WorldWideScience

Sample records for subject matter science

  1. Learning, knowledge building, and subject matter knowledge in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aalst, Jan Cornelis Wouterus

    Following a theoretical analysis of constructivist approaches to collaborative learning, a curriculum development model, the Learning to Knowledge Building Model, is proposed. Two empirical studies of student work with Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CSILE) are then presented; these lend support to the model and explicate in detail the nature and extent of the knowledge developed by elementary school students. The first study is a content analysis of a database developed by a combined Grade 5/6 class as part of a unit on heat and matter, conducted after the children completed their work; the analysis assumes the point of view of a subject matter specialist in the field of the students' inquiry. The second study was conducted while the students' investigation was in progress, and takes the point of view of curriculum coverage; it involved a teacher who used a different model of database use, as well as different subject matter. The proposed LKB model is based on a distinction Bereiter and Scardamalia (1996a) have made between learning and knowledge building (i.e., progressive collaborative problem solving); its aim is to support the design and planning of curriculum units and classroom practices in which knowledge building is central. An important feature of the model is the attention given to ensuring that students learn to evaluate their knowledge and to ask the questions that can advance shared knowledge. Among the findings of the first study are: (a) students who wrote more notes that explicated their commonsense knowledge early in the unit, by means of mixed framework notes, tended to write more notes of high scientific merit later; (b) some of the students in this category tried out their ideas in diverse problem contexts; and (c) they tended to dominate the discussions they started. The second study provides additional insight into the role of the teacher, and the potential role of subject matter specialists, in knowledge building; it

  2. Engaging Students with Subject Matter Experts and Science Content Through Classroom Connection Webinars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Rampe, E.; Stefanov, W. L.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity. Subject matter experts can share exciting science and science-related events as well as help to "translate" science being conducted by professionals. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program, facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center, has been providing virtual access to subject matter experts through classroom connection webinars for the last five years. Each year, the reach of these events has grown considerably, especially over the last nine months. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. These events also enable scientists and subject matter experts to help "translate" current science in an engaging and understandable manner while actively involving classrooms in the journey of science and exploration.

  3. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  4. Subject matter knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    This study examined the interrelationships among three major components of classroom teaching: subject matter content knowledge, classroom management, and instructional practices. The study involved two middle school science classes of different achievement levels taught by the same female teacher. The teacher held an undergraduate degree with a major in social studies and a minor in mathematics and science from an elementary teacher education program. The findings indicated that the teacher's limited knowledge of science content and her strict classroom order resulted in heavy dependence on the textbook and students' individual activities (e.g., seatwork) and avoidance of whole-class activities (e.g., discussion) similarly in both classes. Implications for educational practices and further research are discussed.

  5. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  6. How to foster student-student learning of science? The student, the teacher and the subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.

    2011-12-01

    In this response to Konstantinos Alexakos, Jayson K. Jones, and Victor H. Rodriguez's study, I discuss ways attending to student membership in groups can both inform research on equity and diversity in science education and improve the teaching of science to all students. My comments are organized into three sections: how underrepresented students' experiences in science classrooms are shaped by their peers; how science teachers can help students listen to and learn from one another; and how the subject matter can invite or discourage student participation in science. More specifically, I underscore the need for teachers and students to listen to one another to promote student learning of science. I also highlight the importance of science education researchers and science teachers viewing students both as individuals and as members of multiple groups; women of color, for example, should be understood as similar to and different from each other, from European American women and from ethnic minorities in general.

  7. Academic Studies, Science, and Democracy: Conceptions of Subject Matter from Harris to Thorndike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    When Ellen Condliffe Lagemann described what she called the troubling history of education research, she claimed that, in the early years of the twentieth century, Edward Lee Thorndike's narrow model of science replaced John Dewey's more open ideas. According to Lagemann, sexism was an important reason for Thorndike's triumph. In describing the…

  8. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  10. The Role of Teachers' Pedagogical and Subject-Matter Knowledge in Planning and Enacting Science-Inquiry Instruction, and in Assessing Students' Science-Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birlean, Camelia

    This study explored the relation between pedagogical knowledge and subject-matter knowledge, in the context of inquiry-driven science instruction, and their relation to instructors' performance in the instructional process. This multiple case study focused on three distinct categories of teachers--Novice in Inquiry and in Science, Novice in Inquiry and Expert in Science, and Expert in Inquiry and in Science--and examined the commonalities and differences among them by exploring the cognitive processes these teachers used when planning and enacting an inquiry instructional situation, as well as when assessing students' learning resulting from this specific instructional event. Inquiry instruction varied across cases from largely structured to largely open. The Novice-Novice's science instruction, predominantly traditional in the approach, differed greatly from that of the Expert-Expert and of the Novice-Expert. The latter two emphasized--to various extents structured, guided, and open--inquiry strategy as part of their ongoing instruction. The open inquiry was an approach embraced solely by the Expert-Expert teacher throughout the Advanced Science Research instruction, emphasizing the creative aspect of problem generation. Edward teacher also distinguished himself from the other two participants in his view of planning and terminology used to describe it, both of which emphasized the dynamic and flexible feature of this instructional process. The Expert-Expert identified occasional planning, planning of specific skills and content critical to students' learning process during their independent inquiry. The observed teaching performance of the three participants partly reflected their planning; the alignment was least frequent for the Novice-Novice. The assessment of inquiry-based projects varied greatly across participants. Each teacher participant evaluated a set of three inquiry-based science projects that differed in their quality, and this variation increased

  11. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned...

  12. Science of the subjective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, R G; Dunne, B J

    2007-01-01

    Over the greater portion of its long scholarly history, the particular form of human observation, reasoning, and technical deployment we properly term "science" has relied at least as much on subjective experience and inspiration as it has on objective experiments and theories. Only over the past few centuries has subjectivity been progressively excluded from the practice of science, leaving an essentially secular analytical paradigm. Quite recently, however, a compounding constellation of newly inexplicable physical evidence, coupled with a growing scholarly interest in the nature and capability of human consciousness, are beginning to suggest that this sterilization of science may have been excessive and could ultimately limit its epistemological reach and cultural relevance. In particular, an array of demonstrable consciousness-related anomalous physical phenomena, a persistent pattern of biological and medical anomalies, systematic studies of mind/brain relationships and the mechanics of human creativity, and a burgeoning catalogue of human factors effects within contemporary information processing technologies, all display empirical correlations with subjective aspects that greatly complicate, and in many cases preclude, their comprehension on strictly objective grounds. However, any disciplined re-admission of subjective elements into rigorous scientific methodology will hinge on the precision with which they can be defined, measured, and represented, and on the resilience of established scientific techniques to their inclusion. For example, any neo-subjective science, while retaining the logical rigor, empirical/theoretical dialogue, and cultural purpose of its rigidly objective predecessor, would have the following requirements: acknowledgment of a proactive role for human consciousness; more explicit and profound use of interdisciplinary metaphors; more generous interpretations of measurability, replicability, and resonance; a reduction of ontological

  13. Train, teach; taught? How the content of specific science subject matter knowledge sessions impacts on trainee teachers’ classroom practice and children’s learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Kind

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact science sessions for trainee science teachers have on 11-14 year olds’ learning of science was assessed using questionnaires and a “Video-Interview (trainee –Interview (pupils” (V-I-I technique devised for this study. V-I-I involved: video-recording trainee-taught lessons; and two interviews – with a pupil group to probe learning occurring in the lesson and with the trainee.Eighty UK-based trainees taking a one-year postgraduate teacher education course completed the questionnaire probing perceptions about university- and school-based training sessions designed to develop science subject matter knowledge (SMK and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK. Six trainees participated in V-I-I.Most trainees saw all sessions as SMK-based, regardless of teacher educators’ intended purposes. Lesson videos revealed ”describing” activities, task completion and good behaviour as main focii. Explanation of key science ideas and use of materials and /ideas from training sessions were largely absent. Trainee interviews revealed contrasts: most perceived a lesson as “successful” when children completed tasks quietly. Other trainees realised their understanding impacted on pupils’ learning science concepts. Pupil interviews showed positive attitudes towards science and learning difficult ideas, but little specific learning of topics taught.

  14. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  16. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  17. Does science matter?

    CERN Multimedia

    Broad, W J

    2003-01-01

    "...there are new troubles in the peculiar form of paradise that science has created, as well as new questions about whether it has the popular support to meet the future challenges of disease, pollution, security, energy, education, food, water and urban sprawl" (1 page).

  18. Foodservice. Subject Matter Update 1986-87.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication recognizes the constantly changing requirements of the food service industry and varying conditions for employment opportunities. It addresses the goal of relevance in education by enabling the educator to make timely adjustments in the subject matter of the food service curriculum. There are six sections in this publication, each…

  19. Experimental soft-matter science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-04-01

    Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, far from equilibrium, nonlinear, thermal and entropic, slow, observable, gravity affected, patterned, nonlocal, interfacially elastic, memory forming, and active. This is only a partial list of how matter created from large component particles is distinct from "hard matter" composed of constituents at an atomic scale. Issues inherent in soft matter raise problems that are broadly important in diverse areas of science and require multiple modes of attack. For example, far-from-equilibrium behavior is confronted in biology, chemistry, geophysics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Similarly, issues dealing with disorder appear broadly throughout many branches of inquiry wherever rugged landscapes are invoked. This article reviews the discussions that occurred during a workshop held on 30-31 January 2016 in which opportunities in soft-matter experiment were surveyed. Soft matter has had an exciting history of discovery and continues to be a fertile ground for future research.

  20. 45 CFR 703.3 - Scope of subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of subject matter. 703.3 Section 703.3... AND FUNCTIONS OF STATE ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 703.3 Scope of subject matter. The scope of the subject matter to be dealt with by Advisory Committees shall be those subjects of inquiry or study with which the...

  1. 49 CFR 1108.3 - Matters subject to arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters subject to arbitration. 1108.3 Section... BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE ARBITRATION OF CERTAIN DISPUTES SUBJECT TO THE STATUTORY JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.3 Matters subject to arbitration. (a) Any...

  2. Concepts of matter in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Sevian, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.

  3. Using Academic Journals to Help Students Learn Subject Matter Content, Develop and Practice Critical Reasoning Skills, and Reflect on Personal Values in Food Science and Human Nutrition Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Crosetti, Lea M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that students learn best when they use a wide variety of techniques to understand the information of the discipline, be it visual, auditory, discussion with others, metacognition, hands-on activities, or writing about the subject. We report in this article the use of academic journals not only as an aid for students to learn…

  4. Culture Matters in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Lafferty, Karen Elizabeth; Pang, Jennifer M.; Griswold, Joan; Oser, Rick

    2014-01-01

    On the Saturday before Halloween, hundreds of students and their parents went from booth to booth participating in science activities at an annual Fall Festival and Learning Fair. The Fall Festival and Learning Fair is a valuable annual partnership where culturally relevant teaching engages each child in hands-on, standards-based science lessons.…

  5. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral regarding the themes treated in movies can be as much repugnant as they can be fascinating. In this case, the audience ...

  6. [What is the subject of science "bioinformatics"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaĭlakhian, L M

    2005-01-01

    The paper is concerned with some problems of terminology, in particular the term "bioinformatics". In the last few years, the term "bioinformatics" has been intensively used among molecular biologists to indicate a subject that is only a constituent of genomics and is considered to involve a computer-assisted analysis of all data on nucleotide sequences of DNA. However, a wide circle of scientists, including biologists, physicists, mathematicians, and specialists in the field of cybernetics, informatics, and other disciplines have accepted and accept, as a rule, the "bioinformatics" as a synonym of science cybernetics and as a successor of this science. In this case, the subject of science "bioinformatics" should embrace not only genomics but practically all sections of the biological science. It should involve a study of information processes (storage, transfer, and processing of information, etc.) participating in the regulation and control at all levels of living systems, from macromolecules to the brain of higher animals and human.

  7. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  8. On the Importance of Subject Matter in Mathematics Education: A Conversation with Erich Christian Wittmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwunmi, Kathrin; Höveler, Karina; Schnell, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Erich Christian Wittmann is one of the primary founders of mathematics education research as an autonomous field of work and research in Germany. The interview presented here reflects on his role in promoting mathematics education as a design science. The interview addresses the following topics: (1) The importance of subject matter in…

  9. CLASSIFIED BY SUBJECT IN SPORT SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Protić

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available High school and academic libraries users need precise classifi cation and subject access review of printed and electronic resources. In library catalogue since, Universal Decimal Classifi cation (UDC -similar to Dewey system - ex classifi es research and scientifi c areas. in subject areas of 796 Sport and 371 Teaching. Nowadays, users need structure of subjects by disciplines in science. Full-open resources of library must be set for users in subject access catalogue, because on the example of bachelors degree thesis in Faculty of Physical Education in Novi Sad they reaches for disciplines in database with 36 indexes sort by fi rst letters in names (Athletics, Boxing, Cycling, etc. This database have single and multiplied index for each thesis. Users in 80% cases of research according to the subject access catalogue of this library.

  10. 22 CFR 61.6 - Consultation with subject matter specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.6 Consultation with subject matter specialists. (a) The... assisting the Department in its determination of whether materials for which export certification or import... determine eligibility of material for certification or authentication based in part on the opinions obtained...

  11. students' perception of teacher's knowledge of subject matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALEXANDER E. TIMOTHY

    The study used the ex post facto design to find out the influence of student's perception of teacher's knowledge of the subject matter on the Senior Secondary Three (SS 3) students' performance in reading comprehension. Questionnaires reading comprehension test were used in eliciting data. The data were subsequently ...

  12. Does tutor subject-matter expertise influence student achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...

  13. Teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umami, Rohmatul; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Suwarsono, St.

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to see a teachers mathematical communication profile in explaining a subject matter. It is a qualitative research. A high-school junior teacher (i.e., a teacher with 1- to 5-year experience) teaching mathematics at X-Social Class was selected as the subject of this study. The data was collected by observing the teachers mathematical communication in explaining a given material (i.e., the rule of sine) in class and an in-depth interview would be organized respectively. The result showed that the junior teacher explained the subject matter in systematic, complete, fluent, and centered manner. In this case, she began with reminding students on the previous material related to the current material to be learned, informing the current learning objectives, and finally delivering the subject matter. To support her explanation, the teacher also provided some related information, led the students attention into the given material by asking them particular related questions, and did not use any confusing terms. However, the study found that some of high-school teachers still used less appropriate language in explaining materials.

  14. The Knowledge Base of Subject Matter Experts in Teaching: A Case Study of a Professional Scientist as a Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezmann, Carmel M.; Watters, James J.

    2015-01-01

    One method of addressing the shortage of science and mathematics teachers is to train scientists and other science-related professionals to become teachers. Advocates argue that as discipline experts these career changers can relate the subject matter knowledge to various contexts and applications in teaching. In this paper, through interviews and…

  15. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... a standard garden curriculum is essential to planning, carrying out and evaluating effective school garden teaching in math, languages and science. Experiential learning and hands-on activities are teaching methods that immediately come to mind because they make the subject content less abstract, activate...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...

  16. Single-subject grey matter graphs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Möller, Christiane; Vrenken, Hugo; Wink, Alle Meije; de Haan, Willem; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Coordinated patterns of cortical morphology have been described as structural graphs and previous research has demonstrated that properties of such graphs are altered in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it remains unknown how these alterations are related to cognitive deficits in individuals, as such graphs are restricted to group-level analysis. In the present study we investigated this question in single-subject grey matter networks. This new method extracts large-scale structural graphs where nodes represent small cortical regions that are connected by edges when they show statistical similarity. Using this method, unweighted and undirected networks were extracted from T1 weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 38 AD patients (19 female, average age 72±4 years) and 38 controls (19 females, average age 72±4 years). Group comparisons of standard graph properties were performed after correcting for grey matter volumetric measurements and were correlated to scores of general cognitive functioning. AD networks were characterised by a more random topology as indicated by a decreased small world coefficient (p = 3.53×10(-5)), decreased normalized clustering coefficient (p = 7.25×10(-6)) and decreased normalized path length (p = 1.91×10(-7)). Reduced normalized path length explained significantly (p = 0.004) more variance in measurements of general cognitive decline (32%) in comparison to volumetric measurements (9%). Altered path length of the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and precuneus showed the strongest relationship with cognitive decline. The present results suggest that single-subject grey matter graphs provide a concise quantification of cortical structure that has clinical value, which might be of particular importance for disease prognosis. These findings contribute to a better understanding of structural alterations and cognitive dysfunction in AD.

  17. Turkish Science Student Teachers' Conceptions on the States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Abdullah; Altuk, Yasemin Gödek

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine science students teachers' conceptions on the concepts related to "the matter and the states of the matter". 112 Turkish science student teachers participated at this research. A questionnaire consisting of thirteen open-ended items was designed to collect the data. The questionnaire aimed to reveal the…

  18. Resource Handbook--Matter and Energy. A Supplement to Basic Curriculum Guide--Science, Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, John W., 3rd., Ed.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science; matter and energy. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into the following six units: 1) Composition of Matter, with 27 concepts; 2) Light, with 20 concepts; 3) Heat, with 14 concepts; 4) Sound, with 12 concepts; 5) Electricity and Magnetism, with 17 concepts; and 6)…

  19. Landscape History and Theory: from Subject Matter to Analytical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Birksted

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores how landscape history can engage methodologically with the adjacent disciplines of art history and visual/cultural studies. Central to the methodological problem is the mapping of the beholder - spatially, temporally and phenomenologically. In this mapping process, landscape history is transformed from subject matter to analytical tool. As a result, landscape history no longer simply imports and applies ideas from other disciplines but develops its own methodologies to engage and influence them. Landscape history, like art history, thereby takes on a creative cultural presence. Through that process, landscape architecture and garden design regains the cultural power now carried by the arts and museum studies, and has an effect on the innovative capabilities of contemporary landscape design.

  20. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  1. On the almost inconceivable misunderstandings concerning the subject of value-free social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald

    2013-12-01

    A value judgment says what is good or bad, and value-free social science simply means social science free of value judgments. Yet many sociologists regard value-free social science as undesirable or impossible and readily make value judgments in the name of sociology. Often they display confusion about such matters as the meaning of value-free social science, value judgments internal and external to social science, value judgments as a subject of social science, the relevance of objectivity for value-free social science, and the difference between the human significance of social science and value-free social science. But why so many sociologists are so value-involved - and generally so unscientific - is sociologically understandable: The closest and most distant subjects attract the least scientific ideas. And during the past century sociologists have become increasingly close to their human subject. The debate about value-free social science is also part of an epistemological counterrevolution of humanists (including many sociologists) against the more scientific social scientists who invaded and threatened to expropriate the human subject during the past century. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  2. Computational Science-based Research on Dark Matter at KISTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kihyeon

    2017-06-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics was established after discovery of the Higgs boson. However, little is known about dark matter, which has mass and constitutes approximately five times the number of standard model particles in space. The cross-section of dark matter is much smaller than that of the existing Standard Model, and the range of the predicted mass is wide, from a few eV to several PeV. Therefore, massive amounts of astronomical, accelerator, and simulation data are required to study dark matter, and efficient processing of these data is vital. Computational science, which can combine experiments, theory, and simulation, is thus necessary for dark matter research. A computational science and deep learning-based dark matter research platform is suggested for enhanced coverage and sharing of data. Such an approach can efficiently add to our existing knowledge on the mystery of dark matter.

  3. subject index - Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25 E) India. 229. Atmospheric composition, physics and chemistry. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. 623. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal structures due to O2, O3 and H2O heating. 1207. Atmospheric Sciences. A simple ...

  4. Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence Of Gender Stereotyping Of Science Subjects On Secondary School Students\\' Attitudes Towards Science In Bomet District Of Kenya. ... A Student\\'s Attitudes and Stereotyping of Science Questionnaire (SASSQ) was used in data collection. Data were analysed through Pearson product-moment correlation and t-test ...

  5. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.J.A. Smit. School for Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, Potchefstroom University for CHE, Potchefstroom, 2520 South Africa .... the physical science teachers at Ipelegeng school in Schweizer-Reneke. (North West ... rally, the DET physical science subject advisors conceptualised their roles in 1992 (DET, ...

  6. What's the matter with Antimatter? Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Antimatter may be the stuff of science fiction, but to physicists it poses a serious question. Why is there not more of it around? At the Big Bang, matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts, yet today we seem to live in a Universe entirely made of matter. So where has all the antimatter gone?

  7. Subjectivity and Objectivity: A Matter of Life and Death?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Van de Vijver

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that the question ldquo;What is life?rdquo; time and again emergesmdash;and within the confines of an objectivistic/subjectivistic frame of thought has to emergemdash;as a symptom, a non-deciphered, cryptic message that insists on being interpreted. br /Our hypothesis is that the failure to measure up the living to the standards of objectification has been taken too frequently from an objectivistic angle, leading to a simple postponement of an objective treatment of the living, and meanwhile confining it to the domain of the subjective, the relative and the metaphorical. As a consequence, the truly important question of the co-constitutive relation between objectivity and subjectivity is thereby evaded. A critical, transcendental account can be relevant in this regard, not only because of the fact that objectivity and subjectivity are seen as co-constitutive, but also because it addresses the question of the embeddedness of objectivity and subjectivity from within the living dynamics.br /This hypothesis will be articulated on the basis of Erwin Schrouml;dingerrsquo;s famous little book on ldquo;What is life?rdquo;, in dialogue with Robert Rosenrsquo;s critical reading of it. It appears that Schrouml;dinger considered the living as a genuine challenge for classical objectification procedures. However, it is doubtful whether this brought him to a critical reading of objectivity or to the acknowledgment of a constitutive role of subjectivity in relation to objectivity. We argue that his viewpoint has the merit ofnbsp; expressing the difficulty of the living within the field of the physical sciences, but does not really transcend the objectivism/subjectivism opposition. At this point, Rosenrsquo;s relational account takes up the challenge more radically by acknowledging the need for a new epistemology and a new metaphysics in relation to living systems, and by attributing a place to classical objectivity from within this

  8. On indexes and subject matter of “global competitiveness”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to analyze the subject matter of a country’s competitiveness and to characterize statistical indexes of competitiveness known in the international practice from the perspective of a more elaborated theory of market competition. This aim follows from the identified problems. First, there are no generally accepted interpretation and joint understanding of competition and competitiveness at country level. Even the international organizations giving estimations of global competitiveness disagree on definitions of competitiveness. Secondly, there is no relation to the theory of market competition in the available source materials on competitiveness of the country without original methodology. Thirdly, well-known statistical indexes of global competitiveness do not have enough theoretical justification and differ in sets of factors. All this highlights the incompleteness of the methodology and methodological support of studying competitiveness at country level.Materials and methods. The research is based on the methodology of statistics, economic theory and marketing. The authors followed the basic principle of statistical methodology – requirement of continuous combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis, when the research begins and ends with qualitative analysis. A most important section of statistical methodology is widely used – construction of statistical indexes. In the course of the analysis, a method of statistical classifications is applied. A significant role in the present research is given to the method of generalizing and analogue method, realizing that related terms should mean similar and almost similar contents. Modeling of competition and competitiveness is widely used in the present research, which made it possible to develop a logical model of competition following from the competition theory.Results. Based on the definitions’ survey the analysis of the subject matter of global

  9. Cerebral white matter lesions and subjective cognitive dysfunction - The Rotterdam Scan Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, J.C.; de Leeuw, FE; Oudkerk, M; Hofman, A; Jolles, J; Breteler, MMB

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between cerebral white matter lesions (WML) and subjective cognitive dysfunction. Background: Subjective cognitive dysfunction is present when a person perceives failures of cognitive function. When annoying enough, these failures will be expressed as

  10. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  11. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing of Patent... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter...

  12. Beyond "Either-Or" Thinking: John Dewey and Confucius on Subject Matter and the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    This article compares the educational thought of John Dewey and Confucius on the nature of and relationship between subject matter and the learner. There is a common perception in the existing literature and discourse that Dewey advocates child- or learner-centred education whereas Confucius privileges subject matter via textual transmission.…

  13. Factors influencing the enrolment of students for science subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the enrolment of students for science subjects and strategies that can be used to improve the enrolment with the view of improving the population of science students in Oluyole Local Government Area, Ibadan. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the ...

  14. The perceived roles and functions of school science subject advisors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to improve the situation. In-service development of the existing tea- cher's corps is generally accepted as one of the obvious options. The science subject advisor can play ...... In: Brighouse T & Moon B. School inspection. Great Britain: Redwood Books. Madrazo GM & Hounshell PB 1987. The role expectancy of the science ...

  15. Research chief wants to make science matter

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1999-01-01

    The new research chief of the European Union, Phillippe Busquin wants to move science into the heart of EU decision-taking. He would like to make European research more 'cohesive, focused, mobile and multilateral' (2 pages).

  16. Florida Master Teacher Program: Testing Teacher Subject Matter Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavely, Carolyn; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the Florida Institute for Instructional Research and Practice in designing, developing, and analyzing the subject area knowledge tests of the Florida Master Teacher Program are described. A total of 13 subject area examinations was developed in 1984-85, and 5 additional tests were developed the following year. For each subject area…

  17. GP teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a tutorial: the preparation and delivery compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillon, Peter; de Grave, Willem

    2012-05-01

    Clinical teachers use several different types of knowledge in the act of teaching. These include content knowledge (subject matter), knowledge of how to teach (pedagogy) and knowledge of learners (context). Most attention in faculty development has been on how to teach rather than what is taught. The quality of a teacher's subject matter knowledge is likely to be a critical determinant of how well a subject is presented, communicated and learned. We therefore set out to examine teachers' subject matter knowledge in the context of a general practice tutorial on grade 1 hypertension. This study is part of a larger study that employed a mixed method approach (concept mapping, phenomenological interviews and video-stimulated recall) to examine differences between clinical educators in subject matter knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of the learning environment in the context of general practice education. This paper presents the concept map data findings from the larger study as well as the parts of the phenomenological interviews that relate to subject matter knowledge and beliefs. We found that there were marked differences in the quality and elaborative structure of GP teachers' knowledge in the concept maps completed prior to the tutorials. These differences were also predictive of differences in the content presented to learners in tutorials. Teachers' beliefs about subject matter were also likely to have affected what they chose to teach about and how they presented it. Subject matter knowledge varies considerably between GP teachers in the context of a common and relatively simple tutorial. Differences in the quality of subject matter knowledge matter because they have a profound effect on what is learned and how it is learned. Faculty development for clinical educators needs to pay heed to the quality of subject matter knowledge in addition to its more common pedagogical focus.

  18. Student Motivation in Science Subjects in Tanzania, Including Students' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkimbili, Selina Thomas; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2017-12-01

    Fostering and maintaining students' interest in science is an important aspect of improving science learning. The focus of this paper is to listen to and reflect on students' voices regarding the sources of motivation for science subjects among students in community secondary schools with contextual challenges in Tanzania. We conducted a group-interview study of 46 Form 3 and Form 4 Tanzanian secondary school students. The study findings reveal that the major contextual challenges to student motivation for science in the studied schools are limited resources and students' insufficient competence in the language of instruction. Our results also reveal ways to enhance student motivation for science in schools with contextual challenges; these techniques include the use of questioning techniques and discourse, students' investigations and practical work using locally available materials, study tours, more integration of classroom science into students' daily lives and the use of real-life examples in science teaching. Also we noted that students' contemporary life, culture and familiar language can be utilised as a useful resource in facilitating meaningful learning in science in the school. Students suggested that, to make science interesting to a majority of students in a Tanzanian context, science education needs to be inclusive of students' experiences, culture and contemporary daily lives. Also, science teaching and learning in the classroom need to involve learners' voices.

  19. Pharmacy students' perceptions of natural science and mathematics subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Wilson, Sarah Ellen; Wan, Kai-Wai

    2014-08-15

    To determine the level of importance pharmacy students placed on science and mathematics subjects for pursuing a career in pharmacy. Two hundred fifty-four students completed a survey instrument developed to investigate students' perceptions of the relevance of science and mathematics subjects to a career in pharmacy. Pharmacy students in all 4 years of a master of pharmacy (MPharm) degree program were invited to complete the survey instrument. Students viewed chemistry-based and biology-based subjects as relevant to a pharmacy career, whereas mathematics subjects such as physics, logarithms, statistics, and algebra were not viewed important to a career in pharmacy. Students' experience in pharmacy and year of study influenced their perceptions of subjects relevant to a pharmacy career. Pharmacy educators need to consider how they can help students recognize the importance of scientific knowledge earlier in the pharmacy curriculum.

  20. Girl Scouts and Subject Matter Experts: What’s the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Pamela; Girls Scouts of Northern California, Girl Scouts USA, Astronomical Society of the Pacifica, Univeristy of Arizona, and ARIES Scientific.

    2018-01-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps.A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K – 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10; and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Indirectly, SMEs will reach tens of thousands of girls through the badges. SETI Institute SMEs Institute and SME Co-Is located at ARIES Scientific, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, University of Arizona, and Girl Scouts of Northern California developed and modified astronomy activities for the Girl Scouts USA badge writers to finesse into the Girl Scout formats. Revisions are reviewed by SMEs for accuracy. Each badge includes a step option that encourages girls to connect with SMEs, and recommendations for volunteers.A total of 127 girls from 31 states and the District of Columbia attendedTotal Eclipse Destination Camps at three locations. SMEs led activities and tours, inspiring girls to consider STEM careers. University of Arizona (U of A) SMEs lead Astronomy Camp for Volunteers, enabling volunteers to lead and inspire Girl Scouts in their respective Girl Scout Councils. A Destination Camp for Girl Scouts was also held at U of A. Girls experience authentic astronomy, learning how to collect and analyze data.Eleven teams comprised of two Girl Scouts, a volunteer or Council Staff, and an amateur astronomer attended Astronomy Club Camp, held at NASA GSFC. SMEs delivered science content. The girls will lead the formation of astronomy clubs in their councils, and will train their successors. SMEs will present and coach the clubs during monthly webinars.This presentation will highlight success and discuss lessons learned that are applicable

  1. Trashing the millenium: Subjectivity and technology in cyberpunk science fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Sey

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Cyberpunk’ science fiction is a self-proclaimed movement within the genre which began in the 1980s. As the name suggests, it is an extrapolative form of science fiction which combines an almost obsessional interest in machines (particularly information machines with an anarchic, amoral, streetwise sensibility This paper sketches the development of the movement and seeks to make qualified claims for the radical. potential of its fiction. Of crucial importance are the ways in which human subjectivity (viewed in psychoanalytic terms interacts with 'technological subjectivity' in cyberpunk, particularly with regard to implications of these interactions for oedipalization.

  2. Attosecond science in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Stephen R; Neumark, Daniel M

    2016-12-16

    Attosecond science represents a new frontier in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, enabling one to probe the exceedingly fast dynamics associated with purely electronic dynamics in a wide range of systems. This paper presents a brief discussion of the technology required to generate attosecond light pulses and gives representative examples of attosecond science carried out in several laboratories. Attosecond transient absorption, a very powerful method in attosecond science, is then reviewed and several examples of gas phase and condensed phase experiments that have been carried out in the Leone/Neumark laboratories are described.

  3. Generating a non-English subjectivity lexicon: relations that matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Hofmann, K.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for creating a non-English subjectivity lexicon based on an English lexicon, an online translation service and a general purpose thesaurus: Wordnet. We use a PageRank-like algorithm to bootstrap from the translation of the English lexicon and rank the words in the thesaurus by

  4. Preservice History Teachers' Perceptions of Subject Matter Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Tercan; Yazici, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Teachers should be able to understand conceptual constructs, viewpoints, and principles related to their field and organize teaching process accordingly. This is valid also for history teachers. They are expected to comprehend the basic conceptions related to subject areas and reflect them on classroom practices. The association between subject…

  5. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    students' understanding of their subject matter.

  6. Relevance of school library media centre on social science subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The place occupied by the SLMC in schools as provided in the National Policy on Education was carefully presented Efforts were also concentrated on showing the important nature of the social science subjects in senior secondary schools (SSS) · while the needed resources were carefolly identified. The study highlighted ...

  7. Didactic Matters in Teaching Subjects of Economics at the College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Strazdienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been stated in Lithuania‘s National School Concept that the primary goal of the education of Lithuania is to secure the best possible comprehensive development of physical, psychological and spiritual human powers, to create conditions for the unfolding of the personal individuality. The subject of my teaching is economic theory. We face economic questions every day and in all areas of life. Therefore, my purpose is to acquaint college students, who do not study economics, with economic basics, to develop economic thinking and literacy. Greatest attention is paid to describe economic concepts and to use them in practice. Economics can not be learned through observing, one must work, analyse, solve practical exercises, search for correct answers. The purpose of the article is to assess the students‘ approach to the relevance of the subjects of economics. It is sought to identify the possibilities of applying new methods for teaching economic subjects and of selecting a teaching method in accordance with the students‘ level of preparation. The assessment of the research carried out enables to conclude that teaching economics forms students‘ capacities of a wide range, stimulates their self-expression, prepares young people to work in market conditions. The following methods of the research have been employed: pedagogic observation, questionnaire (survey, analysis of scientific literature and generalization.

  8. NASA's Universe of Learning: The Integral Role of Research Astronomers and Other Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Janice; Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    Astronomy seeks to understand the workings of the Universe on its largest scales, and to answer fundamental questions about the story of our origins. The science of astronomy thus naturally lends itself to informal education and public outreach activities, as it broadly captures the human imagination. There are at least three overall goals for investment of resources in Astronomy E/PO: to interest students in pursuing STEM education and careers; to develop Astronomy as context for teaching more basic physical and computer science in service of US National Education Goals; to help motivate continued public support of federally funded Astronomy research and technology development. Providing a full spectrum of opportunities for the public to learn about recent Astronomy discoveries is key to achieving these societal goals. Thus, the E/PO professional community must have an understanding of recent scientific/technological results, and engage with the researchers who are creating new knowledge to explicate that knowledge to the public. It stands to reason that researchers (or “subject matter experts, SMEs”) must be involved in and remain connected to the E/PO endeavor. In this talk, I will describe how research astronomers and other SMEs play an integral role in a full range of informal education programming developed by the NASA Universe of Learning collaboration, and opportunities to get involved.

  9. 37 CFR 1.110 - Inventorship and date of invention of the subject matter of individual claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. 1.110 Section 1.110 Patents, Trademarks, and... invention of the subject matter of individual claims. When more than one inventor is named in an application... claim in the application or patent. Where appropriate, the invention dates of the subject matter of each...

  10. Academic Training turns to matters of science and society

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Once again, CERN has opened its doors to matters of science and society. A recent academic training lecture series tackled the thorny issue of arms control. Although an issue far from normal training needs of CERN personnel, the series was well attended. Aseries of lectures about arms control at CERN? Surely some mistake! But there are many reasons why one of the world's most important physics laboratories should consider such weighty political and ethical matters - not least the concern for the issues felt by members of the CERN community. A large number of people followed the full series of lectures on arms control and disarmament by Francesco Calogero, Professor of theoretical physics at Rome's 'La Sapienza' University, demonstrating that CERN people are not only interested in purely scientific matters, but also in the implications for society. Professor Calogero, a former Secretary General of Pugwash1) and currently Chairman of the Pugwash Council, observed that, 'even if I dealt, albeit tersely, with the...

  11. Biopolitics and the `subject' of labor in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-12-01

    Viewing science education as a site of biopolitical engagement—intervention into forces that seek to define, control, and exploit life (biopower)—requires that science educators ask after how individuals and populations are governed by technologies of power. In this paper, I argue that microanalyses, the analysis of everyday practices and discourses, are integral to biopolitical engagement, are needed to examine practices that constitute subjectivities and maintain oppressive social conditions. As an example of a microanalysis I will discuss how repetitive close-ended lab/assessment tasks, as well as discourses surrounding careers in science, can work to constitute students as depoliticized, self-investing subjects of human capital. I also explore the relationship between science education, (bio)labor and its relation to biopolitics, which remains an underdeveloped area of science education. This paper, part of my doctoral work, began to take shape in 2011, shortly after the 2008 economic crisis achieved a tiny breached in the thick neoliberal stupor of everyday (educational) life.

  12. Biopolitics and the `subject' of labor in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Viewing science education as a site of biopolitical engagement—intervention into forces that seek to define, control, and exploit life (biopower)—requires that science educators ask after how individuals and populations are governed by technologies of power. In this paper, I argue that microanalyses, the analysis of everyday practices and discourses, are integral to biopolitical engagement, are needed to examine practices that constitute subjectivities and maintain oppressive social conditions. As an example of a microanalysis I will discuss how repetitive close-ended lab/assessment tasks, as well as discourses surrounding careers in science, can work to constitute students as depoliticized, self-investing subjects of human capital. I also explore the relationship between science education, (bio)labor and its relation to biopolitics, which remains an underdeveloped area of science education. This paper, part of my doctoral work, began to take shape in 2011, shortly after the 2008 economic crisis achieved a tiny breached in the thick neoliberal stupor of everyday (educational) life.

  13. Beyond Objectivity and Subjectivity: The Intersubjective Foundations of Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Michael F

    2016-12-01

    The question of whether psychology can properly be regarded as a science has long been debated (Smedslund in Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 50, 185-195, 2016). Science is typically understood as a method for producing reliable knowledge by testing falsifiable claims against objective evidence. Psychological phenomena, however, are traditionally taken to be "subjective" and hidden from view. To the extent that science relies upon objective observation, is a scientific psychology possible? In this paper, I argue that scientific psychology does not much fail to meet the requirements of objectivity as much as the concept of objectivity fails as a methodological principle for psychological science. The traditional notion of objectivity relies upon the distinction between a public, observable exterior and a private, subjective interior. There are good reasons, however, to reject this dichotomy. Scholarship suggests that psychological knowledge arises neither from the "inside out" (subjectively) nor from the outside-in (objectively), but instead intersubjective processes that occur between people. If this is so, then objectivist methodology may do more to obscure than illuminate our understanding of psychological functioning. From this view, we face a dilemma: Do we, in the name of science, cling to an objective epistemology that cuts us off from the richness of psychological activity? Or do we seek to develop a rigorous intersubjective psychology that exploits the processes through which we gain psychological knowledge in the first place? If such a psychology can produce systematic, reliable and useful knowledge, then the question of whether its practices are "scientific" in the traditional sense would become irrelevant.

  14. Experiential Learning of Electronics Subject Matter in Middle School Robotics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihtaršic, David; Avsec, Stanislav; Kocijancic, Slavko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the experiential learning of electronics subject matter is effective in the middle school open learning of robotics. Electronics is often ignored in robotics courses. Since robotics courses are typically comprised of computer-related subjects, and mechanical and electrical engineering, these…

  15. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Angelos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  16. Trends in the journal of nematology, 1969-2009: authors, States, nematodes, and subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R

    2011-06-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009. The greatest changes in subject matter were increases in papers on biological control and resistance in the 1990s and 2000s compared to the 1970s and 1980s. Additional trends and subjects are discussed, and data are provided comparing differences among the 4 decades for various aspects of nematology.

  17. One Health in food safety and security education: Subject matter outline for a curricular framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I

    2017-06-01

    Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.

  18. Fiberprint: A subject fingerprint based on sparse code pooling for white matter fiber analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kuldeep; Desrosiers, Christian; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Colliot, Olivier; Toews, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    White matter characterization studies use the information provided by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) to draw cross-population inferences. However, the structure, function, and white matter geometry vary across individuals. Here, we propose a subject fingerprint, called Fiberprint, to quantify the individual uniqueness in white matter geometry using fiber trajectories. We learn a sparse coding representation for fiber trajectories by mapping them to a common space defined by a dictionary. A subject fingerprint is then generated by applying a pooling function for each bundle, thus providing a vector of bundle-wise features describing a particular subject's white matter geometry. These features encode unique properties of fiber trajectories, such as their density along prominent bundles. An analysis of data from 861 Human Connectome Project subjects reveals that a fingerprint based on approximately 3000 fiber trajectories can uniquely identify exemplars from the same individual. We also use fingerprints for twin/sibling identification, our observations consistent with the twin data studies of white matter integrity. Our results demonstrate that the proposed Fiberprint can effectively capture the variability in white matter fiber geometry across individuals, using a compact feature vector (dimension of 50), making this framework particularly attractive for handling large datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Subject Knowledge Development by Science Student Teachers: The Role of University Tutors and School-Based Subject Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, Bernadette; McCarthy, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of a National Curriculum for Science, all secondary science teachers in England need to be prepared to teach all aspects of a broad and balanced science curriculum. This is the second paper in which we explore science student teachers' subject knowledge development during a one-year postgraduate teacher preparation…

  20. Trends in the Journal of Nematology, 1969-2009: Authors, States, Nematodes, and Subject Matter

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.

    2011-01-01

    Issues of the Journal of Nematology from 1969-2009 were examined to determine trends in authorship and subject matter. Data were collected on authors, affiliations, locations, funding, nematodes, and nematological subject matter, and then compared among the 4 decades involved. Some of the more prominent changes noted included: a decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of papers published in the Journal of Nematology in the 1990s and 2000s from a peak in the 1980s; an increase (P < 0.05) in number o...

  1. Information actions in science and technology: institutionalities, agencies and subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rabello

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of new agency forms - intervention and interaction among subjects - in the context of information intermediation, we aim to approach information actions in Science and Technology (S&T taking into consideration the institutionalities involved. For such, we assume there is an influence of a theoretical model emerging in Information Science (IS regarding current inventive and interactive form propitiated by the Web. The text is structured in two central topics bringing: i theoretical and epistemic constructions of the "information action" concept; and ii a certain interpretation oriented by the "informational action in S&T" construct, taking as its object the actions performed by IBICT (Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, directed towards excellence in information. Finally, we discuss how limitations of the "systemic model" propitiate the construction of new study objects in the model emerging in IS from theoretical innovations and counterpoints thoughts facing the diverse forms of information action, considering, for instance, the action of subjects on what concerns the validation of information in the current scenery of institutional intermediation.

  2. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  3. The Effects of CLIL Education on the Subject Matter (Mathematics) and the Target Language (English)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazizi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of Content and Language Integrated Learning, CLIL for short, on both the attainment of the subject matter, mathematics in our case, hence the content aspect of CLIL. The second axes of research focuses on the effect of CLIL on the learners' proficiency vis-à-vis the language of instruction, epitomized here by…

  4. The Structure of Subject Matter Content and Its Instructional Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four types of fundamental structures are briefly described and illustrated: the learning hierarchy, the procedural hierarchy, the taxonomy, and the model. Then a theoretical framework is presented for classifying types of subject matter content, and some implications of these content classifications are discussed. (VT)

  5. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  6. The Designer-by-Assignment in Practice: Instructional Design Thinking of Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Sandra V.

    2012-01-01

    Designers-by-assignment, or subject matter experts (SMEs) who are pressed into training service, have become common in the workplace. A review of more than 24 studies on expert and novice instructional designers, however, revealed that little is known about how designers-by-assignment think about design and make design decisions in the field. A…

  7. The Dialectical Nature of Writing and Its Implications for Learning Subject Matter Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Terry

    1997-01-01

    Looks at writing as a dialectical affair--"dialectic" refers both to the dialogical nature of writing and the opportunity it opens up for the writer in coming to a new understanding of the subject matter. Uses H. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics as a starting point for developing writing as a dialectical process. (PA)

  8. Reclaiming the Subject Matter as a Guide to Mutual Understanding: Effectiveness and Ethics in Interpersonal Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, Stanley

    1990-01-01

    Presents H. G. Gadamer's ontology of understanding as a developmental foundation for interpersonal system ethics. Conceptualizes interaction in terms of demand that the subject matter places on openly formed mutual understanding. Shows unethical interactions as practices which prohibit this development. Provides examples of processes by which…

  9. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  10. Subject knowledge in the health sciences library: an online survey of Canadian academic health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Erin M

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated whether Canadian academic health sciences librarians found knowledge of the health sciences to be important and, if so, how they acquired and maintained this knowledge. Data were gathered using a Web-based questionnaire made available to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Respondents recognized the need for subject knowledge: 93.3% of respondents indicated that subject knowledge was "very important" or "somewhat important" to doing their job. However, few respondents felt that holding a degree in the health sciences was necessary. Respondents reported devoting on average more than 6 hours per week to continuing education through various means. Reading or browsing health sciences journals, visiting Websites, studying independently, and participating in professional associations were identified by the largest number of participants as the best ways to become and stay informed. Although more research needs to be done with a larger sample, subject knowledge continues to be important to Canadian academic health sciences librarians. Continuing education, rather than formal degree studies, is the method of choice for obtaining and maintaining this knowledge.

  11. What Do Subject Matter Experts Have to Say about Participating in Education and Outreach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team

    2018-01-01

    NASA’s Universe of Learning partners wish to actively engage with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) throughout the design, development, and delivery of products, programs, and professional development. In order to ensure these engagement efforts aligned with the needs of Subject Matter Experts, the external evaluators conducted an online survey. The subject pool included the scientists and engineers employed at the partner organizations as well as other scientists and engineers affiliated with NASA’s Astrophysics missions and research programs. This presentation will describe scientists’/engineers’ interest in various types of education/outreach, their availability to participate in education/outreach, factors that would encourage their participation in education/outreach, and the preparation and support they have for participation in education/outreach.

  12. John Dewey on theory of learning and inquiry: The scientific method and subject matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Nien

    This study examines the educational debate between Dewey and some of his critics on the merits of learning the scientific method. Four of Dewey's critics---Hutchins, Hirsch, Hirst, and Scheffler criticize Dewey for over-emphasizing the importance of the scientific method and under-emphasizing the importance of subject matter in education. This dissertation argues that these critics misunderstand Dewey's use of the scientific method and its importance in education. It argues that Dewey conceives of the scientific method in two different ways: first as an attitude and second as a tool. It also argues that, by failing to understand this critical distinction, these critics misunderstand the role of the scientific method in education. The dissertation concludes by showing that, educationally, Dewey's ideas of the scientific method have different meanings in different context. It analyzes the scientific method as empirical method, critical thinking, cooperative learning, and creative thinking, and shows the place of subject matter in each of them.

  13. White Matter Hyperintensity Associations with Cerebral Blood Flow in Elderly Subjects Stratified by Cerebrovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Ahmed A; Powell, David K; Yu, Guoquiang; Johnson, Eleanor S; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to add clarity to the relationship between deep and periventricular brain white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebrovascular risk in older persons. Deep white matter hyperintensity (dWMH) and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (pWMH) and regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) blood flow from arterial spin labeling were quantified from magnetic resonance imaging scans of 26 cognitively normal elderly subjects stratified by cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were acquired using a high-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) sequence that reduced partial volume effects seen with slice-based techniques. dWMHs but not pWMHs were increased in patients at high risk of CVD; pWMHs but not dWMHs were associated with decreased regional cortical (GM) blood flow. We also found that blood flow in WM is decreased in regions of both pWMH and dWMH, with a greater degree of decrease in pWMH areas. WMHs are usefully divided into dWMH and pWMH regions because they demonstrate differential effects. 3-D regional WMH volume is a potentially valuable marker for CVD based on associations with cortical CBF and WM CBF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  15. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Large-Scale Subject-Matter Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed with the overall goal of understanding how difficulties in reading comprehension are associated with early adolescents' performance in large-scale assessments in subject domains including science and civic-related social studies. The current study extended previous research by taking a cognition-centered approach based on…

  16. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  17. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers' PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menşure Alkiş Küçükaydin; Şafak Uluçinar Sağir

    2016-01-01

    .... According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge...

  18. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 86 of 86 ... MEJSis a peer reviewed half yearly, international, interdisciplinary and free access electronic journal. The scope of the journal includes various aspects of natural and computational sciences in general and geology, chemistry, physics, biology and mathematical sciences in particular. It focuses on both ...

  19. Teaching Science Subjects in Arabic: Arab University Scientists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamami, Munassir

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Arab university scientists' views of the status of English and Arabic in the 21st century, and their attitudes towards using English and Arabic as media of instruction in science faculties in the Arab world. Twenty-seven science instructors at a Saudi University coming from different backgrounds responded to a written…

  20. OntoBrowser: a collaborative tool for curation of ontologies by subject matter experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Carlo; Pognan, Francois; Marc, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The lack of controlled terminology and ontology usage leads to incomplete search results and poor interoperability between databases. One of the major underlying challenges of data integration is curating data to adhere to controlled terminologies and/or ontologies. Finding subject matter experts with the time and skills required to perform data curation is often problematic. In addition, existing tools are not designed for continuous data integration and collaborative curation. This results in time-consuming curation workflows that often become unsustainable. The primary objective of OntoBrowser is to provide an easy-to-use online collaborative solution for subject matter experts to map reported terms to preferred ontology (or code list) terms and facilitate ontology evolution. Additional features include web service access to data, visualization of ontologies in hierarchical/graph format and a peer review/approval workflow with alerting. The source code is freely available under the Apache v2.0 license. Source code and installation instructions are available at http://opensource.nibr.com This software is designed to run on a Java EE application server and store data in a relational database. philippe.marc@novartis.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. CosmoQuest: Supporting Subject Matter Experts in Broadening the Impacts of their Work beyond their Institutional Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, J.; Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Gay, P.

    2016-12-01

    CosmoQuest is a virtual research facility, which, like its physical counterparts, provides tools for scientists to acquire reduced data products (thanks to our cadre of citizen scientists working to analyze images and produce results online), and also to participate in education and outreach activities either directly through CosmoQuest activities (such as CosmoAcademy and the Educators' Zone) or with the support of CosmoQuest. Here, we present our strategies to inspire, engage and support Subject Matter Experts (SMEs - Scientists, Engineers, Technologists and Mathematicians) in activities outside of their institutions, and beyond college classroom teaching. We provide support for SMEs who are interested in increasing the impacts of their science knowledge and expertise by interacting with people online, or in other venues outside of their normal work environment. This includes a broad spectrum of opportunities for those interested in hosting webinars; running short courses for the public; using Facebook, Twitter or other social media to communicate science; or other diverse activities such as supporting an open house, science fair, or star party. As noted by Katheryn Woods-Townsend and colleagues, "...face-to-face interactions with scientists allowed students to view scientists as approachable and normal people, and to begin to understand the range of scientific areas and careers that exist. Scientists viewed the scientist-student interactions as a vehicle for science communication" (2015). As CosmoQuest fosters these relationships, it We present a framework for SMEs which combine opportunities for continuing professional development (virtually and in person at conferences) with ongoing online support, creating a dynamic professional learning network. The goal of this is to deepen SME capacity-knowledge, attitudes and behaviors-both encouraging and empowering them to connect to broader audiences in new ways.

  2. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  3. Comparing journals from different fields of Science and Social Science through a JCR Subject Categories Normalized Impact Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Dorta-Gonzalez, Pablo; Dorta-Gonzalez, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The journal Impact Factor (IF) is not comparable among fields of Science and Social Science because of systematic differences in publication and citation behaviour across disciplines. In this work, a decomposing of the field aggregate impact factor into five normally distributed variables is presented. Considering these factors, a Principal Component Analysis is employed to find the sources of the variance in the JCR subject categories of Science and Social Science. Although publication and c...

  4. science where culture matters: a neo-classical approach to explore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SCIENCE WHERE CULTURE MATTERS: A NEO-CLASSICAL APPROACH TO EXPLORE UNTAPPED BACTERIAL DIVERSITY. MILIND WATVE; Dept of Microbiology, Abasaheb Garware College, Pune. www.culturematters.org; * Life Research Foundation, Pune; * Evolvus Biotech Pvt. Ltd.,Pune ...

  5. African Journals Online: General Science (broad subject range)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 86 ... Afrique Science publishes experimental, theoretical and applied results in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geology and engineering. .... involving technology for recording and/or analysing humans at work, observational reports from the field, brief research reports/updates, and news and views.

  6. component of the subject of study of environmental sciences is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Sheshadri1 G Nagendrappa2. No.1, P R Layout, 1st Main Road, Seshadripuram, Bangalore 560 020, India. Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Dr Ambedkar Veedi, Bangalore 560 001, India. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 9. Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 9

  7. The Effects of Verbal Rewards and Punishment on Subject-Matter Growth of Culturally Disadvantaged First Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Joan K.; Soar, Robert S.

    The purpose of this study was to extend a relationship between teacher verbal rewarding and punishing behavior and subject matter growth previously obtained with middle-class postprimary children, with a different population; namely, first-grade, lower-class children. The subjects were 366 children and 20 teachers from first-grade classes…

  8. Knot numbers used as labels for identifying subject matter of a khipu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saez-Rodriguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents a new way to look at the numerical khipu, a knotted-string recording device from Pachacamac (Peru, and the types of information it contains. In addition to celestial coordinates, khipu knots apparently pertain to an early form of double-entry accounting. This study hypothesizes that the khipu sample has the recording capacity needed to register double-entry-like accounts. After the identification of its subject matter, the khipu sample was studied in an attempt to ascertain whether the knot values could represent instructions from the Inca state administration to a local accounting center. The results indicate that the numerical information in the pairing quadrants (determined by the distribution of S- and Z-knots should be read from top to bottom along the full length of the string and can then provide certain complementary details regarding the projected corn stocks of the Inca stat

  9. Secondary School Science Predictors of Academic Performance in University Bioscience Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rod; Brown, Elizabeth; Ward, Alex

    2009-01-01

    In 2009 the Faculty of Health Sciences at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia is introducing a common first year for 11 different undergraduate courses in the faculty. Current prerequisite science entry requirements vary with course and range from none to at least two science or mathematics subjects and from [approximately]50 to 99 in…

  10. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  11. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  12. University Programme Preferences of High School Science Students in Singapore and Reasons that Matter in their Preferences: A Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored an under-researched area in science education-the university programmes preferred by high school students who take physical science subjects and the reasons that matter in their preferences. A total of 1,071 upper secondary and pre-university students in Singapore, who take physical science subjects among their range of subjects, participated in this study. A survey method was adopted and the Rasch model was used to analyse the data. Overall, Business Studies was ranked as the predominant choice; nonetheless, scientific programmes such as Science, Engineering, and Mathematics are generally still well liked by the students. When gender differences were examined, we found that students largely followed gender-typical programme preferences, in which males tend to incline towards Engineering while females tend to incline towards Arts and Social Sciences. Students prefer a university programme based on their individual interest and ability, with career aspiration and remuneration coming next. Interestingly, females place greater emphasis on career aspiration than males. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  13. Disciplinary Identity as Analytic Construct and Design Goal: Making Learning Sciences Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.

    2017-01-01

    Bent Flyvbjerg (2001), in his book "Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again," argues that social science's aims and methods are currently, and perhaps always will be, ill suited to the type of cumulative and predictive theory that characterizes inquiry and knowledge generation in the natural…

  14. Subject Categorization Guide for Defense Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    Sciences therapy and prosthesis . For pharmaceutics, See 06/15, Pharmacology. For veterinary medicine, See 02/05, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine...prieumoniac 01/03 Landing lights 20/08 Klein Nishina formula 01/05 Landing mats 09/01 Klysti-ons 01/05 Landing paOs 06/04 Knee (Anatory) 08/10 Landslides...15/01 Military organizations 12/06 Microprocessors 05/09 Military personnel 12/05 Microprogramming 15/06 Military planning 14/02 Microradiography 05

  15. Models, Matter and Truth in Doing and Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Doing science involves the development and evaluation of models. These models are not objective truths but can be understood as explanations, which scientists use to explore and reason about an aspect of the world. Learning science involves students expressing and engaging with models in the classroom. However, this learning should not be seen as…

  16. Grey-Matter Metabolism in Relation with White-Matter Lesions in Older Hypertensive Patients with Subjective Memory Complaints: A Pilot Voxel-Based Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Hossu, Gabriela; Kearney-Schwartz, Anna; Bracard, Serge; Roch, Veronique; Van der Gucht, Axel; Fay, Renaud; Benetos, Athanase; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Joly, Laure

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the changes in brain metabolism related to white-matter magnetic resonance (MR) hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, with a voxel-based quantitative analysis of (18F)-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Sixty older hypertensive patients with subjective memory complaints (75 ± 5 years, 34 women) were prospectively referred to FDG-PET and MRI brain imaging. The Statistical Parametric Mapping software was used to assess the correlation between brain distribution of FDG and white-matter hyperintensities assessed by the Fazekas score on MRI images. The Fazekas score was inversely related to FDG uptake, independently of age and gender, within 14 Brodmann areas located mainly in the frontal lobe but also in certain limbic, insular and temporal areas. This relationship was also found to be largely independent of the volume of grey matter expressed in percentage of cranial volume, an index of atrophy. White-matter MR hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin are cross-sectionally associated with a lower grey-matter metabolism, mainly but not only within frontal areas and independently of age, gender and grey-matter atrophy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Introduction to William Stephenson's quest for a science of subjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, James M M

    2010-01-01

    In this introduction to the life and work of William Stephenson my aim is to provide a general overview of the development of his thinking and, more specifically, to highlight the importance he attached to the study of single cases. I also attempt to provide a context for an understanding of the significance of his "Tribute to Melanie Klein." Some of the principal reasons for Stephenson's marginal status in the discipline of psychology will also emerge in the course of the article. I begin by outlining some of the central notions in Q-methodology. The early sections of the article trace his roots in the north of England - the setting for his schooling and university training in physics - and then outline his encounters with Charles Spearman and Cyril Burt at University College London. The subsequent section deals with his time at the University of Oxford Institute of Experimental Psychology and the wartime interruption to his career. The next few sections take us across the Atlantic and describe some of the most significant features of his work on Q-methodology. these sections also record the difficulties Stephenson experienced before he eventually secured a tenured position at the University of Missouri School of Journalism in Columbia. In the final section I attempt to situate Q-methodology in relation to some of the principal theoretical orientations in the human sciences.

  18. 'The body does matter': Women as embodied social subjects in Angela Carter's Nights at the Circus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Tatjana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmodernism posed a crucial ontological challenge to reality, questioning what constitutes the real world, simultaneously interrogating the horizon of representation of this unstable reality in fiction. Feminism on the other hand equipped us with critical tools for interpreting the reality of being in the world in a gendered body, as well as with a conceptual apparatus for interpreting the manifold institutional and private oppressions of women's bodies that play out in women's daily lives and in the discourses that shape them, literary discourse being one of them. This paper argues that Angela Carter's 1984 novel Nights at the Circus, which is widely held as a postfeminist text due to its narrative commitment to transcending gender binaries, essentially uses the strategies of postmodern storytelling and characterization in order to explore women's embodied potentialities of agency i.e. their construction of subjectivity through body. We will argue that the hybrid magic realist narrative constructs Fevvers' body as a titillating postmodern performance, ontologically illusive and elusive, yet it grounds that same body in various socially effected predicaments and experiences that serve to show that even in the midst of a play of signifiers, in Patricia Waugh's words, 'the body does matter, at least to what has been the dominant perspective within British female fiction' (Waugh, 2006, p. 196. In other words, it may be argued that Carter's novel is invested in traditional second-wave feminist politics to the extent that it shows that a woman's body is an indispensable medium of being in the world with material consequences that bear on the formation of her subjectivity and possibility of agency, and through which she acts out her relationships to others and is acted upon.

  19. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2001-11-01

    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  20. Is intelligent design science, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P W Bateman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate between evolution and intelligent design is usually presented by evolutionary biologists as a clash between science and non-science (creationism and religion and therefore as a sterile argument which science wins by default. Countering this is intelligent design (ID and irreducible complexity (IC which posit that the diversity and complexity of life on earth indicates the hand of a designer, although the nature of that designer is not speculated on. In doing so, proponents of� ID and IC bring the argument squarely into the scientific camp and fulfil the requirements of being science, although this is difficult� to define. Here, we discuss the claims of ID and IC to provide an alternative to evolution and propose that science can adequately deal with and refute these claims. At the same time, ID and IC fulfil an important role as foils to �scientism�� � the belief that science is the best way of answering all questions. In the final analysis, however , despite their value in the debate, ID and IC are not found to be robust or reliable enough to replace evolution as the best way of explaining the diversity of life on earth.

  1. Cognitive Control and White Matter Callosal Microstructure in Methamphetamine Dependent Subjects: A DTI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Ruth; Nordahl, Thomas E; Buonocore, Michael H; Natsuaki, Yutaka; Waters, Christy; Moore, Charles D; Galloway, Gantt P; Leamon, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) abuse causes damage to structures within the human cerebrum, with particular susceptibility to white matter (WM). Abnormalities have been reported in anterior regions with less evidence of changes in posterior regions. MA abusers have also shown deficits on attention tests that measure response conflict and cognitive control. Methods We examined cognitive control using a computerized measure of the Stroop selective attention task and indices of WM microstructure obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the callosal genu and splenium of 37 currently abstinent MA abusers and 17 non-substance abusing controls. Measurements of Fractional Anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of callosal fibers and diffusion tensor eigenvalues were obtained in all subjects. Results The MA abusers exhibited greater Stroop reaction time interference (i.e., reduced cognitive control) [p=.04] compared to controls. After correcting for multiple comparisons, FA within the genu correlated significantly with measures of cognitive control in the MA abusers [p=.04, bonferroni corrected] but not in controls [p=.26]. Group differences in genu, but not splenium, FA were trend significant [p=.09]. Conclusions MA abuse appears to alter anterior callosal WM microstructure with less evidence of change within posterior callosal WM microstructure. DTI indices within the genu, but not splenium, correlated with measures of cognitive control in chronic MA abusers. PMID:18814867

  2. Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater engagement with relevant sociopolitical thought in fields typically outside the purview of science education. Drawing from thinkers Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Judith Butler, and Louis Althusser this paper attempts to extend some key ideas coming from Ken Tobin, Larry Bencze, and Lyn Carter and advocates science educators taking up notions of ideology, discourse, and subjectivity to engage globalization and neoliberalism. Subjectivity (and its constitution in science education) is considered alongside two relevant textbook examples and also in terms of its importance in formulating political and culturally relevant questions in science education.

  3. Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

  4. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI) and test of science related attitude (TOSRA). SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reli...

  5. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  6. What Subject Matter Knowledge Do Second-Level Teachers Need to Know to Teach Trigonometry? An Exploration and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Richard; Fitzmaurice, Olivia; O'Donoghue, John

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the level of trigonometry Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) of third and final-year pre-service second-level mathematics teachers () at an Irish third-level institution. The aim of the study was to determine if this sample of prospective teachers has an appropriate level of SMK to teach second-level trigonometric concepts. The…

  7. A Methodology for Investigating the Interactions of Individual Differences and Subject Matter Characteristics with Instructional Methods. ; Report 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    This paper presents a general model for conceptualizing and testing the interactions of individual differences and subject-matter characteristics with instructional methods. The model postulates certain ways of classifying the variables of interest in such investigations and of conceptualizing the cause-and-effect relationships among those classes…

  8. "Frustrated" or "Surprised?" An Examination of the Perspectives of Spanish Teacher Candidates regarding the Praxis II Subject-Matter Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Researchers (Sandarg & Schomber, 2009; Wilkerson, Schomber, & Sandarg, 2004) have urged the profession to develop a new subject-matter licensure test to reflect the best practices in the foreign language classroom. In October 2010, the Praxis II: World Language Test joined the Praxis Series. Given that this standards-driven test differs…

  9. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  10. Shared Knowledge among Graphic Designers, Instructional Designers and Subject Matter Experts in Designing Multimedia-Based Instructional Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The research identified and explored the shared knowledge among the instructional multimedia design and development experts comprising of subject matter expert, graphic designer and instructional designer. The knowledge shared by the team was categorized into three groups of multimedia design principles encompasses of basic principles, authoring…

  11. The Impact of Self-Perceived Subject Matter Knowledge on Pedagogical Decisions in EFL Grammar Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Hugo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in language teacher cognition research highlight the need to explore subject matter knowledge in relation to classroom practice. This study examines the impact of two foreign language teachers' knowledge about grammar upon their pedagogical decisions. The primary database consisted of classroom observations and post-lesson…

  12. The Effect of Applying Elements of Instructional Design on Teaching Material for the Subject of Classification of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdilek, Zehra; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of instructional materials for the subject of classification of matter as solids, liquids and gases that were developed using a holistic instructional design model on student achievement. In the study a pre-test/post-test with control group experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the…

  13. Computer science security research and human subjects: emerging considerations for research ethics boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Elizabeth; Aycock, John; Dexter, Scott; Dittrich, David; Hvizdak, Erin

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the growing concerns with computer science research, and in particular, computer security research and its relationship with the committees that review human subjects research. It offers cases that review boards are likely to confront, and provides a context for appropriate consideration of such research, as issues of bots, clouds, and worms enter the discourse of human subjects review.

  14. Determinants of Girls' Performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology Subjects in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musau, Lydia Mbaki; Migosi, Joash; Muola, James Matee

    2013-01-01

    There has been incessant low academic performance in Science, Mathematics and Technology (SMT) subjects especially among girls at form four level in Kitui Central District over the years. The aim of this study was to investigate the determinants of girls' performance in SMT subjects in public secondary schools. Using ex-post-facto survey research…

  15. Why technology matters as much as science in improving healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerba, Robert J; Huesch, Marco D

    2012-09-10

    More than half a million new items of biomedical research are generated every year and added to Medline. How successful are we at applying this steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and so improving the practice of medicine in the USA? The conventional wisdom is that the US healthcare system is plagued by serious cost, access, safety and quality weaknesses. A comprehensive solution must involve the better translation of an abundance of clinical research into improved clinical practice.Yet the application of knowledge (i.e. technology) remains far less well funded and less visible than the generation, synthesis and accumulation of knowledge (i.e. science), and the two are only weakly integrated. Worse, technology is often seen merely as an adjunct to practice, e.g. electronic health records.Several key changes are in order. A helpful first step lies in better understanding the distinction between science and technology, and their complementary strengths and limitations. The absolute level of funding for technology development must be increased as well as being more integrated with traditional science-based clinical research. In such a mission-oriented federal funding strategy, the ties between basic science research and applied research would be better emphasized and strengthened. It bears repeating that only by applying the wealth of existing and future scientific knowledge can healthcare delivery and patient care ever show significant improvement.

  16. Expectancy-Value and Children's Science Achievement: Parents Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie A.; Strunk, Kamden K.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the ways parents' and teachers' expectancy for success influences 3rd-5th children's expectancy for success and achievement in science. Guided by an open-systems perspective and functional (Ballantine & Roberts, 2007) and expectancy-value (Eccles, 2005, 2007) theories, we focused on school related socialization…

  17. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are related to gray matter volume in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiloni, Claudio; Carducci, Filippo; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Baglieri, Annalisa; Bernardini, Silvia; Cavedo, Enrica; Bozzao, Alessandro; Buttinelli, Carla; Esposito, Fabrizio; Giubilei, Franco; Guizzaro, Antonio; Marino, Silvia; Montella, Patrizia; Quattrocchi, Carlo C; Redolfi, Alberto; Soricelli, Andrea; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Ferri, Raffaele; Rossi-Fedele, Giancarlo; Ursini, Francesca; Scrascia, Federica; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Pedersen, Torleif Jan; Hardemark, Hans-Goran; Rossini, Paolo M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-06-01

    Cortical gray matter volume and resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms are typically abnormal in subjects with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we tested the hypothesis that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of EEG rhythms are a functional reflection of cortical atrophy across the disease. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 57 healthy elderly (Nold), 102 amnesic MCI, and 108 AD patients. Cortical gray matter volume was indexed by magnetic resonance imaging recorded in the MCI and AD subjects according to Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative project (http://www.adni-info.org/). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). These rhythms were indexed by LORETA. Compared with the Nold, the MCI showed a decrease in amplitude of alpha 1 sources. With respect to the Nold and MCI, the AD showed an amplitude increase of delta sources, along with a strong amplitude reduction of alpha 1 sources. In the MCI and AD subjects as a whole group, the lower the cortical gray matter volume, the higher the delta sources, the lower the alpha 1 sources. The better the score to cognitive tests the higher the gray matter volume, the lower the pathological delta sources, and the higher the alpha sources. These results suggest that in amnesic MCI and AD subjects, abnormalities of resting state cortical EEG rhythms are not epiphenomena but are strictly related to neurodegeneration (atrophy of cortical gray matter) and cognition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Single subject controlled experiments in aphasia: The science and the state of the science

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effect of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and crucial considerations in design selection. In the final sections, results of reviews of published single subject controlled experiments are discussed...

  19. Single Subject Controlled Experiments in Aphasia: The Science and the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of single subject controlled experimental designs for investigating the effects of treatment for aphasia. A brief historical perspective is presented, followed by discussions of the advantages and disadvantages of single subject and group approaches, the basic requirements of single subject experimental research, and…

  20. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  1. Why public dissemination of science matters: a manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M

    2013-07-24

    Communicating science to the public takes time away from busy research careers. So why would you do it? I here offer six reasons. First, we owe that understanding to the people who fund our experiments, the taxpaying public. Second, we can leverage our skills as scientists to inspire critical thinking in public and political dialog. Third, researchers are optimally positioned to stem the flow of scientific misinformation in the media. Fourth, we can explain the ways and the means by which science can (and cannot) improve law and social policy. Fifth, it is incumbent upon us to explain what science is and is not: while it is a way of thinking that upgrades our intuitions, it also comes with a deep understanding of (and tolerance for) uncertainty. Finally, we find ourselves in the pleasurable position of being able to share the raw beauty of the world around us-and in the case of neuroscience, the world inside us. I suggest that scientists are optimally stationed to increase their presence in the public sphere: our training positions us to synthesize large bodies of data, weigh the evidence, and communicate with nuance, sincerity and exactitude.

  2. Science in Sync: Integrating Science with Literacy Provides Rewarding Learning Opportunities in Both Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.; Coffey, Debra

    2016-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards'" ("NGSS") eight scientific and engineering practices invite teachers to develop key investigative skills while addressing important disciplinary science ideas (NGSS Lead States 2013). The "NGSS" can also provide direct links to "Common Core English Language Arts…

  3. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kawamichi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68. Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry (VBM study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113. Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  4. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship. Because intimate romantic relationships contribute to perceived subjective happiness, this subjective enhancement of happiness might be accompanied by the experience of positive events related to being in a romantic relationship. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the structure involved, we compared subjective happiness, an indirect measure of the existence of positive experiences caused by being in a romantic relationship, of participants with or without romantic partners (N = 68). Furthermore, we also conducted a voxel-based morphometry study of the effects of being in a romantic relationship (N = 113). Being in a romantic relationship was associated with greater subjective happiness and reduced gray matter density within the right dorsal striatum. These results suggest that being in a romantic relationship enhances perceived subjective happiness via positive experiences. Furthermore, the observed reduction in gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum may reflect an increase in saliency of social reward within a romantic relationship. Thus, being in a romantic relationship is associated with positive experiences and a reduction of gray matter density in the right dorsal striatum, representing a modulation of social reward.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (Second External Review Draft, Jul 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter (PM) have been made available for independent peer review and public review. The ISA reflects the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind...

  6. Designing Infographics to support teaching complex science subject: A comparison between static and animated Infographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hesham Galal

    This thesis explores the proper principles and rules for creating excellent infographics that communicate information successfully and effectively. Not only does this thesis examine the creation of Infographics, it also tries to answer which format, Static or Animated Infographics, is the most effective when used as a teaching-aid framework for complex science subjects, and if compelling Infographics in the preferred format facilitate the learning experience. The methodology includes the creation of infographic using two formats (Static and Animated) of a fairly complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), which were then tested for their efficacy as a whole, and the two formats were compared in terms of information comprehension and retention. My hypothesis predicts that the creation of an infographic using the animated format would be more effective in communicating a complex science subject (Phases Of The Moon), specifically when using 3D computer animation to visualize the topic. This would also help different types of learners to easily comprehend science subjects. Most of the animated infographics produced nowadays are created for marketing and business purposes and do not implement the analytical design principles required for creating excellent information design. I believe that science learners are still in need of more variety in their methods of learning information, and that infographics can be of great assistance. The results of this thesis study suggests that using properly designed infographics would be of great help in teaching complex science subjects that involve spatial and temporal data. This could facilitate learning science subjects and consequently impact the interest of young learners in STEM.

  7. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  8. Methods to model particulate matter clarification of unit operations subject to unsteady loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelman, David; Sansalone, John J

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater, and also wastewater unit operations (UOs) to a much lower extent, are subject to unsteady hydrodynamic and particulate matter (PM) fluxes. Simulating fully transient clarification of hetero-disperse PM requires much greater computational expense compared to steady simulations. An alternative to fully unsteady methods are stepwise steady (SS) methods which use stepwise steady flow transport and fate to approximate unsteady PM clarification of a UO during transient hydraulic loadings such as rainfall-runoff. The rationale is reduced computational effort for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) compared to simulating continuous unsteadiness of such events. An implicit solution stepwise steady (IS3) method is one approach which builds upon previous SS methods. The IS3 method computes steady flows that are representative of unsteady PM transport throughout an unsteady loading. This method departs from some previous SS methods that assume PM fate can be simulated with an instantaneous clarifier (basin) influent flowrate coupled with a PM input. In this study, various SS methods were tested for basins of varying size and residence time to examine PM fate. Differences between SS methods were a function of turnover fraction indicating the role of unsteady flowrates on PM transport for larger basins of longer residence times. The breakpoint turnover fraction was between two and three. The IS3 method best approximated unsteady behavior of larger basins. These methods identified limitations when utilizing standard event-based loading analysis for larger basins. For basins with a turnover fraction less than two, the majority of effluent PM did not originate from the event-based flow; originating from previous event loadings or existing storage. Inter- and multiple event processes and interactions, that are dependent on this inflow turnover fraction, are not accounted for by single event-based inflow models. Results suggest the use of long-term continuous modeling

  9. Agriculture vs. social sciences: subject classification and sociological conceptualization of rural tourism in Scopus and Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan HOČEVAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and consumptive function of countryside (rural areas are connected which should be reflected in scientific research. In order to test relationships, we selected the topic of rural tourism (also agritourism, agrotourism, agricultural tourism considering sociological conceptualization (social sciences, sociology and methodological approaches of information sciences (bibliometrics, scientometrics in describing fields of science or scientific disciplines. We ascertained scatter of information in citation databases (Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar. Functionalities were evaluated, affecting search precision and recall in information retrieval. We mapped documents to Scopus subject areas as well as Web of Science (WOS research areas and subject categories, and related publications (journals. Databases do not differ substantially in mapping this topic. Social sciences (including economics or business occupy by far the most important place. The strongest concentration was found in tourism-related journals (consistent with power laws. Agriculture-related publications are rare, accounting for some 10 % of documents. Interdisciplinarity seems to be weak. Results point to poor inclusion of emerging social topics in agricultural research whereby agriculture may lose out in possible venues of future research.

  10. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Hangout with CERN and the Google Science Fair: Why does antimatter matter? (S03E01)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2013-01-01

    What is antimatter? Why does antimatter matter? Series 3 of Hangout with CERN starts with a bang! A special hangout with CERN and the Google Science Fair that takes us into the weird and wonderful world of antimatter.CERN physicists Tara Shears and Niels Madsen speak to host Shree Bose, Google Science Fair 2011 grand prize winner and to Samantha Lee, Google Student Ambassador, about this mysterious part of our universe. What antimatter research is going on at CERN and what are the implications? CERN's Rolf Landua also shows us the Hollywood-side of antimatter!Google Science Fair is an online science competition open to students aged 13-18 from around the globe. Students can register at googlesciencefair.com, the closing date is 30 April 2013. Find out more about CERN's involvement in Google Science Fair at http://goo.gl/N9f3GRecorded live on 18th April 2013.

  12. Implementation Science: Why it matters for the future of social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap between research and practice is a critical frontier for the future of social work. Integrating implementation science into social work can advance our profession's effort to bring research and practice closer together. Implementation science examines the factors, processes, and strategies that influence the uptake, use, and sustainability of empirically-supported interventions, practice innovations, and social policies in routine practice settings. The aims of this paper are to describe the key characteristics of implementation science, illustrate how implementation science matters to social work by describing several contributions this field can make to reducing racial and ethnic disparities in mental health care, and outline a training agenda to help integrate implementation science in graduate-level social work programs.

  13. Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Lunder Verlič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following academic article is based on a PhD thesis that is currently being completed, titled Education and Qualifications of Elementary School Teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas and Slovenia for teaching in classes with immigrant children. The research study titled Integrating Multicultural Subject Matters into Teaching Strategies of Elementary School Teachers (The U.S. State of Kansas, conducted in 2007 based on a sample of 89 elementary school teachers in the U.S. State of Kansas, represents one aspect of assessing the adequacy of undergraduate education regarding multicultural subject matters for elementary school teachers in Slovenia and the U.S. (State of Kansas as well as the qualifications of elementary school teachers of both countries for working with immigrant children. Despite the long-standing tradition of multicultural education in western countries, the research results for Kansas elementary school teachers showed a presence of significant discrepancies between the actual and optimal integration of multicultural subject matters. These results indicate that future undergraduate study programs will have to invest more time in developing multicultural skills and providing practical experiences for working in a diverse environment.

  14. Individualized Instruction in Science, Time-Space-Matter, Self-Directed Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) on the time-space-matter subject, details are presented for self-directed activities. Major descriptions are given on the background of LAP characteristics, metric system, profile graph construction, spectroscope operation, radiant energy measurement, sunspot effects, density determination,…

  15. Height Matters: Citizen Science with the ICESat-2 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Campbell, B.; Neumann, T.; Brunt, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) to be launched in late 2017, will measure the height of Earth from space using lasers, collecting the most precise and detailed account yet of our planet's elevation. The mission will allow scientists to investigate how global warming is changing the planet's icy polar regions and to take stock of Earth's vegetation. ICESat-2's emphasis on polar ice, as well as its unique measurement approach, will provide an intriguing and accessible focus for the mission's education and outreach programs. Sea ice and land ice are areas that have experienced significant change in recent years. It is key to communicate why we are measuring these areas and their importance. ICESat-2 science data will provide much-needed answers to climate change questions such as, "Is the ice really melting in the polar regions?" and "What does studying Earth's frozen regions tell us about our changing climate?" Since the ICESat-2 satellite will be measuring the height of our planet, vegetation and tree height are also of vital interest. With this data, we can see small to large scale changes in Earth's environment. The ICESat-2 Mission is partnering with The GLOBE Program to emphasize these measurements in a hands-on way. Through modified protocols utilizing a hand-held clinometer and GPS, students and citizen scientists in both urban and non-urban areas will be able to measure the heights of trees and buildings to assist NASA in validating the ICESat-2 satellite data.

  16. Sociology, Basis for the Secondary-School Subject of Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke Meijs

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reformulates the question of ‘sociology, who needs it’ in two ways, The first question we address is that of the reason why the educational system itself did not come to sociology for help in their long quest for a clear-cut content of the subject. The second question is why sociology did not adopt the orphaned subject of social studies back in 1960. The answer to the first question lies in the vulnerability of a subject that is dependent for its continued existence on the political leanings of the day. This led to a new goal for the subject almost every decade: from social education in the sixties and social and political education in the seventies, to a focus on citizenship education in the nineties. Although the objective was renamed on several occasions, the prescriptive viewpoint is recognizable in each. This perspective is difficult to reconcile with a social science content. The answer to the second questions points towards Dutch social scientists with a strong focus on academic sociology and not for critical, policy or public sociology. This choice was also made in order to win the competition with psychologists and for the discipline to get rid of the poor image it had acquired in the 1960s. The new subject social sciences, with a strong focus on science made it possible for sociology to become the pillar of this new subject.

  17. Subject Matter Expert Evaluation of Multi-Flight Common Route Advisories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Hayashi, Miwa; Sheth, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    manager finds the advisory to be operationally appropriate, he or she would coordinate with the Area Supervisor(s) of the sectors that currently control the flights in the advisory. When the traffic manager accepts the MFCR advisory via the user interface, the corresponding flight plan amendments would be sent to the displays of the appropriate sector controllers, using the Airborne Re-Routing (ABRR) capability which is scheduled for nationwide operation in 2017. The sector controllers would then offer this time-saving route modification to the pilots of the affected flights via datalink (or voice), and implement the corresponding flight plan amendment if the pilots accept it. MFCR is implemented as an application in the software environment of the Future Air traffic management Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). This paper focuses on an initial subject matter expert (SME) evaluation of MFCR. The evaluation covers MFCRs operational concept, algorithm, and user interface.

  18. Involving Students’ Opinion in Actual and Preferred Teacher Interpersonal Behavior and Their Attitude Towards Science Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kamal Nasution

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the student perception on teacher interpersonal behavior and their attitude toward science subject. 207 respondents were involved, consisted of 200 students in 10-12 grade and 7 science teachers of public high school in Aceh. Two types of questionnaires were used namely the Indonesian version of the questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI and test of science related attitude (TOSRA. SPSS program were applied to process the data statistically. First, the reliability of questionnaires is measured using descriptive statistics of all and each scale of QTI. Second, the difference between students’ perceptions on the actual and ideal teacher interpersonal behavior was computed by Paired Sample t-tests. Third, the relationship between students' perception on teachers’ interpersonal behavior and students' attitudes towards science subjects was compared using multiple regression analysis-standardized regression coefficient β. The finding showed that the Indonesian version of questionnaire of teacher interaction (QTI is reliable (αC = 0.86, to be applied to the high school students in the regency. It is generally seen that the students consider their teachers demonstrate more positive interpersonal behavior than the negative. However, it is clearly seen that between actual and ideal perceptions on the whole scale of QTI is significantly different. Last, from the three scales of teacher interpersonal behavior, helping/friendly, dissatisfaction, and admonishing appeared influential, only the helping/friendly scale significantly correlate (at the .05 level with student attitudes toward science subject.

  19. A global map of science based on the ISI subject categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Rafols, I

    2009-01-01

    The decomposition of scientific literature into disciplinary and subdisciplinary structures is one of the core goals of scientometrics. How can we achieve a good decomposition? The ISI subject categories classify journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI). The aggregated journal-journal

  20. The What, Why, When, and How of Teaching the Science of Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Scollon, Christie Napa

    2014-01-01

    The field of subjective well-being (SWB), or happiness, has become a thriving area of science, with over 10,000 publications per year on the topic in recent years. Discoveries about the causes and processes involved in SWB range widely, from culture to biology to circumstances, providing instructors an opportunity to draw broadly on concepts from…

  1. Geomicrobial ecotoxicology as a new subject in environmental sciences is proposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ji-Dong; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-12-01

    Environmental sciences is an interdisciplinary subject and current development allows investigation of environmental issues from physical, chemical, geological, biological and toxicological approaches. Based on such development, geomicrobial ecotoxicology or microbial ecotoxicology is proposed to advance the information gathering on ecosystem processes and function because microorganisms are numerous and fundamental to the cycling of nutrients and energy flow.

  2. Subject Design and Factors Affecting Achievement in Mathematics for Biomedical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnie, Steven; Morphett, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Reports such as Bio2010 emphasize the importance of integrating mathematical modelling skills into undergraduate biology and life science programmes, to ensure students have the skills and knowledge needed for biological research in the twenty-first century. One way to do this is by developing a dedicated mathematics subject to teach modelling and…

  3. Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Level of ICT Integration in Sciences Subjects at the Namibian College of Open Learning. ... and an observation schedule were used to collect data and then analysed by coding and classifying the data into meaningful themes and categories as per the levels of Rogers's theory of diffusion of innovation.

  4. Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, J.; Fleming, G.; Ratner, M.

    2007-12-20

    The twin aspects of energy and control (or direction) are the underlying concepts. Matter and energy are closely linked, and their understanding and control will have overwhelming importance for our civilization, our planet, our science, and our technology. This importance ranges even beyond the large portfolio of BES, both because these truly significant Grand Challenges confront many other realms of science and because even partial solutions to these challenges will enrich scientists’ collective imagination and ability to solve problems with new ideas and new methods.

  5. Design of a model for a professional development programme for a multidisciplinary science subject in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2012-01-01

    Schools are increasingly integrating multidisciplinary education into their programmes. The Minister of Education, Culture and Science has introduced a new, integrated science subject in secondary education in the Netherlands, called Nature, Life and Technology (NLT). This research note describes

  6. Guidelines to Classify Female Subject Groups in Sport-Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroix, Lieselot; De Pauw, Kevin; Foster, Carl; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-03-01

    To review current cycling-related sport-science literature to formulate guidelines to classify female subject groups and to compare this classification system for female subject groups with the classification system for male subject groups. A database of 82 papers that described female subject groups containing information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology, biometrical and physiological parameters, and cycling experience was analyzed. Subject groups were divided into performance levels (PLs), according to the nomenclature. Body mass, body-mass index, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), peak power output (PPO), and training status were compared between PLs and between female and male PLs. Five female PLs were defined, representing untrained, active, trained, well-trained, and professional female subjects. VO2max and PPO significantly increased with PL, except for PL3 and PL4 (P groups. Relative VO2max is the most cited parameter for female subject groups and is proposed as the principal parameter to classify the groups. This systematic review shows the large variety in the description of female subject groups in the existing literature. The authors propose a standardized preexperimental testing protocol and guidelines to classify female subject groups into 5 PLs based on relative VO2max, relative PPO, training status, absolute VO2max, and absolute PPO.

  7. Role of the epistemic subject in Piaget's genetic epistemology and its importance for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    According to Piaget, a fundamental epistemological distinction must be made between the psychological and the epistemic subject. The epistemic subject is studied by the genetic epistemologist who charts development through a common universal rationality, which develops, whereas the psychological subject is studied by the developmental/cognitive psychologist by focusing on accidental contingencies surrounding particular people and their individual differences. The epistemic subject as compared to the psychological subject is an idealized abstraction, viz., that set of underlying epistemic structures common to everyone at the same level of development. The objective of this study is to investigate the degree to which investigators in science education conceptualize the difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects. It is argued that just as the ideal gas law (based on the theoretical formulation of Maxwell and Boltzmann) provides a general model to which the real gases approximate under different experimental conditions, so we can consider (by abduction) the epistemic subject to be an ideal knower to which the real (psychological) subjects approximate to varying degrees. The difference between the epistemic and the psychological subjects, however, cannot be used as an epistemological shield in defense of Piagetian theory. Any test of the Piagetian theory must involve psychological or real subjects. Empirical testability, however, need not be equated to being scientific. An analogy is drawn between Galileo's idealization, which led to the discovery of the law of free-fall, and Piaget's epistemic subject. Research conducted in science education shows that at least for some critics the wide variations in the age at which individuals acquire the different Piagetian stages is crucial for rejecting the theory. It is argued that the real issue is not the proportion of heterogeneity but the understanding that Piaget, by neglecting individual differences

  8. From object to subject: hybrid identities of indigenous women in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    The use of hybridity today suggests a less coherent, unified and directed process than that found in the Enlightenment science's cultural imperialism, but regardless of this neither concept exists outside power and inequality. Hence, hybridity raises the question of the terms of the mixture and the conditions of mixing. Cultural hybridity produced by colonisation, under the watchful eye of science at the time, and the subsequent life in a modern world since does not obscure the power that was embedded in the moment of colonisation. Indigenous identities are constructed within and by cultural power. While we all live in a global society whose consequences no one can escape, we remain unequal participants and globalisation remains an uneven process. This article argues that power has become a constitutive element in our own hybrid identities in indigenous people's attempts to participate in science and science education. Using the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand (called Māori) as a site of identity construction, I argue that the move from being the object of science to the subject of science, through science education in schools, brings with it traces of an earlier meaning of `hybridity' that constantly erupts into the lives of Māori women scientists.

  9. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Matthew C; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals...

  10. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Matthew C; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status...

  11. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students? Science Pursuit

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; THOMAN, DUSTIN B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demons...

  12. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  13. Individualized Gaussian process-based prediction and detection of local and global gray matter abnormalities in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, G; Ridgway, G R; Dahnke, R; Gaser, C

    2014-08-15

    Structural imaging based on MRI is an integral component of the clinical assessment of patients with potential dementia. We here propose an individualized Gaussian process-based inference scheme for clinical decision support in healthy and pathological aging elderly subjects using MRI. The approach aims at quantitative and transparent support for clinicians who aim to detect structural abnormalities in patients at risk of Alzheimer's disease or other types of dementia. Firstly, we introduce a generative model incorporating our knowledge about normative decline of local and global gray matter volume across the brain in elderly. By supposing smooth structural trajectories the models account for the general course of age-related structural decline as well as late-life accelerated loss. Considering healthy subjects' demography and global brain parameters as informative about normal brain aging variability affords individualized predictions in single cases. Using Gaussian process models as a normative reference, we predict new subjects' brain scans and quantify the local gray matter abnormalities in terms of Normative Probability Maps (NPM) and global z-scores. By integrating the observed expectation error and the predictive uncertainty, the local maps and global scores exploit the advantages of Bayesian inference for clinical decisions and provide a valuable extension of diagnostic information about pathological aging. We validate the approach in simulated data and real MRI data. We train the GP framework using 1238 healthy subjects with ages 18-94 years, and predict in 415 independent test subjects diagnosed as healthy controls, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rhetorical Meta-Language to Promote the Development of Students' Writing Skills and Subject Matter Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language--a meta-language--for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and…

  15. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students’ Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631

  16. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. © 2016 M. C. Jackson et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Exploring Pre-Service Elementary Science Teachers' Conceptual Understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter through Three-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Bilican, Kader; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Pre-service Elementary Science Teachers' (PSTs) conceptual understanding of Particulate Nature of Matter (PNM) through a three-tier diagnostic test. Participants were 215 PSTs from Turkey. Data consisted of participants' responses to the Particulate Nature of Matter Test (PNMT). The PNMT consists of…

  19. ROLE OF INTERNET - RESOURCES IN FORMING OF ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AT THE STUDY OF NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Naumenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of internet resources application for forming of pupils ecological knowledge at the study of natural sciences subjects is considered. It is noticed, that distribution of ecological knowledge and development of ecological education became the near-term tasks of school education, taking into account a global ecological crisis. It is therefore important to use in school preparation all possibilities that allow to promote the level of ecological knowledge of students and to influence the same on forming of modern views in relation to environmental preservation. Considerable attention is given to advices for the teachers of natural sciences subjects in relation to methodology of the internet resources use at preparation and realization of practical and laboratory works and other forms of educational-searching activity of students.

  20. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWE<0.05). Our study demonstrates that genetic variability of NTRK2, a susceptibility gene for psychiatric disorders, is related to emotional arousal and—independently—to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals. PMID:26978740

  1. A common NTRK2 variant is associated with emotional arousal and brain white-matter integrity in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalek, K; Coynel, D; Freytag, V; Hartmann, F; Heck, A; Milnik, A; de Quervain, D; Papassotiropoulos, A

    2016-03-15

    Dysregulation of emotional arousal is observed in many psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders. The neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 gene (NTRK2) has been associated with these disorders. Here we investigated the relation between genetic variability of NTRK2 and emotional arousal in healthy young subjects in two independent samples (n1=1171; n2=707). In addition, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in a subgroup of 342 participants were used to identify NTRK2-related white-matter structure differences. After correction for multiple testing, we identified a NTRK2 single nucleotide polymorphism associated with emotional arousal in both samples (n1: Pnominal=0.0003, Pcorrected=0.048; n2: Pnominal=0.0141, Pcorrected=0.036). DTI revealed significant, whole-brain corrected correlations between emotional arousal and brain white-matter mean diffusivity (MD), as well as significant, whole-brain corrected NTRK2 genotype-related differences in MD (PFWEemotional arousal and-independently-to brain white-matter properties in healthy individuals.

  2. Relationship between mathematics teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and professional development needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd; Chinnappan, Mohan; Saad, Noor Shah

    2017-05-01

    Two key variables emerged from the literature review is that Specific Matter Knowledge [SMK] and Pedagogical Content Knowledge [PCK] can influence the mathematics teachers' Professional Development [PD] needs. However, the key variables of SMK and PCK that were being investigated were not defined clearly. Empirical evidence that support relationship between SMK and PD and PCK and PD were not verified. In addition, how does PCK mediate SMK and PD is not clear and somewhat lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between primary mathematics teacher's SMK, PCK and PD needs. Results of path analysis with SmartPLS indicated that the direct effect of SMK on PD was mediated via PCK. This data provide support for the claim that PD programs for future teachers of primary mathematics should be driven by a more nuanced understanding of the link between SMK and PCK.

  3. TEACHERS PERSPECTIVE OF USING ENGLISH AS A MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norudin Mansor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The policy of changing the medium of instruction in the teaching of mathematics and science from Bahasa Melayu to English is an important innovation affecting teachers of mathematics and science. It poses special challenges not only for teachers who have been trained in the Malay medium but also for those trained in English. This investigation seeks to find out the achievement of students in mathematic and science subjects after considering the impact of prominent independent variables such as, the school, class and home environment, the teaching methodology and the teachers’ attitude. Analysis of the development in the state of Terengganu has been carried out by the distribution of questionnaires to teachers involved. Result of the correlation and multiple regressions indicated that all the three factors are significantly associated towards students’ achievement. However, the teaching methodology indicated a low level of moderate correlation which is believed to be the immediate issue that needed to be addressed in the new system.

  4. Subjective Evaluations of Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students: Experience with Consequences Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…

  5. Sustainability in Science Education? How the Next Generation Science Standards Approach Sustainability, and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we explore how sustainability is embodied in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), analyzing how the NGSS explicitly define and implicitly characterize sustainability. We identify three themes (universalism, scientism, and technocentrism) that are common in scientific discourse around sustainability and show how they appear…

  6. Recent German Educational Trends in the Information and Documentation Field: Integrating Subject Fields into Information Science Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Describes curriculum development in West German information science programs that integrates subject specialty knowledge with information science and technology. An overview of the West German educational system is given and a program with subject specialties in chemistry and electrical engineering at the Fachhochschule Darmstadt is explained.…

  7. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  8. Popcorn. A Language Development Unit for Science. Matter and Energy. Grade One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Margy; McGregor, Cathy, Ed.

    One of the basic principles of the Language Development Approach is that students must learn the language necessary to understand, talk, and write about all subject areas in order to succeed in school. This book contains information about teaching primary school science in the Northwest Territories with lessons that emphasize language. The goals…

  9. Opportunity integrated assessment facilitating critical thinking and science process skills measurement on acid base matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Anggi Ristiyana Puspita; Suyanta, LFX, Endang Widjajanti; Rohaeti, Eli

    2017-05-01

    Recognizing the importance of the development of critical thinking and science process skills, the instrument should give attention to the characteristics of chemistry. Therefore, constructing an accurate instrument for measuring those skills is important. However, the integrated instrument assessment is limited in number. The purpose of this study is to validate an integrated assessment instrument for measuring students' critical thinking and science process skills on acid base matter. The development model of the test instrument adapted McIntire model. The sample consisted of 392 second grade high school students in the academic year of 2015/2016 in Yogyakarta. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted to explore construct validity, whereas content validity was substantiated by Aiken's formula. The result shows that the KMO test is 0.714 which indicates sufficient items for each factor and the Bartlett test is significant (a significance value of less than 0.05). Furthermore, content validity coefficient which is based on 8 experts is obtained at 0.85. The findings support the integrated assessment instrument to measure critical thinking and science process skills on acid base matter.

  10. Concentration dynamics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in wetland soils subjected to experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Holden, Joseph; Zhang, Zhijian; Li, Meng; Li, Xia

    2014-02-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is the most bioavailable soil organic pool. Understanding how DOM responds to elevated temperature is important for forecasting soil carbon (C) dynamics under climate warming. Here a 4.5-year field microcosm experiment was carried out to examine temporal DOM concentration dynamics in soil pore-water from six different subtropical wetlands. Results are compared between control (ambient temperature) and warmed (+5°C) treatments. UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy was performed to reveal DOM structural complexity at the end of the warming incubation. Elevated temperature resulted in initially (1 to 2.5 years) high pore-water DOM concentrations in warmed samples. These effects gradually diminished over longer time periods. Of the spectral indices, specific UV absorbance at 280 nm and humification index were significantly higher, while the signal intensity ratio of the fulvic-like to humic-like fluorescence peak was lower in warmed samples, compared to the control. Fluorescence regional integration analysis further suggested that warming enhanced the contribution of humic-like substances to DOM composition for all tested wetlands. These spectral fingerprints implied a declined fraction of readily available substrates in DOM allocated to microbial utilization in response to 4.5 years of warming. As a negative feedback, decreased DOM biodegradability may have the potential to counteract initial DOM increases and alleviate C loss in water-saturated wetland soils. © 2013.

  11. Life — As a Matter of Fat The Emerging Science of Lipidomics

    CERN Document Server

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2005-01-01

    LIFE - as a Matter of Fat Lipidomics is the science of the fats called lipids. Lipids are as important for life as proteins, sugars, and genes. The present book gives a multi-disciplinary perspective on the physics of life and the particular role played by lipids and the lipid-bilayer component of cell membranes. The book is aimed at undergraduate students and young research workers within physics, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, nutrition, as well as pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. The emphasis is on the physical properties of lipid membranes seen as soft and molecularly structured interfaces. By combining and synthesizing insights obtained from a variety of recent studies, an attempt is made to clarify what membrane structure is and how it can be quantitatively described. Furthermore, it is shown how biological function mediated by membranes is controlled by lipid membrane structure and organization on length scales ranging from the size of the individual molecule, across molecular assem...

  12. Voluntarist theology and early-modern science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Francis

    2017-08-01

    This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of early-modern theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.

  13. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.

  14. Insight on AV-45 binding in white and grey matter from histogram analysis: a study on early Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemmi, Federico; Saint-Aubert, Laure; Peran, Patrice [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Adel, Djilali; Salabert, Anne-Sophie; Payoux, Pierre [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Toulouse (France); Pariente, Jeremie [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, Emmanuel J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Toulouse (France); Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France)

    2014-07-15

    AV-45 amyloid biomarker is known to show uptake in white matter in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but also in the healthy population. This binding, thought to be of a non-specific lipophilic nature, has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the differential pattern of AV-45 binding in white matter in healthy and pathological populations. We recruited 24 patients presenting with AD at an early stage and 17 matched, healthy subjects. We used an optimized positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) registration method and an approach based on an intensity histogram using several indices. We compared the results of the intensity histogram analyses with a more canonical approach based on target-to-cerebellum Standard Uptake Value (SUVr) in white and grey matter using MANOVA and discriminant analyses. A cluster analysis on white and grey matter histograms was also performed. White matter histogram analysis revealed significant differences between AD and healthy subjects, which were not revealed by SUVr analysis. However, white matter histograms were not decisive to discriminate groups, and indices based on grey matter only showed better discriminative power than SUVr. The cluster analysis divided our sample into two clusters, showing different uptakes in grey, but also in white matter. These results demonstrate that AV-45 binding in white matter conveys subtle information not detectable using the SUVr approach. Although it is not more efficient than standard SUVr in discriminating AD patients from healthy subjects, this information could reveal white matter modifications. (orig.)

  15. Elevated leukocyte count in asymptomatic subjects is associated with a higher risk for cerebral white matter lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Kyung; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Beom Joon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Choi, Seung Ho; Oh, Byung-Hee; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2011-04-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are radiologic markers of small vessel disease in brain, and inflammatory processes were related to WMLs. We propose to determine if elevated leukocyte count was associated with a higher risk of WMLs. 1586 asymptomatic subjects who visited our hospital for a routine health check-up were enrolled. Leukocyte counts were measured and the presence of moderate to severe WMLs was determined by brain MRI. Thirty (1.9%) had moderate to severe WMLs, and a significant greater proportion (4.1%) of subjects in the highest leukocyte count quartile had moderate to severe WMLs. After adjusting by C-reactive protein, aspirin use and cardiovascular risk factors, the highest quartile of leukocyte count (≥6.7×10⁹/L) was significantly associated with moderate to severe WMLs compared with the lowest quartile [adjusted odds ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-15.5]. The authors report for the first time that an elevated leukocyte count is independently associated with moderate to severe WMLs. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, John C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sarrao, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Chicago; Flemming, Graham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ratner, Mark [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    FIVE TRANSFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE As a result of this effort, it has become clear that the progress made to date on the five Grand Challenges has created a springboard for seizing five new Transformative Opportunities that have the potential to further transform key technologies involving matter and energy. These five new Transformative Opportunities and the evidence supporting them are discussed in this new report, “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science.” Mastering Hierarchical Architectures and Beyond-Equilibrium Matter Complex materials and chemical processes transmute matter and energy, for example from CO2 and water to chemical fuel in photosynthesis, from visible light to electricity in solar cells and from electricity to light in light emitting diodes (LEDs) Such functionality requires complex assemblies of heterogeneous materials in hierarchical architectures that display time-dependent away-from-equilibrium behaviors. Much of the foundation of our understanding of such transformations however, is based on monolithic single- phase materials operating at or near thermodynamic equilibrium. The emergent functionalities enabling next-generation disruptive energy technologies require mastering the design, synthesis, and control of complex hierarchical materials employing dynamic far-from-equilibrium behavior. A key guide in this pursuit is nature, for biological systems prove the power of hierarchical assembly and far- from-equilibrium behavior. The challenges here are many: a description of the functionality of hierarchical assemblies in terms of their constituent parts, a blueprint of atomic and molecular positions for each constituent part, and a synthesis strategy for (a) placing the atoms and molecules in the proper positions for the component parts and (b) arranging the component parts into the required hierarchical structure. Targeted functionality will open the door

  17. The Divergent Thinking of Basic Skills of Sciences Process Skills of Life Aspects on Natural Sciences Subject in Indonesian Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subali, Bambang; Paidi; Mariyam, Siti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at measuring the divergent thinking of basic skills of science process skills (SPS) of life aspects in Natural Sciences subjects on Elementary School. The test instruments used in this research have been standardized through the development of instruments. In this case, the tests were tried out to 3070 students. The results of…

  18. NPY mRNA Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex: Selective Reduction in the Superficial White Matter of Subjects with Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Harvey M.; Stopczynski, Rachelle E.; Lewis, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Alterations in the inhibitory circuitry of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in schizophrenia include reduced expression of the messenger RNA (mRNA) for somatostatin (SST), a neuropeptide present in a subpopulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is expressed in a subset of SST-containing interneurons and lower levels of NPY mRNA have also been reported in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, whether the alterations in these two transcripts identify the same, particularly vulnerable, subset of GABA neurons has not been examined. Methods We used in situ hybridization to quantify NPY mRNA levels in DLPFC gray and white matter from 23 pairs of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and matched normal control subjects; results were compared to those from a previous study of SST mRNA expression in the same subjects. Results In contrast to SST mRNA, NPY mRNA levels were not significantly lower in the gray matter of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. However, NPY, but not SST, mRNA expression was significantly lower in the superficial white matter of subjects with schizoaffective disorder. Conclusion These findings suggest that the alterations in SST-containing interneurons in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are selective for the subset that do not express NPY mRNA, and that lower NPY mRNA expression in the superficial white matter may distinguish subjects with schizoaffective disorder from those with schizophrenia. PMID:19804960

  19. Why School Students Choose and Reject Science: A Study of the Factors That Students Consider When Selecting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Tracey-Ann; Burke, Paul F.; Aubusson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Student study of science at school has been linked to the need to provide a scientifically capable workforce and a scientifically literate society. Educators, scientists, and policymakers are concerned that too few students are choosing science for study in their final years of school. How and why students choose and reject certain subjects,…

  20. Teaching Earth Sciences as an interdisciplinary subject: Novel module design involving research literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vincent C. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study of Earth Sciences requires an interdisciplinary approach as it involves understanding scientific knowledge originating from a wide spectrum of research areas. Not only does it include subjects ranging from, for instance, hydrogeology to deep crustal seismology and from climate science to oceanography, but it also has many direct applications in closely related disciplines such as environmental engineering and natural resources management. While research crossing traditional disciplinary boundaries in geosciences is becoming increasingly common, there is only limited integration of interdisciplinary research in the teaching of the subject. Given that the transition from undergraduate education based on subject modules to postgraduate interdisciplinary research is never easy, such integration is a highly desirable pedagogical approach at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. My presentation is based on a recent teaching project involving novel design of an undergraduate course. The course is implemented in order to address the synergy between research and teaching (Tong, 2009). This project has been shown to be effective and successful in teaching geosciences undergraduates at the University of London. The module consists of studying core geophysical principles and linking them directly to a selection of recently published research papers in a wide range of interdisciplinary applications. Research reviewing and reporting techniques are systematically developed, practised and fully integrated into teaching of the core scientific theories. A fully-aligned assignment with a feedback website invites the students to reflect on the scientific knowledge and the study skills related to research literature they have acquired in the course. This teaching project has been recognized by a teaching award (http://www.clpd.bbk.ac.uk/staff/BETA). In this presentation, I will discuss how undergraduate teaching with a focus on research literature in Earth Sciences can

  1. The Subject's Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in the significance of the body in our mental life. The sixteen specially commissioned essays in this book reflect the advances in these fields. The book is divided into three parts, each part covering a topic central to an explanation of bodily self-awareness: representation of the body; the sense of bodily......The body may be the object we know the best. It is the only object from which we constantly receive a flow of information through sight and touch; and it is the only object we can experience from the inside, through our proprioceptive, vestibular, and visceral senses. Yet there have been very few...... books that have attempted to consolidate our understanding of the body as it figures in our experience and self-awareness. This volume offers an interdisciplinary and comprehensive treatment of bodily self-awareness, the first book to do so since the landmark 1995 collection The Body and the Self...

  2. Detection of Nanoscale Soil Organic Matter by Middle Infrared Spectrum for Forensic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzi Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is useful as a kind of trace evidence for forensic science. Thus it is very crucial to identify sources of soil. The nanoscale soil organic matter (NSOMs can be used to differentiate soil sources because their constituents and contents are relatively stable with time but variant by location. In this study, NSOMs from eighteen regions of Shandong Province in China were examined by middle infrared spectrum (4000–400 cm−1. The results showed that the constituents and contents of NSOMs in eighteen samples were dramatically different; a NSOM fingerprint for each sample was drawn based on these characteristics. This suggests that a national or global NSOM fingerprint database could be rapidly established by the one-step middle infrared spectrum analysis for different soil samples, which will be helpful to determine crime scenes by comparing the middle infrared spectrum of forensic soil with the NSOMs fingerprint database.

  3. Active matter at the interface between materials science and cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Daniel; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2017-09-01

    The remarkable processes that characterize living organisms, such as motility, self-healing and reproduction, are fuelled by a continuous injection of energy at the microscale. The field of active matter focuses on understanding how the collective behaviours of internally driven components can give rise to these biological phenomena, while also striving to produce synthetic materials composed of active energy-consuming components. The synergistic approach of studying active matter in both living cells and reconstituted systems assembled from biochemical building blocks has the potential to transform our understanding of both cell biology and materials science. This methodology can provide insight into the fundamental principles that govern the dynamical behaviours of self-organizing subcellular structures, and can lead to the design of artificial materials and machines that operate away from equilibrium and can thus attain life-like properties. In this Review, we focus on active materials made of cytoskeletal components, highlighting the role of active stresses and how they drive self-organization of both cellular structures and macroscale materials, which are machines powered by nanomachines.

  4. An Investigation of Primary School Teachers’ PCK towards Science Subjects Using an Inquiry-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure ALKIŞ KÜÇÜKAYDIN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  5. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  6. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Teaching a New Topic: More Than Teaching Experience and Subject Matter Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai

    2017-03-01

    Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.

  7. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, J.W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, A.; Blankinship, J. C.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, C.; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, R. B.; Ogle, Stephen; Phillips, C.; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, R.; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, K. A.; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% ofthe soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  8. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, S.M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Over 75% of soil organic carbon (C) in the upper meter of earth’s terrestrial surface has been subjected to cropping, grazing, forestry, or urbanization. As a result, terrestrial C cycling cannot be studied out of land use context. Meanwhile, amendments by soil organic matter demonstrate reliable methodologies to restore and improve soils to a more productive state, therefore soil health and productivity cannot be understood without reference to soil C. Measurements for detecting changes in soil C are needed to constrain and monitor best practices and must reflect processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales in order to quantify C sequestration at regional to global scales. We have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil carbon and its management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  9. All Aboard! The Polar Express Is Traveling to Science--Understanding the States of Matter While Differentiating Instruction for Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, Julie; Phillips, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This standards-based science lesson introduces young learners to scientific inquiry and critical thinking by using activities to demonstrate three phases of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). By learning about the states of matter through a 5E instructional approach, students are encouraged to observe changes in the states of matter and to discuss…

  10. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  11. Is Practical Subject Matter Knowledge Still Important? Examining the Siedentopian Perspective on the Role of Content Knowledge in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Frank; Waring, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: The role that content knowledge, an important component of practical subject matter knowledge, plays for pre-service teachers (PSTs) in physical education teacher education (PETE) remains contested and unclear. Whilst some researchers emphasise the facilitative nature of such knowledge, others criticise that too much focus on content…

  12. Does Variation in the Extent of Generalized Trust, Individual Education and Extensiveness of Social Security Policies Matter for Maximization of Subjective Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Rania F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I examine whether generalized trust and education, as well as social security policies of welfare state institutions matter for cross-national differences in subjective well-being (SWB), because knowledge on this issue is still lacking. For this purpose I integrated the insights of two sociological theories: Social Function…

  13. The Examination of Secondary Education Chemistry Curricula Published between 1957-2007 in Terms of the Dimensions of Rationale, Goals, and Subject-Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdag, Bulent; Erol, Hilal

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen secondary education chemistry curricula published from 1957 until 2007 were examined based on the dimensions of rationale, goals, and subject matter. An examination of documents in the scope of qualitative research was carried out in the study. The goals included in the examined chemistry curricula were analyzed according to the cognitive,…

  14. Matters of Fact: Language, Science, and the Status of Truth in Late Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Hanscom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the status of the fact in literary and historical discourses in late colonial Korea, focusing on the elaboration of the relationship between scientific and literary truths primarily in the work of philosopher and critic Sŏ Insik (1906–?. It points to a growing tendency in late 1930s and early 1940s Korea to question the veracity of the fact (or of empiricism more broadly in an environment where the enunciation of the colonial subject had been rendered problematic and objective statements had arguably lost their connection with social reality. In a period when the relationship between signifier and referent had come into question, how did this major critic understand the relationship between science and literature, or between truth and subjectivity? Sŏ warns against a simplistic apprehension of the notion of truth as unilaterally equivalent with what he calls “scientific truth” (kwahakchŏk chilli—a nomological truth based on objective observation and confirmation by universal principles—and argues that a necessary complement to apparently objective truth is “literary truth” (munhakchŏk chinsil. Against the fixed, conceptual form of scientific thought, literary truth presents itself as an experiential truth that returns to the sensory world of the sociolinguistic subject (chuch’e as a source of credibility.

  15. Location of lacunar infarcts correlates with cognition in a sample of non-disabled subjects with age-related white-matter changes: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benisty, S; Gouw, A A; Porcher, R

    2009-01-01

    in the following areas: lobar white matter, putamen/pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, internal/external capsule, infratentorial areas. An analysis of covariance was performed after adjustment for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 633 subjects, 47% had at least one lacune (31% at least one within basal...... a significant negative association between the presence of lacunes in putamen/pallidum and the memory compound Z score (beta = -0.13; p = 0.038). By contrast, no significant negative association was found between cognitive parameters and the presence of lacunes in internal capsule, lobar white matter...

  16. Practical Strategy on the Subject of “Science and Ethics” for Overcoming Hybrid Engineering Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yoshiaki

    The issue of economic globalization and JABEE (Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education) mean that education on engineering ethics has now become increasingly important for science-engineering students who will become the next generation of engineers. This is clearly indicated when engineers are made professionally responsible for various unfortunate accidents that happen during daily life in society. Learning hybrid engineering ethics is an essential part of the education of the humanities and sciences. This paper treats the contents for the subject of “Science and Ethics” drawing on several years of practice and the fruits of studying science and engineering ethics at the faculty of science-engineering in university. This paper can be considered to be a practical strategy to the formation of morality.

  17. Enhancing Student Engagement to Positively Impact Mathematics Anxiety, Confidence and Achievement for Interdisciplinary Science Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to…

  18. The operationalization of "fields" as WoS subject categories (WCs) in evaluative bibliometrics: The cases of "library and information science" and "science & technology studies"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web of Science subject categories (WCs) has become an established (“best”) practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization.

  19. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlström, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph C; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Lawrence, Corey R; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B; Ogle, Stephen; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana E; Cotrufo, M Francesca; Keiluweit, Marco; Heckman, Katherine A; Crow, Susan E; Silver, Whendee L; DeLonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas E

    2018-02-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of SOM and SOC and their management for sustained production and climate regulation. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlström, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana E.; Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Keiluweit, Marco; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan E.; Silver, Whendee L.; DeLonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas E.

    2018-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of SOM and SOC and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  1. READINESS Of ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING CHARACTERS INTEGRATED LEARNING IN THE SCIENCE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hindarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many problems that arise in today's society are rooted in the issue of morality as a result of the marginalization of the values of character. To solve this problem, need to be enforced the values of good character on every member of the community, and the proper way is through the educational process, including through education in schools ranging from elementary education to higher education. To find out whether the teachers in elementary schools are ready to take this work, the research conducted to determine the readiness of teachers and the problems associated with its implementation. Through a questionnaire calculated in descriptive percentage on a sample of elementary school teachers who are spread in Semarang, Semarang District and Temanggung, it can be concluded that in teachers’ view it is very important to integrate the learning of characters in the lesson. However, they need guidance /examples to develop learning model with its features, which integrate the values of the characters in the science subject.Banyak persoalan yang timbul di masyarakat dewasa ini berakar pada persoalan moralitas sebagai akibat terpinggirkannya nilai-nilai karakter, Untuk mengatasi persoalan ini, perlu ditegakkan lagi nilai nilai karakter yang baik pada setiap anggota masyarakat, dan cara yang tepat adalah melalui proses pendidikan, di antaranya melalui pendidikan di sekolah mulai dari pendidikan dasar sampai pendidikan tinggi. Untuk mengetahui apakah para guru pada Sekolah Dasar siap mengemban tugas ini, maka diadakan penelitian untuk mengetahui kesiapan para guru dan masalah-masalah yang terkait dengan pelaksanaannya. Melalui angket yang kemudian diolah secara deskriptive persentasi pada sampel guru SD yang tersebar di Kota Semarang, Kabupaten Semarang dan Kabupaten Temanggung, dapat diketahui bahwa para guru menganggap sangat penting untuk mengintegrasikan pembelajaran karakter dalam matapelajaran IPA. Namun demikian mereka membutuhkan bimbingan

  2. The politics of the self: psychological science and bourgeois subjectivity in 19th century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novella, Enric J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an analysis of the process of institutionalization of psychological knowledge in Spain following the educative reforms implemented during the second third of the 19th century, which prescribed its inclusion in the curricular program of the new secondary education. After a detailed examination of the theoretical orientation, the ideological assumptions and the sociopolitical connections of the contents transmitted to the students throughout the century, its militant spiritualism is interpreted as a highly significant attempt on the part of the liberal elites to articulate a pedagogy of subjectivity intended to counteract the trends toward reduction, naturalization and fragmentation of psychic life inherent to the development of modern science.

    En este artículo se ofrece un análisis del proceso de institucionalización del conocimiento psicológico en España por obra de las reformas educativas implementadas durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, que prescribieron su inclusión en el programa curricular de la nueva educación secundaria. Tras un examen detenido de la orientación doctrinal, los supuestos ideológicos y la filiación sociopolítica de los contenidos transmitidos a los alumnos durante la mayor parte de la centuria, se interpreta su espiritualismo militante como un intento muy significativo por parte de las élites liberales de articular una pedagogía de la subjetividad destinada a contrarrestar las tendencias de reducción, naturalización y fragmentación del psiquismo alentadas por el desarrollo de la ciencia moderna.

  3. Interest of Grade Ten Students toward Physics among Other Science Subjects, Case of Wolaita Soddo Town Governmental Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelo, Shewangzaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper has proposed to investigate the interest in students towards physics among other science subjects. The investigation was carried out with 490 samples of grade ten students in Wolaita Soddo town governmental schools. Thus, overall result indicates that the interest in students towards physics is low and students hate to learn physics in…

  4. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  5. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects ("the Standards") are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K-12 standards in order to help ensure that all students…

  6. Perfection of methods of training to the technics of throws and catching of gymnastic subject matters at a stage of special base preparation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva N.O.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of performances gymnasts at competitions of a different level shows, that the system of training in rhythmic gymnastics at a stage of special-purpose base preparation requires entering of the corrective amendments which have been directed on perfection of its forms and procedures. One of such innovations may be use in training process of innovative methods of perfection of work on gymnastic subject matters. In article initial theoretical positions and ways of perfection of process of training to throws and catching of a ball and other subject matters as basic means of progress at gymnasts impellent qualities and the skills necessary for achievement of high results in competitive activity are considered.

  7. Task value profiles across subjects and aspirations to physical and IT-related sciences in the United States and Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Angela; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2012-11-01

    Two independent studies were conducted to extend previous research by examining the associations between task value priority patterns across school subjects and aspirations toward the physical and information technology- (IT-) related sciences. Study 1 measured task values of a sample of 10th graders in the United States (N = 249) across (a) physics and chemistry, (b) math, and (c) English. Study 2 measured task values of a sample of students in the second year of high school in Finland (N = 351) across (a) math and science, (b) Finnish, and (c) the arts and physical education. In both studies, students were classified into groups according to how they ranked math and science in relation to the other subjects. Regression analyses indicated that task value group membership significantly predicted subsequent aspirations toward physical and IT-related sciences measured 1-2 years later. The task value groups who placed the highest priority on math and science were significantly more likely to aspire to physical and IT-related sciences than were the other groups. These findings provide support for the theoretical assumption regarding the predictive role of intraindividual hierarchical patterns of task values for subsequent preferences and choices suggested by the Eccles [Parsons] (1983) expectancy-value model.

  8. Survey of keyword adjustment of published articles medical subject headings in journal of mazandaran university of medical sciences (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    NONE DECLARED. Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009-2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. The results showed that only

  9. Promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL in science and maths subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Putu Fika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous learning is a concept in which the learner has the ability to take charge of their own learning. It becomes a notable aspect that should be perceived by students. The aim of this research is for finding out the strategies used by grade two teachers in Bali Kiddy Primary School to promote autonomous learning in English through the implementation of Content and Language Integrated Learning in science and maths subjects. This study was designed in the form of descriptive qualitative study. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document study. The result of the study shows that there are some strategies of promoting autonomous learning in English through the implementation of CLIL in Science and Maths subjects. Those strategies are table of content training, questioning & presenting, journal writing, choosing activities, and using online activity. Those strategies can be adopted or even adapted as the way to promote autonomous learning in English subject.

  10. Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M; Terlouw, C; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants...

  11. "[N]ot subject to our sense” : Margaret Cavendish's fusion of Renaissance science, magic and fairy lore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This article explores Margaret Cavendish's depictions of alchemy, witchcraft and fairy lore in her scientific treatise Philosophical Letters and in fictional texts from Natures Pictures and Poems and Fancies. Though Cavendish was a dedicated materialist, she appropriates theories of magic from early modern science and folklore into her materialist epistemology. As Cavendish draws upon a fusion of early modern conceptions of magic, she creates a radical theory of matter which not only challenges patriarchy and binary oppositions, but also explores the plurality and mystery that can exist within an infinitely complex material world.

  12. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  13. A Study of Subject Overlap between the Main Categories of Knowledge Management within the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Hazeri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively new discipline, Knowledge Management (KM is an area with a wide range of theoretical concepts and practical implications. The applicability of KM in different environments, and the vast value and benefits of its application, have led to great developments within the discipline over the last few years. The interdisciplinary nature of KM has also provided the opportunity for contributions by people from different disciplines, which in turn has lead to the rapid advancement of KM boundaries. This paper aims to examine the subject structure of the KM discipline through keyword analysis of documents in the Web of Science, using a hierarchical clustering approach and an inclusion index. Within the Web of Science categories, according to the findings, the three categories of "Management", "Computer Science Information Systems" and "Information Science Library Science" claim the highest number of documents in this area. Of 5570 author keywords, , 96 keywords are identified as "highly used" keywords. Three hierarchical clusters (dendrograms are formed from co-occurrence analysis of highly used keywords in the three categories. A comparison of these denrograms indicates that six clusters, including a total of 16 keywords, are common in the three categories. Looking at clusters of the three categories revealed that two categories - Management and Information Science Library Science - have 14 common/shared clusters, and therefore the highest degree of similarities. However, the category of Computer Science Information Systems, with 28 unique clusters, differs most markedly from the other two categories. To investigate the rate of common keywords from one category to another, the inclusion index is calculated. Results of this exercise indicate that the category of Information Science Library Science has the highest number of common keywords.

  14. Neoliberal Ideology, Global Capitalism, and Science Education: Engaging the Question of Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater…

  15. How a Deweyan Science Education Further Enables Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This paper questions the perceived divide between "science" subject matter and "moral" or "ethical" subject matter. A difficulty that this assumed divide produces is that science teachers often feel that there needs to be "special treatment" given to certain issues which are of an ethical or moral nature and which are "brought into" the science…

  16. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  17. Enhancing the "Science" in Elementary Science Methods: A Collaborative Effort between Science Education and Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla; Frazier, Maryann; Appel, Heidi; Weiss, Robinne

    Teachers' subject matter knowledge is a particularly important issue in science education in that it influences instructional practices across subject areas and at different grade levels. This paper provides an overview of efforts to develop a unique elementary science methods course and related field experience through a partnership between…

  18. Knowledge, language and subjectivities in a discourse community: Ideas we can learn from elementary children about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Lori Ann

    2000-10-01

    In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and

  19. Research on Consciousness of Choosing Subjects and Future Course in Curriculum of High School Students: Comparing Students between Science Course and Normal Course

    OpenAIRE

    山﨑, 保寿

    2015-01-01

    Based on importance of the science and mathematics education, following six conclusions became clear by the research about the course awareness of the studentscomparingbetween science course and normalcoursein high schools.(1) About the reason that decided the entrance subject, there is significantly difference between the students who entered the science course and normal course. The students in science course are recommended to select the science course by the parents or teachers ofjunior h...

  20. Being in a romantic relationship is associated with reduced gray matter density in striatum and increased subjective happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Kawamichi; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Kai Makita; Masahiro Matsunaga; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Yuichi Ogino; Shigeru Saito; Norihiro Sadato

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  1. Being in a Romantic Relationship Is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Density in Striatum and Increased Subjective Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Hamano, Yuki H.; Makita, Kai; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Ogino, Yuichi; Saito, Shigeru; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that ro...

  2. 76 FR 35050 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice The National Science Board's Committee on Strategy... Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: DATE AND TIME: Friday June 17th at 12 p.m.-1:30 p.m., EDT. SUBJECT MATTER: Discussion of the May Annual Portfolio Review, discussion and input...

  3. The Operationalization of "Fields" as WoS Subject Categories (WCs) in Evaluative Bibliometrics: The cases of "Library and Information Science" and "Science & Technology Studies"

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Normalization of citation scores using reference sets based on Web-of-Science Subject Categories (WCs) has become an established ("best") practice in evaluative bibliometrics. For example, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings are, among other things, based on this operationalization. However, WCs were developed decades ago for the purpose of information retrieval and evolved incrementally with the database; the classification is machine-based and partially manually corrected. ...

  4. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  5. SCIENCE FACILITIES. A CLASSIFIED LIST OF LITERATURE RELATED TO DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND OTHER ARCHITECTURAL MATTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    A CLASSIFIED LIST OF ARTICLES, PAPERS AND CATALOGS IN THE SCIENCE FACILITIES COLLECTION OF THE ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES STAFF OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION IS PRESENTED WHICH MAY BE USEFUL IN SEARCHING FOR PERTINENT LITERATURE ON PROBLEMS IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE FACILITIES. CITATIONS COVER SUCH AREAS AS GENERAL PLANNING, SPACE UTILIZATION AND…

  6. The Union of Spirit and Matter: Science, Consciousness, and a Life Divine

    OpenAIRE

    Lynda Lester

    2011-01-01

    The once unbridgeable chasm between spirit and matter is closing. While the scientific method and scientific materialism have brought untold benefits to humanity, quantum physics has changed our view of matter as solid, objective, and obvious to a view that is more complex and which includes the possibility that consciousness has a part in manifesting reality. This shift mirrors Sri Aurobindo’s integral philosophy, which states that the universe is a manifestation of consciousness. This manif...

  7. Rudiments of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, SO

    2007-01-01

    Writing a comprehensive book on Materials Science for the benefit of undergraduate courses in Science and Engineering was a day dream of the first author, Dr. S.O. Pillai for a long period. However, the dream became true after a lapse of couple of years. Lucid and logical exposition of the subject matter is the special feature of this book.

  8. An integrated assessment instrument: Developing and validating instrument for facilitating critical thinking abilities and science process skills on electrolyte and nonelectrolyte solution matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Sri Rejeki Dwi; Suyanta, LFX, Endang Widjajanti; Rohaeti, Eli

    2017-05-01

    The demanding of assessment in learning process was impact by policy changes. Nowadays, assessment is not only emphasizing knowledge, but also skills and attitudes. However, in reality there are many obstacles in measuring them. This paper aimed to describe how to develop integrated assessment instrument and to verify instruments' validity such as content validity and construct validity. This instrument development used test development model by McIntire. Development process data was acquired based on development test step. Initial product was observed by three peer reviewer and six expert judgments (two subject matter experts, two evaluation experts and two chemistry teachers) to acquire content validity. This research involved 376 first grade students of two Senior High Schools in Bantul Regency to acquire construct validity. Content validity was analyzed used Aiken's formula. The verifying of construct validity was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis using SPSS ver 16.0. The result show that all constructs in integrated assessment instrument are asserted valid according to content validity and construct validity. Therefore, the integrated assessment instrument is suitable for measuring critical thinking abilities and science process skills of senior high school students on electrolyte solution matter.

  9. Effect of dimethyl fumarate on gray and white matter pathology in subjects with relapsing multiple sclerosis: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivadinov, R; Hagemeier, J; Bergsland, N; Tavazzi, E; Weinstock-Guttman, B

    2018-03-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an oral treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) with anti-inflammatory and possible neuroprotective properties. Its effect on white matter and gray matter pathology is still not fully understood. The aim of the study was to characterize the effect of DMF on normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and thalamic pathology longitudinally. In this observational, longitudinal, 24-month magnetic resonance imaging study, 75 patients with relapsing-remitting MS treated with DMF and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Regional diffusion tensor imaging metrics and tract-based spatial statistics analyses were used to assess differences between groups. Mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were measured in the thalamus and NAWM. Baseline differences and changes over time were evaluated within and between study groups. At baseline, patients with MS showed significantly increased diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the thalamus (P < 0.001 for mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity) and NAWM (all P < 0.016) compared with healthy individuals. No significant within-group difference was found in diffusion tensor imaging measures over 24 months in either group. Healthy individuals showed a significantly greater rate of increased diffusivity parameters in the thalamus and NAWM compared with patients with MS, over 24 months (P < 0.05). The lack of changes in diffusion tensor imaging metrics in patients with MS over 24 months possibly indicates a neuroprotective role of DMF. These findings provide additional evidence of the beneficial effect of DMF on MS-related pathology. © 2018 EAN.

  10. Evaluating a Professional Development Programme for Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Science Subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Talitha Christine; Coenders, Ferdinand G.M.; Terlouw, C.; Pieters, Julius Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate a professional development programme that prepares and assists teachers with the implementation of a multidisciplinary science module, basing the evaluation on participants’ reactions, the first level of Guskey’s five-level model for evaluation (2002). Positive

  11. 76 FR 36951 - In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension... of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a...

  12. The visual white matter: The application of diffusion MRI and fiber tractography to vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokem, Ariel; Takemura, Hiromasa; Bock, Andrew S.; Scherf, K. Suzanne; Behrmann, Marlene; Wandell, Brian A.; Fine, Ione; Bridge, Holly; Pestilli, Franco

    2017-01-01

    Visual neuroscience has traditionally focused much of its attention on understanding the response properties of single neurons or neuronal ensembles. The visual white matter and the long-range neuronal connections it supports are fundamental in establishing such neuronal response properties and visual function. This review article provides an introduction to measurements and methods to study the human visual white matter using diffusion MRI. These methods allow us to measure the microstructural and macrostructural properties of the white matter in living human individuals; they allow us to trace long-range connections between neurons in different parts of the visual system and to measure the biophysical properties of these connections. We also review a range of findings from recent studies on connections between different visual field maps, the effects of visual impairment on the white matter, and the properties underlying networks that process visual information supporting visual face recognition. Finally, we discuss a few promising directions for future studies. These include new methods for analysis of MRI data, open datasets that are becoming available to study brain connectivity and white matter properties, and open source software for the analysis of these data. PMID:28196374

  13. Why Paul Meehl will revolutionize the philosophy of science and why it should matter to psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, David

    2005-10-01

    Paul Meehl was a person of remarkable genius who made many seminal contributions to psychology and other fields. One of his most important, but less widely known potential contributions is the codevelopment, and the extension and elaboration of meta-science, or the science of science. Meta-science involves applying more rigorous methods (than are usually used) to the study of episodes in the history of science, or the historical track record, in order to address long-standing questions in the philosophy and history of science, aid in the selection of optimally effective methodology, and assist the scientist in higher level and complex integrative judgments (e.g., theory evaluation). Psychologists, given their methodological sophistication, can be major contributors to meta-scientific efforts and to the development of this field. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The acquisition of problem solving competence : evidence from 41 countries that math and science education matters.

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Ronny; Beckmann, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Background On the basis of a ‘problem solving as an educational outcome’ point of view, we analyse the contribution of math and science competence to analytical problem-solving competence and link the acquisition of problem solving competence to the coherence between math and science education. We propose the concept of math-science coherence and explore whether society-, curriculum-, and school-related factors confound with its relation to problem solving. ...

  15. Bodies, Hearts and Minds: Why Emotions Matter to Historians of Science and Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bound Alberti, Fay

    2009-01-01

    The history of emotion addresses many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured; the rise of the mind sciences; and the anthropological analyses by which “ways of knowing” are culturally situated. Yet studying emotions brings its own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds and emotions. This paper explores some of the methodologica...

  16. The Union of Spirit and Matter: Science, Consciousness, and a Life Divine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Lester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The once unbridgeable chasm between spirit and matter is closing. While the scientific method and scientific materialism have brought untold benefits to humanity, quantum physics has changed our view of matter as solid, objective, and obvious to a view that is more complex and which includes the possibility that consciousness has a part in manifesting reality. This shift mirrors Sri Aurobindo’s integral philosophy, which states that the universe is a manifestation of consciousness. This manifestation occurs through a process of involution followed by evolution, the next step of which is the emergence of a suprahumanity whose native state of consciousness will be supramental. Interestingly, some of Mother Mirra Alfassa’s experiences in bringing supramental consciousness into her body bear similarities to the discoveries of quantum physics. Unlike previous spiritual realizations, the supramental realization has the power to unify spirit and matter and usher in a life divine on earth.

  17. Creative attitude in a group of youths gifted in the domain of science subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sztolpa; Aleksandra Lewandowska-Walter; Małgorzata Lipowska

    2016-01-01

    Background We attempted to assess whether students identified by their teachers as gifted in the domain of science are characterised by significantly higher levels of intelligence and creativity than other students. We investigated the features of their personalities that are indicators of their exhibited creative or reproductive attitude in the cognitive and the motivational domains. As a consequence, criteria will be developed for identifying gifted students. Participants and...

  18. Optimization of an experiment showing processes of photosynthesis for science school subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Praprotnik, Luka; Selič, Sendi; Torkar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiment, which illustrates the process of photosynthesis. Teaching about processes of photosynthesis is one of the most difficult science themes, because of its complexity and abstract nature. Students often have difficulties understanding the processes of photosynthesis, mostly because of incorrect conceptualization and inappropriate simplification of the processes. For successful teaching of photosynthesis teachers are suggested to implement p...

  19. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Schulze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.

  20. The Internet Compendium: Subject Guides to Social Sciences, Business, and Law Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis; And Others

    The process of Internet resource discovery and evaluation is extremely difficult due to low quality of information, constant changes, and primitive searching tools. The subject-oriented resource guides presented in this book make independent resource discovery and evaluation possible, and serve as reference sources to enable users to maximize use…

  1. Sociology, at last a basis for civil sciences as a secondary school subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, L.; Need, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reformulates the question of ‘sociology, who needs it’ in two ways, The first question we address is that of the reason why the educational system itself did not come to sociology for help in their long quest for a clear-cut content of the subject. The second question is why sociology did

  2. A Subject Librarian's Guide to Collaborating on E-Science Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritano, Jeremy R.; Carlson, Jake R.

    2009-01-01

    For liaison or subject librarians, entering into the emerging area of providing researchers with data services or partnering with them on cyberinfrastructure projects can be a daunting task. This article will provide some advice as to what to expect and how providing data services can be folded into other liaison duties. New skills for librarians…

  3. Evaluating an Instrument to Quantify Attitude to the Subject of Physiology in Undergraduate Health Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen; White, Sue; Bowmar, Alex; Power, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The attitude toward a subject contributes to both academic engagement and success at university, yet it is not routinely measured in undergraduate students. Therefore, in two consecutive introductory courses in Human anatomy and physiology (HAP 1, n = 239, and HAP 2, n = 329), an instrument to quantify undergraduate students' attitude to the…

  4. Corpus callosum atrophy is associated with mental slowing and executive deficits in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities: the LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Ryberg, Charlotte; Kalska, Hely

    2007-01-01

    , attention and executive functions in subjects with age-related white matter hyperintensities (WMH). METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis and Disability Study, 567 subjects with age-related WMH were examined with a detailed neuropsychological assessment and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging. The relationships...... processing--namely, trail making A and Stroop test parts I and II. Anterior, but not posterior, corpus callosum atrophy was associated with deficits of attention and executive functions as reflected by the symbol digit modalities and digit cancellation tests, as well as by the subtraction scores in the trail...... is related to the frontal-lobe-mediated executive functions and attention, whereas overall corpus callosum atrophy is associated with the slowing of processing speed. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  5. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chemical information matters: an e-Research perspective on information and data sharing in the chemical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Colin L; Frey, Jeremy G

    2013-08-21

    Recently, a number of organisations have called for open access to scientific information and especially to the data obtained from publicly funded research, among which the Royal Society report and the European Commission press release are particularly notable. It has long been accepted that building research on the foundations laid by other scientists is both effective and efficient. Regrettably, some disciplines, chemistry being one, have been slow to recognise the value of sharing and have thus been reluctant to curate their data and information in preparation for exchanging it. The very significant increases in both the volume and the complexity of the datasets produced has encouraged the expansion of e-Research, and stimulated the development of methodologies for managing, organising, and analysing "big data". We review the evolution of cheminformatics, the amalgam of chemistry, computer science, and information technology, and assess the wider e-Science and e-Research perspective. Chemical information does matter, as do matters of communicating data and collaborating with data. For chemistry, unique identifiers, structure representations, and property descriptors are essential to the activities of sharing and exchange. Open science entails the sharing of more than mere facts: for example, the publication of negative outcomes can facilitate better understanding of which synthetic routes to choose, an aspiration of the Dial-a-Molecule Grand Challenge. The protagonists of open notebook science go even further and exchange their thoughts and plans. We consider the concepts of preservation, curation, provenance, discovery, and access in the context of the research lifecycle, and then focus on the role of metadata, particularly the ontologies on which the emerging chemical Semantic Web will depend. Among our conclusions, we present our choice of the "grand challenges" for the preservation and sharing of chemical information.

  7. Teaching long-term science investigations: A matter of talk, text, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Patricia Susan

    Science educators regard long-term investigations as one impactful form of teaching science through inquiry in K-12 classrooms. While we have idealized notions of what this work looks like, we have few, if any, descriptive studies about investigations that engage students in sustained, focused work over a period of time longer than a few days or even weeks. In a policy context that calls for teachers to develop strategies for engaging students in authentic science practices, such as those that can come from long-term science investigations, we would do well to learn from experienced teachers. This study followed three middle school science teachers in a large U. S. urban school district as they conducted long-term investigations. Using discourse analysis and taking a sociocultural perspective, this study documented the classroom talk and interaction of teachers and their students. The study's goals were to describe how teachers engage students in long-term investigations and the ways that classroom interaction involved specific reform-based science practices. Data include field notes and transcripts of audio recordings from 15 observations of three experienced middle school science teachers, three semi-structured interviews with each teacher, curriculum materials, student work, and classroom demographic data. Teachers engaged students in whole group, small group, and one-on-one conversations about several stages of the long-term investigations. Teachers most often discussed two of the eight science practices: 1) planning and carrying out investigations; and 2) obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. The planning discussions involved conversations about identifying and describing variables, measuring and recording data, and concerns about data collection procedures. Conversations about using and communicating scientific information included talk about formal science writing conventions, and using background information to support all other parts of the

  8. Implementation Science: Why It Matters for the Future of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap between research and practice is a critical frontier for the future of social work. Integrating implementation science into social work can advance our profession's effort to bring research and practice closer together. Implementation science examines the factors, processes, and strategies that influence the uptake, use, and…

  9. Attitudes and Interests among University Students in Introductory Nonmajor Science Courses: Does Gender Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desy, Elizabeth; Peterson, Scott; Brockman, Vicky

    2009-01-01

    Attitudes toward science may develop as early as middle school and often differ between genders. Do these gender-based differences in attitude persist into the college years? In a survey of 376 university students, male students reported a stronger self-concept, more motivation, and more enjoyment of science than did female students, and female…

  10. Classrooms Matter: The Design of Virtual Classrooms Influences Gender Disparities in Computer Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Kim, Saenam

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether the design of virtual learning environments influences undergraduates' enrollment intentions and anticipated success in introductory computer science courses. Changing the design of a virtual classroom--from one that conveys current computer science stereotypes to one that does not--significantly increased…

  11. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  12. Single-subject gray matter graph properties and their relationship with cognitive impairment in early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Yeung, Hiu M; Sikkes, Sietske A M; Möller, Christiane; Smits, Lieke L; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Barkhof, Frederik

    2014-06-01

    Abstract We investigated the relationships between gray matter graph properties and cognitive impairment in a sample of 215 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and also whether age of disease onset modifies such relationships. We expected that more severe cognitive impairment in AD would be related to more random graph topologies. Single-subject gray matter graphs were constructed from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans. The following global and local graph properties were calculated: betweenness centrality, normalized clustering coefficient γ, and normalized path length λ. Local clustering, path length, and betweenness centrality measures were determined for 90 anatomically defined areas. Regression models with as interaction term age of onset (i.e., early onset when patients were ≤65 years old and late onset when they were >65 years old at the time of diagnosis)×graph property were used to assess the relationships between cognitive functioning in five domains (memory, language, visuospatial, attention, and executive). Worse cognitive impairment was associated with more random graphs, as indicated by low γ, λ, and betweenness centrality values. Three interaction effects for age of onset×global graph property were found: Low γ and λ values more strongly related to memory impairment in early-onset patients; low beta values were significantly related to impaired visuospatial functioning in late-onset patients. For the local graph properties, language impairment showed the strongest relationship with decreased clustering coefficient in the left superior temporal gyrus across the entire sample. Our study shows that single-subject gray matter graph properties are associated with individual differences in cognitive impairment.

  13. Computer-Based Instruction: Effect of Cognitive Style, Instructional Format, and Subject-Matter Content on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    for this study. The test consists of 10 pairs of words (see Appendix B), ranked from easy to hard, selected from the Weschler Paired Associate Learning...facts and opinions on a current affairs topic. The decision-making task involved a maze problem. Subjects were tested immediately after training, 2...Screening Measures for Cognitive Style ........................ 5 The 4-Mat Test ......................................... 5 The Lateral Preference Test

  14. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  15. Defining the Relationship of Student Achievement Between STEM Subjects Through Canonical Correlation Analysis of 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Melissa Jean

    Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 achievement databases encompassing information from fourth/eighth grades. Student achievement in life science/biology was correlated with achievement in mathematics and other sciences across three analytical areas: mathematics and science student performance, achievement in cognitive domains, and achievement in content domains. Strong correlations between student achievement in life science/biology with achievement in mathematics and overall science occurred for both high- and low-performing education systems. Hence, partial emphases on the inter-subject connections did not always lead to a better student learning outcome in STEM education. In addition, student achievement in life science/biology was positively correlated with achievement in mathematics and science cognitive domains; these patterns held true for correlations of life science/biology with mathematics as well as other sciences. The importance of linking student learning experiences between and within STEM domains to support high performance on TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 complexity upon firm foundations were prepared for successful learning throughout their educational careers. The results from this investigation promote a holistic design of school learning opportunities to improve student achievement in life science/biology and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects at the elementary and middle school levels. While the curriculum can vary from combined STEM subjects to separated mathematics or science courses, both professional learning communities (PLC) for teachers and problem-based learning (PBL) for learners can be strengthened through new knowledge construction beyond the traditional boundaries of each subject. It is the

  16. THE SUBJECT OF STATISTICS IN NATURAL SCIENCE CURRICULA: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYBŠOVÁ, Aneta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Statistics is considered to be an indispensable part of a wide range of curricula across the globe, natural science curricula included. Teachers and curriculum developers are typically confronted with four questions with regard to the role and position of statistics in a curriculum: (1 how to integrate statistics in the curriculum; (2 which topics to cover and in what detail; (3 how much time to allocate to statistics in a curriculum; and (4 how to organize a course and which study materials to select. This paper addresses these four questions through a case study: four curricula at Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic, are compared in terms of how they address these four questions. Placing this comparison in a framework of cognitive load theory and two decades of research inspired by this theory, this paper concludes with a number of guidelines for addressing the aforementioned four questions when designing a curriculum.

  17. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  18. ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL AS SCIENCES AND ACADEMIC SUBJECTS IN ACCOUNTING AND ANALYTICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shvets

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of accounting and control, analysis and audit as the main instruments of cognition and management functions is an integral part of economic education, science and practice and requires improving the training of the accounting personnel in accordance with the requirements of public administration and development of global information systems of business. Real European integration processes require high qualifications and competence of the teaching staff, the development of scientific schools, intellectualization of preparation of masters and PhDs based on the traditions of patriotism, democracy and self-sufficiency. We must form a new set of modern disciplines and economic specialties and optimize the network for universities on the basis of convergent-integrative structures (clusters in education on principles of transparency and openness. The priority should be the principle of continuity of professional and analytical accounting education for business managers and civil servants. Practical implementation of the Law of Ukraine "On Higher Education" and the principles of the Bologna Declaration while training specialists in accounting and auditing will somehow harmonize national education, improve and keep elements of own competitive advantages and enrich them by the best achievements of the world practice.

  19. Transmedia Storytelling in Science Communication: One Subject, Multiple Media, Multiple Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, M.; Moloney, K.

    2012-12-01

    Each communication medium has particular storytelling strengths. For example, video is particularly good at illustrating a progression of events, text at background and context, and games at describing systems. In what USC's Prof. Henry Jenkins described as "transmedia storytelling," multiple media are used simultaneously, in an expansive rather than repetitive way, to better tell a single, complex story. The audience is given multiple entry points to the story, and the story is exposed to diverse and dispersed audiences, ultimately engaging a broader public. We will examine the effectiveness of a transmedia approach to communicating scientific and other complex concepts to a broad and diverse audience. Using the recently developed Educational Visitor Center at the NCAR-Wyoming Supercomputing Center as a case study, we will evaluate the reach of various means of presenting information about the geosciences, climate change and computational science. These will include an assessment of video, mechanical and digital interactive elements, animated movie segments, web-based content, photography, scientific visualizations, printed material and docent-led activities.

  20. What are the constituents of matter? an essay concerning the ontological side of science

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to understand just what it is that modern science tells us about nature. For the longest time the story told by science appeared to be fully reflective of our common experience: nature was discovered as a collection of reciprocally influencing objects governed by laws which were consistent with that experience. And then, about a hundred years ago, the story suddenly became obscure. Science introduced into nature quantum objects which were supposed to look nothing like anything we had ever seen before and the laws governing them no longer appeared to make much sense to us. Thereafter, what science told us about nature was no longer quite as clear. This shift in the story is conspicuous and bespeaks of an earlier moment in the development of science when the project might have inadvertently taken a step which would eventually make her strange. The essay suggests that the scientific community had in fact made a fateful decision which inevitably led it to the strangeness of quantum mechanics and ...

  1. The Messenger Matters: Teacher Research Experiences and Effective, Long-term Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, an NSF-Funded program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the US, matches K-12 teachers with researchers for 2-6 week hands on research experiences in the polar regions. During their teacher research experience, teachers and researchers in the field communicate widely with students and members of the public online through teacher journals, photo galleries, interactive discussion forums, multimedia resources, and real-time live events that connect the science of the Arctic or Antarctic to students and the public around the world. Due to the exciting nature of field-based polar science and the novelty of teacher participation, PolarTREC creates a natural pathway for information—from scientists to students and the general public. Initial data from the PolarTREC evaluation indicates that researchers viewed the dissemination activities of PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity allowing them to meet broader impact objectives of their project. Many researchers noted that conducting outreach through PolarTREC was “easy,” and that it “really increased our public image and bridged the separation between science and the public at large.” Although the immediate outreach activities related to the field experience are valuable, the lasting impacts of PolarTREC are related to the professional development received by the teachers through their participation. Many K-12 teachers, in both undergraduate and graduate education, have little opportunity to actually conduct inquiry-based science. The curriculum at this level consists of primarily memorizing facts and conducting contrived experiments (Michaels et al, 2008). After being embedded in an actual research project with professional scientists, participating teachers reported significant increases in their knowledge of the polar regions and improvements in their ability to teach pertinent science concepts. In particular, teachers had a better

  2. Bodies, hearts, and minds: Why emotions matter to historians of science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fay Bound

    2009-12-01

    The histories of emotion address many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured, the rise of the mind sciences, and the anthropological analyses by which "ways of knowing" are culturally situated. Yet such histories bring their own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds, and emotions. This essay explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the sudden death of the surgeon John Hunter from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modem assumptions about the origin of emotions, and "brainhood", that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind.

  3. Creative attitude in a group of youths gifted in the domain of science subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sztolpa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background We attempted to assess whether students identified by their teachers as gifted in the domain of science are characterised by significantly higher levels of intelligence and creativity than other students. We investigated the features of their personalities that are indicators of their exhibited creative or reproductive attitude in the cognitive and the motivational domains. As a consequence, criteria will be developed for identifying gifted students. Participants and procedure Ninety-seven students, aged 13-17, took part in the study. The students were previously identified by their teachers as gifted. Levels of intellectual functioning were assessed using a battery of tests for diagnosing intelligence (APIS-P and Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM. Creativity was estimated using the Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP, and creative attitude was assessed using the KANH questionnaire. Results Analysis of the results revealed that students nominated by their teachers scored significantly higher than their peers in general intelligence and creativity tests. Moreover, they were characterised by a more frequent choice of heuristic behaviours in the cognitive domain and nonconformity in the motivational domain. Additionally, there was a statistical trend a general creative attitude among the nominated students. Conclusions We found that gifted students scored high on general intelligence and creativity tests. Consistency between the teachers’ nominations and our results indicates that the criteria for identifying gifted students are appropriate. Moreover, instructing teachers about a creative attitude helped them to also identify gifted students with higher levels of nonconformity and who create their own heuristics for behaviour. These characteristics are valuable for innovative activity, which is what programmes for gifted students try to encourage.

  4. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    such as concepts, aboutness, topic, isness and ofness are also briefly presented. The conclusion is that the most fruitful way of defining “subject” (of a document) is the documents informative or epistemological potentials, that is, the documents potentials of informing users and advance the development......This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  5. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Effort to Cut Children’s Lead Exposure Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read more about the Agency’s Integrated Science Assessment for Lead in June 2013. It presents an evaluation and synthesis of the latest and most relevant scientific knowledge to help determine the potential health effects of lead in ambient air

  6. [A political matter: science and ideology in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2010-06-01

    In the last two decades, history of science and science studies have been quite reluctant to adopt the notion of ideology when analyzing the dynamics of science. This may be an effect of the decreasing popularity of neo-marxist approaches within this disciplinary field; but it is also due to the fact that alternative approaches have been developed, for example Michel Foucault's notion of problematization, Roland Barthes' semiotic mythology, Bruno Latour's re-interpretation of the ontological difference between fact and fetish in science, or Donna Haraway's semi-fictional re-narrations of the techno-scientific world. This contribution undertakes to sketch the impact of two strands of 19th century immanentism on the authors named above, and on their use of concepts related to the notion of ideology, namely fetish, fetishism, myth and mythology respectively. It is argued that in some respect, Marx' concept of commodity fetishism is worth being re-examined, since it articulates a dialectical relation of 'reality' and 'seeming', and its impact on Barthes' mythology is deeper than it might appear at first glance.

  7. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  8. CURRICULUM MATTERS: The Foundation Programme in Science and Engineering at Loughborough University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary

    1996-01-01

    University Foundation courses in Engineering were run for the first time in the 1988-9 academic year. The Science and the Engineering faculties at Loughborough University of Technology instigated a Foundation Programme in Science and Engineering at the start of the 1991-2 academic year. Of the 100 or so students on the programme four on average go on to continue their studies in physics. This year sees the first two graduates in the physics department to have come via the Foundation route. One studied PE, Sports Science and Physics and the other Engineering Physics. Both of them achieved lower second class honours degrees. There is an extremely heterogeneous intake into the Foundation Programme and a multitude of exit routes, currently up to 30 different science or engineering degrees. These two factors provide interesting challenges to the course planners in terms of both the choice of course content and the teaching styles adopted. The lecturer responsible for the physics input to the programme believes that the use of Resource- Based Learning materials may be a partial solution to the problems faced by students with non-standard entry qualifications. Such materials are being produced by the FLAP (Flexible Learning Approach to Physics) team, of which she has been a member since 1989. The Foundation Programme continues to evolve and is being redesigned to fit the University's plans for semesterization, which will be put into effect from October 1995.

  9. How Learning and Cognitive Science Can Improve Student Outcomes. Middle School Matters Program No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Art; Rodriguez, Gina; Brasiel, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    There are research-based principles and practices from the learning and cognitive sciences that can be applied to all content areas in middle grades education to improve student outcomes. Even teachers of courses like Physical Education can consider these strategies for assisting students in remembering rules of sports, different sports…

  10. Methods Matter: Improving Causal Inference in Educational and Social Science Research: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Eric R.; Showalter, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Professors Richard J. Murnane and John B. Willett set out to capitalize on recent developments in education data and methodology by attempting to answer the following questions: How can new methods and data be applied most effectively in educational and social science research? What kinds of research designs are most appropriate? What kinds of…

  11. Pedagogy Matters: Engaging Diverse Students as Community Researchers in Three Computer Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Jean Jinsun

    2013-01-01

    Computing occupations are among the fastest growing in the U.S. and technological innovations are central to solving world problems. Yet only our most privileged students are learning to use technology for creative purposes through rigorous computer science education opportunities. In order to increase access for diverse students and females who…

  12. Doing Science That Matters to Address India'sWater Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India is one of the most water stressedcountries in the world. However, despiteappreciable increase in funding for waterresearch, high quality science that is usableby stakeholders remains elusive. I arguethat this can be attributed to the absenceof research on questions that actuallymatter to stakeholders, unwillingnessto ...

  13. Predictive Utility of Marketed Volumetric Software Tools in Subjects at Risk for Alzheimer Disease: Do Regions Outside the Hippocampus Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanpitukpongse, T P; Mazurowski, M A; Ikhena, J; Petrella, J R

    2017-03-01

    Alzheimer disease is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease. Computer assessment of brain atrophy patterns can help predict conversion to Alzheimer disease. Our aim was to assess the prognostic efficacy of individual-versus-combined regional volumetrics in 2 commercially available brain volumetric software packages for predicting conversion of patients with mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease. Data were obtained through the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. One hundred ninety-two subjects (mean age, 74.8 years; 39% female) diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment at baseline were studied. All had T1-weighted MR imaging sequences at baseline and 3-year clinical follow-up. Analysis was performed with NeuroQuant and Neuroreader. Receiver operating characteristic curves assessing the prognostic efficacy of each software package were generated by using a univariable approach using individual regional brain volumes and 2 multivariable approaches (multiple regression and random forest), combining multiple volumes. On univariable analysis of 11 NeuroQuant and 11 Neuroreader regional volumes, hippocampal volume had the highest area under the curve for both software packages (0.69, NeuroQuant; 0.68, Neuroreader) and was not significantly different ( P > .05) between packages. Multivariable analysis did not increase the area under the curve for either package (0.63, logistic regression; 0.60, random forest NeuroQuant; 0.65, logistic regression; 0.62, random forest Neuroreader). Of the multiple regional volume measures available in FDA-cleared brain volumetric software packages, hippocampal volume remains the best single predictor of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease at 3-year follow-up. Combining volumetrics did not add additional prognostic efficacy. Therefore, future prognostic studies in mild cognitive impairment, combining such tools with demographic and other biomarker measures, are justified in using hippocampal volume as

  14. Effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on Latino students' engagement and content mastery on states of matter unit in physical science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jennifer

    This research, in response to the lack of empirical evidence of the impact of culturally relevant pedagogy (CRP) on Latino students in science education, examined the effect CRP on Latino students' engagement and content mastery. Quantitative research was conducted with a treatment group that received an intervention unit on states of matter with CRP approaches and a comparison group that did not receive the intervention. The sample comprised approximately 189 eighth-grade students from a Southern Californian middle school. The research findings reveal that CRP approaches had a statistically significant positive effect on student engagement of all ethnic groups in this study, particularly Latino students, while CRP approaches had a statistically significant negative effect on Latino students' content mastery. Three recommendations result from this study, including professional development of CRP for educators, professional development of CRP for educational leaders, and using CRP to address multiculturalism.

  15. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  16. From Black and White to Shades of Grey: A Longitudinal Study of Teachers' Perspectives on Teaching Sociocultural and Subjective Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a…

  17. The effect of the 4MAT learning model on the achievement and motivation of 7th grade students on the subject of particulate nature of matter and an examination of student opinions on the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, İdris; Bılgın, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background:Many researchers agree that students, especially primary students, have learning difficulties on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit. One reason for this difficulty is not considering individual differences for teaching science. In 4MAT model learning, environment is arranged according to individual differences. Purpose:The purpose of this study is to examine (1) the effects of the 4MAT learning model on the7th grade students' academic achievement and motivation on the 'Particulate Nature of Matter' unit and (2) identify student opinions on the 4MAT model. Sample:The sample consists of 235 students (115 experimental, 120 control) in Turkey. Design and methods:Experimental groups were instructed with the 4MAT model while control groups were instructed with a traditional method. Achievement Test (AchToM) and Motivation Scale (MotScl) were administered to students as pre- and post-tests. Moreover, the opinions of students in the experimental groups on the 4MAT model were ascertained through open-ended questions after the application. Results:According to independent t-test results, statistical difference in favour of the experimental groups was detected between the post-AchToM (ES = 1.43; p motivation and participation in the lesson, lessons are more amusing and enjoyable, and the self-confidence of the students increases. Besides these positive opinions, however, a few students stated that the method took too much time, they were not motivated and it did not help them in understanding the subject. Conclusions:The 4MAT model is more effective than traditional method in terms of increasing achievement and motivation. The model takes all learners into account. Thus, the teacher or educator should use the 4MAT model to ensure all students' learning in their classroom.

  18. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  19. An investigation of primary school teachers’ PCK towards science subjects using an ınquiry-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menşure Alkış Küçükaydın

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK of four experienced primary school teachers was investigated within the “Let’s Solve the Riddle of Our Body Unit”. The PCK investigation adopted a learning approach based on inquiry, content representation and pedagogical and professional-experience repertoires (PaP-eRs, and interview forms were used as data collection tools. During the course of the research, the findings obtained from observations made during a total of 18 course hours formed the basic data source of the study. According to the results of the study, in which descriptive and content analysis were used concurrently, primary school teachers lack subject matter knowledge, do not interrogate the pre-knowledge of students and some misconceptions exist regarding about blood moves and exercise with pulse. Additionally, some deficiencies were detected in the curriculum, i.e., it offers non-inquisitional knowledge. Furthermore, teachers employee assessment methods with traditional teaching methods and techniques. In the context of an inquiry-based learning approach, teachers appeared to believe that classroom activities were adversely affected by the physical conditions (class size, lack of laboratory etc., students’ cognitive levels and parent profiles. The result of this study revealed that PCK components affect one another. The PCK findings pertaining to primary school teachers as it concerns the unit are briefly discussed and some suggestions about the development of PCK are submitted.

  20. Bibliometric analysis of Spanish scientific publications in the subject Construction & Building Technology in Web of Science database (1997-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Sola, J. I.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the publications from Spanish institutions listed in the journals of the Construction & Building Technology subject of Web of Science database for the period 1997- 2008 are analyzed. The number of journals in whose is published is 35 and the number of articles was 760 (Article or Review. Also a bibliometric assessment has done and we propose two new parameters: Weighted Impact Factor and Relative Impact Factor; also includes the number of citations and the number documents at the institutional level. Among the major production Institutions with greater scientific production, as expected, the Institute of Constructional Science Eduardo Torroja (CSIC, while taking into account the weighted impact factor ranks first University of Vigo. On the other hand, only two journals Cement and Concrete Materials and Materials de Construction agglutinate the 45.26% of the Spanish scientific production published in the Construction & Building Technology subject, with 172 papers each one. Regarding international cooperation, include countries such as England, Mexico, United States, Italy, Argentina and France.

    En este trabajo se analizan las publicaciones procedentes de instituciones españolas recogidas en las revistas de la categoría Construction & Building Technology de la base de datos Web of Science para el periodo 1997-2008. El número de revistas incluidas es de 35 y el número de artículos publicados ha sido de 760 (Article o Review. Se ha realizado una evaluación bibliométrica con dos nuevos parámetros: Factor de Impacto Ponderado y Factor de Impacto Relativo; asimismo se incluyen el número de citas y el número de documentos a nivel institucional. Entre los centros con una mayor producción científica destaca, como era de prever, el Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja (CSIC, mientras que atendiendo al Factor de Impacto Ponderado ocupa el primer lugar la Universidad de Vigo. Por otro lado, sólo dos

  1. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  2. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  3. The Mesoscale Science of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Donald Raymond [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requires the ability to understand and test how material structures, defects, and interfaces determine performance in extreme environments such as in nuclear weapons. To do this, MaRIE will be an x-ray source that is laser-like and brilliant with very fl exible and fast pulses to see at weapons-relevant time scales, and with high enough energy to study critical materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined there is a mission need for MaRIE to deliver this capability. MaRIE can use some of the existing infrastructure of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its accelerator capability. MaRIE will be built as a strategic partnership of DOE national laboratories and university collaborators.

  4. Dark matter in galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  5. Using hierarchical linear models to test differences in Swedish results from OECD’s PISA 2003: Integrated and subject-specific science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Åström

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The possible effects of different organisations of the science curriculum in schools participating in PISA 2003 are tested with a hierarchical linear model (HLM of two levels. The analysis is based on science results. Swedish schools are free to choose how they organise the science curriculum. They may choose to work subject-specifically (with Biology, Chemistry and Physics, integrated (with Science or to mix these two. In this study, all three ways of organising science classes in compulsory school are present to some degree. None of the different ways of organising science education displayed statistically significant better student results in scientific literacy as measured in PISA 2003. The HLM model used variables of gender, country of birth, home language, preschool attendance, an economic, social and cultural index as well as the teaching organisation.

  6. Does Print Size Matter for Reading? A Review of Findings from Vision Science and Typography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E.; Bigelow, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    The size and shape of printed symbols determine the legibility of text. In this paper we focus on print size because of its crucial role in understanding reading performance and its significance in the history and contemporary practice of typography. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the distribution of print sizes in historical and contemporary publications falls within the psychophysically defined range of fluent print size — the range over which text can be read at maximum speed. The fluent range extends over a factor of 10 in angular print size (x-height) from approximately 0.2° to 2°. Assuming a standard reading distance of 40 cm (16 inches), the corresponding physical x-heights are 1.4 mm (4 points) and 14 mm (40 points). We provide new data on the distributions of print sizes in published books and newspapers and in type founders' specimens, and consider factors influencing these distributions. We discuss theoretical concepts from vision science concerning visual size coding that help inform our understanding of historical and modern typographical practices. While economic, social, technological and artistic factors influence type design and selection, we conclude that properties of human visual processing play a dominant role in constraining the distribution of print sizes in common use. PMID:21828237

  7. Does mentoring matter: results from a survey of faculty mentees at a large health sciences university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D.; Arean, Patricia A.; Marshall, Sally J.; Lovett, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results Our respondents (n=464, 56%) were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319) reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05). Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (pmentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (pmentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, pmentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed. PMID:20431710

  8. Does print size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Bigelow, Charles A

    2011-08-09

    The size and shape of printed symbols determine the legibility of text. In this paper, we focus on print size because of its crucial role in understanding reading performance and its significance in the history and contemporary practice of typography. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the distribution of print sizes in historical and contemporary publications falls within the psychophysically defined range of fluent print size--the range over which text can be read at maximum speed. The fluent range extends over a factor of 10 in angular print size (x-height) from approximately 0.2° to 2°. Assuming a standard reading distance of 40 cm (16 inches), the corresponding physical x-heights are 1.4 mm (4 points) and 14 mm (40 points). We provide new data on the distributions of print sizes in published books and newspapers and in typefounders' specimens, and consider factors influencing these distributions. We discuss theoretical concepts from vision science concerning visual size coding that help inform our understanding of historical and modern typographical practices. While economic, social, technological, and artistic factors influence type design and selection, we conclude that properties of human visual processing play a dominant role in constraining the distribution of print sizes in common use.

  9. Application of DRIFTS, NMR, and py-MBMS to characterize the effects of soil science oxidation assays on soil organic matter composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate whether commonly employed chemical treatments remove structurally distinct fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), a Mollic Xerofluvent under agricultural use was subjected to three distinct oxidation treatments: potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen p...

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Robotics as an integration subject in the computer science university studies. The experience of the University of Almeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Berenguel Soria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a global view of the role of robotics in computer science studies, mainly in university degrees. The main motivation of the use of robotics in these studies deals with the following issues: robotics permits to put in practice many computer science fundamental topics, it is a multidisciplinary area which allows to complete the basic knowledge of any computer science student, it facilitates the practice and learning of basic competences of any engineer (for instance, teamwork, and there is a wide market looking for people with robotics knowledge. These ideas are discussed from our own experience in the University of Almeria acquired through the studies of Computer Science Technical Engineering, Computer Science Engineering, Computer Science Degree and Computer Science Postgraduate.

  15. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  16. A response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting subjectivity: an anti-neoliberal reformulation of science education for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-11-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically subversive activity and a means of moving from the neoliberal dominance of science education towards a science one steeped in social justice.

  17. A response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting subjectivity: an anti-neoliberal reformulation of science education for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-12-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically subversive activity and a means of moving from the neoliberal dominance of science education towards a science one steeped in social justice.

  18. Science teacher's perception about science learning experiences as a foundation for teacher training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, Marisa Christina; Firman, Harry; Redjeki, Sri; Chandra, Didi Teguh

    2017-05-01

    Teacher training is one form of continuous professional development. Before organizing teacher training (material, time frame), a survey about teacher's need has to be done. Science teacher's perception about science learning in the classroom, the most difficult learning model, difficulties of lesson plan would be a good input for teacher training program. This survey conducted in June 2016. About 23 science teacher filled in the questionnaire. The core of questions are training participation, the most difficult science subject matter, the most difficult learning model, the difficulties of making lesson plan, knowledge of integrated science and problem based learning. Mostly, experienced teacher participated training once a year. Science training is very important to enhance professional competency and to improve the way of teaching. The difficulties of subject matter depend on teacher's education background. The physics subject matter in class VIII and IX are difficult to teach for most respondent because of many formulas and abstract. Respondents found difficulties in making lesson plan, in term of choosing the right learning model for some subject matter. Based on the result, inquiry, cooperative, practice are frequently used in science class. Integrated science is understood as a mix between Biology, Physics and Chemistry concepts. On the other hand, respondents argue that problem based learning was difficult especially in finding contextual problem. All the questionnaire result can be used as an input for teacher training program in order to enhanced teacher's competency. Difficult concepts, integrated science, teaching plan, problem based learning can be shared in teacher training.

  19. Introduction. Cosmology meets condensed matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T W B; Pickett, G R

    2008-08-28

    At first sight, low-temperature condensed-matter physics and early Universe cosmology seem worlds apart. Yet, in the last few years a remarkable synergy has developed between the two. It has emerged that, in terms of their mathematical description, there are surprisingly close parallels between them. This interplay has been the subject of a very successful European Science Foundation (ESF) programme entitled COSLAB ('Cosmology in the Laboratory') that ran from 2001 to 2006, itself built on an earlier ESF network called TOPDEF ('Topological Defects: Non-equilibrium Field Theory in Particle Physics, Condensed Matter and Cosmology'). The articles presented in this issue of Philosophical Transactions A are based on talks given at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting 'Cosmology meets condensed matter', held on 28 and 29 January 2008. Many of the speakers had participated earlier in the COSLAB programme, but the strength of the field is illustrated by the presence also of quite a few new participants.

  20. Fostering Empathy in Undergraduate Health Science Majors through the Reconciliation of Objectivity and Subjectivity: An Integrated Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Robert L.; Nichols, Marcia D.

    2012-01-01

    The demand for empathetic health care practitioners requires an academic curriculum suited to that need. Here we describe a series of integrated activities that were designed to foster empathy in undergraduate health science majors. By combining content and pedagogical approaches from the humanities and sciences, we asked students to reconcile…

  1. The Design of Preservice Primary Teacher Education Science Subjects: The Emergence of an Interactive Educational Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, David H.; Danaia, Lena; Deehan, James

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years there have been numerous calls in Australia and beyond for extensive educational reforms to preservice teacher education in the sciences. Recommendations for science teacher education programs to integrate curriculum, instruction and assessment are at the forefront of such reforms. In this paper, we describe our scholarly…

  2. Technology, Science, Physics and Culture: Scientific View of the World as a Non-technical Subject in Engineering Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelen, Josef

    1997-01-01

    Argues that technology stems from science, and science represents important and specific values in the whole of culture. Such topics can contribute to educating the whole and balanced engineer. Describes a course taught at the Czech Technical University in Prague on the scientist's understanding of the world. (Author/PVD)

  3. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  4. Salva Phaenomenis. Phenomenological Dimension of Subjectivity in the Frame of the Reductionist Paradigm of the Cognitive Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiela Filip

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the family of questions that arose from the field of interactions between phenomenology and the cognitive sciences. On the one hand, apparently partial coextensivity of research domain of phenomenology and the cognitive sciences sets the goal of their cooperation and mutual inspiration. On the other hand, there are some obstacles on the path to achieve this goal: phenomenology and the cognitive sciences have different traditions, they speak different languages, they have adopted different methodological approaches, and last but not least, their prominent exponents exhibits different styles of thinking. In order to clarify this complicated area of tensions, the paper presents the results of philosophical reflections of such topics as: 1 philosophical presuppositions and postulates of the cognitive sciences 2 abstraction of some phenomena during idealisation and the dialectical model of science's development 3 argumentation based on prediction of future development of the cognitive sciences. This finally leads to the formulation of a phenomenology-based postulate for adequate model of mind and the discussion of humanistic dimension of cognitive sciences.

  5. Ethics in science education: responsabilities and commitments with the child's moral development in the discussion of controversial subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Castilho Razera

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent research outcomes presents in a sample of Science Education journals, shows that ethics and moral development issues have been neglected in the Science Education research. Based in theoretical referential directed toward this theme, and in a research carried out on controversial issues in the Science Teaching, such as those related to the debate creationism versus evolutionism, this paper tries to show the necessity and possibilities to take into consideration questions of this nature in classroom, in order to help developing the moral in students.

  6. 75 FR 2893 - National Science Board; Sunshine Act Meetings; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Facilities, Committee on Strategy and Budget, pursuant to NSF regulations (45 CFR Part 614), the National... Science Board business and other matters specified, as follows: Date and Time: Wednesday, January 20, 2010 at 12 p.m. Subject Matter: Discussion of NSF Facilities Portfolio Review Materials. Status: Closed...

  7. Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of soil organic matter fractions in a forest ecosystem subjected to prescribed burning and thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burning and thinning are gaining popularity as low-cost forest protection measures. Such field management practices could alter the chemical properties of soil organic matter (SOM), especially humic substances. In this work, we collected surface soil samples from the Bankhead National For...

  8. A Response to Annette Gough and Jesse Bazzul. Subverting Subjectivity: An Anti-Neoliberal Reformulation of Science Education for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    In responding to Jesse Bazzul's and Annette Gough's articles I maintain that contemporary positivist science curricula cannot address the urgent issues of sustainability and biopower that confront us. Drawing on the writings and interpretations of Emmanuel Levinas I argue that contemplating the meaning of responsibility to the Other is a radically…

  9. Gray and white matter changes in subjective cognitive impairment, amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a voxel-based analysis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Kiuchi

    Full Text Available Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  11. Enhancing Teacher Preparation and Improving Faculty Teaching Skills: Lessons Learned from Implementing ``Science That Matters'' a Standards Based Interdisciplinary Science Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Robert; Meisels, Gerry

    2005-06-01

    In a highly collaborative process we developed an introductory science course sequence to improve science literacy especially among future elementary and middle school education majors. The materials and course features were designed using the results of research on teaching and learning to provide a rigorous, relevant and engaging, standard based science experience. More than ten years of combined planning, development, implementation and assessment of this college science course sequence for nonmajors/future teachers has provided significant insights and success in achieving our goal. This paper describes the history and iterative nature of our ongoing improvements, changes in faculty instructional practice, strategies used to overcome student resistance, significant student learning outcomes, support structures for faculty, and the essential and informative role of assessment in improving the outcomes. Our experience with diverse institutions, students and faculty provides the basis for the lessons we have learned and should be of help to others involved in advancing science education.

  12. The human capacity to reflect and decide: bioethics and the reconfiguration of the research subject in the British biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubi, David

    2012-06-01

    This article examines how a fundamental element of the British bioethical assemblage - the literature on informed consent published between 1980 and 2000, a period when bioethics became a powerful force in the UK--has influenced contemporary understandings of the research subject. Drawing on Foucault, the article argues that this corpus of texts has created a sphere of possibilities in which research subjects can imagine themselves as human beings who reflect and decide whether they want to participate in medical experimentation. In particular, it shows how the narratives found in these texts portray relationships between researchers and their human subjects as 'paternalistic', and calls for their replacement by new, more ethical relationships characterized by both 'dialogue' and 'respect' and articulated around subjects who can 'think and take decisions'. It also discusses the different strategies- using patient information sheets, a list of possible questions and invitations to take time to reflect--which the bioethical literature has developed in order to realise these new, ethical relationships. As the article suggests, these narratives and strategies provide researchers and research subjects with models and examples of how to interact with each other that are very different from the ones that prevailed before the emergence of bioethics.

  13. Etienne Klein Les sciences à la conquête du temps

    CERN Multimedia

    Franco, Fabien

    2006-01-01

    Etienne Klein grouped some of his works to the subject of time. On the occasion of his participation to thr 16e Sciences Festival in Chamonix, he gives a part of its thoughts about this matter (3 pages)

  14. Low episodic memory performance in cognitively normal elderly subjects is associated with increased posterior cingulate gray matter N-acetylaspartate: a1H MRSI study at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J; Kirchner, Thomas; Wyss, Michael; Van Bergen, Jiri M G; Quevenco, Frances C; Steininger, Stefanie C; Griffith, Erica Y; Meier, Irene; Michels, Lars; Gietl, Anton F; Leh, Sandra E; Brickman, Adam M; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Henning, Anke; Unschuld, Paul G

    2016-12-01

    Low episodic memory performance characterizes elderly subjects at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect neuronal dysfunction within the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCP) region. To investigate a potential association between cerebral neurometabolism and low episodic memory in the absence of cognitive impairment, tissue-specific magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at ultrahigh field strength of 7 Tesla was used to investigate the PCP region in a healthy elderly study population (n = 30, age 70 ± 5.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 29.4 ± 4.1). The Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT) was administered as part of a neuropsychological battery for assessment of episodic memory performance. Significant differences between PCP gray and white matter could be observed for glutamate-glutamine (p = 0.001), choline (p = 0.01), and myo-inositol (p = 0.02). Low Verbal Learning and Memory Test performance was associated with high N-acetylaspartate in PCP gray matter (p = 0.01) but not in PCP white matter. Our data suggest that subtle decreases in episodic memory performance in the elderly may be associated with increased levels of N-acetylaspartate as a reflection of increased mitochondrial energy capacity in PCP gray matter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Memetics and political science. Chosen problems

    OpenAIRE

    Donaj, Łukasz; Barańska, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity has increasingly become a determinant of the quality of research. A particular challenge faces political science, which in itself is an interdisciplinary area of study. Or else what is interdisciplinary research including the methodologies of political science and, for example, neuroscience to depend on? In this article, the authors try to identify what political science can gain by using such fields as memetics. The subject matter of the publication is a brief description...

  16. REFLEXIONES ACERCA DEL OBJETO Y METAS DE LA PSICOLOGÍA COMO UNA CIENCIA NATURAL/ REFLECTIONS ABOUT THE SUBJET-MATTER AND GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY AS A NATURAL SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bueno Cuadra*

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENSe define como objeto de conocimiento de la psicología el comportamiento individual entendido como las interaccionesdel individuo con objetos específicos en su medio. A partir de ahí, se establecen las diferencias entre los campos propios dela psicología y las ciencias sociales, por un lado, y frente a las ciencias biológicas, por el otro. A continuación se describenlas metas científicas que se derivan de tal caracterización del objeto de estudio. Estas metas son la descripción, la explicación,la predicción y el control. Las dos últimas no se asumen necesariamente en el sentido de predicción y control prácticos, perosí como criterios de validación de la explicación científica.ABSTRACTIt is defined as subject matter of psychology the individual behavior, being understood as such the interactionsbetween an individual with specific objects and events in his or her environment. From here, it is posed the differencesbetween the proper fields, on one hand, of psychology and social sciences, and, on the other, psychology and biology.Then, the scientific goals of psychology, derived from the characterization of its subject matter, are described. They aredescription, explanation, prediction and control. These two last are not to be necessarily assumed in the sense of practicalprediction and control, but are as criteria for validation of scientific explanation.

  17. Performance Levels in Science and Other Subjects for Jamaican Adolescents Attending Single-Sex and Co-Educational High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Marlene A.

    1985-01-01

    Examination results from 1146 Jamaican high school students in single-sex and coeducational schools indicated students from coeducational schools had lower performance on all measures. A subsample provided more information on sex differences, performance in individual subjects, and students receiving grades of A or B. (DH)

  18. Moving Science Classes to the Community: A Question of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers argue that science literacy and numeracy are vital skills for successfully participating in the economy of this century. But how do educators increase the levels of scientific literacy, let alone make science a subject for all students, when the subject matter itself has been keeping students away? In this article,…

  19. Factors that Influence Participation of Students in Secondary Science and Mathematics Subjects in IB Schools Outside of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straffon, Elizabeth

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors that affect the extent of international secondary students' participation in International Baccalaureate science and mathematics courses. The factors examined were gender, home region, size, percent host culture and age of the program, and coeducational and legal status of the school. Participation in math and science subjects was determined by analyzing the level and number of courses taken by students taking International Baccalaureate exams in 2010. Chi-Square and Cramer's V analysis were used to measure the effect of categorical variables on student participation and One-Way ANOVA and Bonferroni comparison of means were used to analyze the quantitative variables. All categorical variables were statistically significant (pNew Zealand, Northern Europe, East Africa and South-Central and Western Asia. State schools showed higher math and science participation. Science and math participation was also greater in all-male schools though associations were weak. Boys participated more than girls, especially in math. All quantitative variables were statistically significant. The program size had the largest effect size for both math and science with larger programs showing more participation at the higher level. A decreasing trend for age of the program and percent host culture was found for math participation. Three years of participation data were collected from an international school in Western Europe (n = 194). Variables included the influence of parent occupation, math preparedness (PSAT-Math), student achievement (GPA), and the importance of significant others in career and academic decisions. Findings indicate that performance on the PSAT- Math was the most important predictor of both science and mathematics participation. Twenty students were also interviewed. Results showed the importance of several key factors. These include the role of parents in student academic and career decisions, the importance of

  20. From black and white to shades of grey. A longitudinal study of teachers' perspectives on teaching sociocultural and subjective aspects of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lotta; Hansson, Lena; Redfors, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Traditional school science has been described as focused on indisputable facts where scientific processes and factors affecting these processes become obscured or left undiscussed. In this article, we report on teachers' perspectives on the teaching of sociocultural and subjective aspects of the nature of science (NOS) as a way to accomplish a more nuanced science teaching in Swedish compulsory school. The teachers ( N = 6) took part in a longitudinal study on NOS and NOS teaching that spanned 3 years. The data consists of recorded and transcribed focus group discussions from all 3 years. In the analysis, the transcripts were searched for teachers' suggestions of issues, relevant for teaching in compulsory school, as well as opportunities and challenges connected to the teaching of these issues. The results of the analysis show that (a) the number of suggested issues increased over the years, (b) teachers' ways of contextualizing the issues changed from general and unprecise to more tightly connected to socio-scientific or scientific contexts, and (c) the number of both opportunities and challenges related to NOS teaching increased over the years. The most evident changes occurred from the beginning of year 2 when the focus group discussions became more closely directed towards concrete teaching activities. Tensions between the opportunities and challenges are discussed as well as how these can be met, and made use of, in science teacher education.

  1. New light on a dark subject: On the use of fluorescence data to deduce redox states of natural organic matter (NOM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the use of excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMS), parallel factor statistical analysis (PARAFAC), and oxidation-reduction experiments to examine the effect of redox conditions on PARAFAC model results for aqueous samples rich in natural organic matter. Fifty-four aqueous samples from 11 different geographic locations and two plant extracts were analyzed untreated and after chemical treatments or irradiation were used in attempts to change the redox status of the natural organic matter. The EEMS spectra were generated and modeled using a PARAFAC package developed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The PARAFAC model output was examined for consistency with previously reported relations and with changes expected to occur upon experimental oxidation and reduction of aqueous samples. Results indicate the implied fraction of total sample fluorescence attributed to quinone-like moieties was consistent (0.64 to 0.78) and greater than that observed by Cory and McKnight (2005). The fraction of the quinone-like moieties that was reduced (the reducing index, RI) showed relatively little variation (0.46 to 0.71) despite attempts to alter the redox status of the natural organic matter. The RI changed little after reducing samples using zinc metal, oxidizing at high pH with air, or irradiating with a Xenon lamp. Our results, however, are consistent with the correlations between the fluorescence indices (FI) of samples and the ratio of PARAFAC fitting parameters suggested by Cory and McKnight (2005), though we used samples with a much narrower range of FI values.

  2. The role of professor V. I. Dolotsky in the development of Lliturgics as science and academic subject in Russian higher Church education

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Karamyshev

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to one of the key moments in liturgical studies in Russian higher church education. This moment was outwardly marked by the introduction of the new term “liturgics” instead of the old term “church antiquities” in the 1840s. The article shows the role of Professor Dolotsky in the development of liturgics as a science and an academic subject. Based on the analysis of survived manuscript documents, lithoprinted lecture notes and papers, we demonstrate that the introduction ...

  3. A comparison of the character of algal extracellular versus cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacterium, diatom and green alga

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Šafaříková, Jana; Barešová, Magdalena; Pivokonská, Lenka; Kopecká, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, March (2014), s. 37-46 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600902 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Algal organic matter * Extracellular organic matter * Cellular organic matter * Peptide/protein content * Hydrophobicity * Molecular weight fractionation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 5.528, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S004313541301021X

  4. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  5. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  6. Perception and environmental education about mangrove ecosystem improving sciences and biology subjects in public school at Recife, PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Lopes Rodrigues

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed with the aim to identify the perceptions of the students from a school about the mangrove ecosystem, using didactic and natural elements available to do an environmental education action. The previous perception of the students on the ecosystem was evaluated by means of a questionnaire, followed of a theoretical exposition, complemented with a visit to a conserved mangrove (Paripe River, Itamaracá and another impacted (Jiquiá River, Recife, near to the school, being applied new questionnaires to evaluate their conceptions and the academic strategies. The students demonstrated a relative previous knowledge on the mangrove and the educative action showed effectiveness in the transference of the ecological concepts about the ecosystem, using the method of incorporate their daily knowledge to stimulate them to know the scientific side of the subject, ending with the development of ecologic conscience.

  7. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers: Background in science and argumentation about science teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Lund Nielsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified: There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being stundent centred, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus on students’ activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers’ own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching science.

  8. "Deep down Things": In What Ways Is Information Physical, and Why Does It Matter for Information Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, David; Robinson, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rolf Landauer declared in 1991 that "information is physical". Since then, information has come to be seen by many physicists as a fundamental component of the physical world; indeed by some as the physical component. This idea is now gaining currency in popular science communication. However, it is often far from clear…

  9. The Effects of Visualizations on Linguistically Diverse Students' Understanding of Energy and Matter in Life Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Bedell, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research has shown the educational value of different types of interactive visualizations on students' science learning in general, how such technologies can contribute to English learners' (ELs) understanding of complex scientific concepts has not been sufficiently explored to date. This mixed-methods study investigated how…

  10. Does Personality Matter? Applying Holland's Typology to Analyze Students' Self-Selection into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…

  11. Subjectivities in Research in Science Education presented at the National Symposium of Physics Education of the last five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Choiti Yamazaki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey conducted in a public university in the country, which aimed to identify the presence elements ordinarily related to subjective phenomena, in the works published in National Symposium of Physics Education, an event that provides meeting between teachers, researchers and students from around the country. The elements to which we have referred are found in contemporary didactic and pedagogical proposals, because it is identified that purely cognitive or even cultural rights are not sufficient to understand the phenomena that happen in the classroom, or more broadly, in education as a whole. The analysis contemplated the publications of the past 3 symposia, and the results infer a small increase of citations of these elements. However, this growth must be questioned because the quotes are made in isolation, not being taken to support the analysis of the authors. In addition, this research also shows that the presence of these elements is very small compared with the total number of papers published in the events.

  12. White matter organization in relation to upper limb motor control in healthy subjects: exploring the added value of diffusion kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooijers, J; Leemans, A; Van Cauter, S; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P; Caeyenberghs, K

    2014-09-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) characterizes white matter (WM) microstructure. In many brain regions, however, the assumption that the diffusion probability distribution is Gaussian may be invalid, even at low b values. Recently, diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) was suggested to more accurately estimate this distribution. We explored the added value of DKI in studying the relation between WM microstructure and upper limb coordination in healthy controls (N = 24). Performance on a complex bimanual tracking task was studied with respect to the conventional DTI measures (DKI or DTI derived) and kurtosis metrics of WM tracts/regions carrying efferent (motor) output from the brain, corpus callosum (CC) substructures and whole brain WM. For both estimation models, motor performance was associated with fractional anisotropy (FA) of the CC-genu, CC-body, the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and whole brain WM (r s range 0.42-0.63). Although DKI revealed higher mean, radial and axial diffusivity and lower FA than DTI (p motor performance was associated with increased mean and radial kurtosis and kurtosis anisotropy (r s range 0.43-0.55). In conclusion, DKI provided additional information, but did not show increased sensitivity to detect relations between WM microstructure and bimanual performance in healthy controls.

  13. Aggregation controls the stability of lignin and lipids in clay-sized particulate and mineral associated organic matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angst, Gerrit; Mueller, K.E.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Freeman, K.H.; Mueller, C.W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 3 (2017), s. 307-324 ISSN 0168-2563 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : incubation * physical fractionation * GC/MS * C-13 NMR * CuO * soil organic matter Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 3.428, year: 2016

  14. When talking about the Spanish curricula of the CMC, do we all Autonomous Communities talk about the same matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárraga Poveda, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we aim at comparing the Spanish curricula of the subject CMC -“Ciencias para el Mundo Contemporáneo” (Science for Contemporary World of High School. We have revised the documents of the different Autonomous Communities (different regions concerning the function of subject matter, methodological orientation, evaluation criteria, and developmment of competence. We have found differences suggesting that at the curriculum level we do not always talk about the same matter.

  15. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  16. Dark matter an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Debasish

    2015-01-01

    Dark Matter: An Introduction tackles the rather recent but fast-growing subject of astroparticle physics, encompassing three main areas of fundamental physics: cosmology, particle physics, and astrophysics. Accordingly, the book discusses symmetries, conservation laws, relativity, and cosmological parameters and measurements, as well as the astrophysical behaviors of galaxies and galaxy clusters that indicate the presence of dark matter and the possible nature of dark matter distribution.

  17. Explore the concept of “light” and its interaction with matter: an inquiry-based science education project in primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, P.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The exploration process leading to the understanding of physical phenomena, such as light and its interaction with matter, raises great interest and curiosity in children. However, in most primary schools, children rarely have the opportunity to conduct science activities in which they can engage in an enquiry process even if by the action of the teacher. In this context, we have organised several in-service teacher training courses and carried out several pedagogic interventions in Portuguese primary schools, with the aim of promoting inquiry- based science education. This article describes one of those projects, developed with a class of the third grade, which explored the curricular topic “Light Experiments”. Various activities were planned and implemented, during a total of ten hours spread over five lessons. The specific objectives of this paper are: to illustrate and analyse the teaching and learning process promoted in the classroom during the exploration of one of these lessons, and to assess children's learning three weeks after the lessons. The results suggest that children made significant learning which persisted. We conclude discussing some processes that stimulated children’ learning, including the importance of teacher questioning in scaffolding children's learning and some didactic implications for teacher training.

  18. The Problem of Subject Access to Visual Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather P. Jespersen

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problem of giving subject access to works of art. We survey both concept-based and content-based access by computers and by indexers/catalogers respectively, as well as issues of interoperability, database and indexer consistency, and cataloging standards. The authors, both of whom are trained art historians, question attempts to mystify fine art subject matter by the creation of clever library science systems that are executed by the naive. Only when trained art historians and knowledgeable catalogers are finally responsible for providing subject access to works of art, will true interoperability and consistency happen.

  19. Students’ Perception of the Availability and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the Teaching and Learning of Science Subjects in Secondary Schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegede Samuel Akingbade

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated students’ perception of the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in the teaching and learning of science subjects in secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of all secondary school students in public and private secondary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The sample was 400 students selected from both public and private secondary schools in the state using the multi-stage sampling. The only instrument used in collecting relevant data for the study was a questionnaire consisting of two sections A and B. Section A consisted of personal biodata of the respondents, while section B consisted of 22 items which elicited information on the application of ICT in schools for learning science. Four research questions were raised and two hypotheses tested. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts and percentages as well as inferential statistics of t-test. The results showed that apart from the computer, which is available in most schools, the other identified ICT equipment were not available. The findings also showed that there is no significant difference in the availability of ICT facilities in public and private secondary schools, and that students in private schools are more exposed to ICT than their counterparts in public schools.

  20. The role of professor V. I. Dolotsky in the development of Lliturgics as science and academic subject in Russian higher Church education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Karamyshev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to one of the key moments in liturgical studies in Russian higher church education. This moment was outwardly marked by the introduction of the new term “liturgics” instead of the old term “church antiquities” in the 1840s. The article shows the role of Professor Dolotsky in the development of liturgics as a science and an academic subject. Based on the analysis of survived manuscript documents, lithoprinted lecture notes and papers, we demonstrate that the introduction of the term “liturgics” at Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy in 1849–1853 and its following adoption in higher church education took place with a direct involvement of V. I. Dolotsky. Employing historical approach, Dolotsky signifi cantly broadened the content of his course of lectures, supplementing it with historical data. Dolotsky’s scholarly interests can be identifi ed on the basis of his articles, academic course programmes and lithoprinted lecture notes. They were related, above all, to text analysis of variable parts of church service, particularly holiday service. Besides, Dolotsky expressed interest in the origin of Holy days and their orders in antiquity. Here, by means of the historical approach, Dolotsky made use of the evidence of ancient Holy Fathers and emphasised the importance of employing liturgical sources of heterodox confessions that had common origins with the Orthodox Church. Thus, Dolotsky came to be the first Russian scholar of liturgics and provided a foundation for the further development of historical liturgics in Russian theological science.

  1. Pseudoscience and science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Aliens, flying saucers, ESP, the Bermuda Triangle, antigravity … are we talking about science fiction or pseudoscience? Sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference. Both pseudoscience and science fiction (SF) are creative endeavours that have little in common with academic science, beyond the superficial trappings of jargon and subject matter. The most obvious difference between the two is that pseudoscience is presented as fact, not fiction. Yet like SF, and unlike real science, pseudoscience is driven by a desire to please an audience – in this case, people who “want to believe”. This has led to significant cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. SF authors often draw on “real” pseudoscientific theories to add verisimilitude to their stories, while on other occasions pseudoscience takes its cue from SF – the symbiotic relationship between ufology and Hollywood being a prime example of this. This engagingly written, well researched and richly illustrated text explores a wide range...

  2. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  3. Respiratory effects of particulate matter air pollution: studies on diesel exhaust, road tunnel, subway and wood smoke exposure in human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlstedt, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Background: Ambient air pollution is associated with adverse health effects, but the sources and components, which cause these effects is still incompletely understood. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the pulmonary effects of a variety of common air pollutants, including diesel exhaust, biomass smoke, and road tunnel and subway station environments. Healthy non-smoking volunteers were exposed in random order to the specific air pollutants and air/control, during intermittent exercise, followed by bronchoscopy. Methods and results: In study I, exposures were performed with diesel exhaust (DE) generated at transient engine load and air for 1 hour with bronchoscopy at 6 hours post-exposure. Immunohistochemical analyses of bronchial mucosal biopsies showed that DE exposure significantly increased the endothelial adhesion molecule expression of p-selectin and VCAM-1, together with increased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophils. In study II, the subjects were exposed for 1 hour to DE generated during idling with bronchoscopy at 6 hours. The bronchial mucosal biopsies showed significant increases in neutrophils, mast cells and lymphocytes together with bronchial wash neutrophils. Additionally, DE exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium. In contrast, the phase II enzyme NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) decreased after DE. In study III, the 2-hour exposures took place in a road tunnel with bronchoscopy 14 hours later. The road tunnel exposure significantly increased the total numbers of lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages in BAL, whereas NK cell and CD56+/T cell numbers significantly decreased. Additionally, the nuclear expression of phosphorylated c-jun in the bronchial epithelium was significantly increased after road tunnel exposure. In study IV, the subjects were exposed to metal-rich particulate aerosol for 2 hours at a subway station

  4. Do CS-US pairings actually matter? A within-subject comparison of instructed fear conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An K Raes

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that instructions about CS-US pairings can lead to fear of the CS even when the pairings are never presented. In the present study, we examined whether the experience of CS-US pairings adds to the effect of instructions by comparing instructed conditioning with and without actual CS-US pairings in a within-subject design. Thirty-two participants saw three fractals as CSs (CS(+1, CS(+2, CS(- and received electric shocks as USs. Before the start of a so-called training phase, participants were instructed that both CS(+1 and CS(+2 would be followed by the US, but only CS(+1 was actually paired with the US. The absence of the US after CS(+2 was explained in such a way that participants would not doubt the instructions about the CS(+2-US relation. After the training phase, a test phase was carried out. In this phase, participants expected the US after both CS(+s but none of the CS(+s was actually paired with the US. During test, self-reported fear was initially higher for CS(+1 than for CS(+2, which indicates that the experience of actual CS-US pairings adds to instructions about these pairings. On the other hand, the CS(+s elicited similar skin conductance responses and US expectancies. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. Jung's "Psychology with the Psyche" and the Behavioral Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A

    2013-09-01

    The behavioral sciences and Jung's analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung's scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the "science versus art" debate on Jung's stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  6. Benefits of multi-modal fusion analysis on a large-scale dataset: life-span patterns of inter-subject variability in cortical morphometry and white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Adrian R; Smith, Stephen M; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Walhovd, Kristine B; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Woolrich, Mark W; Westlye, Lars T

    2012-10-15

    Neuroimaging studies have become increasingly multimodal in recent years, with researchers typically acquiring several different types of MRI data and processing them along separate pipelines that provide a set of complementary windows into each subject's brain. However, few attempts have been made to integrate the various modalities in the same analysis. Linked ICA is a robust data fusion model that takes multi-modal data and characterizes inter-subject variability in terms of a set of multi-modal components. This paper examines the types of components found when running Linked ICA on a large magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometric and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data set comprising 484 healthy subjects ranging from 8 to 85 years of age. We find several strong global features related to age, sex, and intracranial volume; in particular, one component predicts age to a high accuracy (r=0.95). Most of the remaining components describe spatially localized modes of variability in white or gray matter, with many components including both tissue types. The multimodal components tend to be located in anatomically-related brain areas, suggesting a morphological and possibly functional relationship. The local components show relationships between surface-based cortical thickness and arealization, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and between three different DTI measures. Further, we report components related to artifacts (e.g. scanner software upgrades) which would be expected in a dataset of this size. Most of the 100 extracted components showed interpretable spatial patterns and were found to be reliable using split-half validation. This work provides novel information about normal inter-subject variability in brain structure, and demonstrates the potential of Linked ICA as a feature-extracting data fusion approach across modalities. This exploratory approach automatically generates models to explain structure in the data, and may prove especially powerful for large

  7. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sobolev spaces associated to the harmonic oscillator. 337. Hilbert matrix. Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators. 325. Hilbert modules. Generalized unitaries and the Picard group. 429. Hilbert space. On Nyman, Beurling and Baez-Duarte's. Hilbert space reformulation of the Rie- mann hypothesis.

  8. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    perforated domain with Dirichlet boundary condition. 425. Deformed sphere. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara bound- ary conditions. 463. Degree of a map. Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices. 257. δM -invariant. A basic inequality for submanifolds in locally conformal almost cosymplectic manifolds.

  9. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Some approximation theorems. 87. Automorphic form. Reduction theory for a rational function field. 153. Banach algebra. Questions concerning matrix algebras and ... Euler–Maclaurin summation formula. Analogues of Euler and Poisson summa- tion formulae. 213. Exponential energy decay. Uniform stability of damped ...

  10. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abelian groups. A variant of Davenport's constant. 147. Additive mapping. On the stability of Jensen's functional equation on groups. 31. Analytic functions. On Eneström–Kakeya theorem and related analytic functions. 359. A-net. On the problem of isometry of a hypersur- face preserving mean curvature. 49. Arithmetical ...

  11. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67. Explicit formula. Large time behaviour of solutions of a sys- tem of generalized Burgers equation 509. Extension spaces. Fixed point theory for composite maps on almost dominating extension spaces 339. Fatou property. Basic topological and geometric properties of Ces`aro–Orlicz spaces. 461. Finite amplitude motions.

  12. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    New inequalities for the Hurwitz zeta func- tion. 495. Dirichlet problem. On existence and stability of solutions for higher order semilinear Dirichlet problems. 627. Discrete approximation. Approximation of quantum Lévy processes by quantum random walks. 281. Distance condition. Decomposition and removability proper-.

  13. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metric sums. 411. Asymptotics. A further note on the force discrepancy for wing theory in Euler flow. 679. Atkin–Lehner theory. Orthogonality and Hecke operators .... synectic lift of a Riemannian metric 345. Injective tensor products. Riesz isomorphisms of tensor products of order unit Banach spaces. 383. Integral transforms.

  14. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 457. Min-max property. John disks, the Apollonian metric, and min-max properties. 83. Mixed norm. Mixed norm estimate for Radon transform on weighted Lp spaces. 441. Modular equation. Theta function identities associated with Ramanujan's modular equations of.

  15. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C*-enveloping algebra. Topological *-algebras with C*-enveloping algebras II. 65. Calderón–Lozanowski space. On property (β) in Banach lattices, Calderón–. Lozanowskii and Orlicz–Lorentz spaces. 319. Caratheodory function. Periodic and boundary value problems for second order differential equations. 107. Character.

  16. Why Society is a Complex Matter Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Society is complicated. But this book argues that this does not place it beyond the reach of a science that can help to explain and perhaps even to predict social behaviour. As a system made up of many interacting agents – people, groups, institutions and governments, as well as physical and technological structures such as roads and computer networks – society can be regarded as a complex system. In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how such complex systems operate, ranging from animal populations to earthquakes and weather. These systems show behaviours that cannot be predicted or intuited by focusing on the individual components, but which emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their interactions: they are said to be ‘self-organized’. Attempts to direct or manage such emergent properties generally reveal that ‘top-down’ approaches, which try to dictate a particular outcome, are ineffectual, and that what is needed instead is a ‘bottom-up’ approach that aim...

  17. Investigating elementary principals' science beliefs and knowledge and its relationship to students' science outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma Zafar

    The aim of this quantitative study was to investigate elementary principals' beliefs about reformed science teaching and learning, science subject matter knowledge, and how these factors relate to fourth grade students' superior science outcomes. Online survey methodology was used for data collection and included a demographic questionnaire and two survey instruments: the K-4 Physical Science Misconceptions Oriented Science Assessment Resources for Teachers (MOSART) and the Beliefs About Reformed Science Teaching and Learning (BARSTL). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to assess the separate and collective contributions of background variables such as principals' personal and school characteristics, principals' science teaching and learning beliefs, and principals' science knowledge on students' superior science outcomes. Mediation analysis was also used to explore whether principals' science knowledge mediated the relationship between their beliefs about science teaching and learning and students' science outcomes. Findings indicated that principals' science beliefs and knowledge do not contribute to predicting students' superior science scores. Fifty-two percent of the variance in percentage of students with superior science scores was explained by school characteristics with free or reduced price lunch and school type as the only significant individual predictors. Furthermore, principals' science knowledge did not mediate the relationship between their science beliefs and students' science outcomes. There was no statistically significant variation among the variables. The data failed to support the proposed mediation model of the study. Implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Invertebrates and Organ Systems: Science Instruction and "Fostering a Community of Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Stephanie A.; Shulman, Judith H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the third in a set of papers that explores the understanding and implementation of the educational system, "Fostering a Community of Learners" (FCL) across subject matters. We examine how FCL is influenced by the discipline of science, the teaching of science, and the conceptions that teachers have surrounding these two topics. We…

  19. Teaching about the "Economic Crisis" Today. The Example of French "Economic and Social Sciences"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coléno, Yves-Patrick; Blanchard, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In France at the high school the subject matter "Sciences Économiques et Sociales" (economic and social sciences) deals with the present economic crisis. We study the ways it is taught about: words, and explanatory patterns. Design/methodology/approach: We use a specific approach, that we call "semantic holism",…

  20. Social Sciences in Forestry. A Current Selected Bibliography [and] Cumulative Author Index for 1981. No. 56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Judith L., Ed.

    Entries within this selected bibliography of social sciences in forestry are arranged alphabetically within subcategories of a subject-matter classification scheme. The five major categories of the system relate to social science applications of forestry at large; forestry's productive agents; forest production; manufacturing; and marketing,…

  1. Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter reduces the availability of phosphorus for aquatic primary producers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porcal, Petr; Kopáček, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 193, FEB (2018), s. 1018-1026 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09721S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : photochemistry * phosphorus * dissolved organic matter * aluminum * iron Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  2. Cosmetology. Subject Matters, Volume 3, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    "The Beauty of Cosmetology" discusses the employment outlook for cosmetologists. "High School Cosmetology with Great Style" describes the academic and career cosmetology curriculum at Great Oaks Institute of Technology and Career Development (Ohio). "More than Skin Deep" explores the job shadowing program at the American Academy of Hair Design.…

  3. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  4. Language and Composition: Does the Subject Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Gerhard T.

    1968-01-01

    Attempts to combine language and composition in the freshman English course at Gustavus Adolphus College (St. Peter, Minnesota) should interest all teachers of English. One project utilized a single key word for several assignments. Students were asked to (1) think through the meaning of the word for a week and write definitions and associations,…

  5. Meeting the Challenge: Teaching Sensitive Subject Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dorian B.

    2012-01-01

    When teaching diversity courses that discuss sensitive issues, such as racial, gender, sexuality, religious, and ethnic discrimination, it is possible to encounter student resistance, which can subsequently prevent students from comprehending the content. While teaching an introductory course on African American history in a Black Studies…

  6. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  7. Application of DRIFTS, 13 C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margenot, Andrew J.; Calderón, Francisco J.; Magrini, Kimberly A.; Evans, Robert J.

    2016-12-20

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm-1 (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil may

  8. What Lies Behind NSF Astronomer Demographics? Subjectivities of Women, Minorities and Foreign-born Astronomers within Meshworks of Big Science Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Reynal; Gu, D.; Holbrook, J.; Murillo, L. F.; Traweek, S.

    2011-01-01

    Our current research focuses on the trajectory of scientists working with large-scale databases in astronomy, following them as they strategically build their careers, digital infrastructures, and make their epistemological commitments. We look specifically at how gender, ethnicity, nationality intersect in the process of subject formation in astronomy, as well as in the process of enrolling partners for the construction of instruments, design and implementation of large-scale databases. Work once figured as merely technical support, such assembling data catalogs, or as graphic design, generating pleasing images for public support, has been repositioned at the core of the field. Some have argued that such databases enable a new kind of scientific inquiry based on data exploration, such as the "fourth paradigm" or "data-driven" science. Our preliminary findings based on oral history interviews and ethnography provide insights into meshworks of women, African-American, "Hispanic," Asian-American and foreign-born astronomers. Our preliminary data suggest African-American men are more successful in sustaining astronomy careers than Chicano and Asian-American men. A distinctive theme in our data is the glocal character of meshworks available to and created by foreign-born women astronomers working at US facilities. Other data show that the proportion of Asian to Asian American and foreign-born Latina/o to Chicana/o astronomers is approximately equal. Futhermore, Asians and Latinas/os are represented in significantly greater numbers than Asian Americans and Chicanas/os. Among professional astronomers in the US, each ethnic minority group is numbered on the order of tens, not hundreds. Project support is provided by the NSF EAGER program to University of California, Los Angeles under award 0956589.

  9. Radiological sciences dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Dowsett, David

    2009-01-01

    The Radiological Sciences Dictionary is a rapid reference guide for all hospital staff employed in diagnostic imaging, providing definitions of over 3000 keywords as applied to the technology of diagnostic radiology.Written in a concise and easy to digest form, the dictionary covers a wide variety of subject matter, including:· radiation legislation and measurement · computing and digital imaging terminology· nuclear medicine radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals· radiographic contrast agents (x-ray, MRI and ultrasound)· definitions used in ultrasound and MRI technology· statistical exp

  10. 50 years of the Condensed Matter Physics Research Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 November 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) commemorating the 50th anniversary of the RAS Scientific Council on Physics of Condensed Media took place on 9 November 2011 at the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute of the RAS.The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Kveder V V (Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow region) "50th anniversary of the RAS Scientific Council on Physics of Condensed Media"; (2) Vul' A Ya (A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, RAS, St.Petersburg) "Carbon nanostructures: from fullerenes to graphene. Achievements and unsolved problems"; (3) Glezer A M (Bardin Central Research Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Moscow) "Development of new-generation multifunctional structural materials: guiding principles"; (4) Pyatakov A P (M V Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Magnetoelectric phenomena and micromagnetism".The paper that follows is based on the oral report 3. The contents of report 4 are presented in expanded form in the review by A P Pyatakov and A K Zvezdin, "Magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials", which will be published in one of the later issues of Physics-Uspekhi. • Creation principles of new-generation multifunctional structural materials, A M Glezer Physics-Uspekhi, 2012, Volume 55, Number 5, Pages 522-529

  11. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  12. Evidence and Formal Models in the Linguistic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Carlos Gray

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation contains a collection of essays centered on the relationship between theoretical model-building and empirical evidence-gathering in linguistics and related language sciences. The first chapter sets the stage by demonstrating that the subject matter of linguistics is manifold, and contending that discussion of relationships…

  13. Psychology, Social Science and the Management of Violent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the significant observations are that; (a) within the Institute, among the members of the social science family, psychology is the least associated with the multidisciplinary “theatre” of conflict management arising from ignorance among fellow social scientists about the subject matter of psychology and rivalry ...

  14. Repairing Femoral Fractures: A Model Lesson in Biomaterial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakeeny, Jarred

    2006-01-01

    Biomaterial science is a rapidly growing field that has scientists and doctors searching for new ways to repair the body. A merger between medicine and engineering, biomaterials can be complex subject matter, and it can certainly capture the minds of middle school students. In the lesson described in this article, seventh graders generally learn…

  15. Electrons in Condensed Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 12. Electrons in Condensed Matter. T V Ramakrishnan. General Article Volume 2 Issue 12 December 1997 pp 17-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/12/0017-0032 ...

  16. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  17. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  18. Topological states of condensed matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Topological states of quantum matter have been investigated intensively in recent years in materials science and condensed matter physics. The field developed explosively largely because of the precise theoretical predictions, well-controlled materials processing, and novel characterization techniques. In this Perspective, we review recent progress in topological insulators, the quantum anomalous Hall effect, chiral topological superconductors, helical topological superconductors and Weyl semimetals.

  19. Present status and future subjects of the analytical studies related with application of charged particles and RI to materials science and biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-01

    The position in the research field of radiation application of Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' which will be set up within fiscal 2003, and the relation between the research that this analytical group will advance in future and the analytical research made so far at Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Establishment (JAERI, Takasaki) are summarized. Since the JAERI Takasaki was founded as the center of the research and development on radiation chemistry, a lot of outcomes have been obtained in the research and development of radiation application using large-sized {sup 60}Co gamma ray irradiation facilities and high power electron accelerators, etc. After the ion irradiation research facility (TIARA) started operation, many outstanding outcomes have been obtained in the research of up-to-date science and technologies in the fields of material science and bio-technology, etc., making use of ions in addition to gamma rays and electron beams. Although these results of the research are mainly produced experimentally, theoretical analyses also are thought to be important because these results will be applied and expanded in future. We aim to set up 'Theoretical Analysis Group for Radiation Application' in fiscal 2003, and we aim at performing theoretical and engineering analyses about phenomena and things such as radiation chemical reactions, irradiation/implantation effects to semiconductors, model for plant function, etc. The irradiation effects of charged particles to materials are divided into the primary effects like generation of radicals and lattice defects, etc., which occurs immediately after charged particles impinge on materials, and the secondary effects like chemical changes and physical changes caused in materials as a result of the primary effects. The subjects of our analytical research are the analyses of the secondary effects and the systems which utilize the chemical and the physical changes to the radiation application

  20. Science Teachers' Decision-Making in Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) Classrooms: Taboo Subjects and Discourses of Sex and Sexuality in Classroom Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Puneet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Sex education, especially in the southeastern USA, remains steeped in an Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage (AOUM) approach, which sets up barriers to the education of sexually active students. Research confirms that science education has the potential to facilitate discussion of controversial topics, including sex education. Science teachers in the…

  1. A Survey of the Collaboration Rate of Authors in the E-Learning Subject Area over a 10-Year Period (2005-2014) Using Web of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Aeen; Asadzandi, Shadi; Malgard, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Partnership is one of the mechanisms of scientific development, and scientific collaboration or co-authorship is considered a key element in the progress of science. This study is a survey with a scientometric approach focusing on the field of e-learning products over 10 years. In an Advanced Search of the Web of Science, the following search…

  2. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  3. A cohort of novice Danish science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2011-01-01

    A survey on science background and argumentation about science teaching was conducted on a local cohort of newly qualified Danish science teachers. The survey was administered before the novice teachers began their first jobs in primary and lower secondary schools and focused on their reflections...... on specific scenarios of science teaching and themselves as teachers in various science fields. Three areas of concern were identified:There was evidence of reflection upon and argumentation for the practice of science teaching being student centered, but many respondents showed a tendency to focus...... on students' activities as a goal in themselves, few considered what the students learned through the activities. Results furthermore suggest that the teachers' own assessment of their subject matter knowledge in the physics field may, for a large subgroup in the cohort, affect their approach to teaching...

  4. Developing an Independent Learning Culture in Social Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Alojzija Židan

    1997-01-01

    The changing social environment dictates acquisition of new knowledge. The author believes that familiarising a student with the subject-matter in social sciences makes sense only if it stimulates the student to start educating himself independently, which means starting to keep up with periodicals, new book issues and other mass media related to this field. Social science teachers should become action researchers, since - according to the author - only those teachers who keep up educating th...

  5. Mind, matter, and Pauli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1992-09-10

    The role of subjective experience in physical theory is discussed, with particular attention to the later ideas of Wolfgang Pauli. These ideas appear to open the door to a unified framework for the development of science.

  6. CONTENT ORGANIZATION IN THE NATURAL SCIENCES SUBJECTS, TO FAVOR PROBLEM RESOLUTION / TRATAMIENTO AL CONTENIDO DEL ÁREA DE LAS CIENCIAS NATURALES PARA FAVORECER LA RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS

    OpenAIRE

    Yanet Edith Batista Freyre; Yolanda Cruz Proenza Garrido; Luis Manuel Leyva Leyva; Carlos Miguel Martínez Pérez; Orlando Montero Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    It was presented the need of improving the area of Natural Sciences in the teaching-learning process in primary schools to solve problems, as a component in the comprehensive formation of scholars; that is, to get advantage from the curriculum, the cultural-historical experience and the social interaction of the scholar to favor it, is the essence of this article. In this aspect it plays an essential role the knowledge of the contents of the subjects of the area of Natural Sciences in the pri...

  7. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  8. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...... practices. Through this dialogue, it develops an original trans-disciplinary critical theory and practice of collective subjectivity for which the ongoing construction and overcoming of common sense, or ideology, is central. It also points to ways of relating discourse with agency, and fertilizing insights...... from interactionism and ideology theories in a cultural-historical framework....

  9. TEN YEARS OF "CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS"

    OpenAIRE

    Editors

    2003-01-01

    This year the journal "Condensed Matter Physics" celebrates its tenth anniversary. It was founded in 1993 by the Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the purpose of publishing the regular and review papers in the field of statistical mechanics and condensed matter theory.

  10. In search of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    The dark matter problem is one of the most fundamental and profoundly difficult to solve problems in the history of science. Not knowing what makes up most of the known universe goes to the heart of our understanding of the Universe and our place in it. In Search of Dark Matter is the story of the emergence of the dark matter problem, from the initial erroneous ‘discovery’ of dark matter by Jan Oort to contemporary explanations for the nature of dark matter and its role in the origin and evolution of the Universe. Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary.

  11. Preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction during a methods course using the learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneca, Faye

    This work investigated how preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction evolved during a science methods course using the learning cycle methodology. The preservice teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction were compared to their lesson plans to determine if their conceptions of science relate to how they plan for science instruction. Two assertions were made regarding this relationship. The first assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view scientific knowledge as static will plan science lessons that are fact-based, whereas those who view scientific knowledge as dynamic will plan science lessons that are concept-based. The second assertion was that preservice elementary teachers who view learning as a process of transmission will plan science lessons involving teacher demonstrations and textbook explanations, whereas those who view learning as a process of construction will plan science lessons involving inquiry and discovery activities. Findings indicate that the learning cycle influenced preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of the nature of science and science instruction. At the beginning of the term, students viewed science primarily as a static body of knowledge. By the end of the term, students had more complete understandings of the dynamic nature of science and of the processes used to generate scientific knowledge. Regarding science instruction, students' conceptions evolved from traditional approaches to constructivist approaches using discovery and inquiry explorations. Findings also indicate that preservice elementary teachers' conceptions of science and science instruction do relate to how they plan for science instruction. However, the ability to apply their newly learned instructional strategies was influenced by subject matter knowledge. During mid-term interviews, the students cited the following factors as producing change in their beliefs of science and science

  12. Developmental changes and gender effects on motivational constructs based on the expectancy-value model in Czech and United States students regarding learning of science, mathematics, and other subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Mi

    This study employed American and Czech student samples to investigate the motivational constructs used in Eccles and Wigfield's (1983) expectancy-value model. To predict achievement behavior, the model specifies relationships among expectancy for-success and task value, task-specific self-concept, perception of task-difficulty, perceptions of social environment, and interpretations and attributions for past events in relation to the social world. Czech and American students (n = 1,145) in grades 4--12 were the participants in this study. The causal relationships among the constructs were tested to investigate structural similarities and differences in the models for both countries. This study also explored developmental changes, gender, and national differences in the students' motivational beliefs for these motivational constructs: Expectancy for Success, Intrinsic Interest Value, Task-specific Self-concept, Perception of Task-difficulty, and Perceived Vocational Gender Dominance for science, mathematics, and other school subjects. The findings indicated that, for both countries, with respect to changes over grade level, compared to the younger students, the older students showed lower motivational beliefs for most subject areas except reading. However, the Czech students in grades 6--8 showed more positive motivational beliefs in life science and social studies than did the Czech students in other grade levels. In comparing genders, the male students exhibited more positive motivational beliefs in physical science than did the female students, and female students showed more positive motivational beliefs in reading than did the male students. For life science, the Czech female students rated Intrinsic Interest Value and Task-specific Self-concept higher than did their peer male students. The American students' motivational beliefs in reading were more positive than were Czech students', and the Czech students held more positive motivational beliefs in life

  13. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  14. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Driven by Compression Progress: A Simple Principle Explains Essential Aspects of Subjective Beauty, Novelty, Surprise, Interestingness, Attention, Curiosity, Creativity, Art, Science, Music, Jokes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    I argue that data becomes temporarily interesting by itself to some self-improving, but computationally limited, subjective observer once he learns to predict or compress the data in a better way, thus making it subjectively simpler and more "beautiful." Curiosity is the desire to create or discover more non-random, non-arbitrary, regular data that is novel and surprising not in the traditional sense of Boltzmann and Shannon but in the sense that it allows for compression progress because its...

  17. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  18. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  19. A Research on The Progress of Evaluating Affective Characteristics in Science Teaching and The Analysis of Teachers’ Practiceess in Teaching Process

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmi YAĞBASAN; Murat DEMİRBAŞ

    2004-01-01

    Science education contributes not only the cognitive learning but also affective learning of students. Being interested in a subject matter, not having a negative attitude and considering the subject matter proressive are required for an individual to gain the intended behaviors. When the previous studies are examined, it is noticed that learning situations concerning cognitive objectives are stressed but affective and psychomotor learning are not emphasized enough.For this reason, in the sco...

  20. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  1. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  2. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  3. Science, Worldviews and Education: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    This special issue of Science & Education deals with the theme of ‘Science, Worldviews and Education’. The theme is of particular importance at the present time as many national and provincial education authorities are requiring that students learn about the Nature of Science (NOS) as well as learning science content knowledge and process skills. NOS topics are being written into national and provincial curricula. Such NOS matters give rise to questions about science and worldviews: What is a worldview? Does science have a worldview? Are there specific ontological, epistemological and ethical prerequisites for the conduct of science? Does science lack a worldview but nevertheless have implications for worldviews? How can scientific worldviews be reconciled with seemingly discordant religious and cultural worldviews? In addition to this major curricular impetus for refining understanding of science and worldviews, there are also pressing cultural and social forces that give prominence to questions about science, worldviews and education. There is something of an avalanche of popular literature on the subject that teachers and students are variously engaged by. Additionally the modernisation and science-based industrialisation of huge non-Western populations whose traditional religions and beliefs are different from those that have been associated with orthodox science, make very pressing the questions of whether, and how, science is committed to particular worldviews. Hugh Gauch Jr. provides a long and extensive lead essay in the volume, and 12 philosophers, educators, scientists and theologians having read his paper, then engage with the theme. Hopefully the special issue will contribute to a more informed understanding of the relationship between science, worldviews and education, and provide assistance to teachers who are routinely engaged with the subject.

  4. Preparation of an experiment to illustrate the proces of photosynthesis in the 6th grade of elementary school for subject Science

    OpenAIRE

    Selič, Sendi

    2016-01-01

    Plants play an important role in the ecosystem, living creatures, which involve humanity. Observation and detection of nature offers students plenty of opportunities for direct learning, detect organisms and active involvement in research. It is important that students understand the importance of plants in the ecosystem. Learning and teaching photosynthesis can be difficult demanding since it is one of the most complex science topics, mainly due to its complexity. Often problems arise in ...

  5. Popular Science Writing to Support Students' Learning of Science and Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    In higher natural science education, the scientific report is the prevailing genre of writing. Despite the fact that communicative skills are highly valued in working life, earlier studies have shown deficiencies among science students. In this paper, we highlight the need for varied communication training, in particularly arguing for the possibilities that students' popular science writing offers. Our study was based on a questionnaire answered by 64 degree project students in biology. The questions focused on the students' own experiences of writing about their projects for the general public and what contribution the writing made to their learning of science. A vast majority of the students expressed that the writing helped change their perspectives and that they saw their subject and project in a different light. Many of the students described that the popular science writing made it easier for them to put the science content in a context, to better understand the aim of their own work, and the implications of their findings. We discuss the positive effects that popular science writing may have on students' subject matter understanding and development of scientific literacy. Our concluding remark is that popular science writing is a useful tool for reflection and that it adds significant value to the students' capacity to change perspectives, understand their subject and develop scientific literacy.

  6. The Relationship between Dry Matter Increase of Seed and Shoot during the Seed-Filling Period in Three Kinds of Soybeans with Different Growth Habits Subjected to Shading and Thinning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kakiuchi, Jin; Kobata, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    The ratio of dry-matter increase in seed (S) to that in shoot (W), referred to as RS/W, during the seed-filling period may reflect the balance between the assimilate supply and the sink capacity of harvest organs...

  7. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water purification (12) 1330 (GA). Water structure (12) 1307 (GA). Weak interactions (9) 802 (GA). Weierstrass approximation (4) 341 (GA). What is Science? (9) 860 (RF). Why the Universe is Expanding (5) 480 (CL). Wiles (10) 950 (SA). Wiesel Torsten (1) 88 (FF). Woodward–Hoffmann rules (12) 1211 (GA). World War I (7) ...

  8. Science curriculum formation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... levels, pupil characteristics, subject-matter content, professional level and so forth. Cultural-historical theory can be relevant in different ways to each of these four areas, where different aspects of the tradition are worked out in different ways in relation to each area. The focus of the present...

  9. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  10. L’environnement optimal d’apprentissage : contribution de la recherche empirique sur les déterminants psychologiques de l’expérience positive subjective aux sciences de l’éducation et de la formation des adultes.

    OpenAIRE

    Heutte, Jean

    2017-01-01

    International audience; En tant que pionnier de la recherche empirique sur les déterminants psychologiques de l’expérience positive subjective, via l’élaboration de la théorie de l’autotélisme- flow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi est l’inspirateur de la psychologie positive. Afin de mieux illustrer la portée de cette théorie majeure de la psychologie scientifique contemporaine, nous mettrons en lumière son importante contribution à la recherche fondamentale en sciences de l’éducation et de la forma...

  11. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  12. Web-based reference databases and subject gateways to locate current research information in agricultural and food sciences - a Finnish perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. AALTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Databases and the World Wide Web have overwhelmed the information market. Bibliographic reference databases with links to electronic journals that publish full text manuscripts provide information seekers with a wide range of fast and convienient searching methods. Increasingly organisations present their activities on the WWW which allows them to disseminate updated information about their experts, publications and on-going research projects better than was possible previously. The web technology has a major advantage over printed products since it allows end-users to search, browse and print the information in different formats according to their own specific needs. Agricultural and food science papers published in Finland have been documented annually in this journal for a number of years, but the advent of web technologies have made this much less valuable.;

  13. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  14. Validating Performance Level Descriptors (PLDs) for the AP® Environmental Science Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetar, Rosemary; Kaliski, Pamela; Chajewski, Michael; Lionberger, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a pilot study conducted after the May 2011 administration of the AP Environmental Science Exam. The study used analytical methods based on scaled anchoring as input to a Performance Level Descriptor validation process that solicited systematic input from subject matter experts.

  15. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  16. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Educational Cases in Computer Science: an Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, Hermannus

    2008-01-01

    The concept of pedagogical content knowledge has been explored in the context of several disciplines, such as mathematics, medicine and chemistry. In this paper the concept is explored and applied to the subject matter of computer science, in particular to the sub domain of building UML class

  17. Preparing Children for Success: Integrating Science, Math, and Technology in Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermani, Hengameh; Aldemir, Jale

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study if purposeful math, science, and technology curriculum projects and activities would support Pre-K children's performance in these subject matter areas. In this study, 58 Pre-K children from 4 Pre-K classrooms in a public Pre-K programme in North Carolina participated. Through a quasi-experimental,…

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Oxides of Nitrogen, Oxides of Sulfur and Particulate Matter - Ecological Criteria (First External Review Draft, Mar 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision on retaining or revising the current secondary standards for NO2, SO2, PM 2.5 and PM 10 since the prior re...

  19. La educación como objeto de interés para las ciencias de la complejidad The education as a subject of interest of the science of complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Dimaté Rodríguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ciencias de la complejidad se consideran hoy el punto más avanzado del estudio de las ciencias mismas, en tanto, con el desarrollo de sus temas se busca transformar las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su entorno en general, bajo el espectro de una construcción teórica enraizada en una visión multidisciplinar. La educación, como campo de producción y reproducción de saber, debería configurar también un objeto de estudio de las ciencias de la complejidad, sin embargo, las aproximaciones que desde las ciencias de la complejidad se han hecho al estudio de la educación han sido escasas y se han centrado esencialmente en una de sus corrientes denominada pensamiento complejo. El presente artículo aborda la temática de la educación en el marco de las ciencias de la complejidad que, necesariamente, lleva a la reflexión del papel que estas ciencias cumplen actualmente en la configuración del tema educativo.Today, sciences of the complexity are considered the most advanced point of the study of sciences themselves. Through the development of their subjects, each science searches to transform the relations between human beings and their general surroundings. This is done under the view of a theoretical construction deeply rooted in a multidisciplinar vision. The education as a field of production and reproduction of knowledge should also form part of the areas of study of sciences of the complexity. Nevertheless, the approaches from the sciences of the complexity geared towards the study of the education have been few and they have been centered essentially in one of its approaches denominated "complex thought". The following article tackles the education thematic in the framework of the sciences of the complexity that, necessarily, takes reflection of the role that is now used by these sciences to accomplish the configuration of the educational area.

  20. Children's Differentiation between Beliefs about Matters of Fact and Matters of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Robin; Yuill, Nicola; Larson, Christina; Easton, Kate; Robinson, Elizabeth; Rowley, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments investigated children's implicit and explicit differentiation between beliefs about matters of fact and matters of opinion. In Experiment 1, 8- to 9-year-olds' (n = 88) explicit understanding of the subjectivity of opinions was found to be limited, but their conformity to others' judgments on a matter of opinion was considerably…

  1. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-01-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the im...

  2. How a Deweyan science education further enables ethics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Scott

    2008-09-01

    This paper questions the perceived divide between ‘science’ subject matter and ‘moral’ or ‘ethical’ subject matter. A difficulty that this assumed divide produces is that science teachers often feel that there needs to be ‘special treatment’ given to certain issues which are of an ethical or moral nature and which are ‘brought into’ the science class. The case is made in this article that dealing with ethical issues in the science class should not call for a sensitivity that is beyond the expertise of the science teacher. Indeed it is argued here that science teachers in particular have a great deal to offer in enabling ethics education. To overcome this perceived divide between science and values it needs to be recognised that the educative development of learners is both scientific and moral. I shall be using a Deweyan perspective to make the case that we as science teachers can overcome this apparent divide and significantly contribute to an ethics education of our students.

  3. Developing the Next Generation of Science Data System Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John F.; Behnke, Jeanne; Durachka, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    At Goddard, engineers and scientists with a range of experience in science data systems are needed to employ new technologies and develop advances in capabilities for supporting new Earth and Space science research. Engineers with extensive experience in science data, software engineering and computer-information architectures are needed to lead and perform these activities. The increasing types and complexity of instrument data and emerging computer technologies coupled with the current shortage of computer engineers with backgrounds in science has led the need to develop a career path for science data systems engineers and architects.The current career path, in which undergraduate students studying various disciplines such as Computer Engineering or Physical Scientist, generally begins with serving on a development team in any of the disciplines where they can work in depth on existing Goddard data systems or serve with a specific NASA science team. There they begin to understand the data, infuse technologies, and begin to know the architectures of science data systems. From here the typical career involves peermentoring, on-the-job training or graduate level studies in analytics, computational science and applied science and mathematics. At the most senior level, engineers become subject matter experts and system architect experts, leading discipline-specific data centers and large software development projects. They are recognized as a subject matter expert in a science domain, they have project management expertise, lead standards efforts and lead international projects. A long career development remains necessary not only because of the breadth of knowledge required across physical sciences and engineering disciplines, but also because of the diversity of instrument data being developed today both by NASA and international partner agencies and because multidiscipline science and practitioner communities expect to have access to all types of observational data

  4. Developing the Next Generation of Science Data System Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Durachka, C. D.; Behnke, J.

    2015-12-01

    At Goddard, engineers and scientists with a range of experience in science data systems are needed to employ new technologies and develop advances in capabilities for supporting new Earth and Space science research. Engineers with extensive experience in science data, software engineering and computer-information architectures are needed to lead and perform these activities. The increasing types and complexity of instrument data and emerging computer technologies coupled with the current shortage of computer engineers with backgrounds in science has led the need to develop a career path for science data systems engineers and architects. The current career path, in which undergraduate students studying various disciplines such as Computer Engineering or Physical Scientist, generally begins with serving on a development team in any of the disciplines where they can work in depth on existing Goddard data systems or serve with a specific NASA science team. There they begin to understand the data, infuse technologies, and begin to know the architectures of science data systems. From here the typical career involves peer mentoring, on-the-job training or graduate level studies in analytics, computational science and applied science and mathematics. At the most senior level, engineers become subject matter experts and system architect experts, leading discipline-specific data centers and large software development projects. They are recognized as a subject matter expert in a science domain, they have project management expertise, lead standards efforts and lead international projects. A long career development remains necessary not only because of the breath of knowledge required across physical sciences and engineering disciplines, but also because of the diversity of instrument data being developed today both by NASA and international partner agencies and because multi-discipline science and practitioner communities expect to have access to all types of observational

  5. Bootstrapping white matter segmentation, Eve++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassard, Andrew; Hinton, Kendra E.; Venkatraman, Vijay; Gonzalez, Christopher; Resnick, Susan M.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Multi-atlas labeling has come in wide spread use for whole brain labeling on magnetic resonance imaging. Recent challenges have shown that leading techniques are near (or at) human expert reproducibility for cortical gray matter labels. However, these approaches tend to treat white matter as essentially homogeneous (as white matter exhibits isointense signal on structural MRI). The state-of-the-art for white matter atlas is the single-subject Johns Hopkins Eve atlas. Numerous approaches have attempted to use tractography and/or orientation information to identify homologous white matter structures across subjects. Despite success with large tracts, these approaches have been plagued by difficulties in with subtle differences in course, low signal to noise, and complex structural relationships for smaller tracts. Here, we investigate use of atlas-based labeling to propagate the Eve atlas to unlabeled datasets. We evaluate single atlas labeling and multi-atlas labeling using synthetic atlases derived from the single manually labeled atlas. On 5 representative tracts for 10 subjects, we demonstrate that (1) single atlas labeling generally provides segmentations within 2mm mean surface distance, (2) morphologically constraining DTI labels within structural MRI white matter reduces variability, and (3) multi-atlas labeling did not improve accuracy. These efforts present a preliminary indication that single atlas labels with correction is reasonable, but caution should be applied. To purse multi-atlas labeling and more fully characterize overall performance, more labeled datasets would be necessary.

  6. Relationships among science teacher qualifications, instructional practices, and student science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuelke, Laurie Ann

    2008-10-01

    Research has shown that teacher effectiveness is a key to student achievement. Indicators of teacher effectiveness also referred to as teacher quality, have been described as years of experience and subject matter certification. As national and state mandates continue the practice of high stakes testing and place pressure upon schools to increase the rate of student achievement, few studies explored the relationships between achievement and teacher quality. The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between teacher qualities (experience, certification type, and science coursework) and student achievement on the eighth grade Science FCAT. Eighth grade Science FCAT scores of over 13,000 students and the data from 127 teachers regarding their experience, certification status (temporary or professional), and subject certification was collected from two Central Florida counties. Student and teacher data was separated into two groups based upon each school's student socioeconomic (SES) data. High SES schools were designated as those that had 24% to 50% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch, whereas low SES schools had 55% to 85% of their students on free and reduce priced lunch. Data from each SES group was analyzed independently. A one-way ANOVA was performed to compare the means of eighth grade student Science FCAT scores among teachers with 0 to 5 years of experience, 6 to 15 years of experience, and over 15 years of experience. Also compared were the eighth grade student mean Science FCAT scores among teachers with regular certification and temporary certification, and teachers with science subject certification or without science subject certification. Four eighth grade science teachers with varying years of experience, certification type, and science college coursework were interviewed and classroom instructional practices observed. Results of this study showed that there was a significant difference at the low SES level in

  7. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 34: DISCOVERY AND STUDY OF QUANTUM-WAVE NATURE OF MICROSCOPIC WORLD OF MATTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the basic distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists in area of discovery and study of quantum-wave nature of physical processes and phenomena flowing in the microscopic world of circumferential people matter. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of theoretical and experimental physics, devoted the results of researches| of quantum and physical processes flowing in nature on atomic and subatomic levels. Results. The brief scientific and technical review of the basic scientific discovery and achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of structure of atom of matter, generation, radiation, distribution and absorption of physical bodies of short-wave hertzian waves, indicative on a dominating role in the microscopic financial world of positions and conformities to the law of wave (by quantum mechanics, carrying especially probabilistic character a microstructure. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form| of the known materials| on the quantum theory (electromagnetic of caloradiance, quantum theory of atom, electronic waves, quantum theory of actinoelectricity, quantum statistics of microparticless, quantum theory of the phenomenon superfluidity of liquid helium, quantum electronics and quantum-wave nature of drift of lone electrons in the metal of explorers with an electric current. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of fundamental physical and technical knowledges for students and engineer and technical specialists in area of classic and quantum physics, extending their scientific range of interests, and also support a further scientific study by them surrounding nature and to development of scientific and technical progress in society.

  8. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  9. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  10. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRASHORT HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION AND MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, A J

    2004-01-15

    The workshop is intended as a forum to discuss the latest experimental, theoretical and computational results related to the interaction of high energy radiation with matter. High energy is intended to mean soft x-ray and beyond, but important new results from visible systems will be incorporated. The workshop will be interdisciplinary amongst scientists from many fields, including: plasma physics; x-ray physics and optics; solid state physics and material science; biology ; quantum optics. Topics will include, among other subjects: understanding damage thresholds for x-ray interactions with matter developing {approx} 5 keV x-ray sources to investigate damage; developing {approx} 100 keV Thomsom sources for material studies; developing short pulse (100 fs and less) x-ray diagnostics; developing novel X-ray optics; and developing models for the response of biological samples to ultra intense, sub ps x-rays high-energy radiation.

  11. Does Climate Literacy Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    One obstacle to climate science education is the perception that climate literacy plays little or no role in the formation of opinions about the reality and seriousness of anthropogenic global warming (AGW), or that members of the non-specialist public already know enough climate science to hold an informed opinion. Why engage in climate science education if climate literacy does not matter? The idea that resistance to or dismissal of the findings and policy implications of climate science can be addressed simply by providing more and better information—the 'deficit model'—has been heavily critiqued in recent years. However, the pendulum is in danger of swinging too far in the opposite direction, with the view that information deficits either do not exist or are not relevant at all to attitude formation, and that cultural perspectives are sufficient by themselves to explain attitudes to AGW. This paper briefly reviews several recent publications that find a correlation between higher levels of climate literacy and greater acceptance of or concern about AGW, then presents results from a survey completed by 458 students at a primarily undergraduate institution in northern Utah in April-May 2013. These data indicate that attitudes to AGW are largely tribal, based on political outlook, Democrats being more concerned, Republicans less concerned. Overall levels of climate literacy demonstrated by respondents were low, but concern about AGW increased with higher levels of climate literacy among Republicans—though not among Democrats, for whom acceptance of AGW appears to be more an article of faith or badge of identity. Findings such as this suggest that, contrary to some recent critiques of the deficit model, information deficits do exist and do matter for opinion formation on AGW, although cultural factors are clearly also of great importance. Climate science education therefore can potentially help engage members of the public in issues related to AGW.

  12. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 12. Molecule Matters van der Waals Molecules - Noble Gas Clusters are London Molecules! E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 12 December 2009 pp 1210-1222 ...

  13. Seeding science success: Relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with aspirations and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasena, Wanasinghe Durayalage

    identified barriers to promoting science in schools were: the difficulty of the subject matter, lack of student interest, the large amount of subject content, lack of perceived relevance of the subject matter to day-to-day life, ineffective teacher characteristics, lack of aspirations to pursue science as a career, inadequate teaching methods, lack of adequate teacher training, lack of proper policies to reward science teachers, and inadequate support for science from the media. Overall, the results from this study provide a greater understanding of the relations of secondary students' science self-concepts and motivation with aspirations and achievement in different science domains across gender and age levels. Hence, this research makes a valuable contribution to the literature by providing new insight. The findings will be useful for science educators in planning and developing science curriculum and policies with regard to student self-concepts and motivation. Equally, science teachers may find implications for classroom practices, for the planning and conducting of science lessons, for conveying scientific concepts and principles to students more effectively, and in considering the need to generate enthusiasm about the subject in young science students. Thus, the findings may offer the necessary strategies to assist in reducing the decline of students' enrolments in science through efficacious attention to student self-concepts and motivation. The newly developed instrument provides a new opportunity for future research to confidently interrogate the psychosocial issues central to science education and promotion. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  14. Science curriculum formation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2017-01-01

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... levels, pupil characteristics, subject-matter content, professional level and so forth. Cultural-historical theory can be relevant in different ways to each of these four areas, where different aspects of the tradition are worked out in different ways in relation to each area. The focus of the present...

  15. The Story of Nuclear Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 10. The Story of Nuclear Matter. R Rajaraman. General Article Volume 10 Issue 10 October 2005 pp 8-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/010/10/0008-0032. Keywords. Nuclear ...

  16. Modeling Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kurt

    Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar.

  17. Of light and limits: Philosophy matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Botha

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The deepest religious or faith commitments of a scholar enter into her theoretical work through the mediation of a (scientific world view with its embedded philosophical assumptions about the subject matter. These philosophical assumptions are about the fundamental structure (order of the world and imply assumptions about the nature of this order or structure. They are often embedded in theoretical notions that purport not to require any further grounding. As such they are thoroughly “religious”. Metaphorical language and models often mediate these religious convictions. Christian scholarship implies critically weighing and assessing such assumptions and exposing their ideological or mythical nature. The pivotal issue at the centre of the historical “turns” in philosophy of science appears to be diverse articulations of this locus of order. It is this perennial search for the elusive universal that surfaces in each of the “turns” in either philosophy or science which “turns” up with monotonous regularity in subject-related literature. All these “turns” seem to be bound in their point of departure to an epistemological position which could best still be described as that of modernity, i.e., anchored in the Enlightenment ideal of the subject-object divide and the belief that objective rational knowledge can be acquired, yet attempting to approach this rational objective knowledge via the medium of the knowing subject. This perennial search for the elusive universal reaches a dead-end in post-modernism. If Christian philosophy wants to shed light on this issue so central to the heart of theorizing, it needs to develop a dynamic understanding of the notion of law, order, limits and boundaries and the way such an understanding could inform the discussions concerning scientific realism and the end(s of philosophy.

  18. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  19. How Diversity Matters in the US Science and Engineering Workforce: A Critical Review Considering Integration in Teams, Fields, and Organizational Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Smith-Doerr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available How the race and gender diversity of team members is related to innovative science and technology outcomes is debated in the scholarly literature. Some studies find diversity is linked to creativity and productivity, other studies find that diversity has no effect or even negative effects on team outcomes. Based on a critical review of the literature, this paper explains the seemingly contradictory findings through careful attention to the organizational contexts of team diversity. We distinguish between representational diversity and full integration of minority scientists. Representational diversity, where organizations have workforces that match the pool of degree recipients in relevant fields, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for diversity to yield benefits. Full integration of minority scientists (i.e., including women and people of color in an interaction context that allows for more level information exchange, unimpeded by the asymmetrical power relationships that are common across many scientific organizations, is when the full potential for diversity to have innovative outcomes is realized. Under conditions of equitable and integrated work environments, diversity leads to creativity, innovation, productivity, and positive reputational (status effects. Thus, effective policies for diversity in science and engineering must also address integration in the organizational contexts in which diverse teams are embedded.

  20. Blended Learning for Professional Development: An Evaluation of a Program for Middle School Mathematics and Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ronald D.; Sinclair, Margaret; Wideman, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    Background: Improving the subject matter knowledge and pedagogical skills of teachers of mathematics and science is a key priority for many jurisdictions. Blended learning is a promising, yet so far seldom used model for supporting teacher professional development. This model combines the advantages of traditional face-to-face interaction with the…

  1. A Comparison of Two Approaches to Developing In-Service Teachers' Knowledge and Strategies for Teaching Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Chikochi, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study that compared two approaches to developing in-service teachers' subject matter knowledge and strategies for teaching nature of science. A treatment post-test only quasi-experimental research design was used. One group of in-service teachers (n = 15) was taught using what is called a capsular approach. In…

  2. Reflexiones respecto al problema de la constitución subjetiva: el psicoanálisis y las (otras ciencias. // Thoughts on the issue of subjective constitution: psychoanalysis and the (oher sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Andrpes Rojas.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the link between psychoanalysis and sciences, a relationship that has been historically characterized by a fundamental disagreement. Science criticizes psychoanalysis and questions its value, methods and contributions, by considering that it is a theory without empirical or experimental basis. This is owing to the fact that some of the main theories in psychoanalysis resulting from readings, observation and scientific studies reviews are ignored. As an example of this, we have the psychoanalytic theory about the subjective constitution, which is supported by the studies from experimental psychologists. // El presente artículo reflexiona respecto a la articulación entre el psicoanálisis y las ciencias, relación marcada históricamente por un desencuentro fundamental. La ciencia establece una crítica al psicoanálisis, dudando de su valor, métodos y aportes debido a que lo considera una teoría alejada de lo empírico y la experimentación. Sin embargo, esto se debe a que suele olvidarse que algunas de las principales teorizaciones del psicoanálisis vienen de la lectura, observación y crítica a estudios científicos. Caso ejemplar de lo anterior es la teoría psicoanalítica de la constitución subjetiva, la cual encuentra correlato en los estudios de los psicólogos experimentales.

  3. NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, T. G.; Callery, S.; Chambers, L. H.; Riebeek Kohl, H.; Taylor, J.; Martin, A. M.; Ferrell, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Earth Science Education Collaborative (NESEC) is led by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies with partners at three NASA Earth science Centers: Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Langley Research Center. This cross-organization team enables the project to draw from the diverse skills, strengths, and expertise of each partner to develop fresh and innovative approaches for building pathways between NASA's Earth-related STEM assets to large, diverse audiences in order to enhance STEM teaching, learning and opportunities for learners throughout their lifetimes. These STEM assets include subject matter experts (scientists, engineers, and education specialists), science and engineering content, and authentic participatory and experiential opportunities. Specific project activities include authentic STEM experiences through NASA Earth science themed field campaigns and citizen science as part of international GLOBE program (for elementary and secondary school audiences) and GLOBE Observer (non-school audiences of all ages); direct connections to learners through innovative collaborations with partners like Odyssey of the Mind, an international creative problem-solving and design competition; and organizing thematic core content and strategically working with external partners and collaborators to adapt and disseminate core content to support the needs of education audiences (e.g., libraries and maker spaces, student research projects, etc.). A scaffolded evaluation is being conducted that 1) assesses processes and implementation, 2) answers formative evaluation questions in order to continuously improve the project; 3) monitors progress and 4) measures outcomes.

  4. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  5. Integrating inquiry science and language development for English language learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, Trish; Pinal, America; Latzke, Marcia; Canaday, Dana

    2002-10-01

    The traditional approach to the education of language minority students separates English language development from content instruction because it is assumed that English language proficiency is a prerequisite for subject matter learning. The authors of this article take the alternate view that the integration of inquiry science and language acquisition enhances learning in both domains. The report describes a conceptual framework for science-language integration and the development of a five-level rubric to assess teachers' understanding of curricular integration. The science-language integration rubric describes the growth of teacher expertise as a continuum from a view of science and language as discreet unrelated domains to the recognition of the superordinate processes that create a synergistic relationship between inquiry science and language development. Examples from teacher interviews are used to illustrate teacher thinking at each level.

  6. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  7. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  8. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The cosmic cocktail three parts dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe-from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars-constitute only 5 percent of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The rest is known as dark matter and dark energy, because their precise identities are unknown. The Cosmic Cocktail is the inside story of the epic quest to solve one of the most compelling enigmas of modern science - what is the universe made of? - told by one of today's foremost pioneers in the study of dark matter. Blending cutting-edge science with her own behind-the-scenes insights as a leading researcher in the

  10. Effective Field Theory of Majorana Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Huayong; WU, HONGYAN; Zheng, Sibo

    2017-01-01

    Thermal Majorana dark matter is explored from the viewpoint of effective field theory. Completely analytic result for dark matter annihilation into standard model background is derived in order to account relic density. The parameter space subject to the latest LUX, PandaX-II and Xenon-1T limits is shown in a model-independent way. For illustration, applications to singlet-doublet and neutralino dark matter are work out.

  11. Dressed photons concepts of light-matter fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-01-01

    Authored by the developer of dressed photon science and technology as well as nanophotonics, this book outlines concepts of the subject using a novel theoretical framework that differs from conventional wave optics. It provides a quantum theoretical description of optical near fields and related problems that puts matter excitation such as electronic and vibrational ones on an equal footing with photons. By this description, optical near fields are interpreted as quasi-particles and named dressed photons which carry the material excitation energy in a nanometric space. The author then explores novel nanophotonic devices, fabrications, and energy conversion based on the theoretical picture of dressed photons. Further, this book looks at how the assembly of nanophotonic devices produces information and communication systems.  Dressed photon science and technology is on its way to revolutionizing various applications in devices, fabrications, and systems. Promoting further exploration in the field, this book pr...

  12. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  13. Active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2017-05-01

    The study of systems with sustained energy uptake and dissipation at the scale of the constituent particles is an area of central interest in nonequilibrium statistical physics. Identifying such systems as a distinct category—Active matter—unifies our understanding of autonomous collective movement in the living world and in some surprising inanimate imitations. In this article I present the active matter framework, briefly recall some early work, review our recent results on single-particle and collective behaviour, including experiments on active granular monolayers, and discuss new directions for the future.

  14. What is 'settled Science'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M.

    2013-12-01

    Republican strategist Frank Luntz famously advised party leaders to emphasize the lack of ';scientific certainty' about global warming because, once the public became convinced of a scientific consensus on global warming, they would accept it and policies responding to it. But philosophical work on scientific methodology puts absolute certainty out of reach. Today almost all philosophers are fallibilists, holding that every belief is subject to correction. Does it follow that an honest report of what science has to say about any topic cannot claim that the matter is settled? I defend a more confident view: much of what science has to say about the world is settled. On this view, settled science doesn't require philosophical certainty. Instead, it is based on stable agreement and practical reliability--values central to C.S. Peirce's account of the scientific method. Defending this position requires care over changes in theory that can undermine the language in which these settled points were initially expressed. It also requires epistemic modesty, since our confidence in any claim, including observational claims, depends on a kind of induction, and could, in principle, be undermined. Interestingly, this line of thought also suggests many of the central claims the historical sciences make about our world are more stable and reliable than the more theory-dependent claims we think of as central to the foundations of physics. David Hume undermined philosophical certainty about causal laws when he argued that, no matter how many times we make observations confirming a law, it could still fail the next test. This point is sometimes confused with healthy scientific skepticism, but Hume's worry has a much broader scope than scientific skepticism. For Hume each instance of a causal relation was doubtful, no matter how similar to previous instances. But scientists are diffident about applying a well-tested law only when the circumstances differ. For instance, particle

  15. subject index - Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -geological potential of Varanasi area, U.P.,. India. 489. Characteristic period. Considerations on seismic microzonation in areas with two-dimensional hills. 783. Characteristic site period. Seismic hazard assessment of Chennai city consider-.

  16. Teaching Evolution: Do State Standards Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship of state standards for the teaching of evolution to the actual teaching of that subject. Compares a grading of states for their performance and discusses the question of whether state standards matter. (MM)

  17. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  18. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science. Salomé Schulze. Department of Psychology of Education, University of South Africa, Pretoria Campus, South Africa. Schuls@unisa.ac.za. Mark van Heerden. Department of Science and Technology Education, University of South Africa, ...

  19. Developing an Independent Learning Culture in Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojzija Židan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing social environment dictates acquisition of new knowledge. The author believes that familiarising a student with the subject-matter in social sciences makes sense only if it stimulates the student to start educating himself independently, which means starting to keep up with periodicals, new book issues and other mass media related to this field. Social science teachers should become action researchers, since - according to the author - only those teachers who keep up educating themselves are able to implant in their students the culture of self education.

  20. Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences: is demarcation possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Nesteruk, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of demarcation between the dimensions of natural and the human sciences in contemporary cosmology. In spite of a common presumption that cosmology is a natural science, the specificity of its alleged subject matter, that is the universe as a whole, makes cosmology fundamentally different from other natural sciences. The reason is that in cosmology the subject of cosmological research and its "object" are in a certain sense inseparable. Any study of the universe involves two opposite perspectives which can be described as "a-cosmic" and "cosmic", egocentric and non-egocentric. Cosmology involves two languages, namely that of physical causality (pertaining to the natural sciences) and that of intentionality (pertaining to the human sciences). On the one hand the universe can be seen as a product of discursive reason, that is as an abstract "physical" entity unfolding in space and time. On the other hand the universe can be experienced through our participation in, or communion wi...

  1. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Edward W.; Stubbs, Harriett S.

    Too often science seems to be a matter of studying from books and responding to questions raised by teachers about the information either in the classroom or on examinations. Such a view of science misses its importance as a way of thinking, doing, and preparing for citizenship roles. The problems and activities included in this volume are…

  2. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  3. Mimicking Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Lluís

    2017-01-01

    I show that a very simple model in the context of Newtonian physics promoted to a first approximation of general relativity can mimic Dark matter and explain most of its intriguing properties. Namely: i) Dark matter is a halo associated to ordinary matter; ii) Dark matter does not interact with ordinary matter nor with itself; iii) Its influence grows with the size of the aggregate of ordinary matter that is considered, and iv) Dark matter influences the propagation of light.

  4. PHYSICAL EDUCATION BETWEEN ART AND SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Šekeljić; Milovan Stamatović

    2011-01-01

    Physical Education has its own definition inside the system of anthropomorphological sciences. But, there is a question whether it is possible to explain the phenomenon of physical education only inside of the system of abstrct atitudes based on an objective observation of reality or it is (at least some of its parts are) an activity which has for an object the stimulation of human senses, mind or spirit. In this essey we discuss, in a very subjective way, the matter which concerns the cultur...

  5. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  6. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design...

  7. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  8. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    What do we think about when we think about play? A pastime? Games? Childish activities? The opposite of work? Think again: If we are happy and well rested, we may approach even our daily tasks in a playful way, taking the attitude of play without the activity of play. So what, then, is play......? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  9. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji

  10. Jung’s “Psychology with the Psyche” and the Behavioral Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raya A. Jones

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral sciences and Jung’s analytical psychology are set apart by virtue of their respective histories, epistemologies, and definitions of subject matter. This brief paper identifies Jung’s scientific stance, notes perceptions of Jung and obstacles for bringing his system of thought into the fold of the behavioral sciences. The impact of the “science versus art” debate on Jung’s stance is considered with attention to its unfolding in the fin de siècle era.

  11. Is Piaget's epistemic subject dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Niaz (1990) presents arguments in favor of the retention of Piaget's epistemic subject as a theoretical construct to guide research and practice in science education and psychology. The intent of this article is to point out the weaknesses of those arguments and to suggest that the weight of evidence argues against the existence of the logical thinker postulated by Piaget. Therefore, contrary to Niaz's conclusion that the acceptance of Piaget's epistemic subject will facilitate the development of cognitive theories with greater explanatory power, the conclusion is reached that Piaget's epistemic subject is dead and that continued acceptance of this aspect of Piagetian theory would be counterproductive.

  12. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Editorial Board. Bulletin of Materials Science. Editor. Giridhar U. Kulkarni, Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Science, Bengaluru. Associate Editors. Ayan Datta, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata M. Eswaramoorthy, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bengaluru A.K. Ganguli ...

  14. Nature of Science, Scientific Inquiry, and Socio-Scientific Issues Arising from Genetics: A Pathway to Developing a Scientifically Literate Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Antink, Allison; Bartos, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is to illustrate how teachers can use contemporary socio-scientific issues to teach students about nature of scientific knowledge as well as address the science subject matter embedded in the issues. The article provides an initial discussion about the various aspects of nature of scientific knowledge that are…

  15. Low Temperature Plasma Science: Not Only the Fourth State of Matter but All of Them. Report of the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Workshop on Low Temperature Plasmas, March 25-57, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-01

    Low temperature plasma science (LTPS) is a field on the verge of an intellectual revolution. Partially ionized plasmas (often referred to as gas discharges) are used for an enormous range of practical applications, from light sources and lasers to surgery and making computer chips, among many others. The commercial and technical value of low temperature plasmas (LTPs) is well established. Modern society would simply be less advanced in the absence of LTPs. Much of this benefit has resulted from empirical development. As the technology becomes more complex and addresses new fields, such as energy and biotechnology, empiricism rapidly becomes inadequate to advance the state of the art. The focus of this report is that which is less well understood about LTPs - namely, that LTPS is a field rich in intellectually exciting scientific challenges and that addressing these challenges will result in even greater societal benefit by placing the development of plasma technologies on a solid science foundation. LTPs are unique environments in many ways. Their nonequilibrium and chemically active behavior deviate strongly from fully ionized plasmas, such as those found in magnetically confined fusion or high energy density plasmas. LTPs are strongly affected by the presence of neutral species-chemistry adds enormous complexity to the plasma environment. A weakly to partially ionized gas is often characterized by strong nonequilibrium in the velocity and energy distributions of its neutral and charged constituents. In nonequilibrium LTP, electrons are generally hot (many to tens of electron volts), whereas ions and neutrals are cool to warm (room temperature to a few tenths of an electron volt). Ions and neutrals in thermal LTP can approach or exceed an electron volt in temperature. At the same time, ions may be accelerated across thin sheath boundary layers to impact surfaces, with impact energies ranging up to thousands of electron volts. These moderately energetic electrons

  16. Reviews Book: Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Equipment: SEP Spectroscope Books: Quantum Gods / The Universe Places to visit: The Royal Institution of Great Britain Book: What is this Thing Called Science? Book: Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Equipment: La Crosse Anemometer Book: Wonder and Delight Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND SEP Spectroscope Flatpacked classroom equipment for pupils aged 10 and over Quantum Gods Book attacks spiritualism and religion with physics The Universe Study of whether physics alone can explain origin of universe La Crosse Anemometer Handheld monitor is packed with useful features Wonder and Delight Essays in science education in honour of Eric Rogers WORTH A LOOK Voyage to the Heart of the Matter: The ATLAS Experiment at CERN Pop-up book explains background to complex physics The Royal Institution of Great Britain RI museum proves interesting but not ideal for teaching What is this Thing Called Science? Theory and history of science in an opinionated study Don't be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in the Age of Style Explanation of how science is best communicated to the public WEB WATCH Particle physics simulations vary in complexity, usefulness and how well they work

  17. Subjectivity, Identity and Violence: Masculinity Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pineda Duque

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores elements of masculine subjectivity and identity based on interviews with men from median and low income groups whose spouses pressed charges against them with the Family Commissioners (comisaría de familia of Bogota. Based on the poststructuralist tradition in social sciences and pro-feminist studies about masculinities, the article examines the significances and representations of the men about the occurrences of intrafamilial violence, in the context of the negotiation of homes in front of family judges. The article points out properties of the accounts related to everyday practices that represent a tactical character in the negotiation of the representation of self, and are codified expressions of cultural constructs that configure the relationships between intrafamilial violence and masculinity. It is shown how intervention processes in matters that traditionally were reserved for private consideration, have allowed to evidence the ambivalence of masculine identities to get rid of the stigma of having been reported and consolidate images that result in accordance with hegemonic patterns of representation and power.

  18. Culture Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Warner-Søderholm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether managers are concerned with financial issues, marketing, or human resource management (HRM, cultural values and practices do matter. The purpose of this article is to understand Norwegian managers’ cultural values within the cross-cultural landscape of her neighbors in the “Scandinavian cluster.” Clearly, subtle but disturbing differences may surface even when representatives from similar cultures work together. As a follow on from the GLOBE project, data based on the GLOBE instrument were collected on culture and communication values in Norway from 710 Norwegian middle managers for this present study. Although the Scandinavian cultures appear ostensibly similar, the results illustrate that research can reveal subtle but important cultural differences in nations that are similar yet dissimilar. All three Scandinavian societies appear intrinsically egalitarian; they appear to value low Power Distance, directness, and consensus in decision making and to promote Gender Egalitarianism. Nevertheless, there are significant differences in the degrees of commitment to these values by each individual Scandinavian partner. These differences need to be understood and appreciated to avoid misunderstandings.

  19. The Use of Theater and the Performing Arts in Science Education and the Teaching of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 15 years there has been a surge in the general field of the interaction of STEM and the arts including theatre, music dance and the visual arts leading to STEAM. There seems to be no limits to the amount of creativity and diversity of subject matter especially in areas of biography, major science events, scientific and technical innovation, the benefits and dangers of modern science, and science as metaphor. For the past 15 years, I and my colleagues have been running a science outreach series under the title Science & the Performing Arts at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. The objective is to bring science to students and the public in ways that are engaging, instructive, and artistic and always, content-driven: the medium is the arts; the message is the joy of science. This has resulted in over 120 science and performing arts programs which have been documented on the website http://sciart.commons.gc.cuny.edu/ . The author co-taught a course titled Staging Science, http://sciart.commons.gc.cuny.edu/staging-science/outline-of-the-course-staging-science/ with Marvin Carlson, Professor of Theatre at CUNY. An excellent book, Science on Stage: From Doctor Faustus to Copenhagen by Kirsten Shepherd-Barr, can be used to develop a customized courses on Science, Theatre and History for both science and non-science majors. The book's appendix includes an annotated listing of plays on such subjects as quantum mechanics, chaos theory, evolution, genetics and morality and responsibility. The talk will include many examples how courses on science and theatre can actively engage students and enhance active participation and learning. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  20. Science teachers' meaning-making of teaching practice, collaboration and professional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    international research and 3) a research methodological perspective: to adapt, and discuss the use of a specific tool for analysis and representation of the teachers’ meaning-making. A mixed method approach is taken: The empirical research includes a cohort-survey of graduating science teachers repeated...... inquiries. Two of those are followed until their 2nd year in practice. Findings across papers point to an activity-orientation towards science teaching being widespread among the Danish science teachers. They focus on the students, but on their activities and engagement, not their learning. Furthermore...... a lack of confidence in having sufficient subject matter knowledge to teach science is widespread. There are significant variations between teachers with various science specializations, but nearly a third of the cohort teachers do not teach science in their 2nd year in practice among other things due...