke, and even to teach people. A lot of studies have been conducted regarding the implementation of cartoon in classroom or outside classroom context. It is proven…

  5. 1. Introduction Granular materials have been a subject of intense ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. A Pedagogical Study of Cooling of a Granualar Gas. Rahul Makhijani Praveen Pathak Vijay ...

  6. Topic Centred Subject/Language Learning Materials and Their Use. (United States)

    Rado, Marta

    Social bilinguals (second language learners in a linguistic minority) and cultural bilinguals (foreign language learners) often learn side by side in the same classroom, making syllabus planning and choice of teaching methodology difficult. Adopting a bilingual approach and exploring the semantic and discourse aspects of language can overcome the…

  7. Autonomous and autonomic systems with applications to NASA intelligent spacecraft operations and exploration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Truszkowski, Walt; Rouff, Christopher; Karlin, Jay; Rash, James; Hinchey, Michael; Sterritt, Roy


    This book provides an in-depth discussion of autonomous and autonomic systems, their interdependencies, differences and similarities. Current and pending issues in these evermore increasingly important subjects are highlighted and discussed. Concepts, ideas and experiences are explored in relation to real-life NASA systems in spacecraft control and in the exploration domain.

  8. Discover the Universe with NASA during the International Year of Astronomy: A Workshop for Astronomy Educators (United States)

    Dussault, M.; Smith, D.; Allen, J.; Backman, D.; Bartolone, L.; Bobrowsky, M.; Gould, A.; Mendez, B.; Lochner, J.; Mayo, L.; McLin, K.; Reinfeld, E.; Shupla, C.; Summers, F.; Thiemann, J.; Devore, E.


    NASA's space science missions are working together to provide educators with the knowledge and materials they need to discover and share the universe with their audiences during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) and beyond. In this daylong intensive workshop, participants experienced a prototype version of NASA's IYA workshop series for educators. They explored Earth's place in the universe; light, energy, and optics; and the nature of astronomical models and evidence while investigating how NASA's spaced-based missions extend Galileo's legacy. Discussions included how to find and use NASA content and resources in the classroom, after-school programs, libraries, science centers, and museums, as well as how to connect to the international IYA2009 Galileo Teacher Training Program and U.S. Families and Classrooms efforts. All references, resources, and handouts from the workshop are available online at

  9. Reinvigorating the Entrepreneurial Spirit of NASA (United States)

    Cepollina, Frank


    This talk gives a rundown of a career in servicing and looks to the future of servicing and scientific missions working together. The talk attempts to reinvigorate the old NASA entrepreneurial spirit.

  10. NASA GSFC Perspective on Heterogeneous Processing (United States)

    Powell, Wesley A.


    This presentation provides an overview of NASA GSFC, our onboard processing applications, the applicability heterogeneous processing to these applications, and necessary developments to enable heterogeneous processing to be infused into our missions.

  11. NASA total quality management 1989 accomplishments report (United States)

    Tai, Betty P. (Editor); Stewart, Lynne M. (Editor)


    NASA and contractor employees achieved many notable improvements in 1989. The highlights of those improvements, described in this seventh annual Accomplishments Report, demonstrate that the people who support NASA's activities are getting more involved in quality and continuous improvement efforts. Their gains solidly support NASA's and this Nation's goal to remain a leader in space exploration and in world-wide market competition, and, when communicated to others through avenues such as this report, foster improvement efforts across government and industry. The principles in practice which led to these process refinements are important cultural elements to any organization's productivity and quality efforts. The categories in this report reflect NASA principles set forth in the 1980's and are more commonly known today as Total Quality Management (TQM): top management leadership and support; strategic planning; focus on the customer; employee training and recognition; employee empowerment and teamwork; measurement and analysis; and quality assurance.

  12. Google Maps Mashups of NASA Data Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Search, analysis and display of NASA science data by non-GIS experts can be facilitated using so-called "Web 2.0" technologies. Google Maps is a popular geospatial...

  13. NASA 3D Models: QuikSCAT (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) is equipped with a specialized microwave radar that measures near-surface wind speed and direction under all weather and cloud...

  14. Applications for Freeforms Optics at NASA (United States)

    West, Garrett J.; Howard, Joseph M.


    Review freeform optic applications as NASA. Describe design study results showing benefits of freeform optics to the instrument size, image quality, and field of view. Review areas of study and improvements needed to freeform manufacturing for future applications.

  15. NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IRSA is chartered to curate the calibrated science products from NASAs infrared and sub-millimeter missions, including five major large-area/all-sky surveys. IRSA...

  16. OAI and NASA's Scientific and Technical Information (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Rocker, JoAnne; Harrison, Terry L.


    The Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) is an evolving protocol and philosophy regarding interoperability for digital libraries (DLs). Previously, "distributed searching" models were popular for DL interoperability. However, experience has shown distributed searching systems across large numbers of DLs to be difficult to maintain in an Internet environment. The OAI-PMH is a move away from distributed searching, focusing on the arguably simpler model of "metadata harvesting". We detail NASA s involvement in defining and testing the OAI-PMH and experience to date with adapting existing NASA distributed searching DLs (such as the NASA Technical Report Server) to use the OAI-PMH and metadata harvesting. We discuss some of the entirely new DL projects that the OAI-PMH has made possible, such as the Technical Report Interchange project. We explain the strategic importance of the OAI-PMH to the mission of NASA s Scientific and Technical Information Program.

  17. NASA Scientific and Technical Information Standards (United States)


    This document presents general recommended standards for documenting scientific and technical information (STI) from a number of scientific and engineering disciplines. It is a companion publication to NASA SP-7084, "Grammar, Punctuation, and Capitalization: A Handbook for Technical Writers and Editors," and is intended primarily for STI personnel and publishing personnel within NASA and who support NASA STI publishing. Section 1 gives an overview of NASA STI publications. Section 2 discusses figure preparation considerations. Section 3 covers table design, and Section 4 gives information about symbols and math related to STI publishing. Section 5 covers units of measure. Section 6 discusses References, and Section 7 discusses electronic documents. Section 8 covers information related to the review of STI prior to publication; this covers both technical and dissemination review and approval, including data quality. Section 9 discusses printing and dissemination related to STI, and Section 10 gives abbreviations and acronyms used in the document.

  18. NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) dataset is comprised of downscaled climate scenarios for the globe that are derived from the...

  19. NASA metrology information system: A NEMS subsystem (United States)

    German, E. S., Jr.; Kern, F. A.; Yow, R. P.; Peterson, E.


    the NASA Metrology Information Systems (NMIS) is being developed as a standardized tool in managing the NASA field Center's instrument calibration programs. This system, as defined by the NASA Metrology and Calibration Workshop, will function as a subsystem of the newly developed NASA Equipment Management System (NEMS). The Metrology Information System is designed to utilize and update applicable NEMS data fields for controlled property and to function as a stand alone system for noncontrolled property. The NMIS provides automatic instrument calibration recall control, instrument historical performance data storage and analysis, calibration and repair labor and parts cost data, and instrument user and location data. Nineteen standardized reports were developed to analyze calibration system operations.

  20. NASA spinoffs to bioengineering and medicine (United States)

    Rouse, D. J.; Winfield, D. L.; Canada, S. C.


    Through the active transfer of technology, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Technology Utilization (TU) Program assists private companies, associations, and government agencies to make effective use of NASA's technological resources to improve U.S. economic competitiveness and to provide societal benefit. Aerospace technology from areas such as digital image processing, space medicine and biology, microelectronics, optics and electrooptics, and ultrasonic imaging have found many secondary applications in medicine. Examples of technology spinoffs are briefly discussed to illustrate the benefits realized through adaptation of aerospace technology to solve health care problems. Successful implementation of new technologies increasingly requires the collaboration of industry, universities, and government, and the TU Program serves as the liaison to establish such collaborations with NASA. NASA technology is an important resource to support the development of new medical products and techniques that will further advance the quality of health care available in the U.S. and worldwide.