WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter taught

  1. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  2. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  3. What the Sun Has Taught Us About Basic Properties of Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Sarbani [Yale University

    2012-03-07

    The Sun is an immensely large object formed out of many tons of gas. Yet the Sun can help us learn about some of the basic properties of matter. The structure of the Sun is governed not only by macrophysics such as hydrostatic equilibrium, convective and radiative heat transport, but also by microphysics such as nuclear reaction rates and the equation of state of the material that forms the Sun. Knowledge of the detailed structure of the Sun can therefore help us constrain the basic properties of matter. Helioseismology, the study of solar pulsations, has given us the means to get a detailed picture of the solar interior. In this talk I shall discuss how helioseismology has allowed us to determine details of solar structure, and in turn allowing us to study basic properties of matter.

  4. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  5. Subjects taught in VR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Frans; van den Broek, Egon; Stam, Liesbeth M.; Abrahamse, E.L.; Luursema, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This deliverable serves to reinstate a broad view on Virtual Reality (VR), capturing all its constituting disciplines. The core target of this report is to establish a foundation for an educational program where all disciplines subordinate to VR technology will converge. Over the past decade(s) the

  6. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  7. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  8. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  9. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  10. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  11. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  12. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  13. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  14. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  15. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  16. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  17. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  18. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  19. Should engineering ethics be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaté, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    Should engineering ethics be taught? Despite the obvious truism that we all want our students to be moral engineers who practice virtuous professional behavior, I argue, in this article that the question itself obscures several ambiguities that prompt preliminary resolution. Upon clarification of these ambiguities, and an attempt to delineate key issues that make the question a philosophically interesting one, I conclude that engineering ethics not only should not, but cannot, be taught if we understand "teaching engineering ethics" to mean training engineers to be moral individuals (as some advocates seem to have proposed). However, I also conclude that there is a justification to teaching engineering ethics, insofar as we are able to clearly identify the most desirable and efficacious pedagogical approach to the subject area, which I propose to be a case study-based format that utilizes the principle of human cognitive pattern recognition.

  20. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  1. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  2. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  3. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  4. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  5. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  6. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  7. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  8. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  9. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  10. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  11. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  12. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  13. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R

    2011-06-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  14. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  15. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethics: Can It Be Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    conduct Professional practices Business practices ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 49 Figure 11. Changes in Metacognitive Reasoning Strategy Due to...jealousy manifesting in such behaviors as moodiness, frustration, and loneliness) negatively correlates to ethical decision-making in business ...active rule-based compliance program but not a value-based ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 54 ethics program . . . the importance of leadership

  17. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  18. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.

    2011-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  19. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  20. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  1. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  2. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  3. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  4. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  5. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  6. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  7. Empathy - can it be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, D; Downie, R

    2016-06-01

    There is now a societal and cultural expectation that doctors and nurses should feel, and display, empathy for their patients. Many commentators argue that medical and nursing students should be taught empathy. Empathy, however, is difficult to define: it is not the same as kindness, as it implies a degree of psychological insight into what the patient is thinking or feeling. Empathy is seen by some as a form of emotional intelligence that can be systematically developed through teaching and positive role models. Here we debate the meaning of empathy, and whether it is truly a quality, or attribute, that can be taught.

  8. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  9. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  11. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. philippe.marc@novartis.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  13. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  14. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  15. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  17. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  18. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  19. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  20. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  1. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  2. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  3. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  4. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  5. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  6. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  7. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  8. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  9. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  11. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  12. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  13. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  14. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  15. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling

  16. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  17. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  18. What My Refugee Students Taught Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a coup in Haiti sent a new wave of political refugees to southern Florida. First-year teacher Sidney Brown taught ESOL classes to Haitian teens who came to Dillard High School in Ft. Lauderdale. As she got to know her students, she was surprised by the class distinctions that divided the French-speaking students, whose…

  19. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  20. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  2. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  3. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  4. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  5. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  6. Herder and Modernity: From Lesser-Taught Languages to Lesser-Taught Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Votruba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The typical North American curriculum of a lesser-taught Slavic language implicitly relies on the legacy of Johann Gottfried von Herder’s interpretation that language in and of itself contains national (ethnic culture. At the same time, enrolments are dwindling even in courses in the most commonly taught Slavic languages. Millennials’ understandable focus on the practicality of the courses they take make it unlikely for the lesser-taught languages to survive the slump. On the other hand, foreign culture courses are appearing to hold their ground more successfully. Slavic departments may reconsider Herder’s dictum as they try to maintain or establish programs in lesser-taught languages and cultures.

  7. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  8. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  9. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  10. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  11. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  13. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  14. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  15. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  16. Comparison of Students Taught Basketball Skills Using Mastery and Nonmastery Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Connie L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Researchers compared psychomotor skill performance in isolation and in competitive game situations with seventh grade boys taught basketball using Bloom's mastery learning model or nonmastery procedures. Mastery subjects surpassed control and nonmastery groups on all skills performed in isolation. No significant differences existed in skill…

  17. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  18. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  20. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  1. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  2. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  3. Improving Discussion in Astronomy Courses Taught Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker

    2017-06-01

    Astronomy courses that are either hybrid in nature or offered in a completely online format are becoming more common at colleges and universities. In particular, faculty members at small colleges are being encouraged to develop courses that can be taught online in order to give students increased flexibility in scheduling classes and reach a separate population of learners. For instructors accustomed to teaching students in person using plenty of interaction, making the switch to teaching even one online course a year can be challenging. However, some topics are developing so rapidly (exoplanets) that it is difficult to imagine having students rely on a standard textbook at all, and the use of online resources become essential. Here, we describe methods used to promote discussion, evaluate its content and effectively incorporate the use of recently released articles in order to keep students engaged. We present efforts to produce a lively classroom atmosphere centered on recent advances and several debated topics. Lastly, we report on successes, challenges and plans for improving online courses in the future.

  4. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  5. EPR: what has it taught us

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1985-05-01

    This symposium commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of the paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is a fitting place to review what that work and its sequels have taught us. Prima facie, the EPR paper appears to have been exceedingly counter-productive for the following reasons: (1) The work was quickly rebutted by Bohr, and this rebuttal was apparently accepted by most workers in the field. (2) Scientists who adopted the position advocated by Bohr have produced, in the intervening fifty years, a marvelous body of useful theory, whereas those following the course suggested by EPR have produced nothing of any certified practical value. (3) It has been shown by Bell that the conclusion reached by EPR is incompatible with their assumptions. Chemists and physicists have recently begun to examine the behavior of quantum mechanical systems that are very small, yet large enough to influence their environment in ways that appreciably modify their own behavior, vis-a-vis the behavior they would have if isolated. Because these systems are neither small enough to be treated as isolated (or as residing in a classically described environment) between preparation and detection, nor large enough to be treated classically, they do not conform to the format demanded by the Copenhagen interpretation. Indeed, the behavior of these systems depends on ontological considerations that were irrelevant in the situations covered by the Copenhagen interpretation, and that were systematically ignored in that interpretation. Scientists now face the task of enlarging the scope of quantum theory to cover these new situations, and comparing the empirical consequences of various ontological assumptions. 17 refs.

  6. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  7. Retention of Vaginal Breech Delivery Skills Taught in Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Heather; Crane, Joan; Johnston, Kathy; Craig, Catherine

    2018-02-01

    The optimal frequency of conducting simulation training for high-acuity, low-frequency events in obstetrics and gynaecology residency programs is unknown. This study evaluated retention over time of vaginal breech delivery skills taught in simulation, by comparing junior and senior residents. In addition, the residents' subjective comfort level to perform this skill clinically was assessed. This prospective cohort study included 22 obstetrics and gynaecology residents in a Canadian residency training program. Digital recordings were completed for pre-training, immediate post-training, and delayed (10-26 weeks later) post-training intervals of a vaginal breech delivery simulation, with skill assessment by a blinded observer using a binary checklist. Residents also completed questionnaires to assess their subjective comfort level at each interval. Junior and senior residents had significant improvements in vaginal breech delivery skills from the pre-training assessment to both the immediate post-training assessment (junior, P simulation 10-26 weeks later, although a decline in skills occurred over this time period. Comfort level was positively affected and retained. These results will aid in determining the frequency of simulation teaching for high-acuity, low-frequency events in a residency simulation curriculum. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  9. How is veterinary parasitology taught in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2006-12-01

    Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.

  10. What Computational Approaches Should be Taught for Physics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Rubin

    2005-03-01

    The standard Computational Physics courses are designed for upper-level physics majors who already have some computational skills. We believe that it is important for first-year physics students to learn modern computing techniques that will be useful throughout their college careers, even before they have learned the math and science required for Computational Physics. To teach such Introductory Scientific Computing courses requires that some choices be made as to what subjects and computer languages wil be taught. Our survey of colleagues active in Computational Physics and Physics Education show no predominant choice, with strong positions taken for the compiled languages Java, C, C++ and Fortran90, as well as for problem-solving environments like Maple and Mathematica. Over the last seven years we have developed an Introductory course and have written up those courses as text books for others to use. We will describe our model of using both a problem-solving environment and a compiled language. The developed materials are available in both Maple and Mathaematica, and Java and Fortran90ootnotetextPrinceton University Press, to be published; www.physics.orst.edu/˜rubin/IntroBook/.

  11. Parent-taught driver education in Texas : a comparative evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    An evaluation of the Parent-Taught Driver Education (PTDE) program in Texas was conducted using three different research techniques: (1) focus groups with driver education instructors, teen drivers, and their parents; (2) statewide mail survey of you...

  12. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  13. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  14. Student perceptions of an animal-welfare and ethics course taught early in the veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Sarah K; Siegford, Janice M

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare and veterinary ethics are two subjects that have been acknowledged as necessary for inclusion in the veterinary curriculum. In fact, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education has mandated that veterinary ethics be taught to all students in US veterinary colleges. Animal welfare was recently included in the US veterinarian's oath, and AVMA established a committee to create a model curriculum on the subject. At US veterinary colleges, the number of animal-welfare courses has more than doubled from five in 2004 to more than 10 in 2011. How and what is taught with regard to these two subjects may be as important as whether they are taught at all, and a variety of approaches and varying amounts and types of content are currently being offered on them. At Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine, students were introduced to animal welfare and veterinary ethics during their first semester in a mandatory two-credit course. To assess their perception of the course, students completed an online evaluation at the end of the semester. Most students found the course to be challenging and effective and felt that they improved their ability to identify and discuss ethical dilemmas.

  15. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  16. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  17. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  18. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if the matter being taught is correct or incorrect. And if it is correct, to what .... 2, in some units. This will be an unnatural and artificial definition. (Why this value?). Artificial and unnatural definitions are not useful, as there is a good chance somebody else will choose a ... you make an arbitrary definition, it is unlikely to be use-.

  20. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  1. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  2. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  3. Rethinking how Undergraduate ``Hard Rock'' Petrology is Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    A course in "hard rock" petrology forms a core component of undergraduate training in the geosciences. In most cases, the subjects of igneous and metamorphic petrology are combined in a single course and the course is traditionally structured so that the two subjects are covered in series. This approach enables students to focus on each subject separately, with knowledge of igneous rocks helping students to understand metamorphic rock protoliths. Student assessment shows, however, that this approach tends to compartmentalize learning and the two main subjects might just as well be taught in separate courses. In practical applications such as fieldwork, students must be able to access their understanding of igneous and metamorphic rocks virtually simultaneously. To better integrate student learning, I developed a spiral learning approach to teaching petrology (e.g., Bruner, 1990; Dyar et al., 2004) so that commonalities could be revisited several times over the course of a semester and, in so doing, students' grasp of the fundamental insights provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks could be scaffolded into greater understanding. The course initially focuses on the dynamics of the environments in which igneous and metamorphic rocks form: heat flow, fluid flow, and plate tectonics. Several subsequent weeks explore topics relevant to identifying and understanding igneous and metamorphic rocks in the field: crystal nucleation and growth, the roles of pressure and heat, and field classification. Laboratory exercises parallel this structure, also emphasizing observations that are valuable in the field: the relationship between minerals and rocks, textural observations, and general rock classification. The final portion of the course explores “hard rocks” in more detail with a greater emphasis on the interplay between chemistry and mineralogy. A variety of learner-centered activities in the course help students bridge the gap between novice and expert and include

  4. Old versus New Medications: How Much Should Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, James W.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of how much psychiatric residents should be taught about older medications. Methods: Selective use of the literature, including historical overview, was employed to compare and contrast old and newer generation medications. Results: While many old drugs are truly antiquated, medications such as typical…

  5. Was Mendelian genetics taught during the Lysenkoist period in Poland?

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The content of Polish textbooks of botany, zoology and rudiments of evolutionism of Lysenkoist times was analysed, along with a methodological manual for biology and a set of guidelines. On this basis, and taking into account the memories of eyewitnesses, it can be stated that Mendelian genetics was not taught in schools in Poland during the Lysenkoist period.

  6. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  7. Scholarly Appraisals of Literary Works Taught in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Stephen, Ed.; Sams, Henry W., Ed.

    Critical essays on eight literary works--four from the conventional literature curriculum and four less widely taught--are collected in this publication. Each o f the four standard selections--"Great Expectations,""Julius Caesar,""The Scarlet Letter," and "Macbeth"--is treated in two essays and a bibliography; and each of the less widely taught…

  8. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  9. How can learning vocabulary strategies be taught in class?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, María Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its great importance and relevance for language teaching, vocabulary is usually neglected in state schools. Many teachers mostly concentrate on the four macro skills and on grammar, treating vocabulary as part of them. Vocabulary should be taught separately, or at least given special attention, since it is essential for conveying meaning. Just knowing the rules of language or being competent in the four skills is not enough to express thoughts, opinions, ideas or emotions. This do...

  10. Dark matter in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  11. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. A team-taught interdisciplinary approach to engineering ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Glenn C; Pionke, Christopher D

    2006-04-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of a new course in Engineering Ethics at the University of Tennessee. This is a three-semester-hour course and is jointly taught by an engineering professor and a philosophy professor. While traditional pedagogical techniques such as case studies, position papers, and classroom discussions are used, additional activities such as developing a code of ethics and student-developed scenarios are employed to encourage critical thinking. Among the topics addressed in the course are engineering as a profession and its role in society; ethical successes and failures; risk, safety, and the environment; professional responsibilities; credit and intellectual property; and international concerns. The most significant aspect of the course is that it brings both engineering and non-engineering points of view to the topics at hand. This is accomplished in two ways. First, as mentioned previously, it is team-taught by engineering faculty with an interest in ethical and societal issues, and by philosophy faculty with expertise in the field of professional ethics and an interest in science and technology. Second, the course is offered to both engineers and non-engineers. This mix of students requires that all students must be able to explain their technical and ethical decisions in a non-technical manner. Work teams are structured to maximize interdisciplinary interaction and to foster insights by each student into the professional commitments and attitudes of others.

  13. A leadership elective course developed and taught by graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Brandon J; Garza, Oscar W; Witry, Matthew J; Chang, Elizabeth H; Letendre, Donald E; Trewet, Coralynn B

    2013-12-16

    To develop and implement a flexible-credit elective course to empower student pharmacists to develop lifelong leadership skills and provide teaching practice opportunities for graduate students. An elective course focusing on leadership development for second- and third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students was designed and taught by 4 graduate students under the mentorship of 2 faculty members. Student pharmacists could enroll in a 1-, 2-, or 3-credit-hour version of the course. Attainment of course objectives was measured using student pharmacist reflection papers and continuing professional development portfolios. Additionally, self-assessments of graduate students and faculty members delivering the course were conducted. In their responses on course evaluations, student pharmacists indicated they found the course a valuable learning experience. Graduate students found course development to be challenging but useful in developing faculty skills. This flexible-credit elective course taught by graduate students was an innovative way to offer formal leadership instruction using limited college resources.

  14. A Leadership Elective Course Developed and Taught by Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Oscar W.; Witry, Matthew J.; Chang, Elizabeth H.; Letendre, Donald E.; Trewet, CoraLynn B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop and implement a flexible-credit elective course to empower student pharmacists to develop lifelong leadership skills and provide teaching practice opportunities for graduate students. Design. An elective course focusing on leadership development for second- and third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students was designed and taught by 4 graduate students under the mentorship of 2 faculty members. Student pharmacists could enroll in a 1-, 2-, or 3-credit-hour version of the course. Assessment. Attainment of course objectives was measured using student pharmacist reflection papers and continuing professional development portfolios. Additionally, self-assessments of graduate students and faculty members delivering the course were conducted. In their responses on course evaluations, student pharmacists indicated they found the course a valuable learning experience. Graduate students found course development to be challenging but useful in developing faculty skills. Conclusion. This flexible-credit elective course taught by graduate students was an innovative way to offer formal leadership instruction using limited college resources. PMID:24371347

  15. Self-Taught convolutional neural networks for short text clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiaming; Xu, Bo; Wang, Peng; Zheng, Suncong; Tian, Guanhua; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Short text clustering is a challenging problem due to its sparseness of text representation. Here we propose a flexible Self-Taught Convolutional neural network framework for Short Text Clustering (dubbed STC(2)), which can flexibly and successfully incorporate more useful semantic features and learn non-biased deep text representation in an unsupervised manner. In our framework, the original raw text features are firstly embedded into compact binary codes by using one existing unsupervised dimensionality reduction method. Then, word embeddings are explored and fed into convolutional neural networks to learn deep feature representations, meanwhile the output units are used to fit the pre-trained binary codes in the training process. Finally, we get the optimal clusters by employing K-means to cluster the learned representations. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework is effective, flexible and outperform several popular clustering methods when tested on three public short text datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey of Digital Materials for Teaching Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Blankenship

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first phase of a survey of digital materials for teaching Less Commonly Taught Languages. The research, conducted by the UCLA Language Materials Project from August, 2010, through February, 2012, located more than 500 reliable digital resources from academic and governmental providers. The report details the survey’s selection criteria and primary sources, and describes trends in technology, distribution of materials, and types of content. Then narrowing its focus to the eleven languages supported by the federal Startalk and Flagship programs, the report summarizes the population of digital materials available for those languages and identifies needs. It ends with recommendations of categories of materials that need to be developed, along with comments on feasibility.

  17. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  18. Can the use of humor in psychotherapy be taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lisa; Gabbard, Glen O

    2014-02-01

    Despite an abundance of literature detailing the potential benefits of the use of humor in therapy, humor is rarely taught to psychiatric residents as a method of therapeutic intervention. This communication attempts to explain how current understanding of attachment theory and neuroscience may assist psychiatric faculty and supervisors in their teaching of humorous therapeutic interventions. This article reviews and synthesizes the extant literature on the use of humor, as well as recent work in neuroscience, attachment theory, and mentalization. Humor can be conceptualized as an instance of implicit relational knowing and may thus contribute significantly to the therapeutic action of psychotherapy as a subcategory of "moments of meeting" between therapist and patient. However, training residents to use humor in psychotherapy requires more individualized attention in supervision and classroom seminars. Factors such as individual proclivities for humorous repartee, mentalizing capacity, and an authentic interest in adding humor to the session may be necessary to incorporate spontaneous humor into one's technique. New findings from the areas of attachment theory, neuroscience, and right-hemisphere learning are providing potential opportunities for sophisticated teaching of the use of humor in psychotherapy.

  19. Cultural Values Represented in First Certificate Masterclass Taught in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alimorad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the crucial role textbooks play in any educational system, an urgent need is felt to examine, evaluate, and choose the most suitable ones available. This study is an attempt to critically examine and uncover the hidden curriculum in First Certificate Masterclass (FCM that is taught at Navid institute in Iran. To this aim, FCM was deeply examined to identify any instances of Western cultural norms and preferences and their potential influences on Iranian EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ thoughts and ideologies. Peterson’s distinction between Big “C” culture and little “c” culture constituted the theoretical framework of the study. To collect the necessary data, all passages, texts, exercises, and even listening excerpts were closely studied and evaluated by the researcher. Results indicated that among the elements of little “c” culture introduced by Peterson, preferences or tastes, food, hobbies, popular music, and popular issues could mainly be observed in the book. Furthermore, the majority of the representations introduced and depicted in the book were incompatible with Iranian Muslim people’s ideologies and beliefs. Implications of these findings for Iranian material developers and textbook writers as well as English teachers are also discussed.

  20. Should Creationism be Taught in the Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, Robert T.

    This article discusses philosophicalarguments relevant to the question of teachingcreationism, especially with regard to developments inthe debate since the early 1990s.Section 1 reviews the newfactions within the creationist movement, and theoverlapping views from young earth to intelligentdesign creationism, as well as non-Christianvarieties. It also considers what are the relevantdifferences for the policy question for private,public schools, and for home schoolers, as well aspossible differences in what it means to teachcreationism. Sections 2 & 3 discuss the main legal argumentsthat have ruled in the public school case, as well asarguments from academic freedom, fairness, censorship,parental rights and majority rule. Section 4 evaluates theepistemological issues regarding competing claims oftruth, and the contention that excluding whatChristians know (Alvin Plantinga) amounts toviewpoint discrimination (Phillip Johnson). Section 5argues that religious protection arguments actuallyfavor excluding creationism more than including it. Section 6 considers the goals of education, especiallyDewey's views on science education, and what theseimply regarding the teaching of a theistic science. In Section 7, I review a new argument of Alvin Plantingabased upon a purported Rawlsian basic right of aparent not to have her children taught anything thatviolates her comprehensive beliefs, and show whyRawlsian agents would reject it.

  1. Subject domain differences in secondary school teachers' attitudes towards grouping pupils by ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallam Susan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has revealed that teachers' attitudes to ability grouping are influenced by the type of ability grouping adopted in the school where they teach. This research aimed to compare the attitudes of teachers of different subjects teaching low, high or mixed ability classes in years 7 to 9 in 45 secondary schools. Over 1500 teachers from 45 secondary schools, with a range of subject specialisms completed a questionnaire which elicited their responses to statements of beliefs about ability grouping and its effects. Teachers of mathematics and modern foreign languages were more in favour of structured ability grouping than those teaching English and humanities. Science, arts and PE, and ICT, design and business studies teachers expressed intermediate attitudes. Attitudes were determined in part by conceptions of the nature of the subject but also by the type of ability groupings adopted by the school in which they taught. In taking decisions about the type of ability grouping to adopt consideration needs to be given to the nature of the subject matter to be taught and the attitudes of the teachers who teach that subject.

  2. Teaching science to science teachers: Lessons taught and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, E. M.; Hashimoto-Martell, E. A.; Balicki, S.; Oglavie, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Boston Science Partnership has created a comprehensive set of graduate courses that immerse teachers in the science topics most relevant to their teaching practices. In these courses, teachers become students of science, developing their conceptual understandings through scientific inquiry. All courses are co-taught by a university faculty and teacher leaders from the Boston Public Schools. Each course provides contextual linkages between the science content and the standards-based curriculum of the Boston Public School district. One of the most relevant science topics to teachers and students of all disciplines is climate change. This served as the overarching theme for our course delivered during summer 2008 and 2009. This course focused on weather and the pivotal role that water and solar radiation play in the exchange of energy at the Earth's surface. Basic concepts such as the behavior of gases, energy flow, density changes, phase changes, heat capacities, and thermal convection were applied to examine short-term weather and water dynamics and longer-term impacts on global warming and climate change. The course was designed to embrace the 7E learning cycle and instructional model, as proposed by Eisenkraft in his landmark 2003 Science Teacher article. This inquiry-based instructional model builds upon prior conceptions and engages the learner in activities in which they begin to construct meaning of a concept prior to being given an explanation. Each day focused on an essential topic related to weather and climate change, and experiential learning was our main objective. There were many successes and challenges with our course. Twenty-five participants were enrolled, and all had different background knowledge and skill sets. Additionally, their level of teaching varied greatly, from K-12, so the level of depth with which to learn the content in order to bring it back to their classrooms varied a great deal as well. Therefore differentiating instruction for

  3. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  4. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Loneliness and Fear of Intimacy among Adolescents Who Were Taught Not To Trust Strangers during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Francis; Terrell, Ivanna S.; Von Drashek, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Explores feelings of loneliness and fear of intimacy among college students (N=80) as a function of whether or not they were taught to trust strangers during childhood. Results show that those who were taught not to trust strangers had a greater fear of intimacy. Female participants experienced more loneliness than their male counterparts. (MKA)

  7. Gender and Diversity Topics Taught in Commission on Accreditation for Marriage and Family Therapy Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Ebony Joy; Piercy, Fred P.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how the topics of gender and diversity are being taught and defined in accredited marriage and family therapy programs through syllabi content analysis and interviews with selected faculty. We examined findings by program (master's and doctoral) and type of training (those that taught specific gender and culture courses and…

  8. Why Theology Can and Should Be Taught at Secular Universities: Lonergan on Intellectual Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddy, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bernard Lonergan's "Method in Theology" (1972) I argue that theology can be taught because personal knowledge, of which it is an instance, is at the heart of academic inquiry; and it should be taught because critical engagement with basic ways of taking one's life as a whole (religion in a broad sense) furnishes a critique of the…

  9. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  10. A Team Taught Interdisciplinary Approach To Physics and Calculus Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David B.

    The Special Intensive Program for Scientists and Engineers (SIPSE) at Diablo Valley College in California replaces the traditional engineering calculus and physics sequences with a single sequence that combines the two subjects into an integrated whole. The project report provides an overview of SIPSE, a section that traces the project from…

  11. Teaching through Trade Books: Matter All Around Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    Matter is an essential science topic that is often challenging to teach at the early elementary levels. Learning about matter helps students develop a solid foundation for more complex concepts that are taught in later years. Make this abstract concept developmentally appropriate for children by engaging them in investigations that focus on…

  12. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  13. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  14. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  15. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  16. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  17. Sport Management Taught On-Line: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Stier Jr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.

  18. Are Australian medical students being taught to teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Amy C; Liu, Michael; Dannaway, Jasan; Schoo, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The current global trend of growth in medical training is increasing the demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors. If well trained and supported, junior doctors and medical students represent an important teaching resource. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence available on whether Australian medical students are equipped with teaching skills. This study aimed to gain insight into the type and amount of teaching-skills training and peer-to-peer teaching present in Australian medical schools. A survey of Australian medical schools was conducted between May and December 2014. An online 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 19 Australian medical schools. The response rate to the questionnaire was 100 per cent. Eleven Australian medical schools reported offering a teaching-skills programme, of which five were described as compulsory formal programmes. Eight schools did not offer such a programme, citing time restraints and other subjects taking higher priority. Formal peer-to-peer teaching opportunities were described by 17 schools, with 13 offering this electively. Two schools reported that they did not offer such opportunities because of time restraints, the belief that the quality of expert teaching is superior and because of a lack of staffing. The demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors is increasing CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing number of medical students and subsequently junior doctors in Australia, a minority of Australian medical schools report including a formal, compulsory teaching-skills programme. These results may imply a lost opportunity to use the positive effects of teaching-skills programmes, and are in line with studies from other countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  19. Sex Stereotypes of Secondary School Teaching Subjects: Male and Female Status Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Richard L.

    1974-01-01

    A survey reveals that teachers considered different subjects appropriately taught by men or by women and that higher prestige was attributed to whatever sex conformed to the subjects' sex stereotypes. (Author/KM)

  20. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  1. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  3. The role of writing in learning less-commonly-taught languages in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Yigitoglu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates language learners' perceptions of foreign language writing and how writing influences their language learning to write in non-Latin alphabets. While most research studies have focused on writing in commonly-taught languages, recently, L2 writing researchers have begun to call for the importance of researching the language learning and writing experiences of speakers who learn less-commonly taught languages. To address this issue, this study investigates the role of writing in learning less-commonly-taught languages. The study was conducted at a large university in Istanbul, Turkey. Turkish students learning Arabic, Russian, and Chinese as foreign languages were surveyed and interviewed in different times of the semester. The results indicated that while lower level language learners stated the act of writing serves as the only way to memorize the characters, words, and sometimes sentences, higher level language learners talked about the role of communicative aspects of writing in their language learning processes.

  4. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  5. How spirituality is understood and taught in New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D; Egan, R; Walker, S; MacLeod, R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how spirituality is currently understood and taught in New Zealand Medical Schools. A mixed methods study was carried out involving interviews (n = 14) and a survey (n = 73). The first stage of the study involved recorded semi-structured interviews of people involved in curriculum development from the Dunedin School of Medicine (n = 14); which then informed a cross-sectional self-reported electronic survey (n = 73). The results indicate that spirituality is regarded by many involved in medical education in New Zealand as an important part of healthcare that may be taught in medical schools, but also that there is little consensus among this group as to what the topic is about. These findings provide a basis for further discussion about including spirituality in medical curricula, and in particular indicate a need to develop a shared understanding of what 'spirituality' means and how it can be taught appropriately. As a highly secular country, these New Zealand findings are significant for medical education in other secular Western countries. Addressing spirituality with patients has been shown to positively impact a range of health outcomes, but how spirituality is taught in medical schools is still developing across the globe.

  6. Application of Research-Informed Teaching in the Taught-Postgraduate Education of Maritime Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Pan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Despite numerous studies of the research-teaching nexus, applying research-informed teaching (RiT) to taught-postgraduate education has been largely overlooked. This knowledge gap is particularly significant in the maritime law discipline given the fast-growing business of international shipping and logistics. This paper aims to examine the impact…

  7. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages--Still a Way to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Many Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) innovations mainly apply to the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCTLs), especially English. Recent manifestations of CALL for MCTLs such as corpora, Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) and Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are found less frequently in the world of Less Commonly Taught…

  8. Molecular Modeling as a Self-Taught Component of a Conventional Undergraduate Chemical Reaction Engineering Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Erhard W.; Zygmunt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    We inserted a self-taught molecular modeling project into an otherwise conventional undergraduate chemical-reaction-engineering course. Our objectives were that students should (a) learn with minimal instructor intervention, (b) gain an appreciation for the relationship between molecular structure and, first, macroscopic state functions in…

  9. Student-Taught Review Sessions: Fostering Communication Skills and Reinforcing Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Melanie R.

    2001-01-01

    Uses student-taught review sessions to reinforce basic concepts and to practice giving an oral presentation to an attentive audience. Indicates that the program was successful in helping students develop oral presentation skills while they were experiencing peer teaching. (ASK)

  10. Preparing Undergraduates for Paraprofessional Positions: What, Where, when, and how Are Ethical Issues Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haemmerlie, Frances M.; Matthews, Janet R.

    1988-01-01

    Raises questions about undergraduate preparation in ethical issues and discusses appropriate paraprofessional roles. Suggests what should be taught, how it might be included in the curriculum, and ways that ethics might be addressed. Stresses the importance of teaching about ethical issues because psychology graduates obtain employment in human…

  11. An Analytical Framework for Internationalization through English-Taught Degree Programs: A Dutch Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Masako

    2017-01-01

    The growing importance of internationalization and the global dominance of English in higher education mean pressures on expanding English-taught degree programs (ETDPs) in non-English-speaking countries. Strategic considerations are necessary to successfully integrate ETDPs into existing programs and to optimize the effects of…

  12. English Communication Skills: How Are They Taught at Schools and Universities in Oman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahrooqi, Rahma

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate, from a student perspective, how English communication skills are taught in Oman's schools and higher education institutions. Previous research has documented the lack of communicative ability in English among school and higher education graduates in Oman (Al-Issa, 2007; Moody, 2009). However, the reasons…

  13. Collaborative Classroom Management in a Co-Taught Primary School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytivaara, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers manage their classroom in co-taught lessons. The data were collected by observing and interviewing a pair of primary school teachers. The most important influence of collaboration on classroom management seemed to be the emotional support of another adult, and the opportunity to use different…

  14. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  15. Evaluation of WorldView Textbooks; Textbooks Taught at a Military University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Masoud; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This paper intends to evaluate the WorldView series textbooks of English learning, which are being taught at an Iranian military university foreign language center. No textbook evaluation had been conducted by the university administration prior to the introduction of the textbooks to the language program. Theorists in the field of ELT textbook…

  16. What's Used and What's Useful? Exploring Digital Technology Use(s) among Taught Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael; Finger, Glenn; Selwyn, Neil

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the digital technologies that taught postgraduate students engage with during their studies, what these technologies are used for and how useful they are perceived to be. The article draws upon data gathered from a survey of 253 masters and postgraduate diploma/certificate students across two universities in Australia.…

  17. A Comparative Analysis regarding Pictures Included in Secondary School Geography Textbooks Taught in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Okan; Seremet, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This study brings in a comparative approach regarding pictures involved in secondary school (14-17 ages) textbooks taught in Turkey. In this respect, following the classification of pictures (line drawings and photographs) included in secondary school education geography textbooks, evaluation of the photographs in books in question in terms of…

  18. Role Modelling in Manager Development: Learning that Which Cannot Be Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This is an empirical article which aims to examine the extent and nature of management role modelling and the learning achieved from role modelling. The article argues that the spread of taught management development and formal mentoring programmes has resulted in the neglect of practice-knowledge and facets of managerial character…

  19. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  20. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  1. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  2. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  3. Multiple strategy peer-taught evidence-based medicine course in a poor resource setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouni, Ammar; Bdaiwi, Yamama; Janoudi, Saad L; Namous, Lubaba O; Turk, Tarek; Alkhatib, Mahmoud; Abbas, Fatima; Yafi, Ruba Zuhri

    2017-05-04

    Teaching Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is becoming a priority in the healthcare process. For undergraduates, it has been proved that integrating multiple strategies in teaching EBM yields better results than a single, short-duration strategy. However, there is a lack of evidence on applying EBM educational interventions in developing countries. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of a multiple strategy peer-taught online course in improving EBM awareness and skills among medical students in two developing countries, Syria and Egypt. We conducted a prospective study with pre- and post- course assessment of 84 medical students in three universities, using the Berlin questionnaire and a set of self-reported questions which studied the students' EBM knowledge, attitude and competencies. The educational intervention was a peer-taught online course consisting of six sessions (90 min each) presented over six weeks, and integrated with assignments, group discussions, and two workshops. The mean score of pre- and post-course Berlin tests was 3.5 (95% CI: 2.94-4.06) and 5.5 (95% CI: 4.74-6.26) respectively, increasing by 2 marks (95% CI: 1.112-2.888; p-value <0.001), which indicates a statistically significant increase in students' EBM knowledge and skill, similar to a previous expert-taught face to face contact course. Self-reported confidences also increased significantly. However, our course did not have a major effect on students' attitudes toward EBM (1.9-10.8%; p-value: 0.12-0.99). In developing countries, multiple strategy peer-taught online courses may be an effective alternative to face to face expert-taught courses, especially in the short term.

  4. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  5. Shining a light on mysterious "Dark Matter"

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "We've all been taught that our bodies, the Earth, and in fact all matter in the universe is comnposed of tiny building blocks called atoms. Now imagine if this weren't the case. This mind-bending concept is at the core of the scientific research that one Florida State University progessor - and hundreds of his colleagues all over the world - is pursuing."(1 page)

  6. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  7. Teaching Particle Physics in Secondary Schools: Why Do Physicists Want to Smash Matter to Bits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Matter can be described and explained in a number of ways, using models of increasing complexity depending on the intended audience. Under the current National Curriculum for England, the kinetic theory of matter is taught to 11- and 12-year-olds in secondary schools to explain the structure of solids, liquids and gases and their behaviour when…

  8. Intraosseous access can be taught to medical students using the four-step approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzali, Monika; Kvisselgaard, Ask Daffy; Lyngeraa, Tobias Stenbjerg

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intraosseous (IO) access is an alternative route for vascular access when peripheral intravascular catheterization cannot be obtained. In Denmark the IO access is reported as infrequently trained and used. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if medical students can obtain...... competencies in IO access when taught by a modified Walker and Peyton's four-step approach. METHODS: Nineteen students attended a human cadaver course in emergency procedures. A lecture was followed by a workshop. Fifteen students were presented with a case where IO access was indicated and their performance...... score of 14.2 versus the non-expert raters with mean 14.6 and 14.3. The overall IRR calculated with Randolph's free-marginal multi rater kappa was 0.71. CONCLUSION: The essentials of the IO access procedure can be taught to medical students using a modified version of the Walker and Peyton's four...

  9. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  10. Medical undergraduate primary care teaching across the UK: what is being taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Veronica; Ridd, Matthew; Blythe, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    All UK medical schools use primary care settings to deliver their undergraduate courses. However there is no national undergraduate curriculum for primary care and it is thought that the learning objectives of primary care teaching vary considerably between medical schools. The overall aim was to establish what is being taught within and by primary care across UK medical schools. We did this by collating learning objectives from the primary care department at each school. In order to categorise and compare the list of learning objectives from each school we mapped the learning objectives to the postgraduate curriculum of the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). Cross sectional survey sent to heads of teaching of primary care at all 32 UK medical schools. GP teacher handbooks for primary care modules at each medical school were requested. Information was extracted based on key headings from the RCGP postgraduate curriculum. Topics taught by primary care at all medical schools include: consulting and communication skills, leading and working in teams, and developing yourself and others. Novel topics, taught at a few medical schools include: learning disability, genetics and multi-morbidity. The majority of medical schools address aspects of over half of the RCGP postgraduate curriculum headings in their learning objectives for primary care. This project provides valuable information about primary care teaching at an undergraduate level across the UK. Although it confirms widespread variation in learning objectives, it also highlights considerable common ground and opportunities for sharing teaching resources between schools.

  11. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  12. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  13. Academic performance in a pharmacotherapeutics course sequence taught synchronously on two campuses using distance education technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael; Morin, Anna K

    2011-10-10

    To compare the academic performance of campus-based students in a pharmacotherapeutics course with that of students at a distant campus taught via synchronous teleconferencing. Examination scores and final course grades for campus-based and distant students completing the case-based pharmacotherapeutics course sequence over a 5-year period were collected and analyzed. The mean examination scores and final course grades were not significantly different between students on the 2 campuses. The use of synchronous distance education technology to teach students does not affect students' academic performance when used in an active-learning, case-based pharmacotherapeutics course.

  14. Foundation doctors in Anaesthesia: should they be taught to administer an anaesthetic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Sean

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaesthetic pre-registration house officer posts have been available since 1997. With the change to postgraduate medical training introduced in 2005, these posts have become vital building blocks for Foundation Programmes. Discussion We debate the skills that new Foundation Programme doctors in such posts should be taught, particularly whether administration of an anaesthetic holds an important place. The opinion of college tutors prior to the institution of the foundation programme is included. These were obtained from a postal questionnaire. Summary We maintain that teaching how to administer an anaesthetic remains an important learning objective and something that should be actively pursued.

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  16. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Where is leadership training being taught in U.S. dental schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, Russell S; Parkinson, Joseph W

    2012-06-01

    Since leadership is vital in all professions and organizations, the purpose of this study was to determine where in dental schools leadership for predoctoral students is taught and to what degree it is emphasized in order to establish a baseline from which to generate recommendations for best practices. Academic deans of U.S. dental schools were surveyed to determine where in the curriculum leadership is taught and emphasized. The response rate was 39 percent returned completed surveys. These responses were representative of all geographic regions of the country, with equitable distribution between private and public institutions. The results showed that leadership training is delivered in many different parts of the curriculum and at various levels. Generally, the respondents indicated that leadership education is delivered in the setting of practice management, community out-reach, or public health. In some cases, specific training programs are dedicated to leadership development. Thus, several models for leadership development were identified, showing design flexibility in addressing regional and national needs. In the future, it would be of value to assess the effectiveness of the various models and whether single or multiple pathways for leadership training are most beneficial.

  18. Teaching Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS): A nationwide retrospective analysis of 8202 lessons taught in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedi, Markus M; Wölfl, Christoph C; Wieferich, Katharina; Dogjani, Agron; Kauf, Peter; Doll, Dietrich

    To examine whether faculty who teach the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) course would improve with experience and, correspondingly, ratings from course evaluations would increase. Retrospective analysis of student evaluations of 262 ATLS courses held between 2008 and 2012. All ATLS courses held between 2008 and 2012 nationwide in Germany. All ATLS student course evaluations covering 8202 lessons, 81 instructors, 36 course directors, and 5 coordinators. ATLS courses in Germany attained high levels of student satisfaction. Satisfaction levels increased steadily over the 5-year period studied. The entire staff influenced this finding. Teaching quality improved the most within the first 100 lessons taught. Skill stations received better evaluations than lectures, and local courses were less satisfactory than national course formats. The 2 demonstrations that open the course were the top rated events. Skill stations, including a human phantom, were highly rated; the cricothyrotomy station was top rated. The German ATLS course evaluations indicated steady improvement over the 5-year study. The level of experience of course coordinators, directors, and instructors influenced this finding. Teaching quality improved most within the first 100 lessons taught, and then reached a steady state. Skill stations received better evaluations than lectures, and local courses were less satisfactory than national course formats. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Where is Leadership Training Being Taught in U.S. Dental Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, Russell S.; Parkinson, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership is vital in all professions and organizations. Our purpose was to determine where in dental schools leadership is taught, and to what degree it is emphasized so that we could establish a base line from which to generate recommendations for best practices. Therefore we surveyed all US Deans of Academic Affairs in Dental Schools to determine where in the curriculum leadership is taught and emphasized. Our results showed that leadership training is delivered in many different parts of the curriculum, and at various levels. Generally, respondents indicated that leadership education is delivered either in the setting of practice management, community outreach or in public health settings. In some cases, specific training programs are dedicated specifically to leadership development. Thus several models for leadership development were identified showing design and flexibility to address regional and national needs. In the future it would be of value to assess the effectiveness of the different models and whether single or multiple pathways for leadership training are most beneficial. PMID:22659699

  20. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  1. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  2. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  3. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    skills (related terms: demonstrating concern for others, demonstrating insight into behavior, oral communication , intercultural skills): Works well...Taught Skills and competencies beyond those described above emphasized in this course include: • Written communications : Several short, graded written...Other Skills and Competencies Taught The MSLC also teaches some other valued nontechnical skills: • Written communications : Students are taught and

  4. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  5. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  6. Should general surgery residents be taught laparoscopic pyloromyotomies? An ethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Mauricio A; Hartin, Charles W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the ethical implications of teaching general surgery residents laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Using the authors' previously presented ethical framework, and examining survey data of pediatric surgeons in the United States and Canada, a rigorous ethical argument is constructed to examine the question: should general surgery residents be taught laparoscopic pyloromyotomies? A survey was constructed that contained 24 multiple-choice questions. The survey included questions pertaining to surgeon demographics, if pyloromyotomy was taught to general surgery and pediatric surgery residents, and management of complications encountered during pyloromyotomy. A total of 889 members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association and Canadian Association of Paediatric Surgeons were asked to participate. The response rate was 45% (401/889). The data were analyzed within the ethical model to address the question of whether general surgery residents should be taught laparoscopic pyloromyotomies. From an ethical perspective, appealing to the ethical model of a physician as a fiduciary, the answer is no. We previously proposed an ethical model based on 2 fundamental ethical principles: the ethical concept of the physician as a fiduciary and the contractarian model of ethics. The fiduciary physician practices medicine competently with the patient’s best interests in mind. The role of a fiduciary professional imposes ethical standards on all physicians, at the core of which is the virtue of integrity, which requires the physician to practice medicine to standards of intellectual and moral excellence. The American College of Surgeons recognizes the need for current and future surgeons to understand professionalism, which is one of the 6 core competencies specified by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Contracts are models of negotiation and ethically permissible compromise. Negotiated assent or consent is the core concept of contractarian

  7. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  8. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  9. Young children can be taught basic natural selection using a picture-storybook intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Deborah; Emmons, Natalie A; Seston Schillaci, Rebecca; Ganea, Patricia A

    2014-04-01

    Adaptation by natural selection is a core mechanism of evolution. It is also one of the most widely misunderstood scientific processes. Misconceptions are rooted in cognitive biases found in preschoolers, yet concerns about complexity mean that adaptation by natural selection is generally not comprehensively taught until adolescence. This is long after untutored theoretical misunderstandings are likely to have become entrenched. In a novel approach, we explored 5- to 8-year-olds' capacities to learn a basic but theoretically coherent mechanistic explanation of adaptation through a custom storybook intervention. Experiment 1 showed that children understood the population-based logic of natural selection and also generalized it. Furthermore, learning endured 3 months later. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that children understood and applied an even more nuanced mechanistic causal explanation. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to conventional educational wisdom, basic natural selection is teachable in early childhood. Theory-driven interventions using picture storybooks with rich explanatory structure are beneficial.

  10. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hand and Eye Dominance in Sport: Are Cricket Batters Taught to Bat Back-to-Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, David L; Runswick, Oliver R; Allen, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    When first learning to bimanually use a tool to hit a target (e.g., when chopping wood or hitting a golf ball), most people assume a stance that is dictated by their dominant hand. By convention, this means that a 'right-handed' or 'left-handed' stance that places the dominant hand closer to the striking end of the tool is adopted in many sports. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the conventional stance used for bimanual hitting provides the best chance of developing expertise in that task. Our study included 43 professional (international/first-class) and 93 inexperienced (back-to-front' and have a significant disadvantage in the game. Moreover, the results may generalize more widely, bringing into question the way in which other bimanual sporting actions are taught and performed.

  12. Practices in Less Commonly Taught Languages: Factors that Shape Teachers’ Beliefs and Guide Their Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saydee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study, the researcher investigated teachers’ perceptions about effective teaching and learning methodologies and discovered the factors that shape teachers’ beliefs and lead them to prefer certain methodologies. Data was collected through interviews of Arabic, Chinese, Dari, Pashto, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Persian teachers (N=25 and their adult students, ten per teacher (N=241 at institutions of higher education in Southern California. In general, the teachers had similar views about effective teaching strategies and similar factors influenced their views- all the teachers emphasized the languages they teach differ from commonly taught languages; and, therefore, teaching and learning strategies should also be different. Knowing the factors that shape teachers’ beliefs significantly contributes to the field of teacher education. In particular, educators will become more cognizant of content to include in their teacher training program curriculum to better influence teachers and alter their instructional methodologies.

  13. The 1966 Flooding of Venice: What Time Taught Us for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trincardi, Fabio; Barbanti, Andrea; Bastianini, Mauro; Benetazzo, Alvise; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Papa, Alvise; Pomaro, Angela; Sclavo, Mauro; Tosi, Luigi; Umgiesser, Georg

    2017-04-01

    Upon this fiftieth anniversary of the storm that flooded the historical Italian centers of Venice and Florence, we review the event from the perspective of today's scientific knowledge. In particular, we discuss the components of relative sea level rise in Venice that contribute to flooding, the monitoring networks and forecast capabilities that are currently in place, and the engineering actions adopted since the 1966 flood to safeguard the Venice lagoon and the city. Focusing on the meteo-oceanographic aspects, we also show how sheer luck at the time avoided a much worse disaster in Venice. Reference Trincardi, F., A. Barbanti, M. Bastianini, A. Benetazzo, L. Cavaleri, J. Chiggiato, A. Papa, A. Pomaro, M. Sclavo, L. Tosi, and G. Umgiesser. 2016. The 1966 flooding of Venice: What time taught us for the future. Oceanography 29(4), https://doi.org/10.5670/ oceanog.2016.87.

  14. Depth image super-resolution via semi self-taught learning framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Furong; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhang, Xiaodi; Xian, Ke; Li, Ruibo

    2017-06-01

    Depth images have recently attracted much attention in computer vision and high-quality 3D content for 3DTV and 3D movies. In this paper, we present a new semi self-taught learning application framework for enhancing resolution of depth maps without making use of ancillary color images data at the target resolution, or multiple aligned depth maps. Our framework consists of cascade random forests reaching from coarse to fine results. We learn the surface information and structure transformations both from a small high-quality depth exemplars and the input depth map itself across different scales. Considering that edge plays an important role in depth map quality, we optimize an effective regularized objective that calculates on output image space and input edge space in random forests. Experiments show the effectiveness and superiority of our method against other techniques with or without applying aligned RGB information

  15. Effect of working characteristics and taught ergonomics on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saad A; Chew, Kwai Yee

    2013-04-02

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum.

  16. Intellectual disability health content within nursing curriculum: An audit of what our future nurses are taught.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollor, Julian N; Eagleson, Claire; Turner, Beth; Salomon, Carmela; Cashin, Andrew; Iacono, Teresa; Goddard, Linda; Lennox, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability experience chronic and complex health issues, but face considerable barriers to healthcare. One such barrier is inadequate education of healthcare professionals. To establish the quantity and nature of intellectual disability content offered within Australian nursing degree curricula. A two-phase national audit of nursing curriculum content was conducted using an interview and online survey. Australian nursing schools offering pre-registration courses. Pre-registration course coordinators from 31 universities completed the Phase 1 interview on course structure. Unit coordinators and teaching staff from 15 universities in which intellectual disability content was identified completed the Phase 2 online survey. Quantity of compulsory and elective intellectual disability content offered (units and teaching time) and the nature of the content (broad categories, specific topics, and inclusive teaching) were audited using an online survey. Over half (52%) of the schools offered no intellectual disability content. For units of study that contained some auditable intellectual disability content, the area was taught on average for 3.6h per unit of study. Units were evenly distributed across the three years of study. Just three participating schools offered 50% of all units audited. Clinical assessment skills, and ethics and legal issues were most frequently taught, while human rights issues and preventative health were poorly represented. Only one nursing school involved a person with intellectual disability in content development or delivery. Despite significant unmet health needs of people with intellectual disability, there is considerable variability in the teaching of key intellectual disability content, with many gaps evident. Equipping nursing students with skills in this area is vital to building workforce capacity. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bilateral Internal Mammary Artery Use Can Be Safely Taught Without Increasing Morbidity or Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasrija, Chetan; Ghoreishi, Mehrdad; Shah, Aakash; Rouse, Michael; Gammie, James S; Kon, Zachary N; Taylor, Bradley S

    2018-01-01

    Evidence shows a likely survival benefit with the use of bilateral internal mammary arteries (BIMA) compared with a single internal mammary artery (SIMA). Nonetheless, BIMA use is often not used or taught because of a perceived increase in operative time and complexity. This study aimed to evaluate operative time, morbidity, and mortality in both resident and nonresident cases using BIMA compared with SIMA. Consecutive patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (October 2012 to April 2015) at a single institution were reviewed. Cases were stratified on the basis of the use of SIMA versus BIMA and resident teaching versus nonresident teaching cases. Primary outcomes included operative time, postoperative morbidity, and mortality. A total of 416 patients were identified; 335 of 416 (81%) patients received a SIMA, and 81 of 416 (19%) patients received BIMA. A total of 184 of 416 (44%) were resident cases: 143 of the 335 (43%) SIMA cases and 41 of the 81 (51%) BIMA cases. Use of BIMA in resident cases was associated with a longer operative and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time than resident SIMA cases, but this increased time did not affect morbidity or mortality. Use of SIMA versus BIMA in nonresident cases had no significant difference on total operative time, CPB time, postoperative morbidity, or mortality. Overall, operative and 1-year mortality rates were similar in the SIMA and BIMA groups (SIMA: 1.2%, 1.8%, respectively; BIMA: 0%, 0%, respectively; p = NS). In the hands of an experienced surgeon, BIMA use can be effectively performed without an increase in operative or CPB time. In resident teaching cases, BIMA use may increase operative time, but it can be safely taught without affecting morbidity or mortality. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of working characteristics and taught ergonomics on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders amongst dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are one of the main occupational health hazards affecting dental practitioners. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD) amongst dental students. Possible correlations with the working environment and ergonomics taught in Malaysian dental schools were also sought. Methods Five dental schools in Malaysia participated in this cross-sectional study. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to establish the point prevalence of WMSD in the dental students based on various body regions. The questionnaire also collected data regarding the working environment, clinical practice and the taught ergonomics of the students during their training years. Results Out of five hundred and sixty eight dental students who participated in the study, 410 were in their clinical years whilst 158 were students in their non- clinical years. Ninety three percent of the clinical year students reported symptoms of WMSD in one or more body regions. Female students reported a significantly higher numbers of symptoms compared to male students. The neck (82%) and lower back (64%) were reported to have the highest prevalence of WMSD. Discomfort in the neck region was found to be associated with self-reported frequency of bending of the neck. A majority of students (92%) reported minimum participation in workshops related to ergonomics in dentistry and 77% were unfamiliar with treatment and remedies available in the case of WMSD. Conclusions There was more WMSD seen in dental students who had started their clinical years. Neck and lower back are more injury prone areas and are at increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Theory and practice of ergonomics should be incorporated into the dental undergraduate curriculum. PMID:23547959

  19. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  20. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  1. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  2. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  3. Independence, Interaction, Interdependence and Interrelation: Learner Autonomy in a Web-based Less Commonly Taught Language Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kostina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, teaching less commonly taught languages has been a very challenging task due to low student enrollment and the high costs of hiring permanent teaching faculty. Therefore, webbased distance learning (DL is beginning to attract serious attention from the less commonly taught languages profession (Fleming, Hiple and Du, 2002. However, DL classes are often associated with student isolation, where learners are deprived of non-verbal clues, vocal expression, and eye contact that are crucial for foreign language learning (White, 2005. Thus, working in a more isolated context requires higher learner autonomy (White, 2005. This article provides a review of literature on autonomy that exists in the foreign language field, and describes four aspects of autonomy that need to be considered by language teachers while developing their web-based courses. It also offers some practical suggestions for the less commonly taught language instructors that foster autonomy and decrease isolation online.

  4. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  5. Should Torsion Balance Technique Continue to be Taught to Pharmacy Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Rhonda; Chereson, Rasma

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the types of balances used in compounding pharmacies: torsion or digital. Methods. A survey was mailed to the pharmacist-in-charge at 698 pharmacies, representing 47% of the pharmacies in Missouri as of July 2013. The pharmacies were randomly selected and stratified by region into eight regions to ensure a representative sample. Information was gathered regarding the type and use of balances and pharmacists’ perspectives on the need to teach torsion balance technique to pharmacy students. Results. The response rate for the survey was 53.3%. Out of the total responses received, those pharmacies having a torsion balance, digital balance or both were 46.8%, 27.4% and 11.8%, respectively. About 68.3% of respondents compound prescriptions. The study showed that 52% of compounding pharmacies use torsion balances in their practice. Of those with a balance in their pharmacy, 65.6% favored continuation of torsion balance instruction. Conclusions. Digital balances have become increasingly popular and have replaced torsion balances in some pharmacies, especially those that compound a significant number of prescriptions. The results of this study indicate that torsion balances remain integral to compounding practice. Therefore, students should continue being taught torsion balance technique at the college. PMID:28720913

  6. Large-scale Assessment Yields Evidence of Minimal Use of Reasoning Skills in Traditionally Taught Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale assessment data from Texas Tech University yielded evidence that most students taught traditionally in large lecture classes with online homework and predominantly multiple choice question exams, when asked to answer free-response (FR) questions, did not support their answers with logical arguments grounded in physics concepts. In addition to a lack of conceptual understanding, incorrect and partially correct answers lacked evidence of the ability to apply even lower level reasoning skills in order to solve a problem. Correct answers, however, did show evidence of at least lower level thinking skills as coded using a rubric based on Bloom's taxonomy. With the introduction of evidence-based instruction into the labs and recitations of the large courses and in a small, completely laboratory-based, hands-on course, the percentage of correct answers with correct explanations increased. The FR format, unlike other assessment formats, allowed assessment of both conceptual understanding and the application of thinking skills, clearly pointing out weaknesses not revealed by other assessment instruments, and providing data on skills beyond conceptual understanding for course and program assessment. Supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) Challenge grant #1RC1GM090897-01.

  7. Restructuring of the jurisprudence course taught at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleberzon, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The process by which the jurisprudence course was restructured at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College is chronicled. Method: A Delphi process used to restructure the course is described, and the results of a student satisfaction survey are presented. Results: When asked “I think this material was clinically relevant,” over 81% of the 76 students who respondents strongly agreed or agreed with this statement; 100% of students agreed or strongly agreed that scope of practice; marketing, advertising and internal office promotion; record keeping; fee schedules; malpractice issues and; professional malpractice issues and negligence was clinically relevant. When asked “I think this material was taught well,” a minimum of 89% of students agreed or strongly agreed with this statement. Discussion: This is the first article published that described the process by which a jurisprudence course was developed and assessed by student survey. Summary: Based on a survey of student perceptions, restructuring of the jurisprudence course was successful in providing students with clinically relevant information in an appropriate manner. This course may serve as an important first step in development a ‘model curriculum’ for chiropractic practice and the law courses in terms of content, format and assessment strategies. PMID:20195427

  8. Religious Education towards Justice: What Kind of Justice Is to Be Taught in a Christian Context?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bobbert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Education is a human right. It prepares human beings for life, helps to develop individual abilities and opens up social opportunities—e.g., earning one’s own living. Religion interprets our human existence in connection to a transcendental dimension. Religion can also influence moral values and behavior. The Christian religion established a basis for social life, and thus deals with religious and moral justice. As the Christian faith is understood as the identity of the qualities of love of God, of your neighbor and even of your enemy, it has to look for justice in the world. Modern Christian ethics does unfold interpersonal and global justice for all people and tries to give good reasons for moral claims. Religious education in a Christian context has to answer the question of what kind of justice is to be taught and by what means justice, as a goal of education, can be reached within such a setting. This article will unfold, from an ethical point of view, what kind of knowledge and competence teachers must have and what kind of goals can be followed with regard to their pupils or students. The results of this reflection imply certain pedagogical methods and means and exclude others—although it is not possible to go more deeply into a pedagogical discussion.

  9. What are school children in Europe being taught about hygiene and antibiotic use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius

    2011-06-01

    e-Bug is a pan-European antibiotic and hygiene teaching resource that aims to reinforce awareness in school children of microbes, prudent antibiotic use, hygiene and the transmission of infection. Prior to the production of the resource, it was essential to examine the educational structure across each partner country and assess what school children were being taught on these topics. A questionnaire was devised for distribution to each European partner (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, France, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain), exploring their educational structure and examining educational resources or campaigns currently available. From the data collected it was evident that the majority of European schools have structured hand hygiene practices in place from a young age. The curricula in all countries cover the topic of human health and hygiene, but limited information is provided on antibiotics and their prudent use. School educational resources that link to the national curriculum and implement National Advice to the Public campaigns in the classroom are limited. The Microbes en question mobile health education campaign in France is an example of a successful children's education campaign and an innovative programme. Evaluation of the impact of school education on attitude and change of behaviour is also limited throughout many European countries. Not enough is currently being done across Europe to educate school children on the importance of appropriate antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. The data from this research were used to develop e-Bug, a European Union-funded antibiotic and hygiene teaching resource.

  10. Should Torsion Balance Technique Continue to be Taught to Pharmacy Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Rhonda; Chereson, Rasma; Salama, Noha Nabil

    2017-06-01

    Objective. To determine the types of balances used in compounding pharmacies: torsion or digital. Methods. A survey was mailed to the pharmacist-in-charge at 698 pharmacies, representing 47% of the pharmacies in Missouri as of July 2013. The pharmacies were randomly selected and stratified by region into eight regions to ensure a representative sample. Information was gathered regarding the type and use of balances and pharmacists' perspectives on the need to teach torsion balance technique to pharmacy students. Results. The response rate for the survey was 53.3%. Out of the total responses received, those pharmacies having a torsion balance, digital balance or both were 46.8%, 27.4% and 11.8%, respectively. About 68.3% of respondents compound prescriptions. The study showed that 52% of compounding pharmacies use torsion balances in their practice. Of those with a balance in their pharmacy, 65.6% favored continuation of torsion balance instruction. Conclusions. Digital balances have become increasingly popular and have replaced torsion balances in some pharmacies, especially those that compound a significant number of prescriptions. The results of this study indicate that torsion balances remain integral to compounding practice. Therefore, students should continue being taught torsion balance technique at the college.

  11. Condensing embryology teaching for medical students: can it be taught in 2 hours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazzazi, Fawz; Bartlett, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Embryology forms a valuable part of the medical school curriculum. However, medical students traditionally struggle with revising embryology and appreciating its relevance. Condensing the teaching content, implementing peer-teaching methods, and increasing clinical focus in curricula have been suggested as methods to improve student engagement. Medical students at two universities were taught a condensed version of the embryological curriculum in 2 hours by final-year medical students. Students' confidence with the topics covered in the embryological curricula was assessed using anonymized precourse and postcourse questionnaires. Students were asked to further evaluate the quality, delivery, and content of the teaching in the postcourse questionnaire and were given the opportunity to provide written comments. All questions consisted of a statement stem and a five-point Likert scale. Students scored significantly higher levels of confidence with embryology after implementation of the course. They found the talk to be effectively delivered, clear, and relevant to their examinations. We have demonstrated that it is possible to design and produce an embryology teaching program that covers an undergraduate embryology curriculum in a chronological systems-based manner in 2 hours with successful results.

  12. Searching for the right form: A self-taught village player recalling performance live

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Repertoire of the excellent self-taught traditional dvojnice-player, Miladin Arsenijević, from the vicinity of Topola (central Serbia consists of lyrical songs of a newer rural repertoire. During a 'cognitive interview', in his attempt to recall and reconstruct old-time traveler's (putničko playing through performance, a 'real music situation', he has gradually condensed the developed form of the homophonic shepherd's song into the fragmentary form of heterophonic traveler's playing. In this paper the accent is on the player's search and creative process in his attempt to derive the right musical form of a piece, using his long-term memory, since he has not heard or played the piece for quite a long time. It is also a successful attempt to bring musical data from passive to active musical memory, and a transit from one collective semantic musical code to another. The motoric component plays an important role as well. The analysis of musical change shows that musical memory is a distributive system, and data is organized in groups. Musical parameters change: rhythm and tone are changed first, while other parameters seem to depend mostly on the shape of the melodic model; they gradually change while this element finds its right form.

  13. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students: a qualitative study of veterinary educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.

  14. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  15. Can emotion recognition be taught to children with autism spectrum conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Golan, Ofer; Ashwin, Emma

    2009-12-12

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have major difficulties in recognizing and responding to emotional and mental states in others' facial expressions. Such difficulties in empathy underlie their social-communication difficulties that form a core of the diagnosis. In this paper we ask whether aspects of empathy can be taught to young children with ASC. We review a study that evaluated The Transporters, an animated series designed to enhance emotion comprehension in children with ASC. Children with ASC (4-7 years old) watched The Transporters every day for four weeks. Participants were tested before and after intervention on emotional vocabulary and emotion recognition at three levels of generalization. The intervention group improved significantly more than a clinical control group on all task levels, performing comparably to typical controls at time 2. The discussion centres on how vehicles as mechanical systems may be one key reason why The Transporters caused the improved understanding and recognition of emotions in children with ASC. The implications for the design of autism-friendly interventions are also explored.

  16. Cultural Factors in High School Student Motivation to Study Less Commonly Taught Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Nunn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning less commonly taught languages (LCTLs such as Japanese can be challenging for American students. Due to the difficulty of learning LCTLs, more effort is required of the learners to become proficient as compared to European languages. Motivation contributes to the learners’ academic success. In the socio-cultural perspective, the learners’ cultural background mediates their cognitive process. This study examines the motivational differences and similarities among two culturally diverse groups of high school learners of Japanese: Asians excluding Japanese-Americans and non-Asians. One hundred forty two students completed a survey. Factor analysis yielded six factors: integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, intrinsic motivation (doing activities for enjoyment, self-efficacy (a belief in one’s ability to succeed, goal specificity, and goal strategy. The motivational differences were confirmed in intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. Implications of these findings for LCTL teachers suggest practical steps that can be taken on motivational factors that influence students from different cultural backgrounds.

  17. The Impact of an Intervention Taught by Trained Teachers on Childhood Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a six-months’ nutrition program, delivered and taught by classroom teachers with in-service nutrition training, on the prevention of overweight and obesity among children in grades 1 to 4. In this randomized trial, four hundred and sixty four children from seven elementary schools were allocated to a nutrition educational program delivered by their own teachers. Intervened teachers had 12 sessions of three hours each with the researchers throughout six months, according to the topics nutrition and healthy eating, the importance of drinking water and healthy cooking activities. After each session, teachers were encouraged to develop activities in class focused on the learned topics. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary, and physical activity assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention. In the intervention group the increase in Body Mass Index (BMI z-score was significantly lower than in the control group (p = 0.009; fewer proportion of children became overweight in the intervened group compared with the control (5.6% vs. 18.4%; p = 0.037. Our study provides further support to decrease the overweight epidemic, involving classroom teachers in a training program and making them dedicated interventionists.

  18. Understanding the experience of being taught by peers: the value of social and cognitive congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockspeiser, Tai M; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Muller, Jessica

    2008-08-01

    Medical schools use supplemental peer-teaching programs even though there is little research on students' actual experiences with this form of instruction. To understand the student experience of being taught by peers instead of by faculty. We conducted focus groups with first- and second-year medical students participating in a supplemental peer-teaching program at one institution. From the learner focus group themes, we developed a questionnaire and surveyed all first-year students. Focus groups revealed four learner themes: learning from near-peers, exposure to second-year students, need for review and synthesis, teaching modalities and for the peer-teachers, the theme of benefits for the teacher. Factor analysis of the survey responses resulted in three factors: second-year students as teachers, the benefit of peer-teachers instead of faculty, and the peer-teaching process. Scores on these factors correlated with attendance in the peer-teaching program (P learning from near-peers because of their recent experience with the materials and their ability to understand the students' struggles in medical school. Students with the highest participation in the program valued the unique aspects of this kind of teaching most. Areas for improvement for this program were identified.

  19. [How timely are the methods taught in psychotherapy training and practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Subic-Wrana, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Even though many psychotherapists consider themselves to be eclectic or integrative, training and reimbursement in the modern healthcare system are clearly oriented toward the model of distinct psychotherapy approaches. Prompted by the proposition to favor general, disorder-oriented psychotherapy, we investigate how timely distinctive methods are that are taught in training and practice. We reviewed the pertinent literature regarding general and specific factors, the effectiveness of integrative and eclectic treatments, orientation toward specific disorders, manualization and psychotherapeutic training. There is a lack of systematic studies on the efficacy of combining therapy methods from different approaches. The first empirical findings reveal that a superiority of combined versus single treatmentmethods has yet to be demonstrated. The development of transnosological manuals shows the limits of disorder-specific treatment.General factors such as therapeutic alliance or education about the model of disease and treatment rationale require specific definitions. Taking reference to a specific treatment approach provides important consistency of theory, training therapy and supervision, though this does not preclude an openness toward other therapy concepts. Current manualized examples show that methods and techniques can indeed be integrated from other approaches. Integrating different methods can also be seen as a developmental task for practitioners and researchers which may be mastered increasingly better with more experience.

  20. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  1. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  2. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  3. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  4. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  6. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Combining Chemical Information Literacy, Communication Skills, Career Preparation, Ethics, and Peer Review in a Team-Taught Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mary Lou Baker; Seybold, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The widely acknowledged need to include chemical information competencies and communication skills in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum can be accommodated in a variety of ways. We describe a team-taught, semester-length course at Wright State University which combines chemical information literacy, written and oral communication skills,…

  9. Can Clinical Skills Be Taught Online? Comparing Skill Development between Online and F2F Students Using a Blinded Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Dina J.; King, Erin; Ashmore, Margaret; Stanley, Craig

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the development of clinical assessment and intervention skills between students enrolled in a face-to-face (F2F) or an asynchronous online clinical social work class. All students from three semesters of F2F (n = 74) and online (n = 78) sections of an MSW clinical class taught by the same instructor were included. Two…

  10. Physiology Should Be Taught as Science Is Practiced: An Inquiry-Based Activity to Investigate the "Alkaline Tide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) strongly recommends that "science be taught as science is practiced." This means that the teaching approach must be consistent with the nature of scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe how they added scientific inquiry to a large lecture-based physiology…

  11. Acquisition, Preference and Follow-Up Comparison across Three AAC Modalities Taught to Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLay, Laurie; Schäfer, Martina C. M.; van der Meer, Larah; Couper, Llyween; McKenzie, Emma; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Marschik, Peter B.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Sutherland, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Identifying an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) method for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might be informed by comparing their performance with, and preference for, a range of communication modalities. Towards this end, the present study involved two children with ASD who were taught to request the continuation of toy…

  12. A retrospective study of social relations in a Danish primary school class taught in 'udeskole'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, Rikke Dalgaard; Mygind, Erik

    2016-01-01

    exhaustively. Therefore, we explored the conditions in ‘udeskole’ influencing pupils’ social relations based on an extreme case called the ‘Nature Class’. In the ‘Nature Class’ the pupils (third to fifth grades) were taught outside the classroom one day a week. Five pupils and two teachers were interviewed...

  13. A Study to Determine the Teaching Effectiveness of Faculty in Courses Taught on a Multiple Section Basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Joseph E.

    The present study attempted to discover if significant differences in grade distributions occurred in certain accounting courses taught on a multiple section basis at Johnson & Wales College during the academic years 1972-1973 and 1973-1974. All multiple section courses for the above mentioned years were identified and grade distributions…

  14. The impact of the language of instruction: How economics students in the Netherlands evaluate an English-taught Undergraduate Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grift, Y.K.; Meijer, A.A.; van der Salm, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this article student ratings of undergraduate level Economics courses are analysed on the basis of the aggregated results of end-of-term questionnaires. Two groups of students were involved, one of which was taught in Dutch and the other in English. In the analysis the influence was investigated

  15. Challenges in Academic Reading and Overcoming Strategies in Taught Master Programmes: A Case Study of International Graduate Students in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on research into academic reading practices of international graduate students in taught Master programmes in a Malaysian university. The purpose of the study was to examine the challenges faced in the academic reading practices as well as the strategies employed to overcome the challenges in the academic reading practices.…

  16. Internal and External Factors Shaping Educational Beliefs of High School Teachers of "Sacred" Subjects to Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iluz, Shira; Rich, Yisrael

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated pedagogical beliefs of teachers of "sacred" school subjects, curricular topics that the school community deems culturally valued, unassailable and inviolate. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers of girls only who taught sacred or secular subjects in Jewish modern religious high schools responded to questionnaires focusing…

  17. Children Are Best Taught How to Read by Learning Sounds of Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten, Anita J.

    2004-01-01

    Dr. Seuss wrote in "Horton Hears a Who," "Don't give up! I believe in you all! A person's a person no matter how small." What a beautiful, encouraging message this is to his readers. Millions of children can't figure out the words on the pages of their books, because they don't know the speech sounds of the alphabet. This is called the alphabetic…

  18. An Empirical Evaluation of Jolly Phonics Series Being Taught in Iran's Baby College Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Derakhshan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With growth of EFL in Iran, based on context requirements, textbook evaluation has received substantial attention. Teachers' experiences and perceptions play vital roles in the process of book evaluation. The study is based on the Jolly Phonics series (Lloyd & Wernham, 1995 used by number of institutes and colleges in teaching in Iran. The main objective of the study was to find out whether this teaching material follows the essential objectives for teaching English as a foreign language to children or not. Considering the point that teachers have an indispensable role in analyzing and making an applicable and practical decision on evaluating and choosing the best possible material to be taught, the study focused on the teachers’ perceptions. The series were evaluated against Nokelainen's (2006 checklist. To this end, 72 female experienced teachers of Baby College institutes in Tehran and Gorgan branches, Iran, were randomly selected and given the Pedagogically Meaningful Learning Questionnaire (PMLQ of 40 questions to fill in. The findings showed that teachers mostly believe Jolly Phonics series and the teaching method can stand as a capable and trustable material for young EFL learners. However, in order to make it more profitable it may involve using decisions in adapting textual materials to the needs and interests of pupils as the learners' requirements are changing regarding the adventures of their environment. It is suggested that being a teacher’s guide to educate the teachers how to adapt and teach the materials on the base of learners' needs would be much better than just knowing or learning how to teach it. The textbook will continue to play an important role in helping teachers in teaching process, but it should not be a dictator (Williams, 1983, and the investigated material is respectful to this idea as it can well cover the flexibility, motivation, applicability, learner control and learner activity objectives since most of

  19. A self-taught artificial agent for multi-physics computational model personalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Dominik; Mansi, Tommaso; Itu, Lucian; Georgescu, Bogdan; Kayvanpour, Elham; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Amr, Ali; Haas, Jan; Katus, Hugo; Meder, Benjamin; Steidl, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-12-01

    Personalization is the process of fitting a model to patient data, a critical step towards application of multi-physics computational models in clinical practice. Designing robust personalization algorithms is often a tedious, time-consuming, model- and data-specific process. We propose to use artificial intelligence concepts to learn this task, inspired by how human experts manually perform it. The problem is reformulated in terms of reinforcement learning. In an off-line phase, Vito, our self-taught artificial agent, learns a representative decision process model through exploration of the computational model: it learns how the model behaves under change of parameters. The agent then automatically learns an optimal strategy for on-line personalization. The algorithm is model-independent; applying it to a new model requires only adjusting few hyper-parameters of the agent and defining the observations to match. The full knowledge of the model itself is not required. Vito was tested in a synthetic scenario, showing that it could learn how to optimize cost functions generically. Then Vito was applied to the inverse problem of cardiac electrophysiology and the personalization of a whole-body circulation model. The obtained results suggested that Vito could achieve equivalent, if not better goodness of fit than standard methods, while being more robust (up to 11% higher success rates) and with faster (up to seven times) convergence rate. Our artificial intelligence approach could thus make personalization algorithms generalizable and self-adaptable to any patient and any model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. WHAT ARE CANADIAN DENTAL PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS TAUGHT ABOUT INFANT, TODDLER AND PRENATAL ORAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Quiñonez, Rocio B; Yaffe, Aaron B; Bertone, Mary F; Hardwick, Felicity K; Harrison, Rosamund L

    2015-01-01

    Establishing dental homes for children at an early age is an important step toward instilling good oral health practices and changing trajectories of oral health. The purpose of this study was to determine how accredited dental and dental hygiene programs in Canada prepare students in the areas of infant, toddler and prenatal oral health. An electronic questionnaire was sent to associate deans (academic), program directors or curriculum directors of accredited dental (n = 10) and dental hygiene (n = 39) programs. Participants were asked about infant, toddler and prenatal oral health curricula taught at their institution. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to assess the results. A p value = 0.05 was considered significant. Representatives of 10 dental (100%) and 25 dental hygiene (64.1%) programs responded. All dental and 56% of dental hygiene programs recommend a first visit by 12 months. Infant and toddler oral health was noted as a component of most schools' curriculum. Barriers to teaching about or providing clinical experiences in infant and toddler oral health include lack of time, patients, program resources and finances. Most dental (70%) and dental hygiene (82.6%) programs include prenatal oral health as a component of their curriculum, yet only 40% of responding dental and 70% of dental hygiene programs reported having designated time in their curriculum for it. Barriers preventing programs from teaching or providing clinical experiences regarding prenatal oral health include lack of time and patients. Many, but not all dental professional programs are teaching their students about the recommended age for a first dental visit. Better adherence to national guidelines will require programs to address current barriers impeding learning about this important topic and to provide creative opportunities for students regarding prenatal and infant and toddler oral health.

  1. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  2. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  4. Teaching for Conceptual Change in a Density Unit Taught to 7th Graders: Comparing Two Teaching Methodologies--Scientific Inquiry and a Traditional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holveck, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to compare the effect of using an inquiry teaching methodology and a more traditional teaching methodology on the learning gains of students who were taught a five-week conceptual change unit on density. Seventh graders (N = 479) were assigned to five teachers who taught the same unit on density using either a…

  5. Differences between Good and Poor Child Writers on fMRI Contrasts for Writing Newly Taught and Highly Practiced Letter Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Todd L.; Berninger, Virginia W.; Stock, Pat; Altemeier, Leah; Trivedi, Pamala; Maravilla, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    During fMRI imaging, 12 good and 8 poor writers aged 11 wrote a newly taught pseudoletter and a highly practiced letter. Both letters were formed from the same components, but the pseudoletter had a novel configuration not corresponding to a written English letter form. On the first fMRI contrast between the newly taught pseudoletter and highly…

  6. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Veterans Communicate to Private-Sector Employers About the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    cooperation. Interpersonal skills (related terms: demonstrating concern for others, demonstrating insight into behavior, oral communication , intercultural ...Taught Skills and competencies beyond those described above emphasized in Basic Combat Training include: • Oral communications : Soldier students from...that the follow- ing skills and competencies are also taught: • Oral communication is practiced regularly, since students participate extensively in

  7. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  8. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  9. MODERN PROBLEMS IN TAUGHT COURSE «ECOLOGY OF POWER ENGINEERING» IN TRAINING PO- WER ENGINEERS, WAYS OF THEIR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Pospelova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a viewpoint to improvement and modernization of a taught course “Ecology of Power Engineering” in respect of its content, teaching forms and methods with the purpose to meet modern challenges of power engineering and sustainable development. Concrete recommendations for delivering lectures and practical classes are given in the paper with due account of requirements of practical designing and operation of power objects.

  10. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  11. Mimicking Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.

  12. Local species richness of Central European hoverflies (Diptera : Syrphidae): a lesson taught by local faunal lists

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keil, P.; Konvička, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2005), s. 471-426 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6007306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : central Europe * diversity determinants * geography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.345, year: 2005

  13. Sustainable Architecture in the Context of Education: Reponses of Primary School Teachers on the Topical Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cencič Majda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainability and a sustainable and ecological development are common debate topics in today’s society. This paper discusses the concept of sustainability in green building with regard to schools. The research was conducted on a representative sample of primary school teachers, focusing on some of their opinions on green building. We asked them which aspect of building they favoured and how often they asked themselves certain questions about the school they taught in. Furthermore, we were interested to see whether we would find age-related differences. To this end, teachers were divided into two groups, namely, teachers of up to 35 years of age and teachers over 35. We were surprised to find that teachers over 35 had a more positive attitude towards green building in schools compared to their younger colleagues. Based on the results, we came to a conclusion that the topics pertaining to ecology and sustainable development are neglected in today’s education. However, making them part of school curriculum is not enough, as the opinions and attitudes of teachers on sustainable and ecological issues also have an important impact on the subject-matter itself.

  14. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  15. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  16. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  17. Teaching physics as a service subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, T. L.; Hayes, M.

    1986-07-01

    At South Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education physics is taught over a wide range of courses. In addition to the more conventional courses found in science, technology and education faculties there is a physics input into areas such as beauty therapy, applied biology, catering, chiropody, dental technology, environmental health, food technology, hairdressing, human-movement studies, industrial design, applied life sciences, marine technology, medical laboratory science, physiological measurement, nursing and speech therapy. Due to the fundamental differences in emphasis required when teaching physics as a 'minor' subject on these types of courses, and since the authors have no courses which lead to a 'major' physics qualification, it is necessary to develop a rational strategy for teaching physics as a 'service' subject. If this is not achieved then staff satisfaction and student interest are likely to suffer. They describe their strategy.

  18. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  19. Research on historical environments in elementary schools’ social sciences textbooks taught in Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazım Kaşot

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study has yet to be carried out depending on the historical environment particular to the Elementary Schools in Northern Cyprus. The aim of this study is hence to determine whether the coverage of historical environment subjects in elementary school social sciences textbooks is absorbed or not by the 4th and 5th Grades in the context of both content and visuals. The method of study analysed has been organised in accordance with the qualitative research. The population was not indicated pursuant to qualitative research and so purposive sampling was implemented. The textbooks used were mainly selected from the afore-mentioned grades and classes. All the data collected were based on the textbooks used during the assessment process. The data was gathered in accordance with the document analysis technique and everything was analysed in detail. The categories used were generated after the authors performed analysis by utilising textbooks. To ensure the validity of the categories, literature scanning was undertaken and expert opinion was taken. The category definitions were written for public access. Moreover, units, titles and sub-titles were chosen as registration units and studied accordingly. Thus, the texts in the textbooks were guaranteed to cover the sufficient coverage and dimension for teaching the subject. The frequency of categories used under the text in historical environment was given and the number of words for the scope was also indicated. The size of visuals used in textbooks was given in accordance with the categories. As a result of the study, while 5th Grade textbooks cover historical environment subjects, there was no indication for the 4th Grade textbooks.

  20. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  1. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity.

  2. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampolini, Mario; Lovell-Smith, H David; Kenealy, Timothy; Bianchi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH), has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG). These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition). Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern). IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable) as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. PMID:23825928

  3. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue-Mei; Tian, Hong-Ji; Han, Zheng; Zhang, Ce; Liu, Ying; Gu, Jie-Bing; Bakshi, Rohit; Cao, Xia

    2017-05-01

    We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri), right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri), right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus), right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus), right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  4. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  5. Who Teaches Primary Physical Education? Change and Transformation through the Eyes of Subject Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Luke; Green, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Primary physical education (PE) lessons tend to be taught by one, or a combination of, three different groups: generalist classroom teachers, specialist primary PE teachers and so-called adults other than teachers, who are almost exclusively sports coaches. Drawing upon data gathered from one-to-one interviews with 36 subject leaders (SLs), this…

  6. A Case Study on Teaching of Energy as a Subject for 9th Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Bayrak, Celal; Aykutlu, Isil

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe how energy subject is taught in 9th grades. The study is designed as a descriptive case study with the participation of 3 physics teachers and 85 students. Data were obtained through observation, interviews, and documents, and they were analyzed through descriptive analysis method. In the observations made at the…

  7. The Teacher as One of the Factors Influencing Students' Perception of Biology as a School Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Torkar, Gregor; Rovnanova, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of our research was to determine whether the teacher is one of the factors influencing students' perception of biology as a school subject. The study also aimed to identify the influence of certain other factors in this regard, specifically: students' gender and place of residence, the number of biology teachers who have taught the…

  8. Hunger can be taught: Hunger Recognition regulates eating and improves energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 David Lovell-Smith,2 Timothy Kenealy,3 Riccardo Bianchi4 1Unit of Preventive Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Department of General Practice, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Abstract: A set of spontaneous hunger sensations, Initial Hunger (IH, has been associated with low blood glucose concentration (BG. These sensations may arise pre-meal or can be elicited by delaying a meal. With self-measurement of BG, subjects can be trained to formally identify and remember these sensations (Hunger Recognition. Subjects can then be trained to ensure that IH is present pre-meal for most meals and that their pre-meal BG is therefore low consistently (IH Meal Pattern. IH includes the epigastric Empty Hollow Sensation (the most frequent and recognizable as well as less specific sensations such as fatigue or light-headedness which is termed inanition. This report reviews the method for identifying IH and the effect of the IH Meal Pattern on energy balance. In adults, the IH Meal Pattern has been shown to significantly decrease energy intake by one-third, decrease preprandial BG, reduce glycosylated hemoglobin, and reduce insulin resistance and weight in those who are insulin resistant or overweight. Young children as well as adults can be trained in Hunger Recognition, giving them an elegant method for achieving energy balance without the stress of restraint-type dieting. The implications of improving insulin sensitivity through improved energy balance are as wide as improving immune activity. Keywords: energy intake, hunger, energy balance, food intake regulation, prevention, insulin resistance, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, risks

  9. The subjectivity of scientists and the Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Press, James S

    2001-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting the reality of subjectivity in the work of history's great scientists and the modern Bayesian approach to statistical analysisScientists and researchers are taught to analyze their data from an objective point of view, allowing the data to speak for themselves rather than assigning them meaning based on expectations or opinions. But scientists have never behaved fully objectively. Throughout history, some of our greatest scientific minds have relied on intuition, hunches, and personal beliefs to make sense of empirical data-and these subjective influences have often a

  10. Sirius Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Brosch, Noah

    2008-01-01

    Since very early times Sirius was a point of attraction in the night sky. It served to synchronize calendars in antiquity and was the subject of many myths and legends, including some modern ones. It was perceived as a red star for more than 400 years, but such reports were relegated to the Mediterranean region. Astronomically, Sirius is a very bright star. This, and its present close distance to us, argues in favor of it being the target of detailed studies of stellar structure and evolution. Its binary nature, with a companion that is one of the more massive white dwarfs, is an additional reason for such studies. This book collects the published information on Sirius in an attempt to derive a coherent picture of how this system came to look as it does.

  11. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  12. Language matters: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, William L; Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    That language and sexuality are closely connected is one of the enduring themes in human sexuality research. The articles in this special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality explore some of these language-centered insights as they apply to same-sex related desires, identities, and practices and to other dimensions of non-normative sexual experiences. The articles address language use over a range of geographic and social locations. The linguistic practices discussed are diverse, including the language associated with Santería, comments viewers make about gay pornography, homophobic discourse, coming out stories, stories where declarations of sexual identity are tacitly withheld, sexual messages in Black hip hop culture, assessments of urban AIDS ministries, and policies that limit transgender subjects' access to urban space. Taken together, these articles demonstrate that language matters in the everyday experience of sexual sameness and they model some of the approaches that are now being explored in language and sexuality studies.

  13. The Implementation of an Integrative Model of Adventure-Based Counseling and Adlerian Play Therapy Value-Based Taught by Parents to Children to Increase Adjustment Ability of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Eka Izzaty

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for two reasons. First, pre-school age is the foundation for the subsequent development. Second, the previous research findings show that there are behavioral problems which affect the development of subsequent development. This study aims to increase children’s social ability by employing An Integrative Model of Adventure-Based Counseling and Adlerian Play Therapy, a counseling model emphasizing the importance of play providing opportunity for children to express their feelings in natural situation and insight toward personality and environment by modifying teaching cultural values by parents to children. This study employed an action study. The prior data collection techniques were conducting literary study, surveying on cultural values taught, and selecting a counseling model. The subjects were four preschool children (4-6 years old with behavioral problems. The study was conducted in 2 cycles with several steps: planning, action, evaluation, and reflection. The finding of this research shows that an Integrative Model of Adventure-Based Counseling and Adlerian Play Therapy can increase children social ability and decrease non adaptive behavior. The reflection of employing counseling model modified with cultural values taught by parents to children is when using this model, counselors truly examine the duration of the implementation, the children’s condition, the counselors’ condition, the type of play, and the purpose of each steps which must be detailed.

  14. Media matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, L M

    1995-01-01

    The impact of the mass media on woman's status was addressed at two 1995 conferences: the Fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing, China, and the Congress of the World Association for Christian Communication, held in Puebla, Mexico. The globalization process facilitated by the mass media has served to increase the power of patriarchy, with no advantages to the cause of women's rights. Coverage of popular movements has been suppressed out of deference to male-controlled governments. Coverage of the Beijing Conference highlighted celebrities and personal stories, to the exclusion of the economic and political issues under debate. Television has commodified women, reinforcing their oppression. On the other hand, the alternative media, which tend to be decentralized, democratic, low-cost, and low in technology, are presenting women as subjects rather than objects and deconstructing gender stereotypes. Of concern, however, is the tendency of computer technology to widen the gap between social classes and developed and developing countries. Women must use information networks to disseminate information on women's rights and strengthen the links between women throughout the world.

  15. ADAPTIVE OUTPUT CONTROL: SUBJECT MATTER, APPLICATION TASKS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Bobtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of adaptive output control for parametric and functionally uncertain plants is considered. Application examples illustrating the practical use of the discussed theory are given along with the mathematical formulation of the problem. A brief review of adaptive output control methods, by both linear and non-linear systems, is presented and an extensive bibliography, in which the reader will find a detailed description of the specific algorithms and their properties, is represented. A new approach to the output control problem - a method of consecutive compensator - is considered in detail.

  16. K-Means Subject Matter Expert Refined Topic Model Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    implementations for Case 4 only. The accuracy results for all of the SMERT/KSMERT implantations are similar due to the user employing domain knowledge to...truck. 5 The supplier welded and misdimensioned the titanium offsite. 6 The inspector drilled plastic and overheated it at station2. 7 It was...drilled and overheated. 8 It was drilled and overheated. 9 The engineer and the manager at station3 and on the truck. 10 The welded titanium was

  17. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    in different ways. In the first case, CPR Analisys , we use the measures as way to derive effectiveness and uncertainty. In the second approach...means by which to overcome these capability gaps through the implementation of solutions, e.g., changes to doctrine, organizational structure , training...controlled through good elicitation practices, especially good question structuring , which we discuss in section C. (2) Modeling bias. This type of bias

  18. Writing for professional publication. Part 2: Subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, John

    Motivation is the first step in writing for professional publication: the next question is, what should you write about? Whatever your area of practice or level of experience, your writing will be suitable for one of the wealth of journals covering all aspects of healthcare and nursing. In this second part of a series of articles, John Fowler, an experienced nursing lecturer and author, presents some tips and suggestions to inspire you as you take your first steps on the road to writing for professional publication.

  19. Classification of educational subject matter: the case of Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it represents an individual view, this article was submitted to the Department of Education by the Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC) as an outcome of the review of the field of Home Economics in the Western Cape region. By presenting some history, it argues that the category of Home Economics is no ...

  20. RAn Enlarged Conception of the Subject Matter of Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Kearns

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Una concepción ampliada del objeto de estudio de la lógica: El ensayo es una introducción a la lógica ilocucionaria, es decir a la lógica de los actos de habla. El autor propone una aproximación distinta a este campo de investigación con respecto al que han propuesto John Searle y Daniel Vanderveken. Ellos conciben la lógica ilocucionaria como un suplemento o un apéndice a la lógica estándar, la lógica de los enunciados, y se concentran en el estudio de leyes y principios muy generales que caracterizan todo tipo de actos ilocucionarios. Kearns, en cambio, concibe la lógica ilocucionaria como una disciplina muy comprensiva, con muchos subsistemas, que cobija a la lógica estándar como parte suya. El escrito describe brevemente el uso de los operadores ilocucionarios (de aseveración, de negación, de suposición de verdad o falsedad, explica la manera como se expande la concepción semántica en términos de condiciones de verdad para incluir los compromisos racionales del hablante y presenta un sistema de deducción para esta lógica. Como un ejemplo de lo que esta lógica puede hacer se ofrece una solución a la paradoja de Moore contenida en la aseveración “Está lloviendo, pero no lo creo”

  1. Occupational Listings Arranged by Cluster and Subject Matter Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Otto

    Approximately 850 occupations are listed under 27 occupational clusters. The Dictionary of Occupational Title (DOT) number is specified for occupations in the clusters of business training and distributive education, chemistry, general shop and industrial arts, home economics, foreign language, music, social studies, art, agriculture, physics, and…

  2. Instructional Design: Impact of Subject Matter and Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    processing, and the integration/synthesis of component parts. The haptic individual uses " bodily " perceptions, and is kinesthetically oriented. An...microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training has permitted more effective use of computer-based instruction...instruction, the advent of more powerful and inexpensive microcomputers, and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques into training, has permitted

  3. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  4. Subjective matters: from image quality to image psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorovskaya, Elena A.; De Ridder, Huib

    2013-03-01

    From the advent of digital imaging through several decades of studies, the human vision research community systematically focused on perceived image quality and digital artifacts due to resolution, compression, gamma, dynamic range, capture and reproduction noise, blur, etc., to help overcome existing technological challenges and shortcomings. Technological advances made digital images and digital multimedia nearly flawless in quality, and ubiquitous and pervasive in usage, provide us with the exciting but at the same time demanding possibility to turn to the domain of human experience including higher psychological functions, such as cognition, emotion, awareness, social interaction, consciousness and Self. In this paper we will outline the evolution of human centered multidisciplinary studies related to imaging and propose steps and potential foci of future research.

  5. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  6. Blending critical thinking skills with the teaching of subject matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study draws on Piaget and Vygotsky's theory of (social) constructivism to advance approaches and practices that teachers can employ to promote critical thinking in learners. We develop a lesson plan that incorporates critical thinking skills and show how teachers can correct egocentric and sociocentric tendencies that ...

  7. The study of electrochemical cell taught by problem-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichaitung, Paisan

    2018-01-01

    , students constructed their skills, scientific process, and seek self knowledge which made them seek the choices to solve problems variously. This Research using problem-based learning can be applied to teaching activity in other subjects.

  8. The white matter query language: a novel approach for describing human white matter anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a novel method to describe human white matter anatomy using an approach that is both intuitive and simple to use, and which automatically extracts white matter tracts from diffusion MRI volumes. Further, our method simplifies the quantification and statistical analysis of white matter tracts on large diffusion MRI databases. This work reflects the careful syntactical definition of major white matter fiber tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language makes it possible to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions that describe white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This novel method makes it possible to automatically label white matter anatomy across subjects. After describing this method, we provide an example of its implementation where we encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter for ten association and 15 projection tracts per hemisphere, along with seven commissural tracts. Importantly, this novel method is comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. Finally, we present results applying this method to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a small proof-of-concept study to detect changes in association tracts that characterize schizophrenia.

  9. 42 CFR 1008.15 - Facts subject to advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facts subject to advisory opinions. 1008.15 Section... Requesting Party § 1008.15 Facts subject to advisory opinions. (a) The OIG will consider requests from a requesting party for advisory opinions regarding the application of specific facts to the subject matters set...

  10. The CanMEDS role of Collaborator: How is it taught and assessed according to faculty and residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Elizabeth; Chan, Ming-Ka; Kuper, Ayelet; Albert, Mathieu; Jenkins, Deirdre; Harrison, Megan; Harris, Ilene

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the perspectives of paediatric residents and faculty regarding how the Collaborator role is taught and assessed. METHODS: Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, focus groups at four Canadian universities were conducted. Data were analyzed iteratively for emergent themes. RESULTS: Residents reported learning about collaboration through faculty role modelling but did not perceive that it was part of the formal curriculum. Faculty reported that they were not trained in how to effectively model this role. Both groups reported a need for training in conflict management, particularly as it applies to intraprofessional (physician-to-physician) relationships. Finally, the participants asserted that current methods to assess residents on their performance as collaborators are suboptimal. CONCLUSIONS: The Collaborator role should be a formal part of the residency curriculum. Residents need to be better educated with regard to managing conflict and handling intraprofessional relationships. Finally, innovative methods of assessing residents on this non-medical expert role need to be created. PMID:24294063

  11. The Graduate Record Examination as an indicator of learning of the curriculum taught to physics majors in US institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Adjoudani, Azin; Heller, Patricia; Terwilliger, James S.

    1991-05-01

    A study is described to evaluate the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as an indicator of learning by undergraduate physics majors. Measures were obtained of the overlap of the Graduate Record Examination in physics with the curriculum as it is taught to physics majors in US colleges and universities. The output of the project, for a given subfield f and set j of institutions, was two numbers Rj, f1 and Rj, f2. These two numbers estimated the extent to which (1) for Rj, f1, the curriculum prepares students at institutions j to take that part of the GRE which covers subfield f and (2) for Rj, f2, the GRE covers the materials in subfield f taught in the curriculum of institutions j. The subfields f were mechanics, electricity and magnetism, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, modern physics, and ``other'' (including experimental, mathematical, and solid-state physics). The institutions j were grouped into four categories: ``top graduate'' (those with the 20 best-ranked graduate programs); ``top undergraduate'' (those participating in the Oberlin Conference on College Science); ``random graduate'' (other institutions with graduate programs); and ``random undergraduate'' (other institutions without graduate programs). Generally the results show that the GRE does not cover the entire curriculum (low values of R2) for any institutional type. With regard to the coverage of the GRE by the curriculum (R1 values), there are significant differences between institutions of different types. Institutions with graduate programs have curricula that cover the modern physics and statistical mechanics aspects of the GRE significantly better than institutions without graduate programs.

  12. Effects of Jigsaw Cooperative Learning and Animation Techniques on Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding and Their Conceptions of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman; Doymus, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of jigsaw cooperative learning and computer animation techniques on academic achievements of first year university students attending classes in which the unit of chemical bonding is taught within the general chemistry course and these students' learning of the particulate nature of matter of this…

  13. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  14. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness. PMID:26586449

  15. Evidence for Functional Networks within the Human Brain's White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Michael; Nitzan, Mor; Bick, Atira S; Levin, Netta; Arzy, Shahar

    2017-07-05

    Investigation of the functional macro-scale organization of the human cortex is fundamental in modern neuroscience. Although numerous studies have identified networks of interacting functional modules in the gray-matter, limited research was directed to the functional organization of the white-matter. Recent studies have demonstrated that the white-matter exhibits blood oxygen level-dependent signal fluctuations similar to those of the gray-matter. Here we used these signal fluctuations to investigate whether the white-matter is organized as functional networks by applying a clustering analysis on resting-state functional MRI (RSfMRI) data from white-matter voxels, in 176 subjects (of both sexes). This analysis indicated the existence of 12 symmetrical white-matter functional networks, corresponding to combinations of white-matter tracts identified by diffusion tensor imaging. Six of the networks included interhemispheric commissural bridges traversing the corpus callosum. Signals in white-matter networks correlated with signals from functional gray-matter networks, providing missing knowledge on how these distributed networks communicate across large distances. These findings were replicated in an independent subject group and were corroborated by seed-based analysis in small groups and individual subjects. The identified white-matter functional atlases and analysis codes are available at http://mind.huji.ac.il/white-matter.aspx Our results demonstrate that the white-matter manifests an intrinsic functional organization as interacting networks of functional modules, similarly to the gray-matter, which can be investigated using RSfMRI. The discovery of functional networks within the white-matter may open new avenues of research in cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychiatry.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In recent years, functional MRI (fMRI) has revolutionized all fields of neuroscience, enabling identifications of functional modules and networks in the human

  16. White matter injury detection in neonatal MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Hajari, Nasim; Firouzmanesh, Amirhossein; Shen, Rui; Miller, Steven; Poskitt, Ken; Basu, Anup

    2013-02-01

    Early detection of white matter injury in premature newborns can facilitate timely clinical treatments reducing the potential risk of later developmental deficits. It was reported that there were more than 5% premature newborns in British Columbia, Canada, among which 5-10% exhibited major motor deficits and 25-50% exhibited significant developmental and visual deficits. With the advancement of computer assisted detection systems, it is possible to automatically identify white matter injuries, which are found inside the grey matter region of the brain. Atlas registration has been suggested in the literature to distinguish grey matter from the soft tissues inside the skull. However, our subjects are premature newborns delivered at 24 to 32 weeks of gestation. During this period, the grey matter undergoes rapid changes and differs significantly from one to another. Besides, not all detected white spots represent injuries. Additional neighborhood information and expert input are required for verification. In this paper, we propose a white matter feature identification system for premature newborns, which is composed of several steps: (1) Candidate white matter segmentation; (2) Feature extraction from candidates; (3) Validation with data obtained at a later stage on the children; and (4) Feature confirmation for automated detection. The main challenge of this work lies in segmenting white matter injuries from noisy and low resolution data. Our approach integrates image fusion and contrast enhancement together with a fuzzy segmentation technique to achieve promising results. Other applications, such as brain tumor and intra-ventricular haemorrhage detection can also benefit from our approach.

  17. Vanishing White Matter Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In Memory Of Obituaries Contact Us Donate Vanishing White Matter Disease What is Vanishing White Matter Disease? ... of the genetic basis of VWM was a great step forward. First of all, it allows genetic ...

  18. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  19. Mind Over Matter: Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Cocaine Mind Over Matter: Cocaine Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 806.08 KB Cocaine is ...

  20. Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Methamphetamine Mind Over Matter: Methamphetamine (Meth) Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 739.54 KB Methamphetamine comes ...

  1. BARYONIC DARK MATTER ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, M J

    1986-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  2. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  3. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  4. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  5. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of matter in school. Are these the only states of matter? What distinguishes different ... can be classified based on color, or electrical properties, or whether they are organic or inorganic, or conductors .... school textbooks continue to preach that there are three states of matter. Thus, I have reduced my problem from ...

  6. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  7. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  8. Collaboration: Assumed or Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between collaboration and gifted and talented students often is assumed to be an easy and successful learning experience. However, the transition from working alone to working with others necessitates an understanding of issues related to ability, sociability, and mobility. Collaboration has been identified as both an asset and a…

  9. Should Bioethics Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, George H.

    1980-01-01

    Examined is the issue concerning teaching bioethics. Differing points of view are discussed. The author concludes that moral and ethical reasoning should be incorporated into the public school curriculum, using morally laden issues that have grown out of advances in biological knowledge and biomedical technology. (CS)

  10. Should "Ought" Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The argument in this paper is that teachers and other education professionals could benefit from the opportunity to develop ethical understanding, in addition to other aspects of professional knowledge. Having first discussed the nature of ethics, the first main section of the paper establishes the case in favour of including ethical education in…

  11. Can Kindness Be Taught?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    There's no doubt that children's home environments have a huge impact on the kind of people they become. But so do their educational environments. A number of schools are beginning to realize it's worth it to spend the time on "soft" skills such as empathy. Even forgetting the recent scary headlines about bullying, teachers know that a classroom…

  12. On Being Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Ada S.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines the definitions of the key words of the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL)--scholarship, teaching, and learning--in order to identify the hopes that animate SoTL research and examine these hopes in light of recent critical thinking about the corporatization of higher education. Arguing that Biesta's (2013b) distinction…

  13. Immunology Taught by Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Mark M

    2012-01-01

    After a half-century of mouse-dominated research, human immunology is making a comeback. Informed by mouse studies and powered by new techniques, human immune research is both advancing disease treatment and providing new insights into basic biology.

  14. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder : state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, Maria M.; Redlich, Ronny; Schmaal, Lianne; Marquand, Andre F.; Dannlowski, Udo; Grotegerd, Dominik; Veltman, Dick J.; Schene, Aart H.; Ruhe, Henricus G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  15. Distinguishing medication-free subjects with unipolar disorder from subjects with bipolar disorder: state matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.; Redlich, R.; Schmaal, L.; Marquand, A.F.; Dannlowski, U.; Grotegerd, D.; Veltman, D.J.; Schene, A.H.; Ruhe, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated that pattern recognition techniques of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data for individual classification may be valuable for distinguishing between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Importantly, medication may have

  16. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  17. Homeroom Teachers or Specialist Teachers?: Considerations for the Workforce for Teaching English as a Subject at Elementary Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    In Japan, English will be officially taught as an academic subject for elementary fifth and sixth graders from 2020. This is a strong initiative of language-in-education policy, aiming at efficient articulation between elementary and junior high schools and targeting the development of English proficiency from early ages simultaneously. However,…

  18. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  19. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  20. How dark matter came to matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Swart, J. G.; Bertone, G.; van Dongen, J.

    2017-03-01

    The history of the dark matter problem can be traced back to at least the 1930s, but it was not until the early 1970s that the issue of 'missing matter' was widely recognized as problematic. In the latter period, previously separate issues involving missing mass were brought together in a single anomaly. We argue that reference to a straightforward accumulation of evidence alone is inadequate to comprehend this episode. Rather, the rise of cosmological research, the accompanying renewed interest in the theory of relativity and changes in the manpower division of astronomy in the 1960s are key to understanding how dark matter came to matter. At the same time, this story may also enlighten us on the methodological dimensions of past practices of physics and cosmology.

  1. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  2. Heritage Learners versus Non-heritage Learners in Five Less Commonly Taught Languages: Conditions, Practices, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Redouane

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of five less commonly taught languages (LCTLs, this article investigates learners’ perceptions of the difficulty level of the language of study, their insights on their learning experience and their classrooms’ conditions and practices, and most importantly their views on having both heritage and non-heritage learners in the same classroom. 124 university students enrolled in Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, and Russian completed a questionnaire survey. The findings reveal that non-heritage learner of the five LCTLs view the LCTL of study as difficult because of the writing system; heritage learners, however, perceive it as neither easy nor difficult. In addition, among all learners, Arabic heritage learners are the only ones who recognize that the learning challenges are the various levels of proficiency in the same classroom, and the dissimilarity between the standard variety and the dialect are. Results also show that both heritage and non-heritage learners disapprove of the learning conditions and practices of the classrooms. Surprisingly, nearly all learners from the two groups are in favor of having both groups in the same classroom. Based on the findings, the researcher suggests some pedagogical implications and recommendations to accommodate needs of both heritage and non-heritage learners and enhance teaching such combined classes of LCTLs.

  3. Is pelvic floor muscle training effective when taught in a general fitness class in pregnancy? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene Anette Hagen

    2011-09-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) following vaginal assessment of correct contraction can prevent and treat urinary incontinence in the peripartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PFMT instructed in a general fitness class for pregnant women. Single-blind randomised controlled trial. University-conducted primary care study. One hundred and five sedentary primiparous women randomised to a general fitness class including PFMT (n=52) or a control group (n=53). Ten and 11 women were lost to follow-up in the exercise and control groups, respectively. Twelve weeks of training comprising twice-weekly 1-hour fitness classes including three sets of eight to 12 maximal pelvic floor muscle contractions. The control group received usual care. Number of women reporting urinary, flatus or anal incontinence. No significant differences were found in the number of women reporting urinary, flatus or anal incontinence between the exercise group and the control group during pregnancy or at 6 weeks post partum. No effect of PFMT was found when the exercises were taught in a general fitness class for pregnant women without individual instruction of correct PFM contraction. Low adherence and the small sample size may have contributed to the negative results. Further studies are warranted to assess the effect of population-based PFMT in the prevention of urinary and fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Significant Role of the Intellect in Confronting Contemporary Global Challenges: The Taught of the Holy Quran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Naghipour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Islamic world is confronting constant challenges in terms of physical and spiritual, as a whole. Living in such challenging atmosphere persuades Muslims to develop proper strategies for handling ongoing crises in a way arguably compatible with the Islamic codes and practices, as well as the fast growing universal demands. This paper, based on the taught of the Holy Quran, aimed to finding out a modest approach to handling the contemporary challenges. The Islamic approach towards the historical challenges, such as the way in dealing with unbelievers and intellectuals of other religions, was of special interest in this paper. Deep analysis of selected verses of the Holy Quran reveals that paying full attention to the special requirements for every time and place and having precise understanding of different nations’ haracteristics; their values and way of thinking are among the most important factors of tackling challenges in every time. The Holy Quran teaches us that having rational and intellectual exchanges even with unbelievers are among the most important tools for the Muslims to overcome their challenges. In conclusion, Islam appreciates the role of the intellect and chooses a reasonable and convincing manner in confronting important challenges all over the time.

  5. Dark matter and LHC: Complementarities and limitations arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, G.; Arbey, A.; Boudaud, M.

    It is well known that dark matter density measurements, indirect and direct detection experiments, importantly complement the LHC in setting strong constraints on new physics scenarios. Yet, dark matter searches are subject to limitations which need to be considered for realistic analyses. For illustration, we explore the parameter space of the phenomenological MSSM and discuss the interplay of the constraints from dark matter searches and the LHC, and analyse the impact of the astrophysical uncertainties in some detail.

  6. Motives matter: a cultural historical approach to IT mediated subject matter teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenild, Kåre; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2011-01-01

    The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives and ident......The contributors to this collection employ the analytic resources of cultural-historical theory to examine the relationship between childhood and children's development under different societal conditions. In particular they attend to relationships between development, emotions, motives...

  7. Cultural-Linguistic Aspects in Asian Language Teaching. Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the American Council of Teachers of Uncommonly-Taught Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardjowidjojo, Soenjono, Comp.

    Problems encountered by teachers of uncommonly-taught Asian languages attempting to teach the culture of the native speakers of the target language are discussed in these articles: (1) "Cultural Context, Linguistic Categories, and Foreign Language Teaching: A Case from Marathi" by Vasant S. Khokle, (2) "The Ethnology of Communication and the…

  8. Comparative Outcomes of Two Instructional Models for Students with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion with Co-Teaching and Solo-Taught Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We compared two instructional models (co-teaching inclusion and solo-taught special education) for students with learning disabilities (LD) with regard to their effect on academic achievement and class attendance. Twelve inclusive classes (experimental group) and 13 special education classes (control group) participated in the study. In grade 1,…

  9. Educator Perspectives on the Use of Alternative Assessment Methods within Taught Masters Programmes: An Exploratory Study Using Activity Theory and Q Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deignan, Tim; Brown, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory two-stage sequential mixed methods research study that investigated the views of university educators on the introduction of assessment methods other than essays, exams and dissertations within taught Masters programmes. In the first stage, interviews were conducted internationally with 45 participants and…

  10. Comparative Analysis on the Nature of Proof to Be Taught in Geometry: The Cases of French and Japanese Lower Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international comparative study on the nature of proof to be taught in geometry. Proofs in French and Japanese lower secondary schools were explored by analyzing curricular documents: mathematics textbooks and national curricula. Analyses on the three aspects of proof--statement, proof, and theory--suggested by…

  11. Matters of Life and Longing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Line

    of the ways that phenomenology can be used as a tool of critical social analysis. The book focuses on lived experience and subjective meaning within a life-world dominated by poverty and violence. Through a focus on the basic human need for recognition Dalsgaard describes women’s desire to be valuable...... from simplistic dichotomies of mind/body, history/biography in an effort to grasp human experience in its complexity. “Matters of Life and Longing” is a lucid and accessible work which will be of interest to a wide and varied audience with interest in Latin America, reproductive health, gender studies...

  12. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the dry matter intake (DMI) and dry matter digestibility (DMD). Crude protein for 4WGG was 17.5% higher than that of 12WGG. Silage colour was normal except ...

  13. Understanding Physical Educators' Perceptions of Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Gaudreault, Karen Lux; Woods, Amelia Mays

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has illustrated that physical educators feel their subject is valued less than others in the context of schools. However, to date, no instruments have been developed to measure physical education teachers' perceptions of mattering. This study sought to propose and validate the Perceived Mattering Questionnaire--Physical Education…

  14. How the Principles of Green Chemistry Changed the Way Organic Chemistry Labs Are Taught at the University of Detroit Mercy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Matthew J.

    2017-02-01

    Many logistic and instructional changes followed the incorporation of the 12 principles of green chemistry into organic chemistry laboratory courses at the University of Detroit Mercy. Over the last decade, institutional limitations have been turned into green chemical strengths in many areas, including integration of atom economy metrics into learning outcomes, replacing overly toxic equipment and reagents, and modifying matters of reaction scale and type.

  15. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  16. Continuing professional education in Eritrea taught by local obstetrics and gynaecology residents: Effects on work environment and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzolf, Susan; Zekarias, Berhane; Tedla, Kifleyesus; Woldeyesus, Dawit Estifanos; Sereke, Dawit; Yohannes, Abraham; Asrat, Kibreab; Weaver, Marcia R

    2015-01-01

    Education and training can improve the quality of health care. We evaluated a course taught by Obstetrics/Gynaecology residents on the work environment and maternal/neonatal outcomes at Orotta Maternity Hospital. Participants were given a Standardised Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to measure work environment before and after training. Maternal/neonatal outcomes were extracted from hospital logbooks. Neonatal quality indicators were: adverse score index, weighted score index and severity score index. SAQ response rate was 77.6% (45/58) pre-training and 95.6% (43/45) post-training. Mean total SAQ score increased from 3.07 to 3.32 out of 5 points (p < 0.05). Changes in relative risk (RR) were not statistically significant for maternal [maternal death ratio of RR (RRR) =1.08, 95% CI: 0.20-5.84 and blood transfusion RRR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.74 -1.09] or neonatal outcomes (intrapartum death RRR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.57-2.75, neonatal death RRR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.26-3.24, neonatal transfer RRR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.81-1.27, and Apgar < 7 at 5 minutes RRR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.83-1.73). Neonatal quality indicators did not change significantly. Utilising residents to teach staff-developed training within a hospital setting was feasible and may improve the work environment. Impact on maternal/neonatal outcomes is not evident but continued follow-up is important.

  17. A blended learning course taught to different groups of learners in a dental school: follow-up evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahinis, Kimon; Stokes, Christopher W; Walsh, Trevor F; Tsitrou, Effrosyni; Cannavina, Giuseppe

    2008-09-01

    This article reports the results of a follow-up study conducted to investigate students' perceptions about a blended learning health informatics course that combined online and traditional classroom instruction. The course is taught to five different groups of students at the School of Clinical Dentistry of the University of Sheffield each academic year: first-, third-, and fourth-year dental students, dental hygiene and therapy students, and postgraduate dental students. The goal of the study was to determine the impact of the modifications made to the course after the first year of implementation. To accomplish this goal, students' perceptions of this blended learning course were compared after the first and second implementations. The methodology used for this study was action research. The data were collected using three processes: questionnaires were used to collect contextual data from the students taking the course; a student-led, nominal group technique was used to collect group data from the participants; and a non-participant observer technique was used to record the context in which certain group and individual behaviors occurred. Depending on group assignment, between 41.5 and 91.5 percent of students believed that the blended-learning course had added to their skills. The online learning environment was perceived as a useful resource by 75 percent of students in four of the five student groups, but only 45 percent of the fourth-year dental students indicated it was a useful resource. The perceived lack of sufficient online support material was one of the main concerns of the students at the nominal group evaluation sessions. The non-participant observer technique identified different engagement levels among the student groups. Discernible differences were identified, with improvement in some areas and a decline in others compared to a previous evaluation. The change in the delivery method influenced the students' comprehension of the material

  18. Dark Matter Indirect Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Lavalle, Julien; Salati, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The astronomical dark matter could be made of weakly interacting and massive particles. If so, these species would be abundant inside the Milky Way, where they would continuously annihilate and produce cosmic rays. Those annihilation products are potentially detectable at the Earth, and could provide indirect clues for the presence of dark matter species within the Galaxy. We will review here the various cosmic radiations which the dark matter can produce. We will examine how they propagate t...

  19. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  20. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  1. Searches for dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feinstein, Fabrice

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the mass of the visible stars could not account for the gravitational cohesion of the galaxies was the first sign of non-visible (i.e. dark) matter in the Universe. Since then, many observational evidences tell us that most of the matter is indeed dark. The nature of this dark matter is still unknown. There are good reasons to think that most of it is not composed of normal matter. These lectures will review the experimental methods, which have been developed to unravel this mystery and will compare their results with theoretical predictions.

  2. Front matter: Volume 10385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Asundi, Anand K.

    2017-09-01

    This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 10385, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.

  3. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  4. Psychomotor Skill Acquisition in the Technical Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PaDelford, Harry

    Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…

  5. Training of passive systems matter using the Project Oriented Learning technique in Ciudad de Mexico del Tecnologico de Monterey; Ensenanza de la materia de sistemas pasivos en el cuarto semestre de la carrera de arquitectura plan 99 bajo la tecnica didactica project oriented learning (Pol), en el campus Ciudad de Mexico del Tecnologico de Monterrey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    Environmental design or solar architecture is one of the subjects taught in the fourth semester of Architecture at the Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM), using the Project Oriented Learning technique. This paper explains the way Environmental Design is part of what is called the 4th semester block in the Architecture curriculum using POL technique, the way this subject was taught before as opposed to the way it is currently taught, which are the roles of the actors involved, the main characteristics of the technique itself, and how the above responds to the 2005 Mission Statement of the ITESM. (Author)

  6. Association between exercise habits and subcortical gray matter volumes in healthy elderly people: A population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikie Yamamoto

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Subjects with exercise habits show larger subcortical gray matter volumes than subjects without exercise habits in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. Specifically, the volume of the nucleus accumbens correlates with both exercise habits and cognitive preservation.

  7. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  8. Dark Matter Day

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Wessel Valkenburg, Research Fellow at the Theory Department at CERN will explain the how and why research is carried out on dark matter. The event will be in English with simultaneous interpretation into French. Dark Matter Day falls on Hallow...

  9. CORRELATION BETWEEN PARTICULATE MATTER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    2017-03-21

    Mar 21, 2017 ... Measurement of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out with a view to establish the potential influence of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and global radiation on the mass concentration. Particulate matter (PM) in two size ...

  10. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  11. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  12. Enabling forbidden dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Liu, Hongwan; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Xue, Wei

    2017-10-01

    The thermal relic density of dark matter is conventionally set by two-body annihilations. We point out that in many simple models, 3 →2 annihilations can play an important role in determining the relic density over a broad range of model parameters. This occurs when the two-body annihilation is kinematically forbidden, but the 3 →2 process is allowed; we call this scenario not-forbidden dark matter. We illustrate this mechanism for a vector-portal dark matter model, showing that for a dark matter mass of mχ˜MeV -10 GeV , 3 →2 processes not only lead to the observed relic density, but also imply a self-interaction cross section that can solve the cusp/core problem. This can be accomplished while remaining consistent with stringent CMB constraints on light dark matter, and can potentially be discovered at future direct detection experiments.

  13. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  14. Imperfect Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzagholi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust - Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges - Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination era. In the second ...

  15. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (Pchanges in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean diffusivity, however, was apparent visibly on the quantitative attenuation coefficient maps compared to healthy control subjects

  16. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  17. IN MY OPINION: Taking part matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christine

    2000-09-01

    demanding syllabuses for pre-university exams. In years gone by, some of our most gifted students happened to be taught by some of our most able teachers, and together they tackled the old Scholarship-level papers. The old O-level work gave students a solid grounding in classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism, with lots of sums on which to anchor the concepts. Those who enjoyed this aspect of the science could launch into A-level studies of Maths, Physics, Chemistry and/or Further Maths, and relish the challenges hidden in the syllabuses. Advanced level aims have changed. Mathematical elements have been played down; traditional proofs and applications may be referred to but are no longer required learning for the candidates. The modular system allows less repetitive revision and consolidation of ideas so that students are not required to immerse themselves in the subject in the same way as a generation ago. Does this matter? The `new way' hopes to attract some students into Physics and Engineering who would have been intimidated by the rigour and commitment required to do well in the old system. The single-minded student has a wealth of information available to further his or her studies and will not be limited by the dictates of any syllabus. However, without the need to meet exam requirements, many of our most able students have been deprived of the pleasure of advancing their knowledge so far at school, and must wait for a degree course to take up the story. (We should worry if many of these potential scientists get deflected from Physics.) The change in A-level targets inevitably means that the UK is slipping down the IPhO medal table, but in the Olympic tradition it is the taking part that matters. The 31st Olympiad was won by the People's Republic of China, with five gold medals out of five. Heartiest congratulations to them and to Russia, who came second with two gold, two silver and a bronze. The other gold medals went to Hungary (2), India (2), Taiwan (2

  18. Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to lumbopelvic diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermet, Shannon; McGinnis, Karen; Boodham, Melissa; Gleberzon, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught in the undergraduate program used for patients with lumbopelvic conditions are expected to be utilized by students during their clinical internship program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College or are being used by the clinical faculty. A confidential survey was distributed to clinical faculty at the college. It consisted of a list of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used for lumbopelvic conditions taught at that college. Clinicians were asked to indicate the frequency with which they performed or they required students to perform each item. Seventeen of 23 clinicians responded. The following procedures were most likely required to be performed by clinicians: posture; ranges of motion; lower limb sensory, motor, and reflex testing; and core orthopedic tests. The following were less likely to be required to be performed: Waddell testing, Schober's test, Gillet tests, and abdominal palpation. Students were expected to perform (or clinicians performed) most of the mobilization (in particular, iliocostal, iliotransverse, and iliofemoral) and spinal manipulative therapies (in particular, the procedures referred to as the lumbar roll, lumbar pull/hook, and upper sacroiliac) taught at the college. This study suggests that there was considerable, but not complete, vertical integration between the undergraduate and clinical education program at this college.

  19. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  20. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  1. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  2. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  3. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  4. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  5. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  6. D-Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Shiu, Gary; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particle-like states originating from D-branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are non-perturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D-matter. In contrast to other non-perturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D-particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (i...

  7. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  8. Cleaning up dark matter

    CERN Multimedia

    Bignami, Giovanni Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    "An experiment in Italy has found tantalizing but puzzling evidence for axions, one if the leading candidates for dark matter. The authors explain how a pair of spinning neutron stars should settle the issue once and for all." (3 pages)

  9. Boiling Primordial Matter: 1968

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This introductory article presents in popular language how the view of the early Universe was evolving through 1968 under the influence of than new and recent insights about the thermodynamic properties of strongly interacting matter (by JR, editor).

  10. Dark matter warms up

    CERN Multimedia

    Peplow, Mark

    2006-01-01

    "Unseen mass looks to be more "tepid" than thought. Astronomers have measured the temperature of dark matter for the first time. The discovery should help particle hunters to identify exactly what this mysterious substance is made of" (1 page)

  11. Matter Tracking Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Matter Tracking Information System (MTIS) principle function is to streamline and integrate the workload and work activity generated or addressed by our 300 plus...

  12. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  13. Little composite dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.

  14. Neutrino Propagation in Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Blennow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the effects of neutrino propagation in the matter of the Earth relevant to experiments with atmospheric and accelerator neutrinos and aimed at the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and CP violation. These include (i the resonance enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter with constant or nearly constant density, (ii adiabatic conversion in matter with slowly changing density, (iii parametric enhancement of oscillations in a multilayer medium, and (iv oscillations in thin layers of matter. We present the results of semianalytic descriptions of flavor transitions for the cases of small density perturbations, in the limit of large densities and for small density widths. Neutrino oscillograms of the Earth and their structure after determination of the 1–3 mixing are described. A possibility to identify the neutrino mass hierarchy with the atmospheric neutrinos and multimegaton scale detectors having low energy thresholds is explored. The potential of future accelerator experiments to establish the hierarchy is outlined.

  15. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  16. White matter changes and diabetes predict cognitive decline in the elderly: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdelho, A; Madureira, S; Moleiro, C

    2010-01-01

    We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently.......We aimed to study if age-related white matter changes (WMC) and vascular risk factors were predictors of cognitive decline in elderly subjects with WMC living independently....

  17. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  18. Dense cold matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to study cold nuclear matter with the density of neutron star core and even larger in the laboratory experiment is discussed. Special rare kinematical trigger for relativistic ion-ion collisions is proposed for such study. Expected properties of the matter in such unusual conditions and experimental program for its study is discussed. Possible experimental setup and R&D results for position sensitive neutron detector are presented.

  19. Matter-antimatter Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omnes, R.

    1973-01-01

    The possible existence of antimatter on a large scale in the universe is evaluated. As a starting point, an attempt was made to understand the origin of matter as being essentially analogous to the origin of backgound thermal radiation. Several theories and models are examined, with particular emphasis on nucleon-antinucleon interactions at intermediate energies. Data also cover annihilation interaction with the matter-antimatter boundary to produce the essential fluid motion known as coalesence.

  20. Does size really matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maj; Hyland, Philip; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2017-01-01

    words, does the size of PTSD really matter? Methods: The aim was investigated by examining differences in diagnostic rates between the two diagnostic systems and independently examining the model fit of the competing DSM-5 and ICD-11 models of PTSD across three trauma samples: university students (N...... diagnostic criteria only the ICD-11 model can reflect the configuration of symptoms satisfactorily. Thus, size does matter when assessing PTSD....

  1. Charming dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Jubb, Thomas; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We have considered a model of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV), in which a triplet of dark matter particles couple to right-handed up-type quarks via a heavy colour-charged scalar mediator. By studying a large spectrum of possible constraints, and assessing the entire parameter space using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), we can place strong restrictions on the allowed parameter space for dark matter models of this type.

  2. Experimental Implications of Mirror Matter-Type Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, Robert

    Mirror matter-type dark matter is one dark matter candidate which is particularly well motivated from high energy physics. The theoretical motivation and experimental evidence are pedagogically reviewed, with emphasis on the implications of recent orthopositronium experiments, the DAMA/NaI dark matter search, anomalous meteorite events etc.

  3. Cold Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2010-01-01

    We perform an O(alpha_s^2) perturbative calculation of the equation of state of cold but dense QCD matter with two massless and one massive quark flavor, finding that perturbation theory converges reasonably well for quark chemical potentials above 1 GeV. Using a running coupling constant and strange quark mass, and allowing for further non-perturbative effects, our results point to a narrow range where absolutely stable strange quark matter may exist. Absent stable strange quark matter, our findings suggest that quark matter in compact star cores becomes confined to hadrons only slightly above the density of atomic nuclei. Finally, we show that equations of state including quark matter lead to hybrid star masses up to M~2M_solar, in agreement with current observations. For strange stars, we find maximal masses of M~2.75M_solar and conclude that confirmed observations of compact stars with M>2M_solar would strongly favor the existence of stable strange quark matter.

  4. The Specific Heat of Matter at Low Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Tari, A

    2003-01-01

    Recent discoveries of new materials and improvements in calorimetric techniques have given new impetus to the subject of specific heat. Nevertheless, there is a serious lack of literature on the subject. This invaluable book, which goes some way towards remedying that, is concerned mainly with the specific heat of matter at ordinary temperatures. It discusses the principles that underlie the theory of specific heat and considers a number of theoretical models in some detail. The subject matter ranges from traditional materials to those recently discovered - heavy fermion compounds, high temper

  5. Increased white matter metabolic rates in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitelman, Serge A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Young, Derek S; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Hollander, Eric; Shihabuddin, Lina; Hazlett, Erin A; Bralet, Marie-Cecile

    2017-11-22

    Both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are often characterized as disorders of white matter integrity. Multimodal investigations have reported elevated metabolic rates, cerebral perfusion and basal activity in various white matter regions in schizophrenia, but none of these functions has previously been studied in ASD. We used 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to compare white matter metabolic rates in subjects with ASD (n = 25) to those with schizophrenia (n = 41) and healthy controls (n = 55) across a wide range of stereotaxically placed regions-of-interest. Both subjects with ASD and schizophrenia showed increased metabolic rates across the white matter regions assessed, including internal capsule, corpus callosum, and white matter in the frontal and temporal lobes. These increases were more pronounced, more widespread and more asymmetrical in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. The highest metabolic increases in both disorders were seen in the prefrontal white matter and anterior limb of the internal capsule. Compared to normal controls, differences in gray matter metabolism were less prominent and differences in adjacent white matter metabolism were more prominent in subjects with ASD than in those with schizophrenia. Autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are associated with heightened metabolic activity throughout the white matter. Unlike in the gray matter, the vector of white matter metabolic abnormalities appears to be similar in ASD and schizophrenia, may reflect inefficient functional connectivity with compensatory hypermetabolism, and may be a common feature of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Challenges Associated with the Content of the Art History Component in the General Knowledge in Art Subject: Implications for Art History Education in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adom, Dickson; Kquofi, Steve; Agyem, Joe Adu

    2016-01-01

    The content of the Art History component in the General Knowledge in Art subject studied by various Senior High Schools in West Africa is largely of foreign art histories at the expense of the histories of African indigenous arts which are shallowly presented in the teaching syllabus to be taught students. This makes the students appreciate more…

  7. "Poetry Is Happening but I Don't Exactly Know How": Literacy Subject Leaders' Perceptions of Poetry in Their Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambirth, Andrew; Smith, Sarah; Steele, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests (Ofsted, 2007) that the role of the Subject Leader is crucial in how well poetry is taught in schools. This paper attempts to provide some insights on "what it is like" to coordinate poetry teaching in a primary school. Some of the data confirm elements of the findings from earlier research on the state of poetry in…

  8. The Data Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article considers whether it is fortunate that data protection rules, as a starting point, apply to all physical persons as data subjects, or whether it would be better to differentiate between kinds of persons on grounds of their ability to act as a data subject. In order to protect all...... persons, it is argued that a principle of care should be part of data protection law....

  9. Correlated electrons in quantum matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fulde, Peter

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the effects of electronic correlations in quantum systems is one of the most challenging problems in physics, partly due to the relevance in modern high technology. Yet there exist hardly any books on the subject which try to give a comprehensive overview on the field covering insulators, semiconductors, as well as metals. The present book tries to fill that gap. It intends to provide graduate students and researchers a comprehensive survey of electron correlations, weak and strong, in insulators, semiconductors and metals. This topic is a central one in condensed matter and beyond that in theoretical physics. The reader will have a better understanding of the great progress which has been made in the field over the past few decades.

  10. Accelerated Gray and White Matter Deterioration With Age in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropley, Vanessa L; Klauser, Paul; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Bruggemann, Jason; Sundram, Suresh; Bousman, Chad; Pereira, Avril; Di Biase, Maria A; Weickert, Thomas W; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Pantelis, Christos; Zalesky, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    Although brain changes in schizophrenia have been proposed to mirror those found with advancing age, the trajectory of gray matter and white matter changes during the disease course remains unclear. The authors sought to measure whether these changes in individuals with schizophrenia remain stable, are accelerated, or are diminished with age. Gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were mapped in 326 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and in 197 healthy comparison subjects aged 20-65 years. Polynomial regression was used to model the influence of age on gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy at a whole-brain and voxel level. Between-group differences in gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were regionally localized across the lifespan using permutation testing and cluster-based inference. Significant loss of gray matter volume was evident in schizophrenia, progressively worsening with age to a maximal loss of 8% in the seventh decade of life. The inferred rate of gray matter volume loss was significantly accelerated in schizophrenia up to middle age and plateaued thereafter. In contrast, significant reductions in fractional anisotropy emerged in schizophrenia only after age 35, and the rate of fractional anisotropy deterioration with age was constant and best modeled with a straight line. The slope of this line was 60% steeper in schizophrenia relative to comparison subjects, indicating a significantly faster rate of white matter deterioration with age. The rates of reduction of gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy were significantly faster in males than in females, but an interaction between sex and diagnosis was not evident. The findings suggest that schizophrenia is characterized by an initial, rapid rate of gray matter loss that slows in middle life, followed by the emergence of a deficit in white matter that progressively worsens with age at a constant rate.

  11. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D; Kent, Jerillyn S; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J; O'Donnell, Brian F; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P

    2015-12-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is based on the hypothesis that signal fluctuation in white matter is associated with white matter functional activity. We examined the variance of the signal in resting state fMRI and found significant differences between individuals with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls specifically in white matter tissue. Controls showed higher temporal signal-to-noise ratios clustered in regions including temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and other major white matter tracts. These regions with higher temporal signal-to-noise ratio agree well with those showing higher metabolic activity reported by studies using PET. The results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have higher functional activity in white matter in certain brain regions relative to healthy controls. Despite some overlaps, the distinct regions for physiological noise are different from those for FA derived from diffusion tensor imaging, and therefore provide a unique angle to explore potential mechanisms to white matter abnormality.

  12. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  13. Condensed Matter Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; Simons, Ben

    2006-06-01

    Over the past few decades, in concert with ground-breaking experimental advances, condensed matter theory has drawn increasingly from the language of low-energy quantum field theory. This primer is aimed at elevating graduate students of condensed matter theory to a level where they can engage in independent research. It emphasizes the development of modern methods of classical and quantum field theory with applications oriented around condensed matter physics. Topics covered include second quantization, path and functional field integration, mean-field theory and collective phenomena, the renormalization group, and topology. Conceptual aspects and formal methodology are emphasized, but the discussion is rooted firmly in practical experimental application. As well as routine exercises, the text includes extended and challenging problems, with fully worked solutions, designed to provide a bridge between formal manipulations and research-oriented thinking. This book will complement graduate level courses on theoretical quantum condensed matter physics. Spans the field of modern condensed matter theory focusing on field theory techniques Written to facilitate learning, with numerous challenging exercises, with fully worked solutions, aimed at physicists starting graduate-level courses The theoretical methods are firmly set in concrete experimental applications

  14. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  15. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  16. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  17. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  18. Baryonic dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rebolo, R

    2002-01-01

    Recent determinations of baryonic density using the angular power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background are very close to the classical estimate from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. This reinforces the case for dark baryons in the Universe and for a large component of exotic cold dark matter. Present-day baryons can be hidden in substellar objects, stellar remnants, cold gas clouds, hot diffuse ionized gas in various astrophysical environments. Direct detection searches and microlensing experiments provide estimates of the Galactic mass budget in massive compact objects concluding that the bulk of the dark matter in the halo of the Galaxy cannot be associated to MACHOs. Baryons in high redshift Lyman-alpha systems can account for the cosmic baryonic density. However, the dominant form of present-day baryons and, in particular, the nature of the halo dark matter remains a mystery.

  19. Light, Matter, and Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    Interaction of light and matter produces the appearance of materials. To deal with the immense complexity of nature, light and matter is modelled at a macroscopic level in computer graphics. This work is the first to provide the link between the microscopic physical theories of light and matter...... and the macroscopic process of rendering realistic images. This enables prediction of appearance based on the contents and the physical conditions of a material. The idea is to take the contents declaration for a material and use it to predict what the material looks like. Or conversely, to take a picture...... of a material and determine the contents of the material. The book is in four parts. Part I provides the link between microscopic and macroscopic theories of light. Part II describes how to use the properties of microscopic particles to compute the macroscopic properties of materials. Part III illustrates...

  20. WISPy Cold Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Paola; Goodsell, Mark; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches -- exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques -- can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future.

  1. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  2. Natural minimal dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbrichesi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show how the Higgs boson mass is protected from the potentially large corrections due to the introduction of minimal dark matter if the new physics sector is made supersymmetric. The fermionic dark matter candidate (a 5-plet of $SU(2)_L$) is accompanied by a scalar state. The weak gauge sector is made supersymmetric and the Higgs boson is embedded in a supersymmetric multiplet. The remaining standard model states are non-supersymmetric. Non vanishing corrections to the Higgs boson mass only appear at three-loop level and the model is natural for dark matter masses up to 15 TeV--a value larger than the one required by the cosmological relic density. The construction presented stands as an example of a general approach to naturalness that solves the little hierarchy problem which arises when new physics is added beyond the standard model at an energy scale around 10 TeV.

  3. Dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Alessandro

    These lectures begin with a brief survey of the astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter. We then consider the three principal theoretically motivated types of dark matter, sterile neutrinos, axions and SUSY WIMPs. In chapter 4 we discuss the motivations for the so-called neutrino minimal standard model, nuMSM, an extension of the SM with three sterile neutrinos with masses similar to the charged fermions. In chapter 5 we briefly recall the strong CP problem of the SM and the solution proposed by Peccei and Quinn leading to the prediction of axions and of their characteristics. We then discuss the experimental status and perspectives. In chapter 6 we assume that the reader to be acquainted with the theoretical motivations for SUSY and move directly to the direct search for dark matter and the description of the principal detector techniques: scintillators, noble fluids and bolometers. We conclude with an outlook on the future perspectives.

  4. Radiative light dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Pilaftsis, A.

    2017-06-01

    We present a Peccei-Quinn (PQ)-symmetric two-Higgs doublet model that naturally predicts a fermionic singlet dark matter in the mass range 10 keV-1 GeV. The origin of the smallness of the mass of this light singlet fermion arises predominantly at the one-loop level, upon soft or spontaneous breakdown of the PQ symmetry via a complex scalar field in a fashion similar to the so-called Dine-Fischler-Sredniki-Zhitnitsky axion model. The mass generation of this fermionic radiative light dark matter (RLDM) requires the existence of two heavy vectorlike SU(2) isodoublets, which are not charged under the PQ symmetry. We show how the RLDM can be produced via the freeze-in mechanism, thus accounting for the missing matter in the Universe. Finally, we briefly discuss possible theoretical and phenomenological implications of the RLDM model for the strong C P problem and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  5. Automated measurement of local white matter lesion volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Verhaaren, Benjamin F. J.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that white matter lesions at different locations may have different etiology and clinical consequences. Several approaches for the quantification of local white matter lesion load have been proposed in the literature, most of which rely on a distinction between lesions...... in a periventricular region close to the ventricles and a subcortical zone further away. In this work we present a novel automated method for local white matter lesion volume quantification in magnetic resonance images. The method segments and measures the white matter lesion volume in 43 regions defined...... by orientation and distance to the ventricles, which allows a more spatially detailed study of lesion load. The potential of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the effect of blood pressure on the regional white matter lesion volume in 490 elderly subjects taken from a longitudinal population study...

  6. Paying Hypertension Research Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarett, David; Karlawish, Jason; Asch, David A

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT Cash payments are often used to compensate subjects who participate in research. However, ethicists have argued that these payments might constitute an undue inducement. OBJECTIVES To determine whether potential subjects agree with theoretical arguments that a payment could be an undue inducement. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS Survey of 350 prospective jurors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Belief that a $500 payment for research participation would impair their own, and others' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of a clinical trial. RESULTS Two hundred sixty-one jurors (74.6%) believed that a $500 payment would impair subjects' ability to think carefully about the risks and benefits of research. Ninety-six of 120 (80%) expressed this concern about subjects with a low income ($50,000). In contrast, only 69 (19.7%) of jurors believed that a $500 payment would influence them. Jurors who believed that this payment would influence them reported lower incomes and less education. CONCLUSION Members of the general public share ethical concerns about the influence of payments for research, although they believe that these concerns are more applicable to others than to themselves.

  7. Subjects, Models, Languages, Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Arend; Bézivin, J.; Heckel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Discussions about model-driven approaches tend to be hampered by terminological confusion. This is at least partially caused by a lack of formal precision in defining the basic concepts, including that of "model" and "thing being modelled" - which we call subject in this paper. We propose a minimal

  8. Subjective Duration and Psychophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hannes

    1975-01-01

    Three models are proposed to describe the strategy applied by a subject when he is confronted with two successive time intervals and is required to deal with some relation between them, for example, by telling which was the longer by adjusting the second to match the first. (Author)

  9. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  10. Vector SIMP dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Lee, Hyun Min; Mambrini, Yann; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierre, Mathias

    2017-10-01

    Strongly Interacting Massive Particles (SIMPs) have recently been proposed as light thermal dark matter relics. Here we consider an explicit realization of the SIMP mechanism in the form of vector SIMPs arising from an SU(2) X hidden gauge theory, where the accidental custodial symmetry protects the stability of the dark matter. We propose several ways of equilibrating the dark and visible sectors in this setup. In particular, we show that a light dark Higgs portal can maintain thermal equilibrium between the two sectors, as can a massive dark vector portal with its generalized Chern-Simons couplings to the vector SIMPs, all while remaining consistent with experimental constraints.

  11. The constitutional right subject: Beyond an analytical program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Rosa Jiménez-Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the Cuban higher education must ensure the comprehensive training of students, with a strong scientific-technical, humanistic and high ideological values, political, ethical and aesthetic training, in order to achieve professional revolutionaries educated, competent independent and creators, so that they can perform successfully in the various sectors of the economy and society in general. The contribution of a group of teachers who have taught or teach the subject of Constitutional Law in the form of classroom study with the primary purpose of presentation of several curricular activities and extracurricular, as a reference point for his team, will provide an educational legacy to future generations of teachers, and assess their relevance for possible generalization in other university centers where the School of law is studied.

  12. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  13. Degree of vertical integration between the undergraduate program and clinical internship with respect to cervical and cranial diagnostic and therapeutic procedures taught at the canadian memorial chiropractic college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppington, Charmody; Gleberzon, Brian; Fortunato, Lisa; Doucet, Nicolea; Vandervalk, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cervical and cranial spine taught to students during the undergraduate program at Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College are required to be used during their internship by their supervising clinicians and, if so, to what extent these procedures are used. Course manuals and course syllabi from the Applied Chiropractic and Clinical Diagnosis faculty of the undergraduate chiropractic program for the academic year 2009-2010 were consulted and a list of all diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the cranial and cervical spine was compiled. This survey asked clinicians to indicate if they themselves used or if they required the students they were supervising to use each procedure listed and, if so, to what extent each procedure was used. Demographic information of each clinician was also obtained. In general, most diagnostic procedures of the head and neck were seldom used, with the exception of postural observation and palpation. By contrast, most cervical orthopaedic tests were often used, with the exception of tests for vertigo. Most therapeutic procedures were used frequently with the exception of prone cervical and "muscle" adjustments. There was a low degree of vertical integration for cranial procedures as compared to a much higher degree of vertical integration for cervical procedures between the undergraduate and clinical internship programs taught. Vertical integration is an important element of curricular planning and these results may be helpful to aid educators to more appropriately allocate classroom instruction.

  14. [Subjective cognition in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, S; Aubin, G; Stip, E

    2017-02-01

    Given the extent, magnitude and functional significance of the neurocognitive deficits of schizophrenia, growing attention has been paid recently to patients' self-awareness of their own deficits. Thus far, the literature has shown either that patients fail to recognize their cognitive deficits or that the association between subjective and objective cognition is weak in schizophrenia. The reasons for this lack of consistency remain unexplained but may have to do, among others, with the influence of potential confounding clinical variables and the choice of the scale used to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits. In the current study, we sought to examine the relationships between subjective and objective cognitive performance in schizophrenia, while controlling for the influence of sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Eighty-two patients with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (DSM-IV criteria) were recruited. Patients' subjective cognitive complaints were evaluated with the Subjective Scale to Investigate Cognition in Schizophrenia (SSTICS), the most frequently used scale to measure self-awareness of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Neurocognition was evaluated with working memory, planning and visual learning tasks taken from Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. The Stroop Color-Word test was also administered. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. The relationships between subjective and objective cognition were evaluated with multivariate hierarchic linear regression analyses, taking into consideration potential confounders such as sociodemographic and psychiatric variables. Finally, a factor analysis of the SSTICS was performed. For the SSTICS total score, the regression analysis produced a model including two predictors, namely visual learning and Stoop interference performance, explaining a moderate portion of the variance

  15. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entire liquid or solid. The variety of electronic behaviour which ... sity of electronic behaviour in condensed matter, ego ferro- ..... a big dog? We do not know the reasons yet. As it turns out for many fundamentally interesting phenomena, colossal magneto- resistance may also find applications, this time in magnetic recording.

  16. Dichromatic dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yang; Su, Meng; Zhao, Yue

    2013-02-01

    Both the robust INTEGRAL 511 keV gamma-ray line and the recent tentative hint of the 135 GeV gamma-ray line from Fermi-LAT have similar signal morphologies, and may be produced from the same dark matter annihilation. Motivated by this observation, we construct a dark matter model to explain both signals and to accommodate the two required annihilation cross sections that are different by more than six orders of magnitude. In our model, to generate the low-energy positrons for INTEGRAL, dark matter particles annihilate into a complex scalar that couples to photon via a charge-radius operator. The complex scalar contains an excited state decaying into the ground state plus an off-shell photon to generate a pair of positron and electron. Two charged particles with non-degenerate masses are necessary for generating this charge-radius operator. One charged particle is predicted to be long-lived and have a mass around 3.8 TeV to explain the dark matter thermal relic abundance from its late decay. The other charged particle is predicted to have a mass below 1 TeV given the ratio of the two signal cross sections. The 14 TeV LHC will concretely test the main parameter space of this lighter charged particle.

  17. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  18. Anti-matter factory

    CERN Document Server

    Michaut, C

    2003-01-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac predicted the existence of anti-matter as a consequence of his theory. The first experimental fact that supported this idea was the discovery of the positron in 1932. Anti-protons were produced in 1955 at the Bevatron facility in Berkeley and anti-neutrons the following year. Since 1964 scientists know that matter and anti-matter differ not only from their electrical charge but also from their behaviour concerning weak interaction. In 2002 the CERN announced the production of more than 50.000 atoms of anti-hydrogen which was a breakthrough because the last attempt in 1995 ended with the creation of only 9 atoms of anti-hydrogen whose speed neared the velocity of light while the speed of the last ones created is 100.000 times smaller. The next step is to carry out experiments in order to measure the spectra of anti-hydrogen in a very accurate manner and to test the effect of gravity on anti-matter. (A.C.)

  19. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  20. The Dark Matter Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters

  1. Solitons in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilkin, N.N.; Mishustin, I.N.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1979-10-05

    The propagation of finite-amplitude waves in cold nuclear matter is investigated. It is shown that by taking into account the nonlinear terms in the equations for the Fermi-liquid theory, we obtain elongated wave-soliton-type solutions.

  2. A triangle that matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Gershon, Tim

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)

  3. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  4. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  5. Education Matters, January 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Agents of Change: Why So Many Teachers Are…

  6. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  7. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  8. Education Matters, May 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Balancing Act: Achieving a Harmony between…

  9. Education Matters, May 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Who Me? Yes, You Can Use Technology to Individualize…

  10. Education Matters, May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Is She Your Competition? Are India's Students…

  11. Condensed-Matter Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jorge E.; Scalapino, Douglas J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses ways computers are being used in condensed-matter physics by experimenters and theorists. Experimenters use them to control experiments and to gather and analyze data. Theorists use them for detailed predictions based on realistic models and for studies on systems not realizable in practice. (JN)

  12. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  13. Education Matters, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Gary, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Education Matters" is the monthly newsletter of the Association of American Educators (AAE), an organization dedicated to advancing the American teaching profession through personal growth, professional development, teacher advocacy and protection. This issue of the newsletter includes: (1) Teaching as Leadership: 6 Traits of Highly…

  14. Exotic nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenske H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  15. Chromatin as active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Ganai, Nirmalendu; Sengupta, Surajit; Menon, Gautam I.

    2017-01-01

    Active matter models describe a number of biophysical phenomena at the cell and tissue scale. Such models explore the macroscopic consequences of driving specific soft condensed matter systems of biological relevance out of equilibrium through ‘active’ processes. Here, we describe how active matter models can be used to study the large-scale properties of chromosomes contained within the nuclei of human cells in interphase. We show that polymer models for chromosomes that incorporate inhomogeneous activity reproduce many general, yet little understood, features of large-scale nuclear architecture. These include: (i) the spatial separation of gene-rich, low-density euchromatin, predominantly found towards the centre of the nucleus, vis a vis. gene-poor, denser heterochromatin, typically enriched in proximity to the nuclear periphery, (ii) the differential positioning of individual gene-rich and gene-poor chromosomes, (iii) the formation of chromosome territories, as well as (iv), the weak size-dependence of the positions of individual chromosome centres-of-mass relative to the nuclear centre that is seen in some cell types. Such structuring is induced purely by the combination of activity and confinement and is absent in thermal equilibrium. We systematically explore active matter models for chromosomes, discussing how our model can be generalized to study variations in chromosome positioning across different cell types. The approach and model we outline here represent a preliminary attempt towards a quantitative, first-principles description of the large-scale architecture of the cell nucleus.

  16. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  17. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  18. Hot nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Scott [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The goal in this thesis is thus twofold: The first is to investigate the feasibility of using heavy ion collisions to create conditions in the laboratory which are ripe for the formation of a quark-gluon plasma. The second is to develop a technique for studying some of the many non-perturbative features of this novel phase of matter.

  19. Resources: Money Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Dudley B., Jr.; Love, Patrick; Komives, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Fiscal concerns continue to challenge institutions of higher learning and will affect the financing of student services initiatives. By being aware of current fiscal trends, critiquing thinking about financial matters, and attempting to find new sources of revenue for the future, student affairs practitioners will be able to anticipate and address…

  20. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  1. with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... to have a dramatic impact on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings. Keywords. Radiative see-saw; fermion masses; grand unification. PACS Nos 12.10.Dm; 12.60.Jv; 14.60.Pq. 1. Introduction. In SO(10) grand unified theory which contains all standard fermions of one generation.

  2. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Tom

    2012-11-01

    This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days.

  3. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... are important filters for fieldwork. In general, fieldwork can be understood as processes where field reports and field analysis are determined by how the researcher interacts with and experiences the field, the events and informants in it, and how she subsequently develops an ethnography. However, fieldwork...

  4. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /reading subject) manifests itself in the material mark on the page. The study shows how this indexical reference to a ‘subject’ is manipulated and used as a mask through which a writer/painter can perform a certain ‘subject’. Through analyses of the various levels on which the ‘subject’ is represented...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  5. Stimulated emission of dark matter axion from condensed matter excitations

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Naoto; Saitoh, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    We discuss a possible principle for detecting dark matter axions in galactic halos. If axions constitute a condensate in the Milky Way, stimulated emissions of the axions from a type of excitation in condensed matter can be detectable. We provide general mechanism for the dark matter emission, and, as a concrete example, an emission of dark matter axions from magnetic vortex strings in a type II superconductor is investigated along with possible experimental signatures.

  6. Dark Matter Freeze-out During Matter Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Saleh; Unwin, James

    2017-01-01

    We highlight the general scenario of dark matter freeze-out whilst the energy density of the universe is dominated by a decoupled non-relativistic species. Decoupling during matter domination changes the freeze-out dynamics, since the Hubble rate is parametrically different for matter and radiation domination. Furthermore, for successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis the state dominating the early universe energy density must decay, this dilutes (or repopulates) the dark matter. As a result, the m...

  7. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpana Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: 1. An increased BMI (i.e., overweight subjects is associated with distinct changes in gray-matter and fiber density of the brain. 2. Classification algorithms based on white-matter connectivity involving regions of the reward and associated networks can identify specific targets for mechanistic studies and future drug development aimed at abnormal ingestive behavior and in overweight/obesity.

  8. Resource Handbook--Matter and Energy. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; matter and energy. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into the following six units: 1) Composition of Matter, with 27 concepts; 2) Light, with 20 concepts; 3) Heat, with 14 concepts; 4) Sound, with 12 concepts; 5) Electricity and Magnetism, with 17 concepts; and 6)…

  9. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs.

  10. Why the history of nursing ethics matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2017-05-01

    Modern American nursing has an extensive ethical heritage literature that extends from the 1870s to 1965 when the American Nurses Association issued a policy paper that called for moving nursing education out of hospital diploma programs and into colleges and universities. One consequence of this move was the dispersion of nursing libraries and the loss of nursing ethics textbooks, as they were largely not brought over into the college libraries. In addition to approximately 100 nursing ethics textbooks, the nursing ethics heritage literature also includes hundreds of journal articles that are often made less accessible in modern databases that concentrate on the past 20 or 30 years. A second consequence of nursing's movement into colleges and universities is that ethics was no longer taught by nursing faculty, but becomes separated and placed as a discrete ethics (later bioethics) course in departments of philosophy or theology. These courses were medically identified and rarely incorporated authentic nursing content. This shift in nursing education occurs contemporaneously with the rise of the field of bioethics. Bioethics is rapidly embraced by nursing, and as it develops within nursing, it fails to incorporate the rich ethical heritage, history, and literature of nursing prior to the development of the field of bioethics. This creates a radical disjunction in nursing's ethics; a failure to more adequately explore the moral identity of nursing; the development of an ethics with a lack of fit with nursing's ethical history, literature, and theory; a neglect of nursing's ideal of service; a diminution of the scope and richness of nursing ethics as social ethics; and a loss of nursing ethical heritage of social justice activism and education. We must reclaim nursing's rich and capacious ethics heritage literature; the history of nursing ethics matters profoundly.

  11. Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  13. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers' PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin; Şafak Uluçinar Sağir

    2016-01-01

    .... According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge...

  14. Subject Sensitive Invariantism: In Memoriam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Subject sensitive invariantism is the view that whether a subject knows depends on what is at stake for that subject: the truth-value of a knowledge-attribution is sensitive to the subject's practical interests. I argue that subject sensitive invariantism cannot accept a very plausible principle for

  15. Direct search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  16. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... grade on the Rotterdam Progression Scale. RESULTS: WML progression related to deterioration in cognitive functioning. This relationship was less pronounced in subjects with early confluent and confluent lesions. Consequently, studies in which the outcome is cognitive change resulting from treatment...... effects on lesion progression will need between 1809 subjects per treatment arm when using executive tests and up to 18 853 subjects when using the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale score. Studies having WML progression as the sole outcome will need only 58 or 70 individuals per treatment arm...

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing the Effect of E-learning, with a Taught Workshop, on the Knowledge and Search Skills of Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pearce‐Smith

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of the trial was to establish whether there is a significant difference in terms of knowledge and skills, between self-directed learning using a web-based resource, compared with a classroom based interactive workshop, for teaching health professionals how to search. The outcomes measured were knowledge of databases and study designs, and search skills. Methods The study design was a randomised controlled trial (RCT. 17 health professionals were randomised into one of two groups – one group (EG received access to a search-skills web resource, and the other group received a search workshop (WG taught by a librarian. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention tests involving multiple choice questions and practical searching using clinical scenarios. Results 9 WG and 6 EG participants completed both pre- and post-intervention tests. The test results were blindly marked using a score chart developed with two other librarians. For question formulation and devising a search strategy, all participants obtained a score that was the same or better after receiving the intervention (both WG and EG, but statistical analysis showed that the only significant outcomes were for the WG devising a search strategy (p=0.01 and preferring to search using MeSH after receiving the taught workshop (p=0.02. The Mann‐Whitney test showed there were no significant differences in any of the outcomes (p>0.05, between the WG and the EG. The statistical analyses must be viewed with caution due to the small sample size. Conclusion There were no significant differences in knowledge of databases and study design, or search skills, when the WG and the EG were compared. Although many participants obtained a score that was higher post‐intervention, only devising a search strategy and preferring to search using MeSH were statistically significant for the WG. The question of whether a taught workshop and an e-learning module are of equal effectiveness in

  18. Dark Matter Searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terashi, Koji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present dark matter searches at the LHC in the PIC2017 conference. The main emphasis is placed on the direct dark matter searches while the interpretation of searches for SUSY and invisible Higgs signals for the dark matter is also presented.

  19. Mass the quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Everything around us is made of 'stuff', from planets, to books, to our own bodies. Whatever it is, we call it matter or material substance. It is solid; it has mass. But what is matter, exactly? We are taught in school that matter is not continuous, but discrete. As a few of the philosophers of ancient Greece once speculated, nearly two and a half thousand years ago, matter comes in 'lumps', and science has relentlessly peeled away successive layers of matter to reveal its ultimate constituents. Surely, we can't keep doing this indefinitely. We imagine that we should eventually run up against some kind of ultimately fundamental, indivisible type of stuff, the building blocks from which everything in the Universe is made. The English physicist Paul Dirac called this 'the dream of philosophers'. But science has discovered that the foundations of our Universe are not as solid or as certain and dependable as we might have once imagined. They are instead built from ghosts and phantoms, of a peculiar quantum kind....

  20. The Problem of Subject Access to Visual Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather P. Jespersen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of giving subject access to works of art. We survey both concept-based and content-based access by computers and by indexers/catalogers respectively, as well as issues of interoperability, database and indexer consistency, and cataloging standards. The authors, both of whom are trained art historians, question attempts to mystify fine art subject matter by the creation of clever library science systems that are executed by the naive. Only when trained art historians and knowledgeable catalogers are finally responsible for providing subject access to works of art, will true interoperability and consistency happen.

  1. Hyperons in dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapo, Haris

    2009-01-28

    The hyperon-nucleon YN low momentum effective interaction (V{sub low} {sub k}) allows for an extensive study of the behavior of hyperons in dense matter, together with an investigation of effects of the presence of hyperons on dense matter. The first step towards this goal is the construction of the matrix elements for the hyperon-nucleon low momentum potential. In order to assess the different properties of hyperons within these potentials we calculate the hyperon single-particle potentials in the Hartree-Fock approximation for all of the interactions. Their dependence on both momentum and density, is studied. The single-particle potentials are then used to determine the chemical potential of hyperons in neutron stars. For nucleonic properties, the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} can be used with the caveat that the calculation of the ground-state energy of symmetric nuclear matter does not correctly reproduce the properties of matter at saturation. With the nucleon-nucleon V{sub low} {sub k} one is unable to reach the densities needed for the calculation of neutron star masses. To circumvent this problem we use two approaches: in the first one, we parametrize the entire nucleonic sector. In the second one, we replace only the three-body force. The former will enable us to study neutron star masses, and the latter for studying the medium's response to the external probe. In this thesis we take the external probe to be the neutrino. By combining this parametrization with the YN V{sub low} {sub k} potential, we calculate the equation of state of equilibrated matter. Performing the calculation in the Hartree-Fock approximation at zero temperature, the concentrations of all particles are calculated. From these we can ascertain at which densities hyperons appear for a wide range of parameters. Finally, we calculate the masses of neutron stars with these concentrations. For the calculation of the medium's response to an external probe, we replace the three

  2. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew [Austin, TX

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  3. Light, Matter, and Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about physically-based modelling of the appearance of materials. When a material is graphically rendered, its appearance is computed by considering the interaction of light and matter at a macroscopic level. In particular, the shape and the macroscopic optical properties...... of the material determine how it will interact with incident illumination. In this thesis the macroscopic optical properties are connected to the microscopic physical theories of light and matter. This enables prediction of the macroscopic optical properties of materials, and, consequently, also prediction...... of appearance based on the contents and the physical conditions of the materials. Physically-based appearance models have many potential input and output parameters. There are many choices that must be made: How many material components to include in the model, how many physical conditions to take into account...

  4. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Guangyao Jiang; Xuntao Yin; Chuanming Li; Lei Li; Lu Zhao; Evans, Alan C.; Tianzi Jiang; Jixiang Wu; Jian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) were investiga...

  5. Why Networking matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romulus OPRICA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The business bureaucracy, in general, makes the majority of the managers (both top and middle management neglect a key matter of success (both personal and businesslike: networking. The present paper wishes to raise a series of questions regarding Herminia Ibarra’s theory referring to the networking styles of managers on the basis of her own research on a series of managers included in the „100 top young managers” catalogue of Business Magazin.

  6. Detailing 'measures that matter'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavisides, Bob

    2010-04-01

    In a paper originally presented at last October's Healthcare Estates conference in Harrogate, Bob Heavisides, director of facilities at the Milton Keynes NHS Foundation Trust, explains how estates and facilities directors can provide a package of information based on a number of "measures that matter" to demonstrate to their boards that safe systems of work, operational efficiency and effectiveness, and operational parameters, are within, or better than, equivalent-sized Trusts.

  7. Matter and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor lives close to the earth, this is his only property and he will use it to build his shelters, his rooms, or his utensils. The clay or mud constructions, moulded with a great amount of material, are found in primitive villages, but any situation of extreme poverty tends to be associated with an accumulation of matter whatever its origin. A situation of poverty not related with the accumulation of matter seems inconceivable and this is particularly evident in our developed societies, where a beggar is recognized in any street by his pile of clothes, shoes, and any sort of personal property.It is a significant fact that many intellectual discourses on modernity identify the concept of modernity with that of a classless society and that, at the same time, they invoke poverty as a distinct mark of the new man. This new poverty is sober and cold as human habitation is open and transparent, almost naked, and it is equal for any man whatever his social strata. In this way, modern poverty is tied to material, to the new materials, but it is a chosen condition, nor an imposed one, or at least it is accepted as inevitable by the new man.Both accumulative poverty and ascetic poverty coexist in the discourses and works of 20th century avant-gardes. And in some contemporary works, we find either an accumulation of shapeless and hand-worked matter or an exhibition of bare and cold materials industrially produced. In both cases, poverty is invoked as the ultimate reference for those works, intended to be a true expression of their epoch.Key wordsmatter, poverty, material, accumulation, modernity, society

  8. Why Networking matters?

    OpenAIRE

    Romulus OPRICA

    2012-01-01

    The business bureaucracy, in general, makes the majority of the managers (both top and middle management) neglect a key matter of success (both personal and businesslike): networking. The present paper wishes to raise a series of questions regarding Herminia Ibarra’s theory referring to the networking styles of managers on the basis of her own research on a series of managers included in the „100 top young managers” catalogue of Business Magazin.

  9. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  10. Two Higgs doublet dark matter portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Busoni, Giorgio; Sanderson, Isaac W.

    2018-01-01

    We study a fermionic dark matter model in which the interaction of the dark and visible sectors is mediated by Higgs portal type couplings. Specifically, we consider the mixing of a dark sector scalar with the scalars of a Two Higgs Doublet Model extension of the Standard Model. Given that scalar exchange will result in a spin-independent dark matter-nucleon scattering cross section, such a model is potentially subject to stringent direct detection constraints. Moreover, the addition of new charged scalars introduce non-trivial flavour constraints. Nonetheless, this model allows more freedom than a standard Higgs portal scenario involving a single Higgs doublet, and much of the interesting parameter space is not well approximated by a Simplified Model with a single scalar mediator. We perform a detailed parameter scan to determine the mass and coupling parameters which satisfy direct detection, flavour, precision electroweak, stability, and perturbativity constraints, while still producing the correct relic density through thermal freezeout.

  11. Dark Matter remains obscure

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Capello

    2011-01-01

    It is one of the hidden secrets that literally surround the Universe. Experiments have shown no result so far because trying to capture particles that do not seem to interact with ordinary matter is no trivial exercise. The OSQAR experiment at CERN is dedicated to the search for axions, one of the candidates for Dark Matter. For its difficult challenge, OSQAR counts on one of the world’s most powerful magnets borrowed from the LHC. In a recent publication, the OSQAR collaboration was able to confirm that no axion signal appears out of the background. In other words: the quest is still on.   The OSQAR experiment installed in the SM18 hall. (Photo by F. Capello) The OSQAR “Light Shining Through a Wall” experiment was officially launched in 2007 with the aim of detecting axions, that is, particles that might be the main components of Dark Matter. OSQAR uses the powerful LHC dipole magnet to intensify the predicted photon-axion conversions in the presence of strong m...

  12. Developing Pictographic Impact on the Minds of the Students through Poetry of John Seely’s Textbook Taught at O’level in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hayat Khokhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Poetry is one of the chief ingredients of the textbooks taught in the classes of language as well as arts that appeals to our senses in several domains. Imagery in poetry bears pictographic impact on the minds of the readers. This study aims at finding out what kind of imagery and images are employed in the book and how far they succeed in bringing about pictographic impact on the minds of the students. Content analysis of the poems in qualitative paradigm was adopted for this study. Direct and indirect interviews of the students were also conducted. It was found out that the poems of the book contained all pervasive versatile imagery. Moreover, the images and imagery had verbal as well as visual impact on the minds of the students that helped them improve their memory, increase their vocabulary, enhance comprehension, and develop interest in reading.

  13. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  14. Soft Condensed Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Richard A L

    2002-11-20

    The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented

  15. The coupling to matter in massive, bi- and multi-gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noller, Johannes [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Melville, Scott, E-mail: noller@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: scott.melville@queens.ox.ac.uk [The Queen' s College, High Street, Oxford, OX1 4AW (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we construct a family of ways in which matter can couple to one or more 'metrics'/spin-2 fields in the vielbein formulation. We do so subject to requiring the weak equivalence principle and the absence of ghosts from pure spin-2 interactions generated by the matter action. Results are presented for Massive, Bi- and Multi-Gravity theories and we give explicit expressions for the effective matter metric in all of these cases.

  16. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; Pamela A. McCombe; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each und...

  17. Reduced cerebral gray matter and altered white matter in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Nathalie; Straathof, Chiara S; Dumas, Eve M; Spitali, Pietro; Ginjaar, Ieke B; Wokke, Beatrijs H; Schrans, Debby G; van den Bergen, Janneke C; van Zwet, Erik W; Webb, Andrew; van Buchem, Mark A; Verschuuren, Jan J; Hendriksen, Jos G; Niks, Erik H; Kan, Hermien E

    2014-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness caused by DMD gene mutations leading to absence of the full-length dystrophin protein in muscle. Multiple dystrophin isoforms are expressed in brain, but little is known about their function. DMD is associated with specific learning and behavioral disabilities that are more prominent in patients with mutations in the distal part of the DMD gene, predicted to affect expression of shorter protein isoforms. We used quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to study brain microstructure in DMD. T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images were obtained on a 3T MR scanner from 30 patients and 22 age-matched controls (age = 8-18 years). All subjects underwent neuropsychological examination. Group comparisons on tissue volume and diffusion tensor imaging parameters were made between DMD patients and controls, and between 2 DMD subgroups that were classified according to predicted Dp140 isoform expression (DMD_Dp140(+) and DMD_Dp140(-) ). DMD patients had smaller total brain volume, smaller gray matter volume, lower white matter fractional anisotropy, and higher white matter mean and radial diffusivity than healthy controls. DMD patients also performed worse on neuropsychological examination. Subgroup analyses showed that DMD_Dp140(-) subjects contributed most to the gray matter volume differences and performed worse on information processing. Both gray and white matter is affected in boys with DMD at a whole brain level. Differences between the DMD_Dp140(-) subgroup and controls indicate an important role for the Dp140 dystrophin isoform in cerebral development. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  18. Mind, matter, and Pauli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1992-09-10

    The role of subjective experience in physical theory is discussed, with particular attention to the later ideas of Wolfgang Pauli. These ideas appear to open the door to a unified framework for the development of science.

  19. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  20. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.